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Publication numberUS1996159 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 2, 1935
Filing dateDec 19, 1932
Priority dateDec 19, 1932
Publication numberUS 1996159 A, US 1996159A, US-A-1996159, US1996159 A, US1996159A
InventorsKittredge Arthur E
Original AssigneeCochrane Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Multiple spray nozzle
US 1996159 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Apnl 2, 1935. A. EfKlTTREDGE 1,996,159"

` MULTIPLE SPRAY NozzLE Filed Dec. 19. 1932 2 sheets-sheet 1 INVENToR. ARTHUR 15. Mfr/M065 April 2, 1935. A. E.IK|TTREDGE MULTIPLE SPRAY NozzLE Filed Dec. 19, 1932 sheets-sheet 2 l QQ s c Hw n Z0 IEM n c klG 4 -O d l El f Y m /0 A o 5 O du du l 2 l f f B C H H m G E M 0 L ,G f l HI., Q 2 3 e 5 MMM J n w l ATTORNEY Patented Apr. 2, 1935 UNITED STATES MULTIPLE SPRAY NOZZLE Arthur E. manage, Haddon Heights, N. J., as-

signor to Cochrane Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application December 19, 1932, serial No. 647,885

14 Claims.

will occur with a" fluid present in the chamber.

Spray nozzles have been used for this purpose and have proved highly effective in cooling ponds,

1:, water softeners, water deaerators, and analogous uid treating apparatus.

'Ihe general object of my invention is the provision of an improved liquid distribution device capable of discharging a liquid in a plurality of diverging sprays. A further and more specic object of my invention is the provision of a multiple spray nozzle characterized by provisions for automatically dividing the liquid to be discharged between several discharge points in a predetermined manner irrespective of variations in load conditions; provisions for regulating the operation of the nozzle in accordance with a certain condition of the liquid to be discharged; the arrangement of the several liquid discharge points so as to prevent interference between the sprays therefrom and to avoid evacuation of the space immediately surrounding the nozzle; and by its simplicity, ease of assembly and disassembly, compactness, and relatively low manu- 3.; facturing and operating costs. I

The various features of novelty which characterize my invention are pointed out with particularity in the claims annexed to and forming a part of this specification. For a better under- 40 standing of the invention, however, and the advantages possessed by it reference should be had to the accompanying drawings and descriptive matter in which I have il'ustrated and described l preferred embodiments of the invention.

Of the drawings:

Fig. 1 is an elevation of a spray nozzle -embodying certain features of my invention certain parts being broken away and in section;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged sectional elevation of the discharge channel and slct forming parts shown in Fig. 1; and t Figs 3 and 4 are views similar to Fig. 1 of modified constructions.

In the drawings and referring particularly to Figs. 1 and 2, I have illustrated a liquid distribution device in the form of a spray head or nozzle which communicates through a supply pipe A with a. suitable source of supply of the liquid to be discharged therefrom. 'I'he connection is made by a T B, into which one end of the pipe 5 A is threaded and from a side opening B of which a tubular conduit member C forming the body or shell of the nozzle depends. The opposite side opening B2 in the T is closed by a bushing D, in which a valve spindle or rod E hereinafter described is slidingly mounted. 'I'he lower end l of the body C is providedwith a circular discharge opening C' formed by an annular valve seat member F. A closure member G, preferably in the form of a disc is threaded on the lower end of the rod E and secured in that position by a. lock nut G. An elongated guide member H of cruciform cross section is loosely mounted on the lower end of the rod E and normally is supported by and remains in contact with a central boss G2' formed 20 on the upper side of the disc G. The vertical outer edges of the guide vanes H' serve as guide surfaces for one or more axially movable rings arranged between the seat member F-and disc G and having upper and lower annular surfaces which co-act with similar surfaces on the disc G and/or seat member F to provide a plurality of peripheral discharge slots therebetween when the surfaces are separated and which, when in contact,.eifectively close the discharge end of the nozzle. While in this embodiment two such ring members J and K are shown in axially superposed arrangement, it will be obvious that within limits the number of rings used will depend -upon the number of spray streams desired.

The movable nozzle parts will remain in their closed positions .intil the disc G is axially moved towards its full open position by a force acting thereon. In the nozzle shown in Fig. 1, the extent of opening of the disc is dependent upon the uid .pressure existing in the body C and the force exerted by a spring member M opposing any movement of the parts. As shown, the portion of the rod E projecting beyond the bushing D carries a nut E which serves as an adjustable abutment for the coil spring M, arranged to surround the rod between the bushing and nut. When the nozzle is ready for operation, the spring M is put under compression to maintain the movable parts in their closed position until the fluid pressure in the body C exceeds a predetermined value. When that pressure is attained the disc G is moved axially away from the seat member F and the rings vJ and K will assume intermediate iloating vpositions out of contact with each other and the seat member-F and disc G due to the particular formation of these parts which is now described.

