US 1993155 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 5, 1935.
A. F. FABER, JR
VALVE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Sept. 25, 1934' 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 V EN TOR.
IN fllbo-T' Fl 5, 799M641 Fm,
I ATTORNEY March s, 1935. 'A FABER, JR 1,993,155
VALVE FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES Filed Sept. 25, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ENTOR.
Alberf E fiber Ji- ATTORNEY Patented Mar. 5, 1935 I N UNITED STATES PATENT'OFFICEM VALVE Iron INTERNAL ooMBUsTIoN ENGINES I V Albert Frank Faber, In, Brooklyn, N. Y. Application September 25, 1934, Serial No. 745,395
14 Claims. (01. 123188) This invention relates to'internal combustion sage makes a short right-angle curve to comengines, and more particularly to the intake valves municate with the intake port. In this design it of such engines, through which the combustible is of course inevitable that the valve stem and mixture is taken into the cylinders. valve guide extend through'the intake passage 5 An object of the invention is the provision of directly in the path of the incoming gases. Be- 5 an intake passage of novel form whereby the vafore reaching the intake port, therefore, the mixrious resistances to the inflow of the combustible ture must overcome the retarding resistances of mixture, inherent in existing types of intake pasthe aforementioned right-angle curve and the sages, are minimized or eliminated. valve stem and guide. In addition, there is con- Anotherobject of the invention is the provisiderable resistance to the flow of mixture into 10 sion of means whereby the combustible mixture the y due to the ee t i re S d is introduced into the cylinder in such a manner rected downwardly against the back of the valve as to promote uniform and rapid distribution p pe a d t i fOICedtO rebound nearly at rightthereof throughoutthe cylinder. angles in order to enter the cylinder through the A further object is the provision of means p ni etw the Valve and Valve 16' whereby a maximum volume of combustible mix- The e a resistances described above 1 ture may be supplied to the cylinder for any given erate to diminish considerably the rate of flow of valve opening and difference in pressures. This combustible mixture into. the cy nd r- In the feature ofthe present invention is especially imvalve of the present invention these resistances portant in that it permits the use of a smaller are substantially eliminated, so as to permit of a 20 valve opening and/ or a shorter valve stroke, thus greater flow of mixture than would otherwise be permitting the development of higher compres possible under like conditions of valve opening sion ratios than would otherwise be possible. and pressure.
These and other objects, features and advan- Referring to Fi the numeral 5 s at s tages will appear from the description which fol-'- a cylinder provided with an exhaust valve assem- 25 lows, together with the accompanying drawings, bly 6 of any suitable type and an intake valve in which: assembly, indicated generally at 7, designed in Fig. 1 is a vertical section of the top portion ofaccordance with the present invention. The ina cylinder provided with the valve of the present take valve assembly comprises a valve 8 provided 3o invention; a with a stem 9, slidably mounted in a valve guide Fig. 2 is a fragmentary longitudinal section on 10, a port 11 provided with a valve seat 12, and line 22 of Fig. 1; an intake passage 13 of volute form better illus- Fig. 3 is a fragmentary longitudinal section trated in Fig. 2. The intake passage 13 is proon line 3-3 of Fig. 1; and v vided with a flange 14 at its outer end, to provide Fig. 4 is a transverse section on line 4-4 of for connection with the intake manifold of the 35 Fig. 1. 7 engine.
Although the valve of the present invention is In carrying out the present invention, as in the adaptable to various types of internalcombustion case of intake valves generally, it is important engines, it is illustrated as applied to an aircraft to reduce the valve stem 9 and valve guide to the engine of the radial type, and it is especially minimum diametersconsistent with strength re- 40 suited to aircraft engines because of the neces-- quirements. However, in the present valve, the sity, in designing such engines, of securing the valve stem and valve guide do not extend through maximum power per unit of weight of materials the intake passage 13, but the latter is curved used, which in turn makes it desirable to proabout the valve guide, in the form of a uniformly vide for the induction of the maximum volume diminishing volute. The valve guide and thepro- 45 of combustible mixture into the'cylinders' with jecting portion of the valve stem therefore are any given valve opening and difference of presentirely out of the path of the incoming gases, sures. and present no resistance to their flow.
In most existing types of intake valves for Also, since a long, gradual curve is substituted valve-in-head engines there are to be found three for the shortright angle of existing valves, the 50 important resistances to the flow of the combus-' resistance due to changing the direction of flow tible mixture. It is a common practice to conis considerably smaller in the present design. duct the mixture along apassage, substantially The volute intake passage 13 is substantially at right angles to the axis of the intake port, to circular in cross-section throughout, and is tan-- a point directly-over the latter, where the pasgent to thevalve-guide, as shown in Fig. .2; and 55.
to the cylinder wall adjacent the intake port 11 (Figs. 1, 4) In its preferred form, the volute intake passage is designed with uniformly decreasing cross-section area, or flow area, although this practice may be modified for reasons to be disclosed. The intake passage is open to the port 11 through substantially the entire circumference of the latter, as shown in Fig. 2.
It will be apparent from the foregoing description that the gases flowing in through'the passage 13 will enter the cylinder uniformly about the circumference of the port 11 and in the form of a flat cone, that is, at only a slight angle to the plane of the port. Thus, the -gases'do not impinge upon the back surface of the valve 8, but flow past it along lines substantially parallel therewith, thus substantially eliminating the resistance of the valve proper which exists in other types of valve.
The entry of the gases into the cylinder in the manner described, and as illustratedin Fig. 2, creates a swirling movement within the cylinder, aiding in the thorough distribution of the mixture within the cylinder. It has been determined by experiment with intake passages according to the present invention that, even with the valve 8 entirely removed, the gases flowing through the passage 13 and port 11 will emerge from the latter in the form of a flat, swirling cone, leaving a core of undisturbed air.
And since the flow area of the volute intake passage decreases uniformly throughout the circumference of the port 11, it is apparent that an equal inflow of gas will take .placeat every point on this circumference.
desired to introduce more gas on the upper side of the valve than on the lower, so as to equalize the distribution throughout. the cylinder; This effect may be achieved, in designing thevolute intake passage, by readjusting the flow area'ofxthe intake passage at. and near itssmaller end. If more gas is'to be put into the cylinder at the small end of the volute, this can be accomplished by increasing the rate ofdiminution of flow area in that portion of the volute, thus forcing more gas into the cylinder at that point. ,If moregas is to be put into the cylinder-at the large end of the volute, the small end of thevolute is made larger, so as to permita slower inflow at the small end, causing a correspondingly larger inflow at the largeend. The present invention may also be employed in exhaust valve applications, although the elimination of resistances is not so important in ex-- haust as in intake. While the present invention has been describedand illustrated as appliedto a radial-type'engine, it is readily, adaptable to other types of engines, such as thosecommonly employed in automobiles, etc., and may have many other applications, in cases where it is desired to pass a fluid, either gaseous orliquid through a valve.
The terms and expressions employed herein are used for purposes of description and not of limitation. It is recognized that manymodifications of the construction disclosed may beinade within the scope of the present invention.
What I claim is:
1. A valve assembly for internalecombustion engines, comprising a valve, avalve guide,;a: port 75'; providing a seatfor said :valve,.and::a"v01ute passage communicating with said port throughout substantially the entire circumference of said port.
2. A valve assembly for internal-combustion engines, comprising a valve, a valve guide, a port providing a seat for said valve, and a volute passage communicating with said port throughout substantially the entire circumference of saidport, saidpassage being formed with uniformly diminishing cross-sectional area.
3. A valve assembly for internal combustion engines, comprising a valve, a valve guide, a port providing a seat for said valve, and a passage surrounding said valve guide and communicating with said port, said passage being substantially circular in cross-section, each cross-section through said passage being tangent to said valve guide.
4. A valve assembly for internal combustion engines, comprising a valve, a valve guide, a port providing a seatfor said valve, and a passage surrounding said valve guide and communicating with said port, said passage being substantially circular in cross-section, each crosssection through said passage being tangent to said valve guide and tangent to the plane of the adjacent edge of said port.
5. In a valve assembly for internal-combustion engines, the combination of a gas port and a volute passage communicating therewith.
6. In a valve for internal-combustion engines, the combination of a gas port and a volute passage communicating therewith, said passage being formed with uniformly decreasing cross-sectional .area.
7.In a valve for internal-combustion engines, the combination of a gas'port and a passage com municating. therewith, :said passage being volute with respect touthe' extended axis of said port.
8. In a valve for internal-combustion engines, thecombination of a gas portand avolute passage communicating therewith, the successive cross-sectional areas of saidpassage beingsuch as to'causegases introduced therein to flow into said portuniformly about its circumference.
. 9. In a valve for internal-combustion engines, the combination of a gas port and a volute passage communicating therewith, the successive cross-sectional areas of said passage-being such as to cause gases introduced therein to enter said port at predetermined rates varying about the circumference thereof.
10. A device' for introducing a fluid into a receiver, comprising a port-and a volute fluid passage. surrounding said port, said fluid passage having a constricted communication with said port substantiallyabout the entire circumference thereof.
11. A device as defined in claim 10, in which thepassage is of circular cross-sectionand gradually diminishing diameter.-
12.-A=device as defined in claim 10, in which therelation between. the cross section of the constricted communication and the cross section of thepassage is such as to give uniform delivery,