US 1991608 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 19, 1935. AZ 1,991,608
METHOD OF BINDING BOOKS Filed July 15, 1932 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Feb. 19, 1935. I FRAzlER 1,991,608
METHOD OF BINDING BOOKS Filed July 15, 1952 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Ratented Feb. 1 9 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFIE Mnrnon 0F BINDING BOOKS 7 Philip A. Frazier, Oak Park, Ill. Application July '15, 1922, Serial No. 622,762
iolai (Cl. 281-29) This invention has to do with the binding of books andrelates more; particularly to an improved arrangement in the assembly of the parts of a machine-bound book. I n
f; In building a book, it is the present practice to attach a super, liner and sometimes a head band to the back of a group of signaturesafter they have been gathered, stitched and rounded, and before being cased in. At the present time 1;) covers are commonly called cases.
In a hand-bound book, the case board is placed with an edge very close to the case joint, or, the groove is near the back of the book about which the sides of the case pivot relativethe' back.
13 Also, in a hand-bound book, the reinforcing material, i. e., the super and liner, and the end sheets are pasted while the case is open. This results in a freely opening book.
When books are cased by machine it has always 29 been necessary to close the case immediately after the gluing in of the backbone and pasting in of the end sheets. Because of the pervasion of the glue or paste and the hardening thereof with the book in the closed position the book often becomes diihcult to open. To alleviate this situation a greater space has been provided between the heretofore mentioned joint and the nearer edge of the case board. A surplus of case covering stock is thus left unsupported between the joint and the board. Those books are then pressed between boards with beads thereon, it being the purpose of the beads to undulate this surplus stock inwardly. Nevertheless the case is relieved of its firmness by such unsupported surplus stock. Even with a goodly space between the case joint and the case board it is often dimcult to open the cover without lifting portions of the end sheets or tearing the sheets adjacent thereto because of excess glue having oozed 40 therebetween.
When the books are placed between boards with beads for pressing the sulplus cover stock into a hinge-groove, they are placed on trucks and transferred to a storage room for a period of twenty-four hours or so to permit the glue in the backbone of the books to have time to dry.
used as the inside covering for the case, is free chinery which builds into a book the free opening-characteristics of a hand-bound book.
A method of binding a book which calls for the attaching of end sheets in the cover prior. to the placing of that cover upon a group of signa- .5 tures.
A cover for a book in which the end sheets are secured to the cover boards with a glue of the same pervasive and shrinking qualities as that for holding the cover to said boards and to thereby preclude warping of the cover. r I
The improved'process of binding a book which 1 provides for the assembly of a super and other reinforcing material with the book cover before its consolidation with a group of signatures.
An order in the events of building a book by machinery whereby the cover boards may be set in close proximity to the back of the book without likelihood of lifting the end sheets when the book is opened for the first time.
The above objects and other desirable objects of the invention will be made apparent in the description hereinafter set forth with reference to the accompanying drawings herebymade a part of the specification and in which: 1
Figure l is a cross sectional View of a book embodying the present invention;
Figure 2 is a plan view of the inner side of the book cover illustrated upon the book in Figure 1; Figure 3 is a view similar to thatof Figure 1 butof a modification; 1 v
Figure 4 is a plan view of the inner side of the coverillustrated upon the book in Figure 2;.
Figures 5=to 10, inclusive, are transverse sectionalviewsoi different forms of covers; Figures 11 to 13, inclusive,.are transversesectional views of differently formed covers with end sheets attached;
Figtues 14 to 17, inclusive, are transverse views of different forms of covers; and v Figures 18and l9, inclusive,'are transversesectional views of modified forms of covers with end sheets attached.
Throughout the following description and in the drawings like reference characters indicate similar parts. I
For the improved method of book binding herein described, it is proposed to print the groups of signatures in a conventional Way. These may be accumulated-by a gathering machinein the usual manner. They may be stitched by sewing machines as customary. In the new order of affairs, after sewing the book, it is trimmed. rounded and backed, and is covered with a previouslyprepared case. v V 55 and 31.
as arranged within a bound book. These sheets are grouped and sewed commonly into position with the signatures 21 before the previously prepared case 22 is attached. Case 22 comprises a super 23, a liner 24, the case covering material 25 and cover boards 26 the latter being shown both in Figures 1 and 2.
The outer end sheets 20 may have upon their outermost faces mucilage or glue for causing the sheets to adhere to the respective inner faces of 'the'cover boards and simultaneously to the margins 27 of the case covering material disposed upon the inner faces of the cover boards. The glue may be applied to the casing instead of to the end sheet if desired.
Case 28 shown in Figures 3 and 4 is a slight modification of case 22. First, there is laid on the inner side of the center section of the cover material 29 a liner 30. Usually the liner 30 is made of paper. The liner 30 is slightly narrower -than the back of the book and shorter than the height of the book so that it does not show when the book is completed.
Glued to the inner face of the liner 30 is a super 31. The opposite edges of the member 31 are glued to opposed inner face margins of the cover boards 32 which may be glued to the inner face of the cover material 33 either before or after the application of the reinforcing members 30 Subsequent to the placing of the edges of the super 31 upon the cover boards 32 and to the placing of the margins 34 of the covering material upon the inner face of the cover boards 32,
' end sheets 35 are pasted to the inner faces of the boards and over the exposed edges of the super and margins 34. The cover is thus completely prepared before attaching it to the asembled group of signatures 35a.
When the end sheets are in place, they are rolled so that they will be pressed flatly and-neatly into shape. This rolling process also displaces any excess of glue which might have been placed between the adhering parts. Since the same type of glue is used upon both sides of the cover boards,
the strain thereon will be equally distributed and no warping will. occur.
Rolling of the casing removes any excess of -glue so that the boards quickly dry making it'possible to immediately place the casing upon the group of signatures. However, this is not necessary and the casings may be prepared ahead of time when they are to be used and stacked in any convenient place.
Endsheets36 are attached to the opposite faces of the group of signatures by means of stitching natures in place as well as to hold the casing to the signatures.
Figures 5 to 19 illustrate different forms of cover construction which may be assembled with end sheets as the end sheets 20 shown in Figure 1 or as the end sheets 35 and 36 shown in Figure 3. The type of construction shown in Figure 1 with reference to the end sheetsv known as case-in while the type of construction shown in Figure 3 is termed case-Coven.
Several different forms of easing are exhibited in Figures 5 to 10, all of which are suitable for the four-page type of end sheet heretofore d8.- scribed in connection with Figure 1, and as is shown in dotted outline in Figure 5. The reference character 42 designates the end sheets in Figure 5. Throughout the Figures 5 to 10 the casing covering material and the cover boards will be designated by the reference characters 43 and 44, respectively.
A case for a tight bound book is shown in Figure 5 where a super 45 is attached to the back of the casing by means of glue over its entire outer face. The cover boards 44 are placed over both the opposite inner edges of the super member and over the inner disposed surfaces of the covering material 43 at the opposite sides of the super. A margin 46 of the covering material is turned over the edges of the cover boards at their exposed edges.
A different type of tight back casing is displayed in Figure Gwhere a liner 4'? is glued over its entire face to a center portion of the covering material 43. Similarly glued to the opposite and inner face of the liner 4'7 is a super 48. Placed upon the opposite inner edges of the member 48 and the opposed inner sections of the cover 43 are the cover boards 44. The unbound book and end sheets 42 shown in dotted outline in Figure 5 may be attached to the cover shown inFigure 6 in the same manner as shown in the first named figure. as soon as the cover isprepared or. at some subsequent'time.
Figure 7 illustrates a form of casing for a loose boundbook. Attached to the center section of the covering material 43 at opposite edgesby means of strips of glue 49 is a liner 50. 'By. attaching the liner 50 only at its edges, a space is left between said liner and the covering. material at the back of the book so that the liner and covering material may separate uponthe opening ofthe book. Attached to the inner face of the liner 50 is a super 51 which projects beyond the edges of the liner and beneath the opposed edges of the cover; boards 44. All contiguous surfaces This operation may be performed either shown in the figure are so held by means of glue. V
The casing construction shown in Figure 8" sectionof the covering material 43 by strips of p glue 54. Glued to the entire innersurface of the liner 53 is a super 55, with edges projecting beyond the edges of the liner to lie upon the inner face of the cover boards 44 and to be there glued.
The type of constructionillustrated in Figure 10 diners from that of 9 in that the 1iner 56 instead of being attached to the-covering meterial -43 at its edges, is attached over itsentire surface adjacent to the covering material. Super 57 is then laid over both the inner face of the liner '56 and inner adjacent margins upon the face of the cover boards 44. r
A multiplicity of cover constructions is shown in Figures 11 to 13. In all ofthese, end sheets are attached independently of the unbound group of signatures. To the type of structure shown in the foup of Figures 11 to 13 the backs of a roup of signatures 62 having end sheets 63 are glued, thestructure of the unbound signatures with end sheets attached thereto being identical to that shown in Figure 3. The same reference characters 58 and 59 are used in conjunction with this group of figures for designating the cover material and the cover boards.
In Figure 1, separate end sheets 64 are used for the opposite sidesof-thecasing. Prior to the placing of theend sheets 64 a super. 65 is laid to the baok center portion of the covering materialv 58 and withits opposed edges along its major dimensionglaid upon the adjacent edges of t he'cover boards .59. The entire face of the super 65 adjacent to the covering material 58 is glued thereto making the cover of the type having a tight-back. v
Acover having a loose back is shown in Figure 12. By means of strips of glue68 a'liner 67 is attached to the inner side of, the covering material 58-. Commonly placed to the entire inner face of the liner 67 and to the adjacent margins along the inner face of th'e cover boards 59 is a super 68. Covering the glued edges of the super 68, the inturned inner edges of the covering material andthe inner faces of the the cover boards are independent end sheets 70.
In Figure 13, there is shown a cover construe".
face of the liner 71 and to the margins adjacent and upon the inner faces of the cover boards 59. End sheets 73 are then glued into position as shown. Since the liner 71 is glued over its entire face to the covering material 58, the book is of the tight bound variety.
A group of differently constructed casings adapted to receive end sheets to be cased therein concurrently with the placing of a group of signatures is shown in Figures 14 to 17. The case covering material and cover boards are referred to by the numerals 79 and 80 consistently throughout the group. In Figure 14, a liner 81 is secured by means of glue to that part of the covering material which is to be disposed at the back of a completed book. Glued to the entire,
inner faceof the liner8l is a second liner 82. There is glued to the inner face of the member 82 a super 88. Liners 81 and 82 and the super 83 may, if desired, be secured to one another before the liner 81 is attached to the covering material. Super 83 in addition to being glued to the liner 82, has its opposite and longitudinal edges glued to sections 84 of the covering ma terial. The material 79 is articulated about the opposite edges of the super 83 to bring the inner face thereof in a common plane to the inwardly exposed face of the super to facilitate the placing of the cover boards 80 commonly to'a margin of the inner face of the super 83 and to the adjacent sections of the covering material. A narrow margin 85 about the edge of the covering mais opened.
terial is folded over the edges of the cover boards andisuitably glued to the inner face of those boards as is common practice, The liners 81 and 82 and the super 83 are so conglutinated with the covering material as to form a tight bound 8 book.
:In Figure 15, thereis glued a liner 86 with its entire adjacent face glued to thecovering material79. Opposite edges of a second liner '87 are glued to the inner face of the liner 86. Super 88 isthen glued to the entire inner face of the liner 87. Disposed and glued to sections 89 of the covering material flanking the section of said material to whichthe liner 86 is attached are opposite edges of the super 88. As in Figure 14,
the covering material 79 is curled about the edges of the super 88 so that the cover boards may be placed evenly upon the edges of the super and to the outer sections upon the inner face of the sheet of covering material. Since there is a space between the liner members .86 and 87 which is not attached, the liner members may'spread apart when the cover is placed upon a book and the book K A different form of. casing having a loose back is shown in Figure 16. 'In this figure there is a liner 90 attached to the center part of the covering material 79 by means of glue and having a-second liner 91 secured to its opposite longitudinal edges by means of strips of glue 92. Over the whole of theinner face of the liner 91 and to margins upon theinner face of the cover boards 80 is secured by means of glue a super 92. Corresponding to liner 90 and 91 and the super 92 in Figure 16, there are in Figure 17 liners 93 and 94 and a super 95 to form a tight back cover. The difference in the two constructions as shown in Figures 16 and 17 is that the liner members in the first named figure are stuck together only at their edges While in the latter namedfigure they are stuck together over their entire contiguous faces.
Figures 18 and 19 disclose case constructions suitable for the reception of agroup of signa tures having but a two-page end sheet attached to either side thereof. A cover assembled with such a book is shown in Figure 3. In Figures 18 and 19, the covering material is designated by the numeral 96 while the cover boards are designated by the numeral 9'7.
Secured to the covering material 96 in Figure- 18 at the central inner section thereof is a reinliner 103 is a super 104 suitably glued in place and with its longitudinal edges projecting over and onto the margins along the inner face of the cover boards97. The liners 101 and 103 and the super 10a may be assembled with one another in the manner described before the liner 110 is attached to the covering material. vEnd sheets 105 are then glued to the position shown in the figure. The unglued space between the two liners makes this cover of the loose back type.
The type of cover shown in Figure 19 differs from the cover of Figure 18 in that there is no loose space between liners 106 and 107, the two members being glued tightly together. Liner 107 is glued to thecenter back portion of the covering material 96 while the inner face of the liner 106 has glued thereto a super 108. The edges of super 108 are held by means of glue between the end sheets 109 and the, cover boards 97 inv the manner shown by means of glue. The end sheets are also glued in the position shown to the inner faces of the cover boards and over the inwardly disposed edges of the covering material.
. In preparing a group of signatures for being encased in a previously prepared cover of the type of the present invention, itis desirable in certain instances to attach a thin paper reinforcing member directly to the backs of the signatures by a light coating of hot glue. Such a member assists in the binding of the signatures to one another. A side-sewed book may or may not have such a reinforcing member. A group of pages consolidated by the so-called patent binding is always provided with such a reinforcing member.
A very marked advantage of the above recited and illustrated methods of preparing covers for a book is that the covers are assembled flat'or in the position to be assumed when upon an opened book. Because of the natural fiat structure of the casing and particularly of the natural pcsition of the reinforcing material in the back thereof, the cover is easily opened after being placed upon a book. rleretcfore only handbound books have been built with'this desirable characteristic. 1 I
- Another advantage presents itself in corollary to the above advantage. Because of the freely opening qualities of the present type of cover, the end boards may be placed nearer to the cover back to result in amore rugged cover construction.
Since the glue which holds the-reinforcing ma terials, i. e., the liner and super, upon the casing may become congealedbefore the cover'is at} tached to the group of signatures, there is less soft glue at the back of the book when the signatures and end sheets are set and hence correj spondingly less likelihood of glue spreading to surfaces between the end sheets, or between the end sheets and adjacent sheets. By this improved I method of book binding, lifting or tearing of the end sheets or other sheets, when opening thev sired spreading of glue to exposed surfaces of the as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the United States, is: V 1
The method of binding a, book that comprises the steps of gluing coverboards 'to opposite sec-' tions of a case covering material,- gluing a super to the adjacent edges of said coverboardsand to that section of said covering material. intermediate said coverboards, afiixing end sheets to 25 the inner faces of said coverboards and over that portion of the-edges of said super that are glued to said coverboards, drying the glue while the case is in an open position, and then gluing to said super a group of signatures.