|Publication number||US1992017 A|
|Publication date||Feb 19, 1935|
|Filing date||Dec 14, 1933|
|Priority date||Dec 14, 1933|
|Publication number||US 1992017 A, US 1992017A, US-A-1992017, US1992017 A, US1992017A|
|Original Assignee||Joseph Spielvogel|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (9), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 19, 1935. i.sPlELvoGEL 1,992,017
ART 0F REPRODUCTION Filed Decv 14, 1955 iiiiiiiiiiimIl y M mustmfng hcwaline: u l
illustrating how a1ihe i6/ m Easlymaybejustified b y.m ...Wh
INVENTOR ATTORNEY lli Patented Feb. 19, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFI-'ica An'r or aEPaonUc'rroN Joseph Spielvogel, Newark, N. J. Application December 14, 1933, serial Ne. 702.348
13 claim. (ci. 954.5)
It has been found desirable and economical in many instances to reproduce typewritten matter by photolithographing, which is considerably less expensive and more rapid than printing which requires type setting and other time consuming operations. Heretofore, when typewritten matter was reproduced by photolithographing, in order to give the matter substantially the appearance of printing, that is, with the right margin of the typewritten matter being in a straight line in the same manner as is common with the left margin, it has been necessary to count the spaces between characters in order to justify the right margin so that each line of the typewritten matter will have the same length; or in other instances the lines have been justiiied by cutting out spaces to justify the line.
These and other expedients have been used in order to give the lines the same length; but such expedients as have heretofore been used have been found objectionable in that they require considerable time and labor and make the cost of producing justified typewritten matter by photolithographin'g about the same as the cost of producing the same matter by printing.
This invention has for its object to produceadistortable medium upon which lines of typewritten, typeset or drawn lettering of various lengths can be readily and properly justified by lineal expansion for reproduction, to eliminate the present costly, unsatisfactory and time-consuming operations required to accomplish the same result. A further object of this invention is to produce a distortable medium by means of which ordinary typewritten or typeset matter can be distorted so as to produce various sizes and shapes of characters without the use of special typewriters with interchangeable keyboards, special enlargement of certain characters, or the use of a large variety of printers types.
A further object of this invention is to provide a distortable medium upon which an entire page of typewritten, typeset or drawn matter can be distorted to change its general outside proportions, and thus .eliminate the necessity of resetting, retyping or redrawing it to t the new proportions.
These and other advantageous objects, which will later appear, are accomplished by the simple and practical construction and arrangement of parts hereinafter described and exhibited in the accompanying drawing, forming part hereof, and in which: l
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of my character receiving medium shown in position on a typewriter platen, the typewriter proper being omitted, and showing one of the lines of type being "justiiied after the typewriting process,
Fig. 2 represents an elevation of the face of the character receiving medium,
Fig. 3 represents a similar view of the stiifening sheet to which the character receiving medium is secured,
Fig. 4 represents a fragmentary elevational enlarged view of the character receiving medium 1 before it has been justified, showing a group of letters imprinted thereon, the character receiving medium being slitted between the lines of characters and having a portion magnified to illustrate the corrugations which are so ne as to be hardly n noticeable.
Fig. 5 is a similar view of the character receiving medium, with the lines of characters justified,
Fig. 6 is a greatly enlarged fragmentary elen vation of a part of a character receiving medium to illustrate the flneness of the crepe paper compared with the size of the letter.
Fig. 'I is an enlarged fragmentary perspective section through a portion of Fig. 6, showing the s Fig. 10 is a. diagrammatic view of the characu ter receiving medium showing how the corrugations are widened out in the process of stretching,
Fig. 11 is a diagrammatic view showing, in line A, a strip of character receiving medium, on which characters, represented by dots and by letters a u to h, inclusive, have been imprinted; line B represents the same line unequally stretched throughout its length, as indicated by the distance between dots c and d, and between dots f and g;
and line C represents the same line stretched a equally between the dots throughout its length.
I'hls invention contemplates providing a nonstretchable character receiving medium. preferably, semi-transparent, which is so fabricated that it is thereby caused to become stretchable, 5
so that characters printed thereon and the spaces between characters can be distorted proportionately to produce justified lines without retyping, resetting, and without tedious slitting between words, as has prevously been necessary. u
represent similar parts.
f course, the original medium need only be comparatively non-stretchable, the shaping or fabrication of it being the means of giving it the substantial stretchable characteristics.
When a group of lines or words is impressed or typewritten on the character receiving medium, the resultant distortion of each character and space required to justify any long or short line of characters therein by means of this invention, isl hardly noticeable because it is divided equally among all characters and spaces in the entire line. It therefore produces results superior to mechanically typeset lines which are often unevenly spaced out, or typewritten lines justiiled by retyping and inserting extra large spaces between certain words to fill out the line, after preliminary calculation.
The character receiving medium is preferably made of some semi-transparent, non-elastic material such as thin paper, and so shaped, corrugated or crinkled, similar to crepe paper, as to be stretchable. It will be observed that the corrugations are substantially transverse to the lineal direction of extension of the line, and other forms of fabrication of the material may be used to permit the line-stretching without substantial transverse stretching. Characters are impressed on the medium with sufficient pressure to print on both the hills" and "valleys formedk by the corrugations. The character receiving medium may then be stretched, and because it is made of essentially non-elastic material, no disltortion or shrinkage whatsoever occurs at right angles to the direction of stretch, such as occurs with rubber or some other elastic material.
This feature of the invention permits the character receiving medium to be stretched to its limit, until it is perfectly flat, and yet, every character on the medium remains exactly the same height or width (depending upon its position in relation to the direction of corrugations) as it was before the medium was distorted and being expansible only lineally, the successive linestrips remain with their contiguous edges in linear contact.
.Referring to the drawing, all similar numbers In Il'ig. 1, the character receiving member 15 consists of a flat, unshaped andv unstretchable portion 16, and a shaped, stretchable portion 17 integral with 15. Because the corrugations on portion 17 of the character receiving member are so ilne as to be hardly noticeable, (see Fig. 6) a thin guideline 18 may be imprinted between portions 18 and 17 to show where the stretchable portion begins, but this line should be printed in a color which will not photograph, such as blue.
In Fig. 1 of the drawing, I have shown the character receiving member 15 secured to'stiffening sheet 19 and inserted into the typewriter represented by the roll 20. The character receiving member l5 is preferably divided by slits 21 into a plurality of line strips, each of which is adapted to bear a typewritten line. The typist may, if desired, justify the typewritten matter immediately after typing the same by lifting each typewritten strip which is to be justified and then stretching the same 'as in the first and third lines shownin Fig. 5. The character receiving member is preferably provided on the back thereof with a suitable cement which has the proper consistency so that the strips will adhere to the stiening sheet 19 and may be readily lifted therefrom as shown in Fig. 1 and then stretched and then secured down again on the backing sheet. This may be done times without number without in any way affecting the sticking quality or readability of the typewritten matter.
It will be noted that the slits 21 of the character receiving member 15 begin at a uniform distance from the left hand edge of the member so that the left hand margin need not be Justifled, and ifdesired, the score lines may terminate lust short of the right hand edge of the member 15 so that the unscored right hand portion 22 of the sheet may be torn oif after the sheet has been typewritten and then each strip of typewritten matter may be justified as required.
By this arrangement ordinary typewritten matter may be evened up or justined" for reproduction by photolithographing, lithographing, or other reproduction process. By this expedient the shape of the print produced by the ordinary typewriter may be enlarged or otherwise changed by stretching the paper to secure a different eii'ect without photographic enlargement or hand lettering.
Fig. 2 is an elevational view of the character receiving member which is adapted to be attached to the stiifening member 19, shown in Fig. 3. The unstretchable portion 15 of the character receiving member may be attached permanently to member 19 with glue. 'I'he stretchable portion 17 may be attached to member 19 with some non-hardening adhesive, such as rubber cement, so that it can be subsequently separated from, and reattached to member 19 after it has been distorted. Toassist in separating portion 17 from member 19, an overlap 22 is provided.I
In Fig. 4 the character receiving member, attached to a stiffening member 19, as in Fig. l is provided with slits 21 preferably at Y. interval or multiples thereof, parallel to the lines of characters imprinted thereon. These slits can be made before or after the characters have been imprinted, and are not deep enough to cut through member 19. Thin guide lines 23 can be printed on stretchable portion 17 with some non-photographing ink, such as blue, to assist imprinting characters in the proper position. It will be noted that the slits 17 begin at the guide line 18 where the stretchable portion of the character receiving medium begins. and extend to the right, up to within a short distance of the right hand edge thereof. 'I'his is done to keep the overlapping portion 22 shown in Figs. 2 and 4 from fraying while being imprinted. After the characters have been imprinted, the overlapping portion 22 is cut off so as to intersect the slits 17 in member 15, making it possible to manipulate the stretchable portion of each line of characters independently to justify it.
