|Publication number||US1994932 A|
|Publication date||Mar 19, 1935|
|Filing date||Feb 27, 1933|
|Priority date||Feb 27, 1932|
|Publication number||US 1994932 A, US 1994932A, US-A-1994932, US1994932 A, US1994932A|
|Inventors||Lucien Vidal Pierre|
|Original Assignee||Lucien Vidal Pierre|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (51), Classifications (10)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
P. L. VIDAL Filed Feb. 27, 1953 I. n a 3% mw mfi m; f u M 5 Z :m 1 M W W M :7 fl
SYSTEM FOR VAPORIZING OF SMOKE, EVIL ODORS, AND THE LIKE I March 19, 1935.
March 19, 1935.
P. L. SYSTEM FOR VAPORIZING LIQUIDS AND THE ABSORPTION OF SMOKE, EVIL ODORS, AND THE LIKE Filed Feb. 27, 1935 2 Sheets-$heet 2 w j; m +/59 .58
56 Fe rre ,l/qC/en K61 Ju .54 W7 Patented Mar. 19, 1935 SYSTEM FOR. VAPORIZING LIQUIDS AND THE ABSORPTION OF SMOKE, EVIL ODORS, AND THE Pierre Lucien Vidal, Versailles, France Application February 27, 1933, Serial No. 658,881 In France February 27, 1932 7 Claims.
Numerous devices have already been proposed for removing evil odors and absorbing tobacco smoke and the like; these devices work on the v principle of the partial oxidation, in the presence 5 of a catalyzer, of the vapors of alcohol, preferably methyl alcohol, with a view to forming formaldehyde.
In the case of methyl alcohol, the reaction is:
In apparatuses of this type now in use, the heat developed by the catalyzer produces, once the reaction is initiated, the evaporation of the alcohol, 15 and this evaporation of the alcohol and the reaction continue without any further attention. This causes numerous drawbacks in that it is necessary, for obtaining this intense heating action, to use very costly and fragile catalyzers, such as platinum salts and on the other hand difilculty is experienced in stopping the apparatus, requiring the use of an extinguisher for instance.
The present invention removes these drawbacks. The apparatus disclosed hereinafter causes the evaporation of the alcohol by means of an electric resistance and this evaporation ceases as soon as the current is shut oil, the catalyzer by itself not being capable of keeping up this evaporation.
In principle the catalyzer is also heated by the same electric resistance and the stopping of its heating also stops the reaction.
In brief the working of the apparatus ceases as soon as the heating current is switched off. This allows the easy and simultaneous control from a distance of the working and the duration of the working of any number of apparatuses.
This is of considerable interest for instance in public places such as theatres, moving picture shows and the like.
On the other hand it is possible also to use much stronger and cheaper eatalyzers such as copper or porous material covered with a deposit of silver.
I have described hereinbelow by way of example and shown on accompanying drawings several forms of execution of devices according to my invention.
Fig. 1 is an axial vertical cross-section of a first form of execution of a device according to the invention.
Fig. 2 is a perspective view illustrating the manner of mounting this device and of adjusting the entrance of air into the device.
Fig. 3 is a horizontal cross-section of the upper part of the device shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a side view partly in axial vertical crossesectional view of another form of execution.
Fig. 5 is an axial vertical cross-sectional view of a third form of execution.
The device shown in Fig. 1 comprises a suitably shaped container 1 filled with the alcohol to be evaporated. On the upper edge of this container there is laid freely the device producing the vapors as provided for by the invention.
This device is constituted by a central metal tube 3 forming a support and guide for a wick 4 which is held sufliciently tight in this tube for remaining in place through mere friction with the addition in some cases of an intermediary metal sheath.
The lower part of the wick 4 is immersed deep in the liquid in the container 1 which provides the capillary rising of the said liquid in the wick 4.
The metal tube 3 is secured, for instance through welding, to a carrier plate 5 resting over the upper edge 2 of the container. This plate is provided with a number of holes 6 adapted to provide the free circulation of air inside the container 1.
The tube 3 is surrounded by a sleeve 7 of insulating and non-burning material such as mica over which is spirally wound a wire 8 forming the resistance and connected with the terminals for the current leads 91 and 92. Of course the diameter and the number of windings of the wire 8 are calculated in a manner such as will provide a suitable heating of the wick 4 and the evolving of the vapor.
The heating resistance 8 is in its turn covered by an insulating sleeve 10, of asbestos for instance, which provides the thermic and electric insulation. Lastly the whole wick-carrying system is coated with insulating varnish 11.
