US 1997936 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. F KIESEL, JR
REFRIGERATOR CONTAINER April 16, 1935. 1,997,936
Filed Oct. 10, 19 32 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIGZ INVENTOR- Wfllmm T709591; J11,
April 16, 1935. w. F. KIESEL, JR 1,997,936
I I REFRIGERATOR CONTAINER F iI-ed Oct. 10, 1952 a Sheets-Sheet 2 \OJIWITNESSES Filed Oct. 10, 1932 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fig? Q m: 7 l
A Z W WAIEGIZIWA AlV/AFMV AWAV ORNEYS.
TM :1 MW W m m 9 m W Y B WWITNESSESi) Patented Apr. 16, 1935 UNITED STATES REFRIGERATOR CONTAINER William F. Kiesel, Jr., Hollidaysburg, Pa., as-
signor to The Pennsylvania Railroad Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application October 10, 1932, Serial No. 636,968
3 Claims. (Cl. 62-915) My invention relates to refrigerator containers wherein solid carbon dioxide or a like refrigerant, that is, one which changes directly from a solid state to a vapor, is used as the re- 5 frigerant medium. While especially applicable to railway shipping containers, the invention may be used to advantage as applied to many other types of containers ranging from small boxes to refrigerator cars, and to stationary as well as movable refrigerator units.
The object of my invention, generally stated,
is to provide a simple and inexpensively constructed container, satisfying certain requirements which are peculiar to refrigeration by carbon dioxide, and to provide means for controlling,
according to the use for which the container is designed, the refrigerating effect. To this end the container of my invention is characterized by a number of separate compartments, one for accommodating the lading to be refrigerated, one for accommodating the solid refrigerant and isolating the gas generated by it from the lading space, and a third or intermediate compartment, conveniently referred to as a cold air receptacle, so designed as to control the circulation of air within the lading space and thus regulate the rate of sublimation in the refrigerant bunker, and give the desired refrigerating effect in the lading space.
Other objects and advantages characterizing my invention will become more fully apparent from the description of one embodiment or example of my invention which follows hereinafter, having reference to the accompanying drawings. Of the drawings: 7
Fig. I represents a plan view of a refrigerator container of my invention with a. portion thereof shown in horizontal cross section.
Fig. II represents a longitudinal vertical cross section of the same, taken as indicated by the lines IIII of Fig. III; and,
Fig. HI represents a transverse vertical cross section of the same, taken as indicated by the lines II[III of Fig. II.
In the drawings, there is shown a container which, in its exterior dimensions and form, corresponds closely to merchandise containers such as are transported on railway cars, trucks, or the like, and are generally arranged end to end in a single row, occupying the full platform space of the vehicle. The container is provided with the usual lifting hooks I by which it may be connected to a hoist for the purpose of shifting it from car to truck, from car to stationary platform, or vice versa.
.tainer is desired.
The container comprises generally an outer metal casing 2, an inner metal shell 3 and a lining 4 of insulating material therebetween. The outer casing 2 is so made and fitted at the joints as to render it substantially air-tight and sturdy 5 enough to withstand the rough usage to which containers are subjected in service. The base of the container is preferably supported on a rectangular framework of channel bars 6. Extending longitudinally along the top of the container 10 there is a hatch I, normally closed by a cover 8 and rendered gas-tight by a plug 9, through which the refrigerant medium may be charged into the container.
While the particular form of insulation for 15 the lining 4 between the outer casing 2- ,and the inner shell 3 admits of considerable variation, I prefer to employ a material known commercially as dry zero for the sides, ends and roof of the v container, as well as for the body of the hatch z' o plug 9. At the base of the container, as indicated? at I0, I prefer to employ celotex or balsa wood;
At each side of the container, in the center there of, double doors I I are provided, thedoors being divided horizontally. The doors H are carefully 25 fitted and sealed at their edges in the manner of refrigerator doors, and they are divided into separate sections so that only one section need be opened at a time when access to a part of the con- 30 Beneath the filling hatch I there is a bunker l2 adapted for the accommodation of cakes of solid carbon dioxide, the bunker having a base portion l3 in the form of a metal tray suspended from the roof of the container. The refrigerant 35 bunker I2 is of a size such as to occupy nearly the full area of the lading space at the top thereof. The space within the refrigerant bunker is completely enclosed, except for a vent l4, shown in Fig. III, through which carbon dioxide gas 40 generated in the bunker may escape to the atmosphere, and is isolated from the lading space of the container. Preferably the tray I3 is made of aluminum or other metal of good heat conducting quality.
. Suspended from the roof of the container beneath the bunker l2 there is a box-shaped partition l5 which is disposed horizontally and spaced from the bottom of the tray I 3 to afford a narrow passage l6 for the circulation of air. The partition l5 has therein a series of perforations l1. At its outside edge there is a solid upturned flange l8 substantially surrounding the base of the bunker. Between the flange l8 and the inner shell 3 at the roof of the container there is a narrow intake passage l9 through which air is admitted to the space above the partition IS. The box-shaped partition I5 is made of porous insulating material, such as balsa wood, and serves to define a receptacle through which cold airmay filter to the lading space beneath it.
In operation, the circulation of gas in the above described container is as follows. Relatively warm air surrounding the lading and rising to the top of the container passes upward along the side and end walls of the container and enters the narrow intake passage l9 from whence it flows into the passage I6 between the tray I 3 and the partition I5. Sublimation of the solid carbon dioxide in the bunker l2 generates carbon dioxide gas which fills the interior space of the bunker, excess pressure being relieved by the vent l4. Through the medium of the heat conducting metal of the tray I3, heat is absorbed from the air therebeneath. Incident to the chilling of the air in the passage I6, condensation may result from the contact of the relatiyely warm air with the cold metal tray 13, and the moisture may be deposited on and absorbed to some extent by the porous partition l5. From the passage l6, air flows slowly through the perforations l1 and commingles with the warmer air below. Moreover, the moisture absorbed by the partition i5 is gradually given up to the relatively dry air below the partition l5 where such conditioning is especially required.
By having the upturned flanges l8 disposed near the side and end walls and extending upward nearly to the roof of the container, the relatively warm air rising to the top of the container will attain some velocity as it flows into the cold air receptacle, there to be cooled by contact with the metal base i3 of the refrigerant bunker. The partition I5 is essentially of foraminous material, that is, it may be simply porous with capacity to absorb and transmit to the space below a well disseminated amount of cold air, or it may have perforations distributed over its area, or it may be both porous and perforated. The amount of cold air which will pass from the cold air receptacle to the lading space below over a certain time can be regulated by the porosityof the material and the size and number of the perforations. Moreover, the characteristics of the cold air receptacle may obviously be varied by closing part or all of the perforations in the partition i5 according to the use to which the container is to be subjected.
The circulation of air within the container will vary according to the difference in temperature between the air at the top and bottom, but this circulation may be modified or controlled by proportionment of the size of the passages leading to the cold air receptacle. The circulation of air as described above is clearly indicated by the arrows in Figs. 11 and 111.
While I have described one particular form or example which my invention may take, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made in the form and arrangement of the parts of the container, without departing from the spirit of my invention as defined in the claims hereto annexed.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In a refrigerator container, a casing lined with insulating material, a bunker extendin across said casing beneath the top thereof, said bunker affording a support for solid carbon dioxide or a like refrigerant, and isolating the refrigerant space from the remaining space within the casing, and a box-shaped foraminous flowrestricting partition suspended at the top of the casing at a spaced distance beneath said bunker and forming therewith a relatively narrow and unobstructed passage for the circulation of air, the perforations of said foraminous partition being relatively small and numerous and distributed substantially over a horizontal cross section of the container, whereby said partition serves to control percolation of a well disseminated body of air from the space above it to the space below it.
2. In a refrigerator container, a casing lined with insulating material, a hatch at the top of said casing, a bunker extending across said casing beneath said hatch, said bunker affording a support for solid carbon dioxide or a like refrigerant, and isolating the refrigerant space from the remaining space within the casing, and a perforated flow-restricting partition of porous material disposed horizontally beneath said bunker above the lading space of the casing and spaced from the bunker to aflford a narrow and unobstructed passage for the circulation of air, the perforations of said partition being relatively small and numerous and distributed over substantially the entire lading space whereby said partition serves to control percolation of a well disseminated body of air from the space above it to the space below it.
3. In a refrigerator container, a casing lined with insulating material, a hatch at the top of said casing, a bunker extending across said casing beneath said hatch and occupying substantially the full area at the top of the lading space of the container, said bunker affording a support for solid carbon dioxide or a like refrigerant, and isolating the refrigerant space from the remaining space within the casing, and a foraminous flow-restricting partition disposed horizontally beneath said bunker and spaced uniformly therefrom, said partition including imperforate upturned flanges substantially surrounding the base of the bunker, the perforations of said foraminous partition being comparatively small and distributed over substantially the entire area of the container whereby said partition serves to control the percolation of a well disseminated body of air from the space above it to the space below it.
. WILLIAM F. KIESEL, JR.'