US 1991695 A
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Feb. 19, 1935. L. PETROVITCH BUILDING Filed-April 14, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Z a wyuvrm Feb. 19, 1935. L. PETROVITCH BUILDING Filed April 14, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Feb. 19,1935.
L. PETROVITCH 1,991,695
BUILDING Filed April 14, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 mamamamumumumum INVENTOR -a @JJ BY MK 256 A ATTO NEY Feb. 19, 1935. L, PETROVITCH 1,991,695
' BUILDING Filed April 14, 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 ATT mvzr Patented Feb. 19, 1935 UNITED STATES I BUILDING Louis Petrovitch, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France Application April 14, 1932, Serial No. 605,303
' In France December 22, 1928 4 Claims. (ores-29) This invention has for its object improvements in or relating to buildings. t
' One of the drawbacks of present buildings lies in the fact that no means is provided-to remove the foul air from the interior thereof, or, if
such means be supplied, the exchange from the outer air to the inside air usually-results in a substitution of outer foul air for inner foul air. I
It has also been found that ventilation through windows alone is totally inadequate.
Lack of proper ventilation will necessarily result in undermining the health of the inmates of buildings wherein a propersupply of fresh and pure air is not forthcoming.
It is equally important that proper and sumcient natural light be supplied to such buildings.
This invention aims at taking advantage of air currents, whatever'be the direction of the wind, to provide ventilation and ensuing sanitation and health. It further aims at so arranging and disposing a building that full advantage of normal and full light is had in all parts of the building.
Broadly stated, this invention contemplates a modern building characterized by the fact that it comprises a central or intermediate part, a plurality of wings each with one or more floors, arranged about the said part, said wings being rendered' independent'from one another at the sides by empty spaces obtaining the whole height up.
This arrangement constitutes an improvement over the one described in my French Patent No. 679,826 of 1928.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic showing, in plan view, of a building designed in accordance with my invention, with indication of the wind direction; I
Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure 1, the direction of the wind being changed;
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 1, with a further change in the direction of the wind with respect to the building;
Figure 3 is a diagrammatic plan view showing the angle between the face of one building wing and the central axis of the adjacent wing;
Figure 4 is a perspective view of a building further embodying the instant invention;
Figure 5 is a plan view of the same;
Figure 6 is a perspective view;
Figure '7 is a detail view illustrating the ventialting device connecting the rooms of an apartment; and, 1
Figures 1,2 and 3 illustrate the operation en- Figure 8 is a plan view showing a modification.
sured by the arrangement the broad characteristics of whichhave just been set forth. v
If the wind comes in thedirection indicated by the arrow 3 (Figure 1) into the empty part comprised between the two wings 15, 15, said wind is divided by the intermediate part 17, penetrates into the convergent passages 18 which run through the wings or the-said intermediate part,
encounters there a section more and more narrowed down and, by compression, its velocity towards divergent passages 19 is increased. It passes infront of the apertures 20, wherein to open the ducts in communication with the rooms to be ventilated, produces an energetic depression, then passes through thedivergent passages 19, carry- 15 ing withit the foul air and flows out, crossing the empty spaces 21, producing a depression in front of the foul air outlets from the wing 15", the passage 19' in this wing being, on this account, divergent on the two sides of the wing.
On the other hand, a portion of the wind arriving as per the arrows 3' is deflected on the outer curved part of the wings 15 and 15 and, passing in front of the empty spaces 21, accelerates the foul air draught in the wings 15, 15 and 15". 5
In Figure .2, the windhas been supposed to arrive in the direction indicated by the arrow 3. On the one hand, it penetrates into the empty part 16 comprised between the wings 15, 15; it passes through the convergent passages 16 and divergent passages 19 and, on the other hand,
it is deflected on the outer curved surface of the wings, thereby causing, through depression, a suction within the three wings.
As shown by Figure 3, the wind arrives normally on to a wing (arrow 3) it is deflected on thecurved surface of wings 15, but, on account of the distance it has to travel and of its very pressure, it strikes the adjacent surface of the wing and slips outwards; this outward motion is obtained owing to the fact that the wall surface forms, an angle of over with the axis of the wing, as shown in Figure 3.
A zone of depression is thus produced in the empty spaces 16, 16', 16", which depression causes a suction of the foul air contained inside the wings.
It should be noted that, in the contrary case, that is to sayif the angle a above referred to was under 90, the wind would get directed towards the central or intermediate part 17, bringing. about a down-blow down apertures 20 through the conduits 18 which would be both convergent.
, It should be remarked, on the other hand, that the ventilation of the building is also ensured by the temperature differences which always exist between the empty parts 21, 21', 21 and which bring about, in front of the apertures 20, an action which is similar to that of the wind.
As a matter of fact two masses of air at difterent temperatures tending to balance one another-will make exchanges through the passages and keep them active. v
From the foregoing it will be seen that natural ventilation will, during summer, permit of the rooms inside the Wings being cooled in combination or not with cooling or filtering devices arranged in front of the air intake.
Likewise, during winter, the arrangement will permit of a predetermined temperature being kept up by causing air to pass through'heating surfaces or other devices such as, for instance, radiators. In this manner both the heating and the airing can be simultaneously taken care of I Lastly, I will point out that the air circulation system hereinabove set forth may be. combined, in certain cases, withmechanical or other contrivances (ventilators, fans, thermostats, etc.) suitably arranged.
I will now indicate; as an example, a method of constructing a building in accordance with my invention.
Referring first to Figures 4, 5 and 6, the building comprises a central part 17 from which radiate three symmetricai wings 15, 15, 15 having any number of superimposed floorsor stories and rendered independent from one another laterally by empty spaces 21, 21', 21" converging towards the said. central part 17 in the conditions and for the purpose hereinbefore specified. This arrange- .me-nt gives for each wing, as is clearly shown by the drawings and as has already been stated, three fronts perfectly exposed to the sun.
In the central part 17 the furnace chimney .24., a staircase 25, elevators and hoists 26, piping riety of ways, all of them based, however, on the above defined principle.
In the case consider d, there are provided at all suitable points in the ceiling 28 of each room one or several apertures 29 connecting the said room either through suitable channels such as 30 (Figure 6) located between the ceilings and the floors 31, or through the clearance existing between those ceilings and floors, with convergent divergent passages 18-19. These passages are intended to discharge, through an aperture 20 with which their middle part is provided, the foul aircoming from inside the rooms, either through 1 channels 30 or through the clearance between the ceilings 2S. and the floors of the stgry'next above, as hereinbefore indicated.
The said passages may be formedfeither within ceilings and suitable dummy ceilings 32 provided forthis purpose (Figure '7).
The operation of the system having been set forth in reference to Figures 21,22 and 23, I will dwell no more on the point.
All the explanations hereinabove given hold good for the method of performance illustrated by the thickness of the ceilings or between those means of convergent-divergent passages, whereby an unimpeded how of air between the wings' is permitted through the said passages, and openings between the interior of each of said wings and said passages, whereby evacuation of the foul air within the interior of the wings is-permitted' through the said passages.
2. A building according toclaim 1, in which the wings are designed so that the axis of each one of these wings and the wall of the adjacent wing form an angle of preferably over-.
3. A building according to claim 1, in which" the passages connecting the empty spaces comprised between the wings are arranged within the thickness'of the main floor; openings terminating on convenient points of said passages, for evacuating the mu air. V
A building according to claim 1,'in which the passages connecting theempty spaces comprised between the wings are neath the ceiling. 1
' LOUIS 'PETROVITCH.