|Publication number||US1992152 A|
|Publication date||Feb 19, 1935|
|Filing date||Aug 20, 1934|
|Priority date||Sep 30, 1932|
|Publication number||US 1992152 A, US 1992152A, US-A-1992152, US1992152 A, US1992152A|
|Inventors||Yeates Percy M|
|Original Assignee||Seal O Sac Canada Ltd|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (71), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 19, 1935. P. M. YEATES 1,992,152
TOBACCO POUCH Filed Aug. 20, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet l fig 955.
Feb. 19, 1935.
P. M. YEATES TOBACCO POUCH Filed Aug. 20, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 TD EAL-RUN THUMB-NRIL ACROSSTHISSPHCE Patented Feb. 19, 1935 Percy M. Yeates, Tor
signor to Seal-O-Sac ronto, Ontario, Canad Application August 20.
onto, Ontario, Canada, as-
(Canada) Limited, Toa, a company of Canada 1934, Serial No. 740,559
In Canada September 30, 1932 14 Claims.
The present invention relates to pouches or containers of the type adapted to contain tobacco, and has particular reference to the production of an improved tobacco pouch which may be employed in the packaging of tobacco and tobacco products by themanufacturer or packer thereof and which will preserve the odor and taste-imparting constituents of the tobacco in a fresh condition, this application constituting a continuation in part of my copending applications, Serial No. 611,705, filed May 16, 1932, and Serial No. 664,678, filed April 6, 1933.
A principal object of the invention is the provision of a tobacco pouch which will serve as a package or container in which the tobacco may be sold as by the retailer and which also will serve as a pouch for subsequent use by the purchaser during the period the tobacco is being consumed.
A further object is to construct an envelope container of 'a cheap material which otherwise easily torn, fractured or. perforated, will be provided with means for reinforcing it and will thus be substantially durable during the entire period the tobacco or other substance is in the container.
A still further object is to construct a flexible package in the form of an envelope which when sealed will be substantially moisture-proof and air-tight to keep. the commodity therein in the initial condition in which it is packed, and which will furthermore have a breakable sealing medium for the mouth of the envelope which in addition to initially sealing such mouth to hermetically seal the package will serve the dual purpose of acting as a more or less perfect seal subsequently to keep the contents in substantially their initial condition and to prevent their spillingfrom the package when it is carried in the pocket of the user or elsewhere.
An additional object is the provision of a tobacco pouch having a moisture-proof inner surface which forms an internal resealable seal.
Another object is to provide a tobacco pouch of envelope-like form and having opposed inner surfaces sealed at its seams in moisture-proof condition, said surface being substantially nonadhesive, but cohesive.
Another object is to provide a tobacco pouch of envelope-like form and having a rubber liner provided with opposed inner surfacessealed at their seamsin moisture-proofcondition,said liner being substantially non-adhesive on its surfaces and cohesive beneath said surface to permit the mouth of the pouch to be sealed internally of the pouch by pressing opposed sides of said container together sufliciently to distort the rubber of the liner and to contact opposed cohesive portions thereof.
These and other obj understood upon consi description of certain vention, and by refere drawings, in which Fig. 1 represents in plan a typical sheet of the flexible, fragile material from which blanks to form the envelope containers are adapted to be stamped or cut, the blanks being indicated in dotted lines;
Fig. 2 is a similar view to Fig. 1 showing the reinforcing material which renders the fragile material durable for use applied to the sheet of the latter;
Fig. 3 is a plan view location of the sealin ects will be observed and 5 deration of the following embodiments of my innce to the accompanying of a blank showing the g medium for the mouth of the subsequently formed container thereon! Fig. 4 is a plan view of a container constructed according to my invention showing the same prior to sealing the mouth thereof;
Fig. 5 is a sectional view through the line 5-5 of Fig. 4; I
Fig. 6 is a sectional vi Fi 4;
Fig. '7 is a plan view of my container showing the same in the sealed position;
Fig. 8 shows a blank of fabricated material from which may be produced a preferred form of tobacco pouch;
Fig. 9 shows a tobacc blank shown in Fig. 8;
Fig. 10 is a sectional view of the pouch shown in Fig.- 9 and taken along line 1010 thereof;
Fig. 11 is a sectional view taken along line l1-11 of Fig. 9;
Fig. 12 is a view similar to Fig. 11 and shows 40 the pouch in closed condition; v
Fig. 13 shows the pouch closed with. reduced capacity; and
Fig. 14 is a sectional view matically the fabrication o the pouch is produced.
In my copending application, 705, filed May 16, 1932,'of which plication is a continuation in one. desirable form of 111 method of manufacturing take a sheet of a fragile material which would ordinarily be insusceptible for use as a sealing container such as a very thin sheet of rubber and apply to it to render it durable for-use a rein- 55 ew of the line 6-6 of o pouch formed from the showing diagramif the blank from which 4.6
Serial No. 611,- the present appart, is described y tobacco pouch and the same, in which I forcing material which preferably consists of an open mesh fabric. This step is indicated in Fig. 2.
There are many ways of attaching the reinforcing material to the thin rubber sheet. This may be done during the calendering processing of the sheet or by a subsequent operation of cementing the mesh fabric to one-surface of the sheet.
I then cut the same or otherwise divide the sheet into blanks 1 from which the envelope containers are formed. These blanks 1 are: indicated in Fig. 3 and as is also illustrated in that figure I provide a coating of, for instance, an uncured rubber solution transversely of the blank in the required position thereon, that when the blank is folded to constitute an envelope portion the coatings 2 register with each other as well as one adhesive to the other when in contact, these coatings being preferably applied to the plain surface of the blank which as will be seen is the inner surface of the envelope container.
To form the envelope container I take one end portion 3 of the blank and fold it over on to the main portion 1 thereof in such a position as to leave the other end portion 4 of the blank protruding above the envelope portion thus formed. The side edges of the portion 3 and the main portion 1 are suitably sealed together by any medium such as rubber cement or in fact by being vulcanized together. The transverse edge of the portion 3 is left unsealed and thus a mouth for the envelope is constituted between such edge and other wall of the envelope container. The blank is folded with the plain side innermost in order that perfect sealing for the envelope portion can be obtained.
The envelope portion A thus formed is now filled with the commodity such as the tobacco which it is desired to keep in the required moist condition in the package, and which is usually packed in air-tight containers of a rigid type, and
it is therefore necessary to seal the envelope portion A so that it will be substantially air-tight and moisture-proof. This is achieved by merely pressing the two tacky coatings 2 together and as such coatings extend the entire width of the envelope container a perfect seal for the mouth thereof is attained, the portion 4 which is in the form of a flap is now wrapped around the envelope portion A and the free edge of such flap is secured to the exterior surface of the envelope portion by means of any suitable seal 5 which may be the government excise seal or otherwise as desired. a
The seal for the mouth of the envelope container A is preferably located in spaced relation below the lip of the container wall 3 so as to leave an unsealed portion of the lip thereabove, thus providing a finger hold whereby the lip may be grasped to break the seal for the mouth.
Although in Fig. 3 of the drawings I have illustrated the coatings 2 as being 'both on the main portion 1 and the portion 3, it .will be understood that I could with substantially equal effectiveness apply a coating 2to the inner surface of one wall only as this tacky substance would adhere sufficiently firmly to the rubber of the opposite wall to effect a substantially perfect seal for the mouth of the container.
The uncured rubber solution coating as described above possesses the property that it will at least for the period of usefulness of the package remain sufficiently tacky to act as a seal, even after such seal has been once broken and consequently is employed not only to seal the mouth of the container when initially packing the contents therein but to act as a seal during the period that the package is being used as a pouch by the buyer of the tobacco. The seal also prevents tobacco spilling out of the pouch and the act of rolling the flap 4 around the envelope portion will ordinarily sufficiently press the seal into contact with the opposite wall of the container, at least sufficiently to effect a more or less perfect closing of the mouth.
Figs. 8 to 14 are illustrative of one preferred form of my improved tobacco pouch which extended use has proved to be highly satisfactory from the standpoints of economy, durability and effectivenessas a container for tobacco. In this preferred modification, a backing member 10 is provided with a moisture-proof liner 11 which is substantially non-adhesive but which is possessed of cohesive characteristics when folded over against itself and the folded-over portions are properly brought together.
The protective member 10 is composed of aclosely interlaced fibrous material which provides the proper protective features characteristic of the pouch and forms a suitable medium upon which may be printed advertising matter and the like. The material which I have found particularly well suited for producing the protective member is paper having a reduced crepe body.
' In the manufacture of crepe paper it is customary to engage a doctor blade beneath a film or sheet of wet paper as the sheet is unwound from a metal roll, the doctor blade causing the formation of transverse ridges and valleys in the paper web and across the grain thereof. when formed, these ridges and valleys are relatively substantial, as will be seen at 12 in Fig. 14. Ordinarily this creped paper is allowed to dry and is formed into suitable rolls -or sheets for use. To produce protective members for my pouch, the ordinary procedure of forming the crepe paper preferably is modified by reducing the substantial ridges and valleys 12. A satisfactory method of accomplishing this purpose is to pass the wet creped paper after it has left the doctor mechanism through suitable pull rolls which pull the creped paper into a'more flattened condition as will be seen at 13 in Fig. 14. Although the extent of reduction of the crepe will depend upon such factors as the nature of the paper, the amount of the original crepe, and the results desired, one satisfactory procedure is to reduce the amount of the crepe to approximately 10 per cent of its original magnitude. This produces a paper in which the fibres have been disturbed sufficiently to permit of easy bending or folding without having destroyed its protective capacity.
The liner employed in the pouch shown in Figs. 8 to 14 is composed of a thin sheet of rubber which has been produced in such a manner as to render it substantially non-adhesive but cohesive when properly brought into contact with a simi-' lar sheet.
In production the rubber liner may be made by warming raw crepe rubber, containing a material such as zinc oxide in a quantity which may be of the order of 10 per cent, on the usual warming and mixing mill. It will be understood that other substances such as rubber preservatives may be added to the mixing mill, if desired. The warmed rubber mixture is thrown into the nip of the top rolls of a rubber calendar, the rolls being set to the proper gauge to produce a him or sheet of uncured rubber of the proper thickness..
The uncured rubber web is distinctly adhesive as well as cohesive, and in this condition one side of the rubber web is pressed into contact with one side of the creped paper web described heretofore, as is shown diagrammatically in Fig. 14, thereby forming a secure union between the two materials.
The pouch is formed from suitable blanks as shown in Fig. 8, the lower portion of the blank being folded upon itself along the line 14 to form a front or face portion 15 for the pouch and a rear portion 16, it being understood that the blank is folded so as to present adjacent surfaces of the rubber liner on the inside of the pouch.
The exposed surfaces of the liner 11 normally are both adhesive and cohes've. The adhesive characteristics of the rubber are employed for fabricating the liner to the crepe paper protective member. In producing the tobacco pouch the exposed surface of the rubber which forms the liner for the pouch is treated in such a manner as to substantially reduce the adhesive characteristics, as it would be undesirable for the rubber to adhere towthe contents of the pouch or to other substances such as the hands or pipe of a user with which the liner might contact. A
satisfactory treatment for reducing the adhesive qualities of the rubber is to powder the exposed surface with starch. The rubber adheres to the starch to form an exposed starch layer.
The starch treatment also is regulated to reduce materially the normal the exposed rubber surface.
The starched'and normally non-adhesive and non-cohesive exposed surface of the raw rubber liner has a further characteristic which makes it possible to produce a particularly desirable tobacco pouch. Ordinarily, opposed surfaces of the liner may be brought into contact without cohesion. However, when opposed portions of sides 15 and 16 of the pouch are brought together and a hard object such as the finger nail is moved across the outside of the protective member under pressure, it will be found that the rubber liner of the opposed faces coheres along the line of movement of the article to form a moistureproof seal. The seal may be broken by pulling the walls apart, the eflort necessary for this result being-dependent upon the pressure used in making the seal. This characteristic of the rubber liner is utilized in forming the edges of the pouch and in providing an effective seal for the mouth of the pouch.
