|Publication number||US1998714 A|
|Publication date||Apr 23, 1935|
|Filing date||Dec 9, 1933|
|Priority date||Dec 9, 1933|
|Publication number||US 1998714 A, US 1998714A, US-A-1998714, US1998714 A, US1998714A|
|Inventors||Focha William F|
|Original Assignee||Wailes Dove Hermiston Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (8)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 23, 1935. w". F. FocHA 1,998,714
FEEDING OR DRIVING MECHANISM Filed Dec. 9, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 :EEE-Er. mh
INVENTOR. l/l//LL/AM FFOCHA f BYM/ ATTORNEY w. F. FocHA 1,998,714
FEEDING QR DRIVING MECHANISM Filed Deo. 9, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 W/LL/AM /CFOCHA BY AT'ToRgg/? April 23, 1935.
April 23, 1935. w. F. FocHA FEEDING 0R DRIVING MECHANISM Filed Deo. 9, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 El ||I|||||I| INVENTOR W/L/ IAM FIL-OCHA ATTORNEY April 23, 1935. w; F. FOCHA 1,998,714
FEEDING OR DRIVING MECHANISM Filed Dec. 9, 1953 4 sheets-sheet 4 INVENTOR. l/l//LL/AM L /:001A
A TTORNEY Patentedl Apr. 23, 1935 i PATENT oFFIcE 1,998,711 v FEEDING on DRIVING LMECHANISM William F. Focha, Piedmont, Calif.,'assignor to Wailes Dove-Hermiston Corporation,
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York y Application December 9, 1933, Serial No.'7(l1,663 17 claims. (c1. 242-11) Statement of invention My invention relates to a feeding or driving mechanism, and more particularly to., a mechanism for imparting to a cylindrically shaped object, such asa pipe, a combined rotary and longitudinal movement. In a specific sense, theinvention pertains to pipe Wrapping machinery, whereby the pipe can be spirally Wrapped as a result of the motion which'my feeding or driving mechanism imparts to the pipe; t
Introduction Pipe wrapping machines of the kind imparting a combined rotary and longitudinal movement to theV pipe, are generally of two classes. They are the roller drive machine and the beltvdrive machine.l In the latter type of machine, a' driven belt engages the pipe at a selected'angle. It is extremely diicult to prevent ,the belt from wobbling and thereby imparting Wobbling to the pipe. Furthermore, in lthe belt type of machine, there is always the problem of obtaining suflicient frictional engagementof the belt with the pipe. The roller type of machine generallycomprises three or more radiallydisposed rollers adjustable to a selected angle. These rollers have arcs Which are opposed to the arc of the pipe and, therefore, have only point contact With the pipe, vvhich results more or less in wobbling of the pipe as the rollers are driven. l On account of the limited point contact of each roller with the pipe, considerable pressure must be applied on the rollers to provide for traction. Because a drive must be imparted to the rollers which are angularly and radially adjustable, the driving mechanism and mounting of the rollers necessitate a complicated and expensive construction.
Objects of invention 'I'he feeding or driving` mechanism of my invention is of such construction as to obviate the disadvantages of the foregoing described types of machines. l y Y It is an object of my invention toKprovide a driving or feedingmechanism for imparting a combined rotary and longitudinal movementvrto a cylindrically shaped object, and which is of an extremely simple and economical construction.
Another object of my invention is the provision of driving mechanism, of the character described, which engages the lpipe over a relatively long arc to provide for a positive movement ofthe pipe withoutV Wobbling thereof, and to provide for a largefarea of contactv vvithV the pipe thereby enhancing traction. y l A y.Another object of my inventionis the provision ofV a driving mechanism in the form of annular means providing apipe engaging arc extending in the same .direction 'asthe arc ofthe pipe.
I Another wobject of,my invention is the provision of"drivin`g,mechanisimof the character dei scribed, Ywhich Visadjustable to vary the feed of Athe pipe.
A A further object ,of my invention is the provisionof non-roller driving mechanism.
An additional objectof my invention is thef provision of a pipewrapping machine of simple and*economicalconstruction. j
My invention hasfor its objects numerous othezfeatures, which Will become apparent from a vperusal of the' following description of the indvention. VInthe description, the term pipe is meant to apply to any'cylindrically shaped object as Well Vas to pipes. i
General description of invention In generaljterms, the driving'mechanism of `my invention comprises annular means through vvhichthe pipe is adapted to pass, which is adjustable tobe setat Ya selected angle With respect to the pipe and isv alsov rotatable aboutvits axis; Because of theangular setting ofthe annular'means, the pipe is contacted overA an extended arc disposed atan angle Withjrespect to the longitudinal axis of lthe pipe; and as such annular means is rotated, the pipe is given a combined rotary and longitudinal movement. An important discovery `which* Iy have madeis 'that if a ring throughbwhicha pipe extends, is disposed at an acute angle with respect to the axis of the pipe, it Will contact the pipe over an extended arc, although it Will have only la vpoint contact with the pipe when the plane o f the ring is dis,- posed atja right angle to the axisof'the pipe. If such ring is rotated While at any acute angle With respect to the laxis of the pipe, the pipe Will be given a combined rotary and longitudinal movement. Thus, the typeof drive of my invention, in contradistinction tothe roller type of drive, has an arc"contact with the pipeto insure positive feedingv of the pipe Without Wobbling. l Y
The combined rotary andy longitudinal movement of the lpipe is. utilized'to eiect unwinding from a roll of Wrapping material set at a selected angle withA respectto the pipe, of Wrapping Which is,consequen`tly, Wound helically about the pipe in the usual manner..l f I Description of drawings the machine shown through the driving or pipe feeding mechanism..
Figure is a fragmentary section taken ina plane indicated by line 5--5 of Figure 3.
Figure 6 is a plan View of a modified form of driving' mechanism.
Figure 7 is a sectional sidev elevation, of the structure shown Ain Figure 6, looking in the direction of arrow1 shown in Figure 6.
Figure 8 is an end elevation of another 'modif fied driving mechanism.
Figure 9 is section taken at jline vll-Slof Figure 8.
Figure 10 is a fragmentary sectionffof a still further modied formf'of drYm-gmp'msm' 'It' peripheral iianges'42. contacting rollers 39. The
Detailed description With referenceto Figures 1 `and'.2 ,fa preferred form `of apparatus of myinvention,inthe form particularly adapted for Wrapping of pipe, comprises driving mechanism, indicated generally by reference, character I, for imparting a'combined rotary and longitudinal movement.' to pipe 2, which -can be suitablyv supported adjacent its ends, in addition to thesupport provided by the driving mechanism hereinafter described. Y
The combined rotary andv longitudinal movement of the pipe is utilized to effect spiral wrapping, in the usual manner,I oflmaterial such as roofing felt, froma roll 3 thereof. Roll 3 is mounted on table 4 adapted to move over arcuate trackway- 6 having .a true .radial curvature,1the center yof which is .determined by a point directly under the longitudinal'axis `of pipe- 2. Thus, table 4 canbemoved over 'trackwayl Ii,V to .a position which will .cause feeding of thewrapping strip 1 in the proper direction'. Trackway 6 is joined to a side Vof tank 8 which contains suitable adhesive material, such as `hot bitumen, for uniting the wrapping to the pipe. In order to provide for final .adjustment of the roll 3, so as to have the proper lead off angle of strip 1 to the pipe, ran adjustable connection is utilized. The connection comprises threaded rod 9 .connected to table 4 and screw threadedin bracketll se.- cured to trackway 6; the rod Y9 beingheld in adjusted position by means of locknut I2. v Suitable strip tensioning means-I3 provided, to insure that the wrapping strip feeds to the 4vpipe without any slack therein. Y
As the pipe is fed forwardlywith a rotary motion by the feed mechanism'v I, the wrapping strip 1 winds helically about the pipe from Vroll 3; the angle of feed of strip 1 and the movement relationship of pipe 2 being such as to cause overlapping of the strip convolutions on the pipe, thereby causing the entire pipe to be covered. Y
For applying the adhesive material in tank 8, onto the wrapping, Va pump; I4v is'providedin tank 8. The pump dischargesthe.adhesiveuid into conduit I6 having curved upper neckl I1r which directs the adhesive onto the strip 1 adjacent the line of contact of the strip with the pipe, as is shown more clearly in Figure 2. Pump I4 is driven from Reeves drive I8 by means of shaft I9, chain 2i and shaft 22; the Reeves drive being in turn driven by suitable prime mover 23.
The preferred construction of my feed or drive mechanism will now be described; it being understood that such mechanism can be employed for imparting a combined rotary and longitudinal movement toany cylindrically shaped object, al-
though it is of particular applicability in a pipe wrapping machine. Such feed mechanism (Figs. 1 thru 5) comprises an annular split frame which includes llower semi-cylindrical, U-shaped section v3| 'to which is detachably secured upper semicylindrical,A U-shaped section 32, by means of mating flanges 33at the ends of said sections and suitable fastening means 34 extending through the flanges. Lower section 3| (Fig. 4) has cylindrically shapedboss 36 journaled for rotation in support 31 secured on frame 38 (Figs. 1 and 2). Thus, the annular split frame 3|, 32 is mounted for angular adjustment about an upright axis perpendicular to the axis of the pipe (Fig. 3)
` Journaled for rotation in annular frame 3|, 32 by means of rollers 39 mounted in the frame, is a driving ring 4| (Figs. 4 and 5) having spaced driving ring can be-'readily positioned lwhen the frame sections 3| and 32 are detached; and upon securing together of sections V3| and 32, driving ring 4| is securely held in place. A detachable annular section 43, for a purpose to be subsequentlydescribed, is provided for the driving ring 4|; the section being securedto inwardly projecting annularjfiange 44 on part 4|, by means of fastening bolts 46.
. Rotation of the driving ring in split frame 3| 3,2 is effected by means including vertical shaft 41 (Fig. 4) passing through boss 38 yof lower frame sections 3| and journaled in bushings 48. On the upper end of shaft 4,1 is secured a driving pinion 49 meshing with gear teeth 5| formed on the inside of oneof ring rflanges 42. A bevel gear 52 is secured on theprojecting lower end of shaft 41, and meshes with bevel pinion 53 (Fig. 1) on shaft54 driven from Reeves drive 8. It is thus seen that rotation of shaft 41 results in rotation ofthe annular driving means for the pipe. The axis of shaft 41 is the axis about which split frame 3|, 32 can be angularly adjusted, by Virtue of the journal mounting which boss 36 provides. As a result, the angular adjustment can be effected without disturbing in any manner the driving connection.
Means is provided to effect angular adjustment of the driving mechanism with respect to the axis of the pipe. A bracket 51 (Figs. l and 3) is provided on lower frame section 3| in which is pivotally mounted threaded rod 58 having screw threaded thereon rhub 59 of hand-wheel 6I. Hub 59 is journaled and held against axial movement in bracket 62 secured to support 31. Turning of hand-wheel 6 I will, hence, result in angular movement of split frame 3 I, 32 together lwith the driving ring therein, about .the upright axis of drive shaft 41.
In operation, the pipe extends through the annular driving mechanism therefor, and rests upon the inner edge of detachable driving or traction ring section 43, which edge may be knurled if so desired, although the knurling is not necessary. If the frame 3|, 32 is adjusted, so that the plane of the driving ring is exactly perpendicular in Ya horizor'ital plane, to the longitudinal axis of theV section 43 contacting and Vsupportingithe.under-i surface vof the pipe alongfan extended'V arc; extending in the directionof the arc. of the'.A pipe, as is shown more clearly fin V`.Eig.1.3.f Rotation of. the driving. ring .'will,..then,n1.result. in. a .longitudinal movement as well asa rotary movement. being imparted vto the pipe; the .ratio .between such movements. being determined bythe angular set-. ting of the driving mechanism. Roll 3 adjusted so thatstripJileads-.of substantiallyparallel to the plane ofthe drivingringasis .shownin'z Figure 2. .i f. ..z
Because contact between thepipe andthe drivingV ring isV over anextended arc,.a.positive traction drive obtains. For Aany given 'sizepipeand ring section43, this. extended contactwill obtain up to a. certain point.r Beyond such point, fural ther movement of the frame 3|; 32v will result-in the pipe-being lifted out' ofgline contact with the traction or driving ring. 'Ihereforeshould it be desiredto adjust ,beyond such point, soA as to increase the Ylinea/r speed of'` theV pipe. a :ring sec,- tion 43 having .a greater internal diametershonld be substituted. This can be readily donemby removing lfasteningmeans 46,.and substitutinggthe different size ringsection (l-for the onealready in place. In actual practice, the proper size ring section I3 can be selected forpipes-varying in diameter within a predetermined range; and such section will provide for allpracticalratios of 4lionlgitudinal and rotary movements'. It is onlyrvwhen itis desired to wrapfpipe otadiameter-outside of such range that a newV ring sectionhasto bersubstituted. Ring ,sectionsV 43- or varying internal diameters can be provided with the machine and the proper size cank be selected for use ywiiihtlie size of pipe to be wrapped. 1
-The weight of the .pipe aloneissuflicient to' cause it to restrmlyin trac'tive engagement,-
with the innerfedg'e ofY driving ring `section '43.
However, to insure. suchengagement, spring pressed rollers are,` preferably; providedto pressI the pipe.againstjtheinneredge of` ring section 43. The rollers 66 (Fig. l)y are j'ournaled in'forks secured to rods'. Each rod 68 isrslidably: mount` ed in an externally threaded sleev'e; alsogea'ch rod |58 is journaledinrsleeve GS-andfhas Aits axis slightly offset with respectfvto theijonrnal axis oi the roller to'provideacasterl'eectionthe roller. Thus, the rollers `|58 can'lautomatically assumev any position. in' compliance withfthe movements of. the pipe.. A spring 1| isv intere posed between each A.sleeve ,69 and each `fork VEl, to urge .the rollerV into Contact" with"`.the pipe. Preferably, a sleeve Y|59" provided at `each side of the frame/3|, $2;` and each sleeveisfthreaded in an end ofcross arm 'l2f secured to' the upper ranie'f section32 by means of screwf'laFig. 4),..7`Be1- cause of the threaded mounting fof sleeves |59, the pressure on springs 1| can be.y adjusted bylturning ofthe sleeves..r` To effect siniultaneous'adjus'tf ment of spring ,'pr'essure,Y sleevesg .areY connected for movement together' by chainlM `(Figs. 1 and 2) engaging sprockets 'I6 onthesleevesjy anda handwheel on one of the.sleevesy enables turning' thereof tothe, desirednposition. a f.
In the modification of thefdriving" or, feeding mechanism vdisclosedjin Figsj and?, the prin;`
ciple of construction is the same as that kalready described,exceptthat two drivingunits are 'ern-l ployedfin .tandem and in staggered relationship. To designate .the partsfof each driving unit, which are thesame as that.` for the one unit disclosedv ini Figs. l .through 5, the same' referencev charac ters are employed.. A spring pressed caster rollery '|8 is, preferably, positioned between thedriving units of Figs. 6 and 7, and is slidably and rotatably mounted, by rod 19 and threaded sleeve 80,.on,
cross armLBl which is secured to the frame of eachnunitby studs 82. .Arm 8| is journaled about'v studs 82; eachof which studs lies in the journal axis about .which theframeszBl, 32 .are angularly adjustable, so'thatadjustment of the frames can be accomplished without removing .ar-m..8|.. Althoughit is preferred .that the inner. edgeiof the driving or traction ring section 43 :havefanunbroken surface, orcontact'arc portionin order'. to provide for maximum surface .tractionwith the -pipe for a given lengthof arc,g this is vnot nec- Y essary. Figs. 8 and 9 ldepict a modificationv in which the .driving ringand, consequently, contactv arc are composed of` a plurality-of separate members 86 mounted onthe rotatable Dart.
M1. j Members 86 projectv radially and are, .prefera-bly, radially adjustable to enable adjustment of Y the internal ldiameter of the traction ring which Y members 86 form.A For the latter purpose, ring partf4|1 has aplurality. of radialslots ,81. communicating with radial grooves 88 in which members 86 are seated. Each.memberifisheld in' adjusted position bybolts 8S passing through-the member and through the slotl 8,1; nuts securing the bolts against movement. In orderv that each,
of members 86 can be properly positioned readiiy so thatthe inner ends of the lmembers cuan/form a true circle, ring part All is Apreferably provided witha series ofindicating lines 9| adjacent each memberL 86; and a complementary line .9 Eis 4provided on each member 86. f Thus, by proper matching V- of allv lines 92 with a. selected ,line
lines 9|, the. adjustment of members 86- caribe accurately accomplished.
Fig. 10` illustrates aiurther y modified construction, in .which the inner edge ofring part` 431 is formed ofltraction enhancing material, such as rubber. l"Iheinner edgefof ring part 4315is`. provided withlan annular-grooveY in which is held the rubber ring 95. l
The provision of the ,resilient rubber ring.` is particularly desirable for engagement with objects coated with frangible `r'nateriaL!*such as enameLinasmuch as the rubber ring will pre# cludescratching vorchipping of such material.
j' From the preceding description, it is seen that I` have provided a driving mechanism for 'supporting andvfeedingan arcuately shaped object with a'rcombined rotary and longitudinal movement, which is `of simple construction, and is therefore easy and economical to build. The'annulardriving means,- which is of- `larger diameter than the diameter of the object to be driven, when set at an anglewith respect vto the Aaxis of the object, has an effective -arc contact with the object over a large-areato provide for positive traction propulsion of the object. The length of arc contact with the object can be controlled by adjusting.
the'angulnar Yposition of the driving meanswith. f
respect to the axis of thevobject. `Since the driv-` ing means has contact with the object over an extended area, ,theV object can be driven without applicationofpressure on the driving means, 'as
isfnecessary with respect to thel roller type of.
@riveehamctsrieed bly fipposedvar Contact,..-
means 'and the object.. i Y n I claim:
1. Mechanismrforimparting a combinedv rotary and longitudinal movement to a preformedii-object, comprising annular .object supporting. meansv rotatable about an axis and through. whichz'the. object is adapted to pass,.and means for mounting.. said annular ymeans atan `angle-with respectto the axis ofisaid object. i
2. Mechanism for imparting a combinedrotary and longitudinal movementy to` a substantially cy.-v lindrically shaped preformed object-comprising a rotatable ring having' inner means adapted to contact andsupport said objectvalongY anrarc; and vmeans for mounting said ring atan angle with respect to the axisv of said object;
3. Mechanism for impartingY a combinedrotary and longitudinal movementtof a substantially cylindrically shaped preformedobject, comprising annular means having an inner surface adapted to contact and support said object alonganarc extendingin thedirection of the arc of said ob ject, means for mounting jsaid means for rota. tion in a plane 'disposed atan angle to-the axis of ksaid object, and means for effecting rotation of said annularmeans. i
4. `Mechanism for imparting avcombinedrotary and longitudinal movement to a substantially cylindrically'shaped preformed object, comprising a rotatable ring -the inner edge-of which' is adapted-to support said object along an extended arc, and means for mounting -said ring atan anglewith respect to the axis of said object; Y
5. Mechanism yfor imparting ay combined ro' tary and longitudinal` movement to anV object, comprising yan annular member rotatable about an axis, a plurality of object-contacting'mem# bers, means vfor mounting said object-contacting members for radial adjustment on'r said annular member to dene a selected size of traction arc" for said object, and means for-mounting said annular *member* at an angle With respect to the axis of said object. i
6. Mechanism `for imparting a combined .rotary andA longitudinal movement to a preformed object, comprising an annular object supporting member rotatable about. an axis vand through' which the object is adapted to pass, a ring` of resilient traction enhancing. material. secured .for rotation with said member and adapted to.con. tact said object along an extended.arc,.and means for. `mounting said. member. at an. angle withv re-V. spect to the axis of said object.
7. Mechanismfor imparting ai combined ro-- tary and longitudinal movement to a substantially cylindrically shaped preformed object, comprising annular means adapted to surround said object. and carryV the entire :Weight of the .portion fof. the object .surrounded thereby, means for mountingv said annular means atan angle lwith 'respectto' said object, and means for rotating said? annular means about its center.
8. In a pipewrapping apparatus; annular means adapted to surroundv and'to support" said pipe along an extended aro `and 'disposed'at' anl angle with 'respect to the'axis of saidpipe,"and means for rotating said* annular means Vto l feed the pipe zwltha .combined .rotary Aand longitudinal movement-a. Y Y
9.1Mechanism for.- imparting a. combined rotary.: andfxlongitudinak movement to a preformed obj'ect,.`inc1udins: annularsupporting and driving if,
meansv adaptedto surround. said object, