US 1993291 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 5, 1935. c. VERMONT RETAINING WALL Filed May 6, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 9 I A% I IyNlfENTOR.
ATTORNfi March 5, 1935. c. VERMONT RETAINING WALL 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed May e, 1933 IN VENTOR.
A no? Y3.
Patented Mar. 5, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT .OFFIVCEJLF RETAINING WALL Cornelius Vermont, Ridgefield Park, N. J. Application May e, 1933, Serial No. 669,634
3 Claims. (01. 61-39), 5
This application relates to improvements in walls such as sea walls, breakwaters and retaining walls in general.
One of the objects of my invention is the pro vision of a retaining wall the footing of which is new and novel in construction and particularly well adapted for resisting overturning of the wall.
A further object of my invention is the provision of improved methods for installing or erecting the wall.
My improved retaining wall may take different forms, and various methods may be employed in its installation or erection, several of which have been shown in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is an end elevation of one embodiment of my invention;
Fig. 2 is an isometric view of one unit of the wall constructed in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 3 is a sectional elevational view illustrating one method of installing or erecting the wall;
Fig. 4 is a modification of the retaining wall of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a view illustrating a modified form of trated in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, each unit of'my improved wall comprises a main portion 1 and an integral footing 2 of reinforced concrete. The footing 2, as will be seen from Fig. 1, extends downwardly and outwardly as shown at 3 and 4 to provide a central chamber designated 5 which extends longitudinally of the footing for the entire length of the unit.
The footing 2 is to be embedded in the earth 6 and by reason of the downwardly and outwardly sloping portions 3 and 4 the weight of the material 6 thereon operates to retain the wall against overturning, this resistance to overturning being aided by the earth within the chamber 5, which also functions to prevent shifting of the wall.
As above mentioned it will be appreciated that thewall is conveniently'made in sections or units keyed together in any suitable fashion.
It is to be understood that the wall units or sections may be pre-cast and then placed, oras illustrated'in Fig. 3, to which reference will now be made, may be cast in-place.
Referring to Fig. 3, the earth 7 is excavated to the desired elevation to providea trench designated 8 having a central ridge 9'extending longitudinally of the trench for the length of.the unit, the sides of this ridge sloping inwardly. The exterior wall forms 10 are then set,;the reinforcement 11 placed and the concrete is poured into the mould or form provided by the exterior wall forms 10 and the central ridge or core 9. After the forms have been removed the job is backfilled as will be understood to provide a wall the footing 2 of'which is embedded in the earth as shown in Fig. 1. As abovementioned the weight of the earth onthe outer facesofthe. downwardly ,and' outwardly sloping portions '3 and 4 of the footing together with the material!) which fills' the longitudinal chamber. 5 will resist, to the maximum, overturning. of .the wall.
The mode of procedure. just described in connection with Fig. 3 may be varied as illustrated in Fig. 4 by driving batter piles 12 into the earth at the bottom of the trench 8 so that when the concrete is poured theupperendof these batter piles will'be embedded in the bottom extremi ties of the two portions 3 and ,4 of the wall footing.
Referring to the embodiment of my invention as illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, each unit of the wall is sectional, i. e. the main portion and footing are not integral; erection is started from the ground surface. The ground is piled and packed to the dimensions of the chamber 5. Outside previously assembled forms for the footing are placed and concrete poured to provide a footing 2 on the surface of the ground 6 similar to the footing 2 of Fig. 1, this footing having, as before a longitudinal chamber 5 extending the length of the unit. Jet pipes 13 are installed with their nozzle openings at the base of the footing. Both ends of the chamber 5 are bulkheaded as shown at 14 with wood, steel or concrete, depending upon conditions and the width of the working chamber. In placing the concrete shaft openings 15 are provided through the top of the footing, these shafts opening into the chamber 5. The earth within the chamber 5 is then removed with excavating buckets and at the same time water under pressure is forced through the jet pipes 13 so that the footing gradually sinks as shown in broken lines in 'Fig. 5 until it has reached the desired elevation or depth. The chamber 5 may then be filled with concrete, or the material which was removed therefrom replaced, the jet pipes 13 removed and the top section 1 placed in position.
This section is pre-cast and the footing for this reason is provided with a key 16 and the top portion or main portion of the wall with a keyway 17. Adjacent ends of the footing and the main portion 1 of the wall are provided with vertically extending keyways 18 which are of halfmoon formation and are filled with concrete after the wall units have been completed. Preferably the. cap section 19 of the wall is longer than adjacent units of the main portion of the wall so as to overlap or break joint with the joints between adjacent wall units.
It will be understood that the wall of Figs. 5 and 6 will be reinforced the same as in the form shown-in Fig. 1, the reinforcing members extending from the footing up into the mainportion 1 of the wall.
Another method which may be employed in installing my improved wall is illustrated in Figs. 8, 9 and 10. In these figures the footing 2 which is, as will be noted, of the same form as that shown in Fig. 1 is erected on a floating pontoon and is provided with a removable cofferdam 20 equipped. with shafts and air locks. It is then launched and in Fig. 8 the footing is shown floating over the side aided by the buoyancy of the cofferdam and the compressed air in the chamber 5, and then by pumping water inside the coiferdam the footing and cofierdam are lowered or sunk to the bottom. Sand hogs may then excavate in the, chamber 5 under compressed air pumped through the air line 21 to bring the footing to the required elevation as shown in Fig. 9. If desired, to provide weight, the excavated material can-be dumped mside the coiferdam, as shown at 22 up to the top of the footing. The working chamber 5 may then be filled with material 23, the top section or main portion of the wall placed and finally the cofferdam 20 removed. The completed unitis shown in Fig. 10.
It will be seen from all of the foregoing, therefore, that the present invention provides a retaining wall of novel construction in that the fdotingwhich may or may not be an integral part of the main or upper portion of the retaining wall slopes downwardly and outwardly with respect to the main portion of the wall to provide a central chamber extending longitudinally of the footing, this chamber facilitating erecting of the wall. When the wall has been sunk to the desired elevation this chamber is filled with earth, sand, gravel or concrete which will cooperate with the earth lying along the downwardly and outwardly extending outer faces of the footing to operate to resist upsetting of the wall.
It is to be understood that methods other than those described may be employed in installing my improved structure.
What I claim is:--'
1. A retaining wall having a footing adapted to be embedded in the earth, the footing sloping outwardly out of the plane of each face of the upper portion of the wall to provide a central chamber extending lengthwise of the footing throughout its length, so that the material in which the footing is embedded resting upon the outwardly sloping faces of the footing and filling the space provided by said central chamber will operate to prevent overturning of the wall.
2. A retaining wall comprising "a vertically ex tending upper portion and a footing to be embedded in the earth, the footing being provided with a central chamber extending lengthwise of the structure, the walls of this chamber extending downwardly and outwardly from the base of the upper portion of the wall outside the plane of each face of the main portion of the wall, and batter piles at the base of the footing driven into the earth and having their upper ends incorporated in the walls of saidchamber.
3. A retaining wall comprising a verticallyextending reinforced. concrete upper portion and a reinforced concrete footing keyed thereto, and
adapted to be embedded in the earth, said footing being provided with a longitudinally extending chamber providing two walls extending downwardly with respect to the main wall and outwa'rdly with respect: to each other and, with respect to the faces-of the main wall beyond the plane of each face of the main wall, so that'when the footing is embedded the weight of the earth will exert a pressure or thrust on the downwardly and outwardly extending faces of the chamber walls in 'a direction to resist overturning of the wall.