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Publication numberUS1989113 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 29, 1935
Filing dateSep 18, 1930
Priority dateSep 18, 1930
Publication numberUS 1989113 A, US 1989113A, US-A-1989113, US1989113 A, US1989113A
InventorsRector Enoch
Original AssigneeRector Gasifier Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Antidetonating means
US 1989113 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

ANTIDETONATING MEANS Filed Sept. 18, 1950 4 Sheets-Sheet l Jan. 29, 1935. E. RECTOR ANTIDETONATING MEANS Filed sept. 18, 195o 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Jan. 29,` 1935. E. RECTOR NTIDETONATING MEANS l Filed Sept. 18, 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Jan. 29, 1935. E. RECTOR ANTIDETONATING MEANS Filed sept. 18, 1950 vPatented J'an. 29, 1935" PATENT OFFICE ANTIDETONATING MEANS Enoch Rector, New York, N. Y., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Rector Gasifier Company, Waukesha, `Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin (Incorporated in 1933) Application September 18, 1930, Serial No. 482,680

33 Claims. '(Cl. 123l19) This invention relates, broadly speaking, to internal combustion engines, and is particularly concerned with means for suppressing the detonation in internal combustion engines when the gaseous fuel `is ignited.

A so-called fuel knock or detonation occurs when a combustible gaseous mixture containing a low compression fuel is ignited under relatively high pressure. The designation low compression fuel" is intended to include fuel the critical compression of which varies from about 55 pounds to about 125 pounds, such as kerosene, gasoline, or'

to feed the solution through the carburetor into.

the cylinders of the engine. The chemicals introduced adapt the fuel to be ignited under substantlally higher compression pressure, at the same time decreasing or eliminating the fuel knock. The gasoline, kerosene, or other fuel forms the fuel base of the mixture while the chemical or compound added to the fuel, increases the critical compression` of this base.

Numerous metallic compounds have been suggested forthis purpose. For example, such as volatile cadmium, volatile methyl compound of cadmium and dimethyl cadmium; volatile phenyl compound of a metal such as lead; compounds having a lead as base and containing halogen; alkyl compounds of lead and a chloride; volatile ethyl compounds of selenium or of tin; mixtures of gasoline and triphenyl bismuthine, triethyl phosphine, triphenyl stibine, or titanium tetra chloride. Other suggestions propose to add to the low compression fuel a soluble metallic soap composed of distillation products of rosin and lead oxide, etc. The soap is soluble in the fuel, and the fuel, thus modified, is fed to the cylinders through the carburetor.

The various substances have been handled in bulk and added to the fuel in liquid or in powdered form, or in the form of soap as intimated above. Some of the substances, as for example tetra ethyl lead, are poisonous when assimilated in concentrated quantities. and it was therefore suggested to encase predetermined amounts of such materials in non-poisonous casings or envelopes, in form of pellets, which, when added to the fuel would dissolve with the enclosed compound, and provide the desirable anti-knock mixture.

There is one objection to some of the lead compositions, which may be mentioned at this point. The objection arises from the fact that, in case of some lead compositions which are soluble in gasoline and the like, metallic lead is liberated by the explosions in the cylinder and collects upon the spark plug contacts and elsewhere, to the detriment of the operation of the engine.

Attempts have therefore been made to render the lead volatile or gaseous upon explosion in the cylinders, so that it will be expelled through the exhaust and not accumulate in the cylinders. It was variously attempted to accomplish this by mixing with the fuel acid carrying compounds, such for example, as nitro-benzol, in quantities suflicientto unite chemically with the lead present after an explosion in the cylinder, and to render the liberated lead volatile or gaseous so that it might be carried off with the exhaust gases.

In the present invention, I proceed in an entirely diierent and novel way. Instead of mixing a metallic compound with the liquid fuel as proposed in the past, and feeding the liquid mixture through the carburetor to the engine cylinders, I propose to provide means for vaporizing W fusing metal and to mix the metal vapors with the fuel gases. The gaseous mixture is then fed to the engine cylinders and is ignited in the ordinary Way. Since vI mix metal vapors with the volatilized fuel, it will be understood that the metal fumes remaining after the explosion in the'cylinders, will be carried off with the exhaust gases Without precipitating and fouling the spark contacts or other parts Within the engine. In this manner, I achieve a modification of the fuel gases sothat they may be compressed to a higher pressure within the compression chambers, and at the same time, I provide a gaseous mixture which will eliminate the fuel knock or detonation upon igniting.