The parts F, G, J and K when in their closed positions collectively form a chamber at the discharge end of the body C. When any two of these parts are separated by the pressure of the fluid or other force, any liquid in the chamber will be discharged through the annular opening so formed. To insure the separation of all the parts and therebythe formation of a plurality of axially spaced peripheral discharge slots, the annular surfaces of the parts are so formed and the parts proportioned that the maintenance of the rings J and K in intermediate floating positions is insured when the disc G is axially moved toward its full open position. Specifically, each pair of adjacent annular surfaces are shaped to form an annular approach channel leading from the chamber collectively formed by the parts to a peripheral discharge slot, provided by the separation of a pair of annular lips formed on the periphery of the channel-forming parts. Thus, the upper surface of the disc G has an annular recess-G3 terminating at its outer end in an annular discharge lip G4. The underside of the ring K is similarly formed with a recess K and discharge lip K2. The recesses G3 and K' when the parts are assembled unite to form an annular approach channel R', and the lips G4 and K2 when separated form a peripheral discharge slot S. The upper surface of the ring K and the underside of the ring J are similarly formed with recesses K3 and J', respectively, cooperating to form the channel R2, and discharge lips K4 and J2, respectively, by which the discharge slot S2 is provided. The adjacent portions of the ring J and seat member F are similarly provided with recesses J3 and F', respectively, to form the channel R3, and discharge lips J4 and F2 providing a third peripheral discharge slot S3. When the nozzle parts are constructed as described and the body C is lled with liquid, hydrostatic pressure will be exerted on each pair of channel-forming surfaces tending to axially separate the same. In practice, these pressures must be suitably proportioned for the rings J and K to assume and maintain intermediate floating positions.

In order that a wide and uniform distribution of the liquid discharged be obtained, it is desirable that the streams issuing from the several peripheral discharge slots have the same velocity of discharge and that the supply of liquid be equally divided therebetween. To secure the foregoing results it is necessary that the parts be so designed that the pressures thereon when the disc G is moved axially, will cause the rings J and K to assume such intermediate positions at a desired predetermined rate of flow that .the discharge slots S', S2 vand S3 will be opened to the same extent. In order to maintain the rings in such positions it is necessary that the hydraulic pressures exerted thereon be so proportioned that the pressure exerted on the underside of each ring y exceed the pressure exerted on the upper surface axially, this result is accomplished by so proportioning the depths of the respective channels R',

R2 and R3 that the pressures therein will successively decrease in the order named and on an equal discharge of liquid from the corresponding slots at a predetermined rate of flow, the resulting differentials between the pressures exerted on the rings J and K will hold them in their desired intermediate positions. As shown, the axial depths of all the channels are uniform throughout their length, and the channel R2 is approximately onehalf the depth of the channel R', while the depth of the channel R3 is approximately three-fourths that of the channel R2 when the movable parts are in their closed positions. For example, in a nozzle of this character in which 4000 gallons of liquid per hour were discharged, it was found that when the channels R', R2 and R3 were respectively 1/4", 1/8" and M in depth when the parts were in their closed positions that the flow would be equally divided between the several slots.

In operation, with the nozzle constructed as described, ythe spring compression is first adjusted to permit separation of the nozzle parts with the lowest pressure that is liable to occur in the source of supply. When liquid is delivered to the nozzle under a pressure sufficient to cause. the disc G to move axially, the rings J and K will automatically assume intermediate positions due to the hydraulic forces acting thereon, and the liquid will be discharged from all three discharge slots. The annular formation of the approach channels is particularly effective in increasing the discharge velocity for a given pressure in the body chamber. The inner end of each channel in effect is an orifice and the subsequent increase in effective cross-sectional area per radial unit permits a. pressure recovery action, which provides a higher discharge head than would be possible with no increase in the channel crosssection. On the occurrence of a predetermined rate of flow through the nozzle, the various hydraulic pressures on the parts will cause them to assume such intermediate positions that there will be an equal discharge through all of the slots.

When the flow through `the nozzle decreases, the movable parts will be moved towards their closed positions correspondingly. The channel velocity will decrease, since the effective depth of each slot relative to its maximum depth decreases at a greater rate than the rate of decrease in depth of the corresponding approach channel. When'the fluid pressure in the body falls below the value for which the spring M is set, the spring acts to return the movable parts to their closed positions. Other mechanism, either manually or automatically operable, may be used in lieu of the spring M for regulating the action of the movable nozzle parts, as will hereinafter appear. The guide member H is made sufficiently elongated to maintain the movable nozzle parts in axial alignment with the seat member F during their opening and closing movements.

To avoid interference between the sprays discharged from the several slots, the successive approach channels and slots are arranged at diferentinclinations relative to the horizontal. The surfaces. of the parts J and F forming the channel R3 and slot S3 are advantageously formed l 0, 15 and 30, respectively, and are not too closely spaced axially, the three diverging conical sprays developed will not interfere with one another and a substantial area will be covered by the discharge.

The spray nozzle shown in Figs. 1 and 2 has certain disadvantageous characteristics which are notpresent in the construction illustrated in Fig. 3. In particular, the spray nozzle of Figs. l and 2 may have its peripheral discharge slots so closely spaced axially that the suction force developed by ih e liquid discharged therefrom will be suiiicient to substantially evacuate the intermediate spaces. 'I'his eiect causes some deiiection of the sprays from their normal courses and may cause one spray to interfere with another at some distance from the nozzle. Furthermore, since the respective operating positions of the rings J and K are dependent primarily on the differences in pressure drops in the corresponding approach channels, an equal division of liquid between the several discharge slots can only be attained at one ow through the body C for each adjustment of the spring M. In the construction of Fig. 3, however, it is theoretically possible to maintain an equal division of the liquid between the discharge slots at all rates of iiow, and also have the discharge slots axially spaced sufliciently to avoid interference between the sprays discharged.

'I'he multiple spray nozzle shownlin Fig. 3 differs from that of Fig. l, principally in the manner in which the approach channels and peripheral discharge slots are arranged and proportioned. In particular, in Fig. 3 the'discharge slots s', s2, and s3 are axially spaced suiiiciently to provide diierences between the hydrostatic pressures on the upper and lower sides of the rings J and K equivalent tothe respective weights thereof. The rings can therefore maintain intermediate floating positions in operation. All of the annular approach channels r', r2 and`ri are similarly dimensioned .and the pressure drops in all will be identical under all conditions of load when an equal division of the liquid to be discharged exists. If for any reason unequal distribution of the liquid to the several discharge slots exists momentarily the resulting difference between the pressure drops in the corresponding approach channels will cause the parts to automatically move to positions in which this condition will be corrected. For example if the slot s2 is open to a greater extent than the slot s3. the hydrostatic pressure in the channel r3. will increase because of the greater restriction of the dischargethrough the slot s3, while the pressure in the channel r2 will decrease due to the increased volume of ow through the slots s2. Under these conditions, the ring J will move axially downwards until the slots are open to the same extent and the balanced pressure conditions restored. The construction and mode of operation of the parts is otherwise similar to the form illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.

In apparatus where it is essential that the liquid discharged be broken up quite minutely, it is advantageous to utilize the maximum pressure drop available, as the iineness of the resultant spray is dependent upon the energy dissipated at the nozzle measured in terms of pressuredrop. The maximum availablepressure drop cannot be utilized in a spring loaded spray nozzle as such nozzles can only be provided with a spring load, which, with the nozzle in the wide open position, is equivalent to the minimum liqlmum flow through the nozzle.

uid pressure which maybe present with maxi- With such nozzles, itis usually necessary to install a regulating valve in the supply line to dissipate much of the pressure available for spraying when the rate of iiow is low and maximum pressure exists in the supply line. In Fig. 4, I have illustrated a multiple spray nozzle having'spray parts simi- .lar to those of either of the previously described constructions and which is provided with regulating provisions in lieu of a coiled spring and pressure regulating valve which permit the utilization of the maximum available pressure drop.

In this construction. the portion of the body C above the supply connection A contains a plston or diaphragm P connected to the upper end of the valve rod E, which in this construction is made tubular to provide a leak-01T passage from the closed portion of the body above the piston. A pilot valve O, which controls the leak-oil passage, which may be controlled manually or may be automatically controlled, for example, in response to changes in liquid level in a related apparatus lby means of a float (not shown) connected thereto through the lever O and link O2. The pressure on the underside of the piston P is ordinarily sufficient to maintain the' nozzle parts in their closed positions. In lieu of loosely mounting the piston in the body to permit leakage thereby to the space above, I provide a supplementary pilot valv'e Q pivotally mounted on and arranged to controla port P' in the piston and actuated by the movementsof the link O2.

In operation, the position of the piston disc P depends upon the position of the pilot valve O and valve Q and may be adjusted as operating conditions require by manual or automatic angular adjustments of the lever O. When the latter is turned counter-clockwise from the position shown in Fig. 4, the valve Q closes the port P' and the valve O opens the passage in the hollow valve rod E with the result that the pressure above the piston P diminishes and the latter moves upward until its motion is arrested either by the engagement of the d-isc G with the ring K in the fully closed positionof the nozzle, or by the reopening of the port P', and the reclosing of the passage through the rod E which permits the pressure above the piston to build up until the piston and the parts supported by it are held in a fixed position by the excess of the pressure below the piston over the pressure above the piston. In practice, this condition will be obtained with both valves Q and O cracked so that a continuous slight leakage through the port P and the hollow valve rod may result. The maximum available pressure drop can thus be`use'd for spraying the liquid through the previously described Iperipheral discharge slots S and S2.

When the pilot valve control provisions operate to restore the nozzle parts to their closed. positions, the valve Q will be actuated to close the forms of the device disclosed without departing from the spirit of my invention as set forth in the appended claims and that in some cases certain features of my invention may be used to advantage without a corresponding use of other features.

Having now described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:

l. A spray nozzle comprising one or more ring members each encircling a corresponding axial portion of a iiuid chamber and end members for said chamber between which said ring or ring members are axially interposed and one of which is formed with a'fluid supply inlet opening to said chamber, each ring end surface and the opposing surface of the axially adjacent member being shaped to provide an annular outlet passage from said chamber having an inner portion of greater axial extent than a surrounding outer portion of said passage, and each ring member being freely movable axially in response to a variation in the differential of the fluid pressures on its opposite ends.

2. A spray nozzle comprising one or more ring members each encircling a corresponding axial vportion of a fluid chamber and end members for said chamber between which said ring or ring members are axially interposed and one of which is formed with a fluid supply inlet opening to said chamber, each ring end surface and the opposing surface of the axially adjacent member being shaped to provide an annular outlet passage frorn said chamber having an inner portion of greater axial extent than a surrounding outer portion of said passage, and each ring member being freely movable axially in response to a variation in the differential of the fluid pressures on its opposite ends, and means for effecting relative axial adjustment of said end -members to thereby vary the amount of flow through said outlet passages.

3. A spray nozzle comprising one or more ring members each encircling a corresponding axial portion of a vertically disposed uid chamber, and end members for said chamber between which said ring or ring members are axially interposed and one, of which is formed with a uid supply inlet opening to said chamber, each ring end surface and the opposing surface of the axially adjacent member being shaped to provide an annular outlet passage from said chamber having an inner portion of greater axial extent than a surrounding outer portion of said passage, and each ring member being freely movable axially in response to a variation in the diiferential of the fluid pressures on its opposite ends, and the axial depth of said inner portion of eachpassage less remote from the `bottom end member being greater than the axial depth of said innerportion of any passage more remote from the bottom end member.

4. A spray nozzle comprising one or more ringv members each encircling a corresponding axial portion of a vertically disposed iluid chamber and end members for said chamber between which each ring member being freely movable axially in response to a variation in the differential of the fluid pressures on its opposite ends, and being of such weight and axial length, and having such a lower end surface area that the ring will be subjected to a otative effect substantially equal to its weight by the uid in said chamber.

5. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having a discharge opening therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening, and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, annular portions of adjacent parts being arranged to form channels leading to corresponding discharge slots, and said channel-forming portions being relatively proportioned to provide a pressure differential on said ring capable of moving said ring to an intermediate floating position when said disc is moved out of contact therewith and uid is supplied to said chamber at a pressure sufficiently high to produce a spray discharge through said slots.

6. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having a liquid inlet and discharge openings therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, portions of adjacent parts being arranged to form channels leading to corresponding discharge slots, and said channel-forming portions being proportioned to axially space said channels relative to said liquid inlet opening sufciently to provide a hydrostatic pressure differential on said ringcapable of moving said ring to and maintaining it in an intermediate floating position when said disc is moved out of contact therewith and uid is supplied to said chamber at a pressure suiciently high to produce a spray discharge through said slots.

7. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having liquid inlet and discharge openings therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, ad-

space said channels relative to said liquid opening suiciently to provide a hydrostatic pressure differential on said ring capable of moving said ring to and maintaining it in an intermediate oating position when said disc is moved out of contact therewith and fluid is supplied to said chamber at a pressure sumciently high to produce a spray discharge through said slots.

8. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having liquid inlet and discharge openings therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring. about said shell discharge opening and eoy on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots whenl spaced apart, adjacent annular portions of adjacentv parts being arranged to form similarly dimensioned annular channels leading to corresponding discharge slots, and said channel-forming portions being proportioned to axially space said ring relative to said inlet opening suiliciently to provide a hydrostatic pressure diil'erential on said ring capablel of moving said ring to and maintaining it in an intermediate floating position when said disc is moved out of Contact therewith. Y

9. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a vertically disposed shell having a liquid inlet and having a discharge opening in its lower end, a closure disc beneath and axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, adjacent annular portions of adjacent parts being arranged to form annular channels leading to corresponding discharge slots, and said pairs of channel-forming portions being relatively proportioned to. provide similarly shaped channels the axially successive channels being of diierent axial depths and successively increasing from top to bottom to provide a pressure differential on said ring capable of moving said ring to an intermediate floating position when said disc is moved out of contact therewith.

10. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having a discharge opening therein, a closure disc axially movable relative'to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening, and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of axially spaced peripheral dischargeslots when spaced apart, portions of each pair of adjacent parts being arranged to form a channel leading to corresponding discharge slot, said ring being freely movable axially in response to variations in the diilerential of the fluid pressures on its opposite ends existing when uid is Asupplied to said nozzle ata pressure high enough to create a spray discharge through said slotsl and said parts forming said superped discharge. slots being shaped to discharge spray streams at different inclinations.

11. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having a discharge opening therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, said ring being freely movable axially in response to variations in the differential oi' the uid `pressures on its opposite ends existing when fluid is supplied to said nozzle at a pressure high enough to create a spray discharge through said slots, and when said disc is moved out of contact with said ring, and means for regulating the operation of said movable parts. Q

12.A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having a discharge opening therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment withsaid shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, said ring y being freely movableaxially in response to vari- I-ations in the diierential of the fluid pressures on its opposite ends existing when fluid is supplied to said4 nozzle at a pressure high enough to create a spray discharge through said slots, and when said disc is moved out of contact with said ring, and spring loading means acting on said disc for regulating the operation of said movable parts. A

13. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having a discharge opening therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between'and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge' lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, said ring being freely movableaxially in response to variations in the differential of the fluid pressures on its opposite ends existing when iluid is supplied to said nozzle at a pressure high enough to create a spray discharge through said slots, and when said disc is moved out of contact withk said ring, and means for regulating the operation of said movable parts.

14. A multiple spray nozzle comprising a shell having a discharge opening therein, a closure disc axially movable relative to said discharge opening, a ring positioned between and in axial alignment with said shell discharge opening and disc, peripheral discharge lips formed on said ring, about said shell discharge opening and on said disc and arranged to form a plurality of peripheral discharge slots when spaced apart, said ring being freely movable axially inresponse to variations in the diierential of the uid pressures on its opposite ends existing when fluid is supplied to said nozzle at a pressure high enough to create a spray discharge through said slots, and when said disc is moved outv of contact with said ring, and means for regulating the operation of said movable parts comprising a piston or diaphragm connected to `said disc, a pilot valve for controlling the movements of said piston, and means for regulating the operation of said pilot valve.

ARTHUR E. KITTREDGE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2416685 *Mar 1, 1941Mar 4, 1947Babcock & Wilcox CoAtomizer
US2453416 *Dec 24, 1941Nov 9, 1948Petrolite CorpFluid distribution system
US2677576 *Apr 7, 1950May 4, 1954Jr James Lewis BrannSpraying apparatus
US2785924 *Nov 29, 1954Mar 19, 1957Commercial ShearingJet rings
US2901184 *Nov 30, 1956Aug 25, 1959Commercial ShearingJet rings
US3038668 *Nov 14, 1960Jun 12, 1962Jensen Fitting Mfg LtdSpray nozzle
US3529773 *Jul 28, 1967Sep 22, 1970Sybron CorpWashing machine transfer valve
US4030513 *Nov 5, 1975Jun 21, 1977Babson Bros. Co.Tank washer
US4534388 *Jun 7, 1983Aug 13, 1985Pall CorporationDispersion system and method
US5630549 *Apr 29, 1996May 20, 1997Le; Thong H.Adjustable, stackable water sprinkler head
US8137481 *Jun 30, 2009Mar 20, 2012Alfa Laval Corporate AbTank cleaning apparatus
Classifications
U.S. Classification239/452, 239/554
International ClassificationB05B1/02, B05B1/14, B05B1/30, B05B1/06, B05B1/32
Cooperative ClassificationB05B1/06, B05B1/323, B05B1/14
European ClassificationB05B1/32A, B05B1/06, B05B1/14