After folding the blank along line 14 with the" front side '15 in contact with the rear side 16, the outer edges 17 and 18 of the pouch are firmly welded together to complete the pouch formation. The weldis formed by taking advantage of the cohesive properties of the liner when pressed against itself. A suitable knurled instrument is pressed against the front and/or back sides of the pouch, as shown at 17 and 18, preferably along lines spaced slightly inwardly from .the edge of the pouch, whereupon the opposed surfaces of the liner are sealed together. In order to make these edges substantially permanently sealed, the knurled instrument is heated to a temperature which may be of the order of 400 F., at least a portion of which temperature is imparted to the rubber. Optionally, the rubber may be heated by other means. The elevated temperature apparently .destroys or reduces the noncohesive eifect of the starch, particularly when cohesive qualities of thickness of the rubber liner may be accompanied by the distorting eflect of the knurled instrument which imparts its configuration to the seam, and the edges are sealed together internally in a substantially permanent manner. Spacing of the edge seals inwardly of the edges of the pouch prevents the rubber of the seams from being pressed out beyond the pouch edges.
In addition to the front and rear sides, the pouch is provided with a closure flap 19 extending outwardly from the rear side and adapted to be wrapped around the front side of the pouch, as shown in Fig. 12, in much the same manner as is customary in the oiled silk tobacco pouches known heretofore.
After being filled with tobacco by the manufacturer or packer, the pouch is provided with a moisture-proof mouth seal by moving a sharpinstrument across the mouth of the pouch under pressure, as along the space bearing the legend To seal: Run thumbnail across this space, shown in Fig. 9. The normally non-cohesive surfaces of the rubber liner forming the inside of thepouch are distorted by the pressure of the instrument sufficiently to cause the surfaces to cohere to form a moisture-proof seal. After forming the seal, the closure flap is folded around the pouch as shown in Fig. 12 to complete the tobacco package.
The nature of the pouch is such that its contained tobacco will be kept fresh for an extended period of time, so that the retailer may keep an ample supply of tobacco on hand without it becoming stale and dry, as is the case with tobacco packed in tin cans and the like. When the purchaser desires access to the contents of the pouch, lip 20 above the seal line 21 occupied by the legend is pulled outwardly to break the mouth seal, seal line 21 being spaced below the upper edge of front side 15 to provide the lip. After removing the desired quantity of contents from the pouch the mouth of the pouch is .closed and pressure is applied along the seal line to renew the seal. In this manner the pouch may be opened and resealed many times.
As the entire liner 11 has substantially the same composition, it is not necessary that'the seal line be along any particular part of the pouch. In fact, as the contents of thepackage are withdrawn and the size of the latter decreases, it is possible to seal lower lines, the in Fig. 13. Also, tion of the liner be produced along a lower line.
When in sealed condition, the pouch is closed internally along joining seals on all sides, thereby forming a particularly effective container which will retain the desired constituents of the tobacco and at the same time preventcontamination of the tobacco from outside sources. In fact, the mouth of the pouch may be sealed well and the, pouchsubmerged in a body of water for an extended period without wetting its contents. The internal mouth seal extends continuously between the internal seals along edges 17 and 18 of the body portion, and the edge seals extend downwardly to the bottom of the body portion. The pouch is inexpensive of manufacture, and is sufiiciently durable to last at least as long as is needed for a retail package. While the varied consmaller size pouch being shown v the pouch along progressively if for any reason the upper porbecomes damaged, a seal may siderably, a sheet of approximately 0.004 inches has proven highly satisfactory. This thickness is sufficient to provide moisture-prooiness and to permit distortion during the sealing operation to present contacting unstarched portions of the rubber liner.
The amount posed portion of the tially eliminate the of starch employed on the exliner is such as to substanadhesive characteristics of the liner and to render the surface substantially non-cohesive under normal conditions. However, the amount is not so great as to prevent the liner becoming cohesive when disturbed as by the movement of a hard object across the outside of the pouch under pressure. Ordinarily, it is sufllcient merely to dust the exposed surface of the liner with starch. It will be understood that materials other than starch, such as mica, talc, or soapstone, may be employed for the purpose described with similar effectiveness.
To the feel, the exposed surface of the liner seems somewhat slick and smooth. The liner is of such thinness as to follow to a considerable extent the contours of the creped paper. It seems that this characteristic assists in the sealing operation. By removing portions of the starch on liner 11, the tacky characteristics may be increased and the sealing operation thereby is facilitated. For instance, the starch may be removed only along the portions of the liner adjacent the legend, although for ordinary use this is unnecessary. The use of a closure flap is of advantage since its being wrapped around the body portion of the pouch adjacent the front side thereof prevents the mouth seal from being accidentally broken. In closing the pouch, the flap normally is folded over along a line at least as low and preferably slightly below the mouth seal, in order to prevent the spreading effect of the pouch contents. The mouth portion of the closed pouch is provided with a lower fold line and an intermediate seal line spaced from an upper edge or lip portion. Where the paper of the protective member is creped, the wrapping around of the closure flap and handling of the pouch in general may be accomplished without rattling noises.
The paper protective member affords an excellent carrier surface for printing matter. Preferably before the fabricated web from which the pouch blanks are produced is cut into individual pieces and after application of starch to the exposed liner surface, the web may be passed between the tympan and printing rolls of a suitable printing machine for the application of the desired designs and advertising matter. In some cases the web will be formed of a width which is a multiple of the width of the individual blanks, the web being severed into blank lengths and printed in a sheet press. A preferred method of providing the pouch with printed matter is to print the reduced crepe paper prior to its fabrication with the rubber liner. the necessity for passing the liner into contact with a tympan cylinder which may damage the liner or its starch coating.
When completed, the pouch presents an inner tobacco-containing liner composed of a thin sheet of rubber which is smooth to the touch and non-adherent to the tobacco with which it contacts. By breaking through the film of powder on the surface of the liner the "mouth of the pouch may be effectively sealed to maintain the quality of the tobacco. In this embodiment of the invention it is not necessary to provide the liner with an uncured rubber solution for sealing purposes.
Various modifications of the tobacco pouch and of the latter This latter method obviates method of producing the same disclosed herein for purposes of illustration'and explanation may be made without departing from the scope of my invention. For example, the particular method of producing a rubber film of the desired character may be varied. By properly ing the procedure it is possible to employ rubber latex as a starting material and to. coat crepe paper or other suitable backing material with the latex, thereafter handling the rubber him so 10 as to produce a liner having the characteristics described in connection with my improved pouch. Also, it will be understood that the degree of tackiness or cohesive characteristics of the rubber surface constituting the internal portim of the pouch, which permits opposed of the pouch to be sealed together, may be varied to a considerable extent with a corresponding variation in the ease with which the seal may be formed. Likewise, the of the internal surface which determines the extent to which the surface will adhere to other substances such as tobacco may be varied to some extent. All such changes are intended to beincluded in the appended claims.
. I claim: 1 g
1'. As a new article of manufacture, a container for commodities made of flexible material and having an open mouth, registering tacky portions adhesive 011m 20 formed on the interior walls of the container so which when pressed together will constitute a seal capable of retaining its sealing qinlity for the normal period of usefulness of the container even after repeated opening of the container mouth.
2. In an envelope container, a flexible main portion folded on itself to comprise an envelope having its side edges'secured together and its mouth open, and a tacky portion formed on the inside surface of at least one wall of main portion to constitute a sealing medium for the mouth.
3. In an envelope container, a blank of flexible material having one end portion folded upon the main portion and secured at its side I edges to the side marginal edges of the main portion to constitute an envelope portion, the other end portion of the blank constituting a flap protruding from the envelope portion and adapted to be wrapped around the same, and a, tacky coating composed of uncured rubber extending transversely the entire width of the envelope in spaced relation below the transverse edge of the folded end portion which constitutes the lip of the envelope portion, said tacky coating constituting a'seal for hermetically sealing the mouth of the envelope portion and the portion thereabove constituting a finger hold for severing such seal.
.4. In an open mouthed envelope container. flexible container walls having. inner surfaces with tacky characteristics located in the vicinity of the container mouth and adapted to coact with each other, and a severable internal seal for the mouth of the container constituted by the adherence together of the tacky inner surfaces of the walls upon inward pressure being exerted thereon.
5. In an open mouthed envelope container, flexible container walls substantially impermeable to air and moisture having outer surfaces of fibrous material andinner surfaces with tech characteristics located in the vicinity of the container mouth and adapted to coact with each other, and an internal seal for the mouth of the thefdded 40 container constituted by the adherence together of the tacky inner surfaces of the walls upon inward pressure being exerted thereon.
6. A tobacco pouch of the type described, comprising a fabricated body portion composed of an outer fibrous member united to an inner layer of moisture-proof rubber having cohesive characteristics along certain complementary portions of its area, said fabricated body portion being folded over upon itself along a line offset from its center and with said moisture-proof layer forming the inside member of the folded-over portion, one end of said body portion extending beyond the folded-over portion, the complementary edges of the folded-over portion of the rubber being cohesively united together to formmoisture-proof edges and a tobacco-containing compartment, and said rubber layers having a cohesive area extending across the upper part of the folded-over portion and being spaced from the top edge thereof to form an internal resealable union.
7. A package of tobacco, comprising a container composed of a fabricated body portion having an outer fibrous member united to an inner layer of moisture-proof rubber having cohesive characteristics along certain complementary portions of its area, said fabricated body portion being folded upon itself with the rubber layer on 'the inside along a line offset from its center to form a tobacco compartment and a closure flap, the complementary edges of the rubber layer of the tobacco compartment being cohesively united to form a moisture-proof seal, and said rubber layers having a cohesive area along the upper portion of the tobacco compartment and spaced below the top edge thereof to form an internal resealable union, the tobacco being contained below said union, and the closure flap being folded over said union and along the side of said tobacco compartment.
8. A tobacco pouch comprising a fabricated body portion composed of an outer protective member united to an inner liner of moistureproof uncured rubber having a powder applied to its exposed surface to render the same substantially non-adhesive and non-cohesive under ordinary conditions, said body portion having a front side and a rear side united together along edge portions thereof to form a pouch, and said liner having the capacity to stick through said powder layer adjacent the mouth of the pouch upon the application of pressure.
9. A tobacco pouch comprising a body portion composed of an outer crepe paper protective member and an inner uncured rubber sheet liner, said liner having a powder applied to its exposed sur-- face to render the same substantially non-adhesive and non-cohesive under ordinary conditions, said body portion being folded upon itself to form front and back portions of a pouch and having sealed edge portions, and said liner having the capacity to stick through said powder layer adjacent the mouth of the pouch upon the application of pressure on the outside of said body portion.
10. A tobacco pouch formed of a fabricated sheet of material having an outer protective member and an inner moisture-proof rubber liner having the property of becoming sticky under pressure, said fabricated sheet of material being formed into a closure flap and a tobacco-holding pocket having side portions stuck together along lines spaced inwardly from the edges of said pouch to form a substantially permanent seal.
11. A tobacco pouch formed of a fabricated sheet of material having an outer protective member and an inner moisture-proof rubber liner having the property ofbecoming cohesive under pressure, said fabricated sheet of material being formed into a closure flap and a pouch portion having edge portions cohesively pressed together into a substantially permanent seal and a mouth portion adapted to be sealed by pressure.
12. A tobacco package, comprising a quantity of tobacco enclosed in a pouch formed of a fabricated sheet of material having an outer protective, member and an inner liner of moisture-proof rubber, which is substantially non-adhesive and non-cohesive. under ordinary conditions and which has the property of becoming cohesive under pressure, said pouch being cohesively sealed along the mouth portion thereof and having a closure flap folded over at least as low as the sealed portion.
13. A pouch of the type described, comprising a fabricated body portion composed of an outer protective member of creped paper united to an inner liner of moisture-proof rubber which is substantially non-adhesive and non-cohesive under ordinary conditions, the body portion having its outer edges joined together in a. moisture-proof union to form a pouch with a mouth portion, and a closure flap extending from one side of said body portion, said closure flap being foldable downwardly adjacent the side of said pouch from a line spaced below said mouth portion to close the pouch, and said liner being operable to form a substantially moisture-proof internal closure extending between opposite sealed edges of the pouch when opposed portions of the same are brought together.
14. A pouch of the type described, comprising a pouch portion having a mouth portion and internal surfaces of moisture-proof rubber which are substantially non-sticky under ordinary conditions, the outer edges of said pouch being joined together in an internal moisture-proof union, and a closure flap extending from one side of said pouch, said closure flap being foldable downwardly adjacent the sideof said pouch from a line spaced below said mouth portion to close the pouch, and the rubber surfaces being operable to stick together adjacent said mouth portion when pressure is applied thereto, whereby to form a substantially moisture-proof reusable internal seal.
PERCY M. YEATES.
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|USRE39505 *||Aug 25, 2003||Mar 13, 2007||Pactiv Corporation||Fill-through-the-top package and method and apparatus for making the same|
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|U.S. Classification||383/210, 383/211, 229/80, 383/119, 383/113, 206/260|
|International Classification||A24F23/00, A24F23/02|