US 1997312 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 9,- 1935. H. E. sATRE CAISSON LINER AND METHOD OF APPLYING IFiled Dec. 16, 1933 Patented pr. 9, 1935 CAISSON LINER AND METHOD-or ArPnvING yHumm; E. saire, chicago, n1., miglior, .by
mesne assignments, to Spencer, White t Prenti'sIn-` corporated, New York, N.`Y.,"a corporation ,oi
Connecticut Application December16,1933,;Serialllo.l 202,730 Y s claims.'l (QL'255L1) ,Y
My invention 'relates to casingsv or liners for bOringsWthinWhiCh concrete or other permanent lling is deposited and the method of applying the liner progressively'the caisson or'lin- 5 ing being left withinthe 'hole' or preferably removed therefrom as thev hole isprogressively lled.- Y* f Problems associated with removable 'caisson liners are manifold, includingV assembly and dis.- assembly of the elements, storage and transportar tion, additionv ofelements as the depth ofthe hole increases, skin friction resistance offered by the boring `wall of earth;` danger of .disassociation Y ofthe elements Within the hole, and many others. Some ofv these problems attach to.V caisson liners even when intended to .be leftpermanently within the hole `about'the. filling. f l .Y y;
The present invention ihas for its principal features the construction of `the-liner. from a plurality of @telescopicallyg associated sheet metal ele,- ments so articulated or flexibly joined as to limit the extent of relative axial movement in both directions, the liner adapted to be extended downwardly automatically by gravity as the digging progresses With its lowermost element surrounding Ythe boring or digging zone; the liner being gradually collapsed-ione element atv a time,' in the actof withdrawal, whereby skin friction is restricted toone element at a,time;geasexof storage and transportation ,due to the compactness of the telescoped elements; range vof adaptability todifferentdepths of holes to be. lined; `capacity forthe assembly above ground ofvarying numbers of constituent elements of different individual length and diameter suited to the depth and size of theborings; and other structural `features andresultant functional advantages whichfwill appear fromthefollowing description of a preferred embodiment of the invention predicated upon the `accompanying illustrative drawing, WhI'ein f f i v i Y Fig. 1 a side elevation ofthecaisson liner Within a 'completed Aboring shown in section; Fig. 2 is a similar view, the linerpartially withdrawn as the boring is charged ,with-concrete;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal section through Ythe several elements of the'liner incollapsed condition;
Fig. 4 is'a topplan of` Fig; 3;V i, f n Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional detail of the upper edges of the assembled elements; and
Fig. 6 is a similarrview of the lower edges of the assembled elements. Y ,1, l'. ,Y
vHaving `reference to the drawing; thereference numeral II indicates 'a' boringwithinthe earth I2 and the entry of such portion at. `I3 into bed roclilV |714.A o' `.Aconventional boringf .auger I5, formingj no essential -part of tlfepresentinvention, is
shown as having a splined:connectionfwitna rotary'shaftqli.provided'witha terminal bit I1,
the auge'rincludinga.' lower cutting edge I8 and an' adjustable'and retractablelateral cutterV I9 withauger-hoisting 'ca'.blesl:`
j A1 formgo'fauger such asotha't disclosed inmy copendingapplicatiom Serial No. 595,755,"may be used.; inl connectionvv Withzthe .caisson liner of my presentxinventionx However; thisl caisson linerv is adapted for ,nsej'with:;various forms of. digging Y devices, and also where the digging is t'o` be manuallydo'rie'. 2' I 1 The `construction of my improved Y caisson liner willJbebest understood by reference to. Fig; 3
'wherein the psame isfshown tot comprise a series ofr'iestedlinerI elen'ientsA 2I,'f,22,.23, 24 and, 25
formed'preferablyfof sheet metal, cylindrical in l shapeandsof progressively. diminishing` diameter inorder to permit [one to` slide within lthe other. The elements 2|22 ,23 and 24areprovided about their, upper ends with anges! I, 22a, 23# and 24a *n extending rlaterally both inwardly and outwardly While the innermost element 25'is providedwith an outwardlyfextending,flange25. :The opposite vends" of theielements 2|, 22, 23, and 24 are provided .with inwardly extending terminal an'gesZ Ib, 22h,
23b`and bland preferablythese flanges termi-'- .nate downwardly lin Vbeveled* cutting or ,scraping edges.2|'.=, 22C, 23c and'24.1 The lower end of the inner element 25 has associated therewith. no. integral fiangerbutV is preferably flaredoutwardly at .25u and provided with aterminal cutting or scraping `edge 25,v E i Y It vwill be noted with reference to Figs; 1,*2 and 3 .that-even-though the boringbe. of gradually reduced diameter as it progresses, none ,of vvthe liner elements except the outermost are in contact with the wallfof the excavation until each reaches its ultimateextended position; theinner `elements ,or"sections, being free f to;descend by Y gravity withoutskin friction, add their weight to the outer units to pull them'downinto extended It .will beobserved that the ontwardly extending flange 2 la is adapted to bear upon the upper sur-- face of the earth about the boring and to sustain the outermost liner element or unit in position, while the outwardly extending portions of the flanges 22, 23a, 24a, and 25a are adapted to engage the inwardly turned flanges 2lb, 22h, 23b and24b.
an upward direction when` the caisson lineris in Storage 01 being transported. Y
The annular bands formed by the lfinages at f both ends of the elements also-serve tofstreng'then thestructure against forces appliedlaterally whether by rough-handling incident tfo storage 'Y and transportationA oir'esulting from theslateral pressure of theearth'forming the natural wall of the .holewhen' in* u'sefV` n; The provision of the relatively sharp cutting or scraping lower edges 2 lc, 22, 23?; v24'A and 25serves to facilitate :the settling of the elementsas. the digging progresses, tomaintain the lowermost element'in a-.position surrounding the diggingl zone,
the entire Yweight of thesassociatedelementsbeing transrnited by'gravity to* vcause-such settling and maintaining 1the` .liner-elements in longitudinally extended relation Ias:permitted by the progressV of'thework. Y..
The longitudinal length'of the individual elements and the totallength overall of the .extended caisson liner as represented by amultiple of the individual element. lengths. by .thenumber fof*v units employed is vdeterrn'inedby the depth ofthe boring which is to'be lined. Sog. also, the diameter of the column of concretemofbe; placed. inthe excavation determines the diameter of the caisson liner and its constituent elements'. 1
During the progress of the Work, thev digging device represented by the-'auger l5 ain Fig. 'l is periodically 'Withdrawn `through;v the liner. up'- Wardly' to V'be emptied. andagain .lowered to its operative position at" the bottoxnJofathe` hole by means'of the cablesz. At'erthe boring Yis completed to .the requisitedepth; usually xed by reaching bed rock, as represented inflig. l, the auger and shaft areV entirely withdrawn Vand re;-A moved from the boring, whereupon the'concrete or other filling ispoured 'into the liner,r settling into the bottom ofthe hole as'represented in Fig.'2'. concurrently with'the pouring of the concrete, 'the liner is progressivelywithdrawn.V by means of the cables 26 'attached to the'innerm'ost element until it is lifted entirely out'of the boring 'when the latter is'completely iilled.'y l y It will be observed that inasmuch 'asthe liner 'is withdrawmone, elemental: a time, kthe resist.-
ance of skin friction is conined 'Whollyfto that. element .whereas if the liner `were' integral `and required toA bev drawn'bodily from .the hole, the
Vresistance of skin frictionlwould bevery great and would require manytimes the amount of powerto eiectI withdrawal, rendering-the taslcin some instances impossible. l
' It will be appreciated that where an. integral liner is employed for ahole of,v considerablezdepth the constructionfand handling and storage of such liners would entailfxnuch labonex'pense' and inconveniencmy that if. a sectional liner wereemployedmadeup of elementstadded from`A` above as the' depth increased, 'theE .workwouldlhave to be suspended during the addition of other elements and the danger of disconnection between the elements in the act of removal would be present in'addition to the diiculty of removal due to skin friction over the entire extent of the liner; that according to my invention the diarneter and depth of the hole merely requires liner elements ofcorresponding diameter and the addition of a larger or smaller numberoi elements corresponding to the predetermined depth; that the liner increases in length overall automatiallyuby graviW- alone as the digging progresses Without any cessation in the work; that the skin friction iii-removing the liner is coniined to one element at a time and thus reduced to a minimum; that after removal from one boring, the transference of the liner toy another involves thel handling only of a structure having length corresponding to one'of the elements, with no associated disassembly and reassembly; and that the problems of transportation and storage, ease of handling and space required are reduced to a minimum.
.:Iclaim: W 1 i L i V1. A caion liner rcomprising a. plurality of sheet metal. cylindrical sections. telescopically assembled for longitudinal extension and retraction,l the elements articulated vtopr'event separationv in: either direction, 'the several' elements provided'with lower cutting edges. Y Y
12. `Av caisson liner comprising aplurality of sheet metal cylindrical sections telescopically assembledV for longitudinali extension and retrace tion,rthe elements articulated to prevent sep# aration in eitherfdirection and equipped with lower. cutting edges, means fortelesooping the liner elements to elect removal yfrom the boring by force applied totheinnermost element from above,.said means comprising cables attached to opposite sides of the inner element and extendingupwardly through the liner to a point above the surface.
3. The combination with-an earth auger, of a caisson liner supporting. the surrounding earth about and above thedigging zone, said liner comprising apluralityof sections telescopically assembled for' longitudinal extension and retraction, the elements articulated to prevent separation when fully extended, certain of the elements provided' with lower cutting'v edges. Y
I 4; The combination with an earth auger, of a caisson liner'supporting the surrounding earth about and above the digging zone, said'liner comprising a plurality of .sections telescopically assembled for longitudinal extension and retraction, the elements arranged to extend bygravityas the depth of the boring increases and articulated to prevent separation whenv lfully extended; and 'means for telescopingthe liner elements within-the Vboring by lifting force applied to opposite sides of the innermost element from above.
5. The combination with. an earth auger, of a caisson liner-supporting vthe vsurrounding learth y about and above the digging zone, said liner comprising a. plurality of sheet metal'V cylindrical sections telescopically assembled for longitudinal extension and retraction', the elements extensible by gravity as the digging proceeds and'articulated to prevent separationin either direction, means for telescoping the liner-elements to effect removal from the. boring by liftingforce applied to the innermost element from above, Asaid means Vcomprising cables attached to the lower element and .extendinglupwardly through the liner to a point .above the surface... l
' borngs which consists in looselysurrounding the boring auger with a telescoped series of liner sections and lpermitting the sections to settle successively by gravity as` the excavation proceeds,
the. innermost section occupying a position about j Y Y g upper initially excavated space a pendanttele-` Y scopic seriesof cylindrical liner units so xnarginy the auger in the work zon 7. The method of progressively lining caisson borings which consists in loosely surrounding the boring auger with a telescoped series of liner secf tions and permitting the sections to settle successively by gravity as the excavation proceeds, the innermost section occupying a position about the auger in the work zone, and upon thel'cfom-v pletion of the Workremoving the liner progres- 'l sively section by section by lifting the innermost j section first and theV others in orden 8. Themethod of progressively lining caisson: f5
borin'gs whichy consists in supporting Within the ally interlocked asv to preclude axial separation,
and causing the inner unit to follow by gravity 10 alongthe progressive excavation. Y
" HILMAR E. sATRE.: