|Publication number||US1998300 A|
|Publication date||Apr 16, 1935|
|Filing date||Jan 12, 1932|
|Priority date||Dec 16, 1930|
|Publication number||US 1998300 A, US 1998300A, US-A-1998300, US1998300 A, US1998300A|
|Original Assignee||Ackermann Hugo|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
H. ACKERMANN 1,998,300
GAS BURNER Filed d e-:1. 12, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 I l a 7 April 16, 1935.
Hay WM 3 2 5 an I, 7 m m 1 F62? 9 111 J 1| April 16, 1935. H. -cKERMANN GAS BURNER Filed Jan. 12, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet s April 16, 1935. H. AcKRMANN GAS BURNER Filed Jan. 12, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Apr. 16, 1935 Hugo Ackermann, Bonn-on-the-Rhine, Germany Application January 12, 1932, Serial No. 586,135
In Germany December 16, 1980 (Cl. 158l09) 10 Claims.
I have filed applications in Germany December 16, 1930 and December 24, 1930.
The invention relates to gas burners, and especially to gas burners of the kind such as are- 5 employed for example in. annealing furnaces, stoves, hearth furnaces, or the like in which the combustion of the heating media (gas and air) takes place within the. orifice of the burner, and the transmission ofheat to the article to be heated occurs mainly as a result of radiation by the strongly-heated burner-parts.
Such burners have previously consisted of a block of refractory material in which is arranged a number of nozzle-shaped combustion channels to which the prepared gas-air mixture is supplied through narrow holes in the block. This burner has the disadvantage that the supply of the gasair mixture through the holes must be effected at a high velocity in order to avoid back-ignition and conmquent explosions. Special pressure pumps are therefore necessary to give the high velocity. In spite of this precaution, however, occurrence of back-ignition with its unpleasant accompaniments cannot always be prevented in the event of small pressure oscillations or with difierent gascompositions or different temperature conditions.
According to the invention such a burner is so formed from refractory material that back-ignition is excluded so that the velocity of the current of heating media; can be perfectly freely chosen without regard to the danger of backignition and can be adapted to the other working conditions. In this manner it is possible to dispense with a special pressure-pump for the production of a high velocity of the current, or to employ in its place a simple fan. This is attained according to the invention in a burner which consists of two refractory parts of which one serves for separately supplying the heating media to the other part in which the mixture.
and combustion of the heating media takes place. On account of the separated supply of gas and air immediately up to that part of the burner in which combustion takes place, the possibility of back-ignition is completely excluded, as the separated currents of heating media are in themselves incombustible. As 'a' consequence there is no need to take into consideration back-ignition in connection with the current velocity of the heating media, on the contrary the heating media can be supplied with the velocity-which appears advantageous with regard to the other working requirements. The gas can, for example, be supplied in a simple manner under its mice, as a burner in the arch, for instance with mains pressure and the air with a small excess pressure by means of a fan or the like whereby the operation of the burner is materially simplified.
A further advantage of the construction of 5 burner according to the invention resides in the fact that the parts of the supply conduits and the like consisting of metal, which in previous arrangements of burner were subjected to an intense heat by radiation and conduction, are further removed from the sphere of those burner parts which are situated in intense heat so that harmful heating is avoided.
The two refractory burner parts, of which the one serves only for supplying the heating media and the other for the mixing and combustion of the heating media, may be arranged separate and independent from one another. It is then possible for both parts to expand in a manner corresponding to the very difierent temperatures prevailing in them, and accordingly no dangerous stresses can arise in; the burner parts. This arrangement of one refractory part in each case for supplying on the one hand and for the mixing and combustion of the heating media on the other hand has the further advantage that therefraotory material, of which the parts consist, can. be suited to the temperature conditions actually prevailing. For example the part serving for the mixing and combustion, which is subjected to the highest tem- 30 'peratures, may consist of highly refractory con- In order to-assemble in the workshop the burner, which consists of different parts, and in order to transport it to the site as an independent part of the construction, it will be convenient to connect the mixing part and the supply part by connecting elements so that the burner may be fitted as a wholein the corresponding openingsof the furnace. Thus the advantages would be secured that the burner may be assembled from normal parts, just as it is wanted and independent from the furnace, in which it is to be used, and that it may be transported as an independent part of the construction and that it may be fitted in corresponding openings .of the masonry of the fura suspended arch, or in the side walls or at the bottom of the' furnace. If the burner is used as o a burner in the arch, it is possible to construct the arch as usuaLbut for the places where the burners r are to be fitted. At theseplaces the burner as per this invention ought to be inserted instead of ordinary arch blocks. By this manner also the whole arch of a furnace may consist of burners,
As per the invention, the distributing box of the burner, which will be made conveniently from metal and which contains the gas and air connections, serves as a. connecting element for both refractory parts of the burner. Both burner parts are connected with this distributing box independently from each other, so that the mutual movability of the burner parts is not injured, although it is assembled as a unit.