The catalyzer is preferably constituted by the upper part 3' of the metal tube 3. It may also be completed by one or more superposed grids such as 12 passing over the upper part of the wick 4 or by a sort of metal gauze 13 surrounding the end of the wick. The metal used therefor may be either copper or any other metal, alloy or com-- position capable of initiating and producing the oxidation reaction transforming the alcohol into an aldehyde. For ensuring a proper oxidation, it is of advantage to produce a circulation of air which may be obtained either through the lateral parts 14 provided through the tube 3 and registering with openings 15 in the sleeve 10, or through flutes or grooves provided inside the tube 3, or else through a combination of both means as shown in the form of execution illustrated.
In all cases the air arrives in contact with the wick 4 and mixes with the vapors of alcohol underneath the catalyzer through which passes the mixture thus formed.
The working of this device is as follows:
The alcohol being introduced in the'container 1, the wick-holding system is placed over the edge 2 of the receiver by means of its carrierplate 5 and the wick 4 is thus immersed in the alcohol which rises by capillary attraction in the wick. The circuit 9 -9 is then closed in the resistance 8 so as to heat the metal tube 3. The heat is then transmitted to the absorbing wick 4 and produces vapors which are transformed into the aldehyde required for the removal of the evil odors and of the tobacco and the like smoke.
It will be noted that the electric resistances ensure on one hand the heating of the wick which further the formation of alcohol vapors and on the other hand the heating of the catalyzer, i. e. of the tube 3 and of the metal grid 12 or 13, transforming the alcohol into aldehyde.
In Figs. 2 and 3, the device is covered with a double cap 20 of insulating material such as porcelain. This double cap comprises an inner cap 20 and an outer cap 20 surrounding the former and adapted to rotate freely round it. These caps 20 and 20 are provided with apertures, 21 and 21 respectively, divided by solid parts 22 and 22 respectively. The rotation of the cap 20 with reference to the cap 20 affords thus means for opening and closing the system.
On the other hand the inner cap 20 carries a contact 23 connected with one current lead 9 while the outer movable cap carries a contact 24 connected with the other current lead 9 The working is as follows:
When the outer cap 20 is brought through rotation into a position for which the contacts 2324 operatively bear one against the other, the circuit is closed and the alcohol begins vaporizing. For this position shown in Fig. 3, the apertures 21 and 21 register one with another. The cap is open and the vapors escape freely to the outside.
If on the contrary the cap is rotated, backwards, away from this position of contact, the circuit of the heating resistances is broken and the apertures 21 are closed by the solid parts 2.2 of the outer cap. The alcohol cannot continue evaporating.
The form of execution shown in Fig. 4 differs from that of Figs. 1-3 as concerns certain details. It comprises also a container 31 and a wick 32 held by metal wires 33 and also carries a catalyzer 35. The heating system is constituted by an electric heating resistance 36 connected with two current terminals and. wound over a sleeve 37.
The static pressure of the liquid rising in the wick through capillary action decreases from bottom to top. It will be remarked that the inner outline of the sleeve 37 and of the resistance 36 is curvilinear and that its diameter increases from bottom to top whereby the amount ofheat transmitted to the wick decreases from bottom to top and is proportional to the speed wherewith the evaporated liquid may be replaced. The inner outline of the sleeve and resistance is preferably a parabola whereby in each horizontal heating plane, the squares of the distances between the heating wall and the wick vary Substantially according to a linear function of the variations in pressure of the liquid.
In the device just described the vapors of aldehyde pass out through the top of the casing 38 after removal of the cover 39 closing the latter. This cover 39 serves for preventing the natural evaporation of the liquid when the device is not in use. For removing the cover in a reliable manner as soon as current is sent through the resistance 36, the said cover is carried by a lever 41 pivoting upon a support 42 and.
provided with an extension 43. This extension forms the soft iron armature of the electromagnet 44 carried by the casing 38. A small return spring 42' holds the cover 39 down on the casing.
The circuit of the electromagnet 44 being fed from the same supply as the heating resistance 36, it is switched off and on together with the latter. Thus as soon as the device is started operating, the cover 39 is removed and the aldehyde may pass out into the atmosphere. Reversely the casing is closed when the device is inoperative.
Obviously instead of the arrangement disclosed, it is possible to adopt the same electromagnetic means for closing the openings admitting air into or the vapor out of the device.
The addition of an electromagnet such as 44 produces moreover a considerable advantage inasmuch as its circuit may be connected according to the voltage of the mains used in series or in parallel with the heating resistance whereby the same type of resistance may be used for different voltages.
Fig. 5 shows a slightly different form of execution of the device. The main part is constituted in this case by the insulating support 51 forming a central core round which is wound the heating resistance 52 the ends of which are connected with suitable terminals. Axially of this support and at the lower end thereof, is provided a downwardly opening recess 53 housing the wick 54 held in the tube 55 secured in the container cover 56 carrying the support 51. The tube 55 is closed by a cap 57 and communicates with the recess 53 through notches 58 at the upper end of the tube. Ducts such as 59 connect the recess 53 with an auxiliary space provided between the base of the support 51 and the bell-shaped catalyzer 61 capping this core and the heatingv resistance on it. Loopholes such as 62 at the upper end of the enlarged base of the support 51 provide the admittance of the outer air inside the bell-shaped catalyzer 61. The aldehyde vapors pass into the atmosphere through the channels 63 in the catalyzer bell.
The catalyzer bell may be of copper or any other suitable metal as stated hereinbefore. But it is preferable to make it of an inert and porous material such as baked China clay or slightly compressed pulverized magnesia, asbestos or the like. Said material which has been immersed for impregnation in a solution of 5% silver nitrate, has been dried and treated by a boiling solution of diluted formic acid (HCOOH). The silver is reduced and adheres to the porous material on which it forms minute metallic particles. When the catalyzer bell is formed of slightly compressed powder, it may be reinforced by a metal gauze embedded in it in the making. The catalyzer mass might also be held between two widely perforated reinforcing members.
What I claim is:
1. A device for spreading disinfecting vapours in the air by vaporization and incomplete catalytic oxidation of alcohol and the like liquids, comprising a wick to be impregnated with the liquid to be incompletely oxidized; means for allowing air to come in contact with the wick; a catalyzer the nature of which is such that catalyzing action takes place only when said catalyzer is heated by heating means fed by an external supply and ceases when said means are made inoperative; an electrical heating device adapted for vaporizing the liquid in the wick and for causing the catalyzer to become operative, means for feeding current thereto.
2. A device for spreading disinfecting vapours in the air by vaporization and incomplete catalytic oxidation of alcohol and the like liquids, comprising a wick to be impregnated with the liquid to be incompletely oxidized; means for allowing air to come in contact with the wick; a catalyzer .made of copper which would become inoperative when not heated; an electrical heating device adapted for vaporizing the liquid in the wick and for causing the catalyzer to become operative, means for feeding current thereto.
3. A device for spreading disinfecting vapours in the air by vaporization and incomplete catalytic oxidation of alcohol and the like liquids, comprising a wick to be impregnated with the liquid to be incompletely oxidized; means for allowing air to come in contact with the wick; a catalyzer made of silver which would become inoperative when not heated; an electrical heating device adapted for vaporizing the liquid in the wick and for causing the catalyzer to become p.- erative, means for feeding current thereto.
4. A device for spreading disinfecting vapours in the air by vaporization and incomplete catalytic oxidation of alcohol and the like liquids, comprising a wick to be impregnated with the liquid to be incompletely oxidized; means for allowing air to come in contact with the wick; a catalyzer constituted by a porous body which has been impregnated with a solution of silver nitrate and further treated by a reducing agent which would become inoperative when not heated, an electrical heating device adapted for vaporizing the liquid in the wick and for causing the catalyzer to become operative, means for feeding current thereto.
5. A device for spreading disinfecting vapors in the air by vaporization and incomplete catalytic oxidation of alcohol and the like liquids, comprising a wick to be impregnated with the liquid to 3 be incompletely oxidized, means for allowing air to come in contact with the wick, a catalyzer coaxially arranged with reference to the wick and the nature of which is such that catalyzing action takes place only when said catalyzer is heated by heating means fed by an external supply and ceases when said means are made inoperative, an electric device heating the wick and the catalyzer and the distance of said electric device from the wick increasing gradually as it is nearer the end thereof, for obtaining a constant ratio between the heating of the wick at each level and the static pressure of the liquid in the wick at the same level and means for feeding current to said device.
6. A device for spreading disinfecting vapors in the air by vaporization and incomplete catalytic oxidation of alcohol and the like liquids, comprising a wick to be impregnated with the liquid to be incompletely oxidized, a catalyzer the nature of which is such that catalyzing action takes place only when said catalyzer is heated by heating means fed by an external supply and ceases when said means are made inoperative, an electrical heating device adapted for vaporizing the liquid in the wick and for causing the catalyzer to become operative, means for feeding current thereto, a protecting cap adapted to cover the wick, the electric heating means and the catalyzer constituted by two parts each provided with apertures adapted to register with the apertures of the other part and means for simultaneously making the current-feeding means operative and making the apertures register and reversely for simultaneously making the current-feeding means inoperative and making the apertures in each part of the cap register with the solid portions of the other part.
7. A device for spreading disinfecting vapors in the air by vaporization and incomplete catalytic oxidation of alcohol and the like liquids, comprising a wick to be impregnated with the liquid to be incompletely oxidized, means for allowing air to come in contact with the wick, a protecting casing provided with an aperture and enclosing the wick, the electric heating means and the catalyzer, a cover adapted to close the aperture in the casing, and electromagnetic means fed by the current-feeding means and adapted, when the latter means are operative, to raise the cover oil the aperture in the casing.
PIERRE LUCIEN VIDAL.
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