The invention, therefore, presents novel apparatus for eliminating the fuel knock in internal combustion engines by mixing metal vapors with the gaseous fuel and feeding the gaseous mixture to the cylinders of the engine.

The present invention is concerned particularly with means for Aproducing a combustible gaseous anti-detonation mixture for internal combustion engines, comprising receptacle means attached to the engine for receiving and fol= holding a low fusing metal, means for vaporizing said metal, means for feeding the metal vapors vto the cylinders of the engine together with volatilized low combustion fuel, and means for gaining access to said receptacle means.

Other objects not enumerated above will, appear as the' detailed description, which is yet to follow, progresses.

The invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 shows a diagrammatic representation of one embodiment of my invention;

Figure 2 represents a side view, partially in cross section, of a so-called gasier, that is, an apparatus for attachment to an internal combustion engine in place of a carburetor, which accomplishes the gasification of heavy fuel oils, and the like, showing my invention embodied in such apparatus;

Figure 3 is a top view of a motor manifold having an attachment for vaporizing a low fusing metal by means of the exhaust gases;

Figure 4 is a front view of the manifold and attachment shown in Figure 3, partly broken away and in section;

Figure 5 is a cross section on the manifold, through the attachment, taken on the line 5-5 in Figure 3;

Figure 6 is a side view of the attachment, with the manifold and part of a cylinder in cross section;

Figure 7 represents an embodiment of the invention in which an attachment to the engine is employed for receiving and for holding low fusingk metal, having means for vaporizing said metal by air heated by the exhaust gases, and iioat means for automatically controlling the flow of air into the device; and

Figure 8v is a further modification of the embodiment shown in Figure 7, in which the lexhaust gases are employedor heating the low fusing metal and also as a carrier and mixing medium.

Referring now particularly to Figure 1, this figure shows, in diagrammatic representation, part of a still for producing anti-detonation fuel in accordance with my invention. The pipe line designated by numeral 1 terminates in the container 4 provided with a partition 3 and an exit pipe line 2. In the container 4 is provided low fusing metal 5. 'Ihis metal is vaporized by suitably heating the container 4 in any desirable and approved manner. The arrowsv indicateA the passing of the fuel gases from the still. These gases mix with the metal vapors in the container 4 and are drawn off through pipe 2. The fuel gases are permitted to pass over the hot metal 5 in the container 4 for such length of time as to suciently ionize-the hydrocarbons to such an extent as to` render them non-detonating. After leaving the exit pipe 2, the fuel gases may beled to the cylinders of an internal combustion engine, or may be cooled and condensed to form a non-detonating liquid fuel ready for consumption.

The gasier shown in Figure 2 accomplishes the gasification of heavy fuel oils, thus permitting their satisfactory use as a fuel in standard type gasoline engines. It is attached to the engine in place of the carburetor and in substantially the same way as-a carburetor. The gasier functions automatically by the intake suction of the engine. It is, in effect, an oil gas carburetor in which the heavier hydro-carbons are subjected to heat treatment in such a manner as to produce fixed gases and a colloidalized vapor, which are mixed properly with air to produce an explosive mixture which is conducted to the engine cylinders.

' One form of such an oil gas carburetor is shown in detail in my copending application, Serial No. 356,324, led April 19, 1929 now Patent No. 1,913,723, issued June 13, 1933. I shall, therefore, omit a detailed description of structural details of this device, and confine myself to the discussion of those features which are necessary for understanding the present invention. In this particular instance, I have shown the present invention of vaporizing low fusing metals for obtaining anti-detonation fuel, as incorporated in the oil gas carburetor, and any details of construction omitted in the following with reference to this device may be had from consulting the above noted copending application.

In the upper chamber of the gasier, designated by numeral 6, a small portion of the fuel is burned as an open fire under air blast produced by the engine suction. Fuel for this re may be supplied to channel 7 in any suitable manner. The fuel is ignited by the spark plug 8.v

The hot gases from this re are drawn downward through a Venturi tube 9 into the cracking chamber 10. These hot gases are used to properly gasify the main body of the fuel which is sprayed directly into the hot gas column by Venturi action at Venturi openings 11. Lack of air at this point prevents combustion of the new fuel, but its contact With the` intense heat of the inert gases from the fire result in the oil being instantaneously cracked into various gases of hydrocarbon combination.

About one-fourth of the gases so formed are fixed gases and are non-condensible, and a very large percentage of the oil vapors are reduced to a colloidal form and do not condense readily. The temperature is appreciably high at the point Where the oil is sprayed into the flame, which insures immediate and complete reduction of the oil introduced. 'Ihis is the system of cracking oil classified by oil chemists as the vaporphase system.

A small amount of scavenging air is admitted to the mixing chamber around the deector plate 15, through restricted openings 15a. The hot gases flow from the cracking chamber 10 into a mixing chamber 12 and thence to an engine intake connection 16.

The engine intake connection 16 while drawing through the hot gasesI as described, also draws in air controlled by the choke valve 17 through the opening 18, forming a properly proportioned and cooled mixture .fof gas and air for firing the engine cylinders. The throttle is indicated at 19.

In order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the device, I have incorporated the feature of mixing metal vapors with the gases produced in the carburetor, which is the subject matter of the present case.

It will be seen that I have provided a channel 20 in the bottom of the cracking chamber 10-. A low fusing metal 21 is contained in this channel, which metal vaporizes when the heated fuel gases pass from the Venturi tube downward into the cracking chamber. The heated fuel gases will therefore intermix with the metal vapors, will rise through the cracking chamber 10, and will be drawn off through the mixing chamber12 by way of the intake opening 16 to the cylinders of the engine.

Another embodiment of the invention is shown in Figures 3 to 6, inclusive.

These figures (3 to 6) show an attachment including an insert in the exhaust passage of a motor manifold. 'Ihe insert contains a small amount of low fusing metal which is heated and vaporized by the exhaust gases. The metal vapors are discharged at the topof the insert through a short passage which opens into the intake manifold. The insert is provided with a removable cap so that the metal can be replenished in the insert by simply removing the cap. A small opening is provided in the insert above the metal level where the exhaust gases in the manifold can enter the metal vapor passage and can act as carrier for the heavy metal vapors. The size of this opening is, of course, determined by the prevailing conditions. 'I'here may be means provided for regulating the size of the opening or for closing the same entirely if desired. The hot inert exhaust gases serve advantageously as carrier for the metal vapors and increase the eiciency of the device.

Since the exhaust gases passing around the insert in the exhaust manifold, heating the metal contained in the insert, vary in temperature in accordance wtih the action of the engine, a very eicent automatic heat control is obtained in the simplest way possible. When the engine is operating at full load, the temperature of the exhaust gases will be at maximum. Therefore, more metal will be vaporized and fed to the cylinders exactly when the demand is highest. In other Words, the supply of metal vapors is regulated and controlled by the varying temperature of the exhaust gases, and, since the temperature of these gases is in certain respects a function of the demands for metal vapors, the supply will increase with increasing demand and Iwill drop with decreasing demand.

'I'he size of the insert, that is to say, the requisite amount of heating surface controlling the vaporization of the metal, will be determined by individual conditions.

The device is, of course, not limited to utilizing the exhaust heat of an engine. The vaporization of the metal may be controlled independently, by means of a separate burner or by lamps, and the like, or may be introduced into the gas passages, similarly as has been described in connection with the embodiment shown in Figure 2.

Any suitable low fusing metal, such as lead, may be employed. The substance may be introduced into the insert in powdered form or, in fact, in any desirable suitable form and manner. The substance chosen must, of course, have the properties to produce. the desired results. Uranium, which is radio-active, may be mentioned as one of the several metals which may be used to advantage.

I shall now describe the invention inv detail, as embodied in connection with the engine manifold, with reference to Figures 3 to 6, inclusive.

Numeral 22 designates the exhaust manifold of an engine, and 23 designates the intake manifold. The connection to the carburetor is shown at 24. An insert 25 provided with a suitable removable cap 26 is attached to the exhaust manifold, extending into the interior thereof. This insert is in the form of an elongated vessel which is closed at the bottom. The attachment is made by means of a flange 27, gasket 28, and bolts 29 and 30. An angular passage 31 extends from the top of the insert downwardly and branches into the intake manifold as particularly shown in the portion shown in cross section in Figure 4.

A suitable amount of low fusing metal in solid,

powdered, or in any other suitable form, is deposited in the insert through the opening which is closed by cap 26. The exhaust gases heat the insert and thus cause the metal to vaporize. The metal vapors are drawn off through the passage 31 into the intake manifold and are mixed there with the fuel gases entering through the carburetor connection 24. The arrows in the portion shown in cross section in Figure 4 designate the passing metal vapors and the fuel gases, respectively; 'I'he screw plug 32 may be provided in the connection 24 for the purpose of cleaning and the like.

Figures '5 and 6 are drawn on an enlarged scale to show the above arrangement more clearly. Figure is a cross section of the insert and re lated parts taken on line 5-5 of Figure 3, and Figure 6 is a cross section of the manifold with parts of the engine added. Some of the parts shown in these figures are designated by reference numerals which correspond to numerals indicating identical parts shown in Figures 3 and 4.

.'Referring n ow to these Figures 5 and 6, it will be seen that an attachment is added to the exhaust manifold 22 which comprises the head portion 4l and the vessel25. The head portion is attached to the manifold by means of a gasket 28 and suitable bolts, such as 30 shown in Figure 6. The vessel extends into the interior 36 of the exhaust manifold. A passage channel 31 branches oif angularly from the head portion 41 and joins a passage channel 31 which leads down to the interior of the intake manifold 23. The fuel gases are supplied by way of the carburetor connection 24 through the opening 3'7. The fuel gases may be supplied from an ordinary carburetor. It will be understood that the designation fuel gas or gases, as used herein and in the appended claims is intended to include gases proper and also a fuel mixture or mixtures of volatilized liquid fuels, or of liquid fuel introduced in a suitably vaporized state.

A suitable quantity of metal 39 is deposited in the insert 25. Now, when the engine operates, the hot exhaust gases passing through the exhaust manifold 36 will heat the insert 25 and thereby vaporize the metal 39. The metal vapors pass through the passages 31-31 into the intake manifold, mix with the fuel gases which enter through the carburetor connection 24, modify these gases to produce an anti-detonation fuel, and the fuel gases thus modified are then drawn into the interior of the cylinder through the passage 42 by way of the intake valve 43. Numeral 44 designates the cylinder head, 45 and 46 are spark plugs. The piston is designated by numeral 47. The screw plug 32 may be provided for the purpose of cleaning the intake passage. At 40 is shown an opening above the metal level within the insert 25. The purpose of this opening is to admit inert exhaust gases into the vessel 25 so that they may serve as a carrier for the metal vapors as already explained. The size of this opening may be adjustable in order to regulate the amount of the exhaust gases which enter the insert.

In the form of Figure 7, which I will now describe, is shown an embodiment of the invention employing a receptacle for a low fusing metal which is attached to the exhaust manifold. An air tube located within the exhaust manifold connects the interior of this receptacle with the outside air. Afconnection is provided from the receptacle to the carburetor of the engine. The receptacle proper comprises a housing having an extension for attaching the same to the exhaust manifold, and a centrally located member provided with an axial bore and with lateral ducts for conducting air entering through the above mentioned air tube, into the interior of the receptacle. The annular space defined centrally by the shaft and peripherally by the walls of the receptacle, is filled with low fusing metal, ysuch as -lead. A oat is vertically movable on the central member Within the receptacle.

The air entering through the tube which connects the interior of the receptacle with the outside air, is heated by the exhaust gases (the tube being located within the exhaust manifold), rises through the bore in the central member and is conducted through the lateral ducts into the interior of the receptacle. This heated air is deilected downwardly by means of the float and vaporizes the low fusing metal, rising then around the float along the surface of the metal and along the outer Walls of the float, thereby carrying the metal vapors into the upper portion of the receptacle and thence through suitable connections to the carburetor where the metal vapors are mixed with the fuel gases and fed to the engine cylinders.

The embodiment shown in Figure 8 differs from the one illustrated in Figure 7, by utilizing the exhaust gases directly as a carrier for the metal vapors instead of using air.

The advantage of either of the above intimated embodiments resides in automatic control for the metal vapors. The weight of the float is such as to prevent the lflow of air (embodiment shown in Figure 7) or the flow of exhaust gases (embodiment shown in Figure 8) when the engine is idling. The float permits the passage of gases at, or about at, full open throttle.

In the modification shown in Figure 8, the

exhaust gases are used as carrier, their temper-v ature ranging from 1300o to 1600" Fahrenheit. The exhaust gases entrain the lead in vaporous form and convey it to the carburetor so as to modify the fuel so that the same has anti-detonation qualities.

The fuel is burned in the presence of lead, the cracking temperature of which fuel is 1500o to 16007 Fahrenheit, the temperature within the engine being about 4400" Fahrenheit.

As to structural details of the embodiment shown in Figure 7, it will be seen from this gure that I have provided a receptacle 50 having a threaded extension 51 for attachment to the exhaust manifold 52. A boring 53 is provided in the extension 51, terminating in a lateral boring 54, to which is attached the angular tube 55. The exhaust manifold 52 is provided with an opening 56 through which the end 57 of the tube 55 projects to the outside. A closing plate 58 is fastened to the exhaust manifold by means of screws such as 59 and 60, holding the end 57 of the tube 55 firmly attached to the manifold, the tube being provided with an annular bulge and the plate 58 being provided with a corresponding annular groove holding the end of the tube as shown.

A member 60 provided at its lower end with a thread 61 is fastened, by means of this threaded end, centrally within the receptacle 50. This member 60 has an annular bore 62 which regis,- ters with the bore 53 of the extension51 on the bottom of the receptacle. Lateral ducts such as 63, 64, 65 and 66 connect the bore 62 with the interior of the receptacle 50.

Low fusing metal 67, which may be lead, is filled into the annular space defined by the walls of the receptacle and centrally by the member 60. A oat 68 rests on the surface of the low fusing metal 67 and is movable vertically on the member 60.

The receptacle 50 is closedby means of a cover 69'having a vertical extension 70 and a lateral extension 71. The former engages the upper threaded portion 72 of the member 60, resting on a shoulder of this member interiorly of the receptacle, and the latter is provided with a suitable thread for receiving the regulating valve 73. The cover part is held on the receptacle by a nut such as 74 engaging the threaded end 72 of member 60. An angular duct 75 is provided in the lateral extension 71, leading to the regulating valve 73. A tube 76, leading to the carburetor C, is attached to the other side of the regulating valve 73. Conveniently, tube 76 is connected to air intake member 76a of carburetor C, as shown, though it may be connected to the carburetor in any suitable manner.

I desire to describe the structure shown in Figure 8 before explaining the operation of the embodiment shown in Figure 7.

The structure shown in Figure 8 differs from the one just described with reference to Figure 7 merely in the fact that no air tube is provided such as the one shown at 55 in the former figure. All other details are the same, and-are designated in Figure 8 by primed reference numerals correspending to the identical unprimed numerals in the previous figure. Accordingly, 52 indicates the exhaust manifold; 50 is the receptacle, fastened to the exhaust manifold by a threaded extension 51'. Numeral 60 designates the vertical member attached to the bottom of the receptacle by means of the thread 61'. The bore 53' in the bottom extension 51' of the receptacle registers with the bore 62' in the member 60. The lateral bore 54' is in the path of the exhaust fumes indicated by arrows within the exhaust manifold 52.

The operation of the device shown in Figure 7 is .as follows:

The hot fumes passing through the exhaust manifold 52 in the direction of the arrows indicated in the portion of the exhaust manifold which is shown in cross section, heat the tube 55 and, accordingly, the air which enters through the end 57 of the tube 55. This heated air passes thr'ugh the tube 55 in the direction shown by the arrows and rises Within the bore 53 of the extension 51 of the receptacle and Within the bore 62 of the member 60, entering the receptacle 50 by way of the lateral ducts such as 63, 64, 65 and 66. The heated air vaporizes the low fusing metal 67 deposited at the bottom of the housing 50 and the metal vapors escape from the receptacle, around the float 68 into the passage 75 of the lateral' extension 7l and from there through the regulating valve 73 and the pipe 76 to the carburetor. Arrows indicate the passage of the air and of the metal vapors within the housing 50.