The distributing box contains channels for the heating media, which are connected with the gas and air supply and by means of adequate borings with the channels of the supply part of the burner. The surface of the distributing box, which contains the outlet holes, must fit tightly to the surface of entry of the supply part, in order to avoid premature mixing of the heating media and premature ignition of the mixture. For this purpose the supply part of the burner is pressed on the distributing box by means of springs, so that a certain movability between the supply part and the distributing box is secured. In order to tighten both parts better, it would be advantageous to place a packing medium, for instance an asbestos plate, between them.
It will be convenient to support the mixing part of the burner on supporting elements, which are borne by the distributing box and which surround the supply part of the burner. These supporting elements have been designed as per the invention as elbow-levers, and they are fastened on the distributing box of the burner, where they revolve. The elbow-levers are preferably made from metal, and they must, therefore, not be within the range of the biggest development of heat. For this purpose refractory intermediate pieces are placed between the elbow-levers and the mixing part of the burner, so that one shank of the elbow-lever bears a refractory supporting shape, which surrounds the supply part of the burner and on which the mixing part of the burner is supported.
The shanks of the elbow-levers, which bear the supporting shapes, connect at the same time the whole burner device. In order to guarantee the connection of the construction even before the burner has been fitted or during the transport and in any position of the burner, the shanks of the elbow-levers, which bear the supporting shapes, are pressed as per the invention by a spring on the other shanks of the elbow levers towards the interior. If the burner is used as an arch burner, it will be advantageous to suspend it by means of loops or a similar device on the horizontal shanks of the elbow-levers, so that the shanks of the elbow-levers, which bear the mixing parts, are strongly pressed towards the interior owing to the weight of the burner.
The burner part in which the mixing and combustion of the heating media takes place quickly assumes a high temperature on the lighting of the burner. In order to render innocuous as far as possible the stresses arising on account of the rapid heating, this burner part may be formed. of separate plates which lie adjacent one another and between which are arranged slots or channels in which the mixing and combustion of By the use of a small or large number of such plates lying adjacent one another burners of any desired length may be made and by suitably arranging a corresponding number of supply blocks it may be ensured that heating media (gas and air) are led to each slot between two plates.
In order to fix the distance of the plates from one another and therefore the width of thecombustion slots the aforesaid plates may be provided with lateral projections. Each plate may have projections on one or both side surfaces or plates with projections on both sides may be arranged to alternate with plates without projections.
In order to ensure a thorough mixing of the heating media deflectors may be arranged in the combustion slots between the plates which deflectors give rise to turbulence in the current of heating media. As a result of the impact of the still unmixed or imperfectly mixed current of heatlng media against-these deflectors there is obtained an intimate mixing of the heating media (gas and air) which is a preliminary condition for thorough economical combustion.
It may be desirable, depending on the requirements of the working of the furnace, to displace the main combustion zone backwards or forwards relatively to the burner orifice. This displacement may be so effected that the main mixing of the heating media takes place either earlier or later. This may be brought about by arranging the deflectors to be displaceable in the direction of the current of the heating media or across it or in both directions. If on the one hand the deflectors are moved further away from the burner orifice in the direction of the current of heating media then the main com bustion occurs earlier relatively to the burner orifice than when the deflectors lie nearer the burner orifice. 0n the other hand if the deflectors are arranged closer together in a direction across the current of heating media there occurs a stronger turbulence than when they lie further from one another.
The displacement of the deflectors may be made possible by arranging them on the plates in an easily removable manner, for example, by inserting them loosely in openings in the plates. If these openings are distributed over the. whole side surfaces of the plates they allow of the positions of the deflectors inside that part of.
the burner serving for the combustion ormixing of the heating media to be conveniently adapted to requirements at any time. The deflectors may, however, be arranged in other ways, for example, they may be slidably arranged in slots in the plates.
If the deflectors are removably arranged on the plates there is a further advantage in that they may be made from a special substance which is specially resistant to the heat conditions. Furthermore, damaged or distorted deflectors can be easily replaced by new deflectors at any time. The construction and use of the arrangement according to the invention is particularly simple if the deflectors are formed as plugs which are inserted in corresponding openings or holes in the plates. The openings are advantageously somewhat larger than corresponds to the dimensions of the plugs in order to obviate dangerous stresses with expansion due to heat.
In order to facilitate the assembly of the plates provided with the removable deflectors which to the special operating conditions.
ing and combustion and to prevent the deflectors falling out on their insertion, the deflectors may be temporarily fixed in the plates by means of an adhesive which is burned out during the operation of the burner.
In order that the invention may be clearly understood and readily carried into eifect one constructional form of aburner in accordance with the invention will now be described by way of example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a vertical section through part of a suspended arch burner, while Figure 3 is the section 3-3 as per Figure 1 through the burner vertically to the mentioned section.- Figure 5 is a side view of the burner. Figures 2 and 4 are horizontal sections through the burner on the lines 22 and 4-4 of Figure 1. Figure 6 shows a section on the line '6-6 of Figure 3. Figs. 7-9 show special designs of the plates shown by Figs. land 2 for mixing and burning the heating media, viz. Figs. '7 and 9 a lateral sight corresponding to Fig. 1 and Fig. 8 a horizontal sectional corresponding to Fig. 2.
Both elbow-levers l are fastened by means of bolts 2 to the distributing box 5 containing the channels 3, 4 for'gas and air. The horizontal shanks of the elbow-levers have eyes 6, into which catches a bow 1, which is supported by a hook 8. In the space between the horizontal shanks of the elbow-levers l and the distributing box 5 a spiral spring 9 with washer I is designed, in order to press the vertical shanks of the elbowlevers against the supporting shapes I2, even if the weight of the burner does not act on the hook 8. The vertical shanks of the elbow-levers have been designed T-shaped in the example and they catch into corresponding grooves ll of e the supporting shapes, which are arranged on both sides of the burner. The supporting shapes 12 are provided with salient parts l3 on the inthere is a larger number of these recess, which are' arranged in rows placed one above the other in a checker-wise manner, into which recesses any number of the plugs l5, which can be changed, can be inserted in any arrangement according Instead of the separate recesses 30 there may also be longer recesses 30 (Fig. 9), into which several plugs I may be inserted at the same time and with any distances between them.
The supply part II, which admits the heating media separately, consists of a block unit with corresponding channels l8, I9 for gas and air, which is suspended independent from the bottom part of the burner by means of special supporting pieces on the distributing box 5, which acts as, supporting element. The supporting pieces 20 catch into corresponding grooves 2| of the supply part I! and end above the flanges 22 in bolts 23, which are provided with springs 24 and nuts 25. The supply part I! can thus be pressed elastically and gastight against the distributing box 5. It is convenient to place a corresponding jointing layer, for instance asbestos, between both parts.
Guide-bars 29 are designed on both sides of the supporting shapes l2, which pass from the salient parts 13 as far as the top end of the supporting shapes 12. There are hollows on both end plates of the plate system "-44, which correspond to the shape of the guide-bars. There are corresponding guide-bars as well on the four corners of the simply part II. The plate system l4-l4 as well as the supply part i! are protected against lateral dislocation by the guide-bars 29 and at the same time the correct position of the supply part I! towards the plate system I l-l4 is secured, so that the channels l8, l9 for gas and air, which are arranged in files in the supply part II, discharge into the corresponding slots l6 between the plates H The supply of gas and air to the distributing box 5 is made by means of channels 21, 28, from which the heating media are alternately discharged into. the distributing channels 3, 4 for gas'and air, which are placed one at the side of the other. From the distributing channels 3, 4 the heating media pass into the channels I 8, l9 of the supply part I! and then into the slots l6, which are enlarged towards the top between the plates I4 of the lower part of the burner, in which the heating media are mixed by means of deflectors IS. The mixture of gas and air is burned at first on the burner outlet, then it retires into the mouth of the burners when the heating of the deflectors 15 or of the plates I4 is increased, and the combustion without flames begins gradually.
The burner which is constructed in this manner is a unit and can be delivered assembled at the site, where it may be suspended on the bearing construction of the suspended arch instead of one or several arch blocks.
With small furnaces, w'ith which for instance the width of the hearth corresponds to the width of the burner, the burner may also be supported immediately on the masonry of the sides of the furnace. In this case the burner is supported by the flanges 22, 22 of the distributing box 5,
which have been made for this purpose longer than the width of the burner. The connection of the burner parts or the close connection of the supporting shapes 12 to the supply part H,
which is necessary for this purpose, is secured by the spring 9, by which the shanks of the elbowlevers l are pressed towards the interior.
It is also possible to arrange the burner in a horizontal or inclined position fitting the burner into a corresponding opening of the masonry of the furnace. In this case the spring 9 too keeps ply gas and air separately and a second ceramic.
refractory part with channels forming a continuation of the channels in the first ceramic refractory part of the burner and in which gas and air are mixed and burned, both ceramic refractory parts of this burner being borne independently from each other by a common support,
the design being such that both parts can mov freely against each other. 2. A gas burner comprising a ceramic refrac 'tory part, which has only channels -for separate supply of gas and air and a second ceramic re fractory part with channels forming a continuation of the channels in the first ceramic refractory part of the burner and in which gas and air are mixed and burned, both ceramic refractory parts of this burner being borne independently from each other by a common support, the design being such that both parts can move freely against each other, the said support consisting of a metallic box, to which the supply pipings for gas and air are connected, which box comprises channels for separate distribution of gas and air into the channels of the connected refractory part.
3. A gas burner comprising a ceramic refractory part, which only has channels for separate supply of gas and air, and a second ceramic refractory part with channels forming a continuation of the channels in the first ceramic refractory part of the burner and in which gas and air are mixed and burned, both ceramic refractory parts being borne independently from each other by a common support, the design being such that both parts can move freely against each other, the support being a metallic box, to which the supply pipings for gas and air are connected and which comprises channels for separate distribu tion of gas and air into the channels of the connected ceramic refractory part, and supporting pieces, which are fixed to the metallic box and which bear directly the ceramic refractorypart joining the support, while the ceramic refractory part, 'which comprises the channels for mix ture and combustion of gas and air is borne by the supporting pieces, which are suspended on the metallic part, and which surround the ceramic part of the burner, which contains the separate channels for gas and air.
4. A gas burner as per claim 3, characterized by a ceramic refractory burner part, which con tains the separate channels for the supply of gas and air and which is pressed by pressure of springs against the metallic part of the burner, which embodies the distributing channels for gas and air.
5. A gas burner as per claim 3, characterized by ceramic suspended shapes, which serve as supports for the ceramic part of the burner, which embodies the channels for mixture and combustion.
6. A gas burner as per claim 3, characterized by suspended shapes surrounding the part of the burner which contains the separate supply channels for gas and air, which shapes are borne in their turn by metallic elbow levers.
7. A gas burner as per claim 3, with which the supports surrounding the part of the burner, which contains the separate channels for the supply of gas and air, are borne by metallic knee levers, the free shanks of which have eyes for the suspension of the burner.
8. A gas burner comprising a ceramic refractory part, which only has channels for separate supply of gas and air, and a second ceramic refractory part composed of separate plates arranged side by side with distances between them, between which plates there are channels forming a continuation of the channels in the first ceramic refractory part of the burner and in which gas and air are mixed and burned, both ceramic refractory parts of this burner bein borne independently from each other by a common support, the design being such that both parts can move freely against each other.
9. A gas burner as per claim 8 with recesses in the separate plates of the ceramic burner part, which serves for mixture and combustion, which plates are arranged side by side with spaces between-each other, into which recesses deflectors of refractory material can be inserted.
10. A gas burner comprising a ceramic refractory part, which only has channels for separate supply of gas and air, a second ceramic refractory part composed of separate plates arranged side by side with distances between each other, which plates have recesses into which deflectors of refractory material are inserted forming channels, which form a continuation of the channels of the first ceramic refractory part of the burner, a common support by which both ceramic refractory parts are borne independently from each other, the design being such, that both parts can move freely against each other, which support is a metallic box to which the supply pipings for gas and air are connected, which box comprises channels'for separate distribution of gas and air into the channels of the connected first ceramic refractory part, ceramic refractory supporting pieces, which are fixed to the metallic burner part .for distribution of gas and air and which surround the ceramic part of the burner comprising the separate channels for gas and air, and metallic knee levers, the free shanks of which have supporting eyes, the ceramic refractory part joining the metallic part of the burner for the distribution of gas and air being directly supported by the ceramic refractory supporting pieces, which are fixed to the metallic box, while the ceramic refractory part comprising the channels for the mixture and combustion of gas and air is pressed by springs against the ceramic refractory part for the supply of gas and air.
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|U.S. Classification||239/273, 239/288.5, 431/328, 431/343, 239/432|