Fig. 5 is an elevational view of the character receiving medium illustrated in Fig. 4, but having its overlapping portion 10, shown in Figs. 2 and 4 cut off, and the three imprinted lines of characters thereon justified by being lifted and stretched or contracted, as required, as indicated by the arrows, and then reattached to member 19. Lines 24 and 25 have been stretched to the required width, while line 26 has been contracted to the required width, partially exposing the stil!- ening member 19, as shown.
The character receiving medium is preferably made of a semi-transparent or translucid material such as thin paper, so that any guide lines which are printed directly underneath it on member 19 are visible through it. The guide lines printed on member 19, as shown on Fig. 3, are horizontal to correspond with guide lines 23 on the character receiving medium, to assist in keeping lines of characters horisontally straight.
and additional guide lines can be printed vertically at short intervals on member 4 to assist in justifying lines vertically.
Fig. 8 illustrates a character receiving member similar to Fig. 1 having two non-stretchable portions 2'1-27 one on each end, as shown, preferably mounted on a stiilening member 29 as shown in Fig. 4 and having characters imprinted on stretchable portion 28 at various angles. The character receiving member is lapped around member 29 which contains a slit 30.
Fig. 9 shows a perspective view of the character receiving medium illustrated in Fig. 8 stretched, distorting the characters imprinted thereon to produce wider, higher and italic types. As shown in Fig. 9, the portions 27 of the character receiving medium overlap the parts of member 29 and are secured thereto so that when the latter are separated and stretched equal tension will be exerted over the entire area of the character receiving medium.
This stiener is only necessary when the character receiving medium is comparatively long in a direction parallel to the corrugations. Results similar to those shown-in Fig. 9 may also be secured without the unstretchable portions 27 of the character receiving medium, and without the stiffening member 29, because the nature of the character receiving medium is such that, after it is stretched, it will not return to its original length, but willremain permanently distorted. The distorted characters can be then cut and pasted into position together with characters not so greatly distorted, and thereby produce effects similar to enlarged type, hand drawn or special types.
Figs. 6, '7 and 10 indicate how ilne the corrugatlons of the character receiving medium are.
In Fig. 11 the letters A, B and C represent character receiving mediums on which characters, represented by dots a to h are imprinted. The character receiving medium A has not been stretched; character receiving medium B has been stretched between characters c and e and f and g, only; while medium C has been stretched equally throughout its length.
Thus, to justify aline the whole line may be stretached uniformly throughout its length as in C, or only between words as in B; abc, def, and gh constituting three words for the purpose of illustration.
The justiiled lines of characters secured by the use of this invention can be used for reproduction by photography, photoengraving, photolithography or other photo-mechanical process.
The character receiving medium can also be made of materials other than that heretofore described, by similarly shaping these offset materials, so that characters can be impressed thereon, singly or in groups, in such a manner that it may be inked and reproductions made directly from the character receiving medium.
Characters can also be impressed upon the character receiving medium, singly or in groups, with a copying ink, such as Hectograph", so that when wet with chemicals or water, copies can be made directly from the character receiving medium.
Inanylineofcharactersimpresseduponthe character receiving medium, certain words. which it is desired to emphasise can be distorted to a greater degree than others.
This invention will prove of value in the production of advertising. Modern layouts having unusual arrangements of type to fit such shapes as triangles, parallelograms, circles etc., can be easily produced without preliminary calculation. Letters, words, headlines, illustrations and body matter can be drawn or imprinted on the character receiving medium, contemplated by this v invention and permanently distorted into circles, waves and other shapes for reproduction. Entire advertisements set for one publication can be impressed upon the character receiving medium,
and then distorted to a different proportion toy ilt different space requirements of another publication, without the necessity of resetting type, by simply reproducing the distorted advertisement by any suitable reproduction process.
As above stated, another advantage will be apparent from the above described devices, viz, that when the stretchable paper or medium is impressed with the type, these type impressions tend to destroy or minimize the stretchability of the paper within the confines of the impressed letters, so that the stretching that occurs for the justifying is entirely or mainly between adjacent letters and between adjacent words of the line.
The foregoing disclosure is to be regarded as descriptive and illustrative only, and not as restrictive or limitative of the invention, of which obviously an embodiment may be constructed lncluding many modifications without departing from the general scope herein indicated and denoted in the appended claims.
Having thus described my'invention what I claim as new and desire to secure bylletters Patent, is: J
1. A 'character receiving medium comprising a normally non-stretchable material which has been made stretchable and compressible by corrugating, so that lines of characters impressed thereon can be justified, said character receiving medium being detachably adhered to a stil!- ening member, and movable in relation thereto.
2. A character receiving medium comprising a sheet of a normally non-stretchable material which has been made stretchable and compressible in at least one direction, said sheet having a plurality of spaced slits, and a stiffening member to which said sheet is detachably adhered and movable in relation thereto.
3. A character receiving medium comprising a sheet of normally non-stretchable material which has a section thereof made stretchable and compressible in at least one direction, said sheet having a plurality of spaced slits between lines of characters impressed on the stretchable portion thereof, so that each line can be individually varied toV justify it; said character receiving member being detachably adhered to a stiifening member, and the stretchable portion being movable in relation thereto.
v4. A character receiving medium comprising a sheet oi' normally comparatively non-stretchable material, said sheet having been made stretchable in part in at least one direction and nonstretchable in part, and slitted so that lines of characters impressed on the stretchable portion can be varied individually to justify them, said character receiving medium being detachably adhered to a stiiening member having guide lines directly under the character receiving sheet to aid in properly aligning and justifying characters on the character'receiving sheet.
5. A character receiving medium comprising a sheet ci material stretchable in one v direction only so that characters or illustrations impressed thereon can be varied by stretching the sheet, said sheet being detachably adhered to a stiening member and movable in relation thereto.
6. A character receiving medium comprising a sheet of stretchable material slitted into strips to receive lines of characters impressed thereon,
l so that each line-strip can be individually varied for justincation, said sheet being detachably adhered to a stiifening member and movable in relation thereto.
7. A character receiving medium comprising a stretchable material slitted into strips to receive lines of characters impressed thereon, so that each line-strip can be individually varied for justification, and a stiffening member to which a part of the'sheet is permanently attached, the remainder of the sheet being detachably adhered to the stitfening member and movable in relation to said stitfening member.
8. A character receiving member comprising a sheet of stretchable translucid material slitted into strips to receive lines of characters impressed thereon, so that each line can be individually varied for justincation, and a stiifening member to which a part of the sheet is permanently attached, the remainder of the sheet being detachably adhered to the stlifening member, and movable in relation thereto. said stiffening member having guide lines thereon directly under the character receiving sheet for properly aligning and justifying characters on the character receiving sheet.
9. In means for justifying typing, a line justifying sheet comprising a normally non-stretchable material which has been fabricated into a stretchable material. corrugated substantially transversely to the line of stretching, and also fabricated into a plurality of line-strips adaptedf to receive impressed characters on said linestrips, whereby said strips can then be extended lineally to justify the lines.
10. The method of justifying the lines of typewritten matter, which comprises forming a sheet o'f normally non-stretchable material into a series of contiguous line-strips which are corrugated substantially transversely to the lines, and which line-strips are adapted to receive printed type impressions thereon, recording such impressions thereon and then stretching the 'requisite strips to bring the marginal ends of the type impressions into alignment.
11. The methodset forth in the precedingV claim, supplemented by the additional steps of temporarily attaching said line-strips to a supporting medium for the impressing of the printed matter thereon, then detaching and stretching the requisite strips to bring the marginal ends of the type impressions into augment, and thereupon re-attaching the strips to the supporting medium.
12. The method of justifying lines of typing which consists of typing a line on a strip of a non-stretchable character receiving medium which has been made stretchable by corrugating transversely to the direction of stretch, and then stretching the typed line to the required length for justifying.
13. The method of claim 12, with the added step of assembling a number of said stretched line-strips on a backing member with their line ends in vertical alinement.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2664038 *||Sep 25, 1951||Dec 29, 1953||Coxhead Ralph C Corp||Apparatus for type composition|
|US2887941 *||Sep 17, 1952||May 26, 1959||Horne Jr James Q||Justifying means for printers|
|US3068767 *||Jan 20, 1959||Dec 18, 1962||Electrical & Musical Ind Ltd||Apparatus for justifying a line of characters|
|US3075446 *||May 26, 1959||Jan 29, 1963||Jr James Q Horne||Apparatus for justifying|
|US3256797 *||Jan 28, 1963||Jun 21, 1966||Horne Jr James Q||Method for justifying|
|US3273685 *||Jun 27, 1963||Sep 20, 1966||Method and apparatus for justifying right hand margins|
|US3593832 *||Mar 6, 1970||Jul 20, 1971||Xerox Corp||Keyboard input display device|
|US4400106 *||Nov 28, 1975||Aug 23, 1983||Patology Press, Ltd.||Typesetting apparatus|
|US4761086 *||May 23, 1986||Aug 2, 1988||Thomas & Betts Corporation||Support device for wire marker sleeves|
|U.S. Classification||355/133, 396/552, 400/14|
|International Classification||B41B13/00, B41B13/06|