When passing through the receptacle in the manner above described, the heated air picks up or entrains lead vapor at a temperature of 1300 to 1600 Fahrenheit. This is approximately the cracking temperature of the fuel. The vaporized metal is carried to the carburetor, is mixed with thev fuel gases and then fed to the engine cylinders. Also, as previously noted, a certain amount of unvaporized lead, may be entralned by the air and conveyed thereby to the engine cylinders.

The weight of the float 68, which is vertically movable on the member 60 and rests at its lower lit end on the surface of the metal 67, is such as to prevent the flow of air in the above described manner when the engine is idling. The suction of the-engine will, of course, be manifest in the connection 76 and will tend to draw metal vapors from the receptacle. In other words, the suction eective in the receptacle will be in direct relation to the suction of the engine. The greater the suction, the more vaporized metal Will be fed to the engine.

The oat acts therefore in a two-fold manner. Its weight prevents the :dow of air when the engine is idling, and .it also responds to the suction of the engine eective in the receptacle and permits a feed of metal vapors according to the operation of the engine. The oat represents, therefore, a simple automatic valve control for the ow of air into the receptacle and of metal vapors from the receptacle.

In the embodiment shown in Figure 8, I utilize the exhaust gases passing through the exhaust manifold 52', directly for producing and for carrying the metal vapors. The operation of the device is substantially Ithe same as above described in connection with the embodiment shown in Figure 7, with the exception that the exhaust gases enter the bore 54' directly and are conducted through the vertical bore 53' and through the vertical bore 62' in the member 60, by vWay of lateral ducts such. as explained in connection with Figure 7, into the interior ofthe receptacle. The exhaust gases entrain the lead vapor. The further operation corresponds to the operation as already described with reference to Figure '7. I nd that the exhaust gases, when mi'xed with relativelyminute quantities of lead vapor, produce a mixture which is highly ecient in preventing detonation. It is known that exhaust gases have anti-detonation characteristics, and this property of such gases is greatly increased by therewith slight quantities of suitable metal vapors, such as lead vapor.

The proportion of lead vapor, or entrained particles of lead and lead vapor, to the fuel mixture charge necessary to prevent or suppress detonation is quite small. This proportion may vary according to the fuel used, the characteristics of the engine, operating conditions, and other factors. Since the amount of lead required to suppress detonation is extremely small relative to the fuel mixture charge, the devices illustrated` and above described are amply capable of supplying an adequate amount of lead when used with engines of ordinary type using any of the usual motor fuels. When the engine is operating under load or at high speed, the air or exhaust gases flowing in contact with the lead may entrain particles of metallic lead, as previously noted, and in some instances an objectionable quantity of metallic lead may be thus entrained. In such cases, the eifective size of the inlet to, or the outlet from, the lead containing chamber may be adjusted, as previously stated, so as to assure an adequate supply of lead to the engine cylinders while avoiding the entrainment of an objectionable quantity of metallic lead.

It will be apparent that other modications than those disclosed herein may suggest themselves and may be carried out within the scope and spirit of the teaching of my invention. I, therefore, want to have it understood that I do not desire to limit myself to the precise embodiments of the invention as shown in the drawings and' described in the foregoing, but that I intend to use and to apply the invention subject only to the limitations of the appended claims in which I have expressed what I believe is new in the art.

1. In combination with an internal combustion engine, anti-detonation means comprising a receptacle exterior of the engine cylinders for receiving and for holding an appreciable quantity of fused metal having anti-detonation properties, means for fusing and vaporizing said metal, and means for mixing said metal vapors with the fuel gases fed to the cylinders of the engine.

2. In combination with an internal combustion engine, anti-detonation means comprising a receptacle for containing an appreciable quantity of fused metal, means for inserting into said receptacle a metal having anti-detonation properties, means for fusing and vaporizing said metal, a lpassage for fuel gases, and a passage for conducting said metal vapors to said first passage to mix with the fuel gases therein.

3. In combinationlwith an internal combustion engine, a receptacle for receiving an appreciable quantity of a fused metal having anti-detonation properties, a passage for conducting fuel gases, means for fusing and vaporizing said metal, and passage means for mixing said metal vapors with said fuel gases.

d. In an internal combustion engine, a receptacle disposed within the exhaust manifold, means for inserting metal into said receptacle for vapori- -zation by the exhaust gases in said manifold, and

passage means for conducting said metal vapors into the intake manifold.

5. In combination with an internal combustion engine having ignition means, anti-detonation means comprising means independent of the ignition means for producing an appreciable quantity of metal vapors having anti-detonation properties, and means for conducting said vapors Iinto the intake manifold of said engine.

6. In an internal combustion engine, means communicating with the exhaust manifold for producing by the action of the exhaust gases minute particles of a metal having anti-detonation properties, and means for mixing said metal particles with the fuel gases conducted through' the intake manifold.

"I, In an internal combustion enginemeans disposed in the exhaust manifold for producing metal vapors under the inuence of the exhaust gases, andmeans for mixing said vapors with the fuel gases fed to the cylinders through the intake manifold. l

8. In combination with an internal combustion engine, an anti-detonation metal vapor generator Subject to heat derived from the exhaust gases, and means formixing the generated metal vapor with the fuel gases produced by the carbureter.

9. A metal vapor generator for attachment to an internal combustion engine, comprising a receptacle for receiving a predetermined quantity of a metal having anti-detonation properties, passage means for connecting said receptacle to the intake manifold, and means for connecting the receptacle to the exhaust manifold for subjecting the metal in the receptacle to the action of the exhaust gases.

10. A metal vapor generator for attachment to an internal combustion engine, comprising a receptacle for receiving a predetermined quantity of metal, means for attaching said receptacle to the engine, and passage means-for conducting' metal vapor generated in said receptacle into the intake manifold.- .L

11. A carbureter, comprising means for volatilizing liquid fuel, means for producing in appreciable quantity metal vapors having anti-detonation properties, and means for mixing said vapors with the volatilized fuel.

12. In an internal combustion engine, means for vaporizing metal, means for gasifying liquid fuel, and means for mixing the metal vapors with the fuel gases to obtain a gaseous mixture having anti-detonation properties. n

13. In an internal combustion engine, a metal vapor generator, a passage for fuel gases, passage means for discharging metal vapor from said generator into said passage for fuel gases, and passage means for conducting exhaust gases into said generator to serve as carrier for said metal vapor.

14. An anti-detonation fuel generator for attachment to an internal combustion engine, comprising a metal vapor generator, and means including exhaust gases from said engine for conducting said metal vapor to the intake manifold.

15. In an internal combustion engine, a receptacle for receiving and for holding a metal, means for conducting air into said receptacle and for heating said air by means of the exhaust gases of said engine to Vaporize said metal, and means for conducting said metal vapors to the carbureter of said engine to mix with the fuel gases.

16. In an internal combustion engine, a receptacle for receiving and for holding a low fusing metal, means for conducting heatedair into said receptacle to vaporize said metal, and means for conducting said metal vapors to the carbureter of said'engine to mix with the fuel gases.

17. In an internal combustion engine, a receptacle for receiving lead, means for conducting heated air into said receptacle to vaporize said lead/means for conducting said lead vapors to the carbureter of said engine to mix with the fuel gases, and means within said receptacle for regulating the flow of air therethru in accordance with the operation of the engine.

18. In an internal combustion engine, a receptacle for receiving a metal, passage means for conducting heated air into said receptacle t vaporize said metal, means for conducting said metal vapors to the carbureter of said engine to mix with the fuel gases, and float means in said receptacle cooperating with said metal and with said passage means for automatically controlling the flow of air therethru in accordance with the operation of the engine.

19. In an internal combustion engine, a receptacle for receiving a metal, passage means for conducting heated gases into said receptacle'to pick up -metal particles, means for conducting said gases and the metal particles entrained thereby to the carbureter of said engine to mix with the fuel gases, and automatically operable means in said receptacle for controlling vthe fioW of heated gases therethru. f

20. In an internal combustion engine, a container for receiving a metal, means forconducting exhaust gases into said container to vaporize said metal, means for conducting, said metal vapor carrying exhaust gases to the carbureter of the engine to mix with the fuel gases, and automatically operable float means in said receptacle for controlling the ow of exhaust gases therethru in accordanceswith the operation of said engine.

21. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a body of volatile metal possessing anti-detonation characteristics, means for heating and vaporizing the metal, and means for conveying the metal vapor to the cylinders of the engine in the operation thereof.

22. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a body of volatile metal possessing anti-detonation characteristics, means for heating and vaporizing the metal by the heat of the engine exhaust gases, and means for conveying the metal vapors to the cylinders of the engine in the operation thereof.

23. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a body of volatile metal possessing anti-detonation characteristics, means for heating and vaporizingthe metal, and means for mixing the metal vapors with a portion of the exhaust gases of the engine and foi` conveying the resultant mixture to the cylinders of the engine in the operation thereof.

24. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a body of volatile metal possessing antidetonation characteristics, means for heating and vaporizing the metal by the heat of the engine exhaust gases, and means supplemental to said heating and vaporizing means for mixing the metal vapors with a portion of the exhaust gases of the engine and for conveying the resultant mixture to the cylinders of the engine in the operation thereof.

25. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a body of volatile metal possessing antidetonation characteristics, means for heating and vaporizing the metal, and valve controlled meansV responsive to engine-suction for conveying the metal vapors to the cylinders of the engine in the operation thereof.

26. In combination with an internal combustion engine, a body of volatile metal possessing antidetonation characteristics, means for heating and vaporizing the metal, and valve controlled means responsive to engine suction for mixing the metal vapors with a portion of the exhaust gases of the engine and for conveying the resultant mixture to the cylinders of the engine in the operation thereof.

27. In combination with an internal combustion engine and an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold associated therewith, a container, a body of volatile metal within the container and possessing anti-detonation properties, said container having an inlet from the exhaust manifold above the body of metal and an outlet to the intake manifold above the body of metal, and valve means controlling the inlet and responsive to engine suction.

28. In combination with an internal combustion engine and an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold associated therewith, a container subject to the heat of the exhaust gases, a body of volatile metal within the container and possessing anti-detonation properties, said container having an inlet from the exhaust manifold above the body of metal and an outlet to the intake manifold above the body of metal, and valve means controlling the inlet and responsive to engine suction.

29. In combination with an internal combustion engine and an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold associated therewith, a container, and

30. In combination with an internal combustionl engine and an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold associated therewith, a container subject to the heat of the exhaust gases, and a body of volatile metal within the container and possessing anti-detonation properties, said container having an inlet from the exhaust manifold and an outlet above the body of metal to the inlet manifold.

31. In combination with an internal combustion engine and an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold associated therewith, a container in heat conducting relation to the exhaust manifold, and a body of volatile metal within the container and possessing anti-detonation properties, said container having an inlet from the exhaust manifold and an outlet above the body of metal to the inlet manifold.

32. In combination with an internal combustion engine and an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold associated therewith, a container in heat conducting relation to the exhaust manifold, a

body of volatile metal within the container and possessing anti-detonation properties, said container having an inlet from the exhaust manifold above the body of metal and an outlet to the intake manifold above the body of metal, and valve means responsive to engine suction and controlling the admission of exhaust gases to the container.

33. In anti-detonation means for use with an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold, a receptacle for containing a metallic substance possessing anti-detonation properties and of a character to produce ne particles of metal when subjected to the action of the engine exhaust gases, said receptacle having an inlet and an outlet, means for connecting the inlet to the exhaust manifold, and means for connecting the outlet to the intake manifold.

ENOCH RECTOR.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification123/1.00A, 123/198.00A, 123/523, 123/568.15
International ClassificationF02M25/14, F02M31/16
Cooperative ClassificationF02M31/163, F02M25/14, Y02T10/121, Y02T10/126
European ClassificationF02M31/16B, F02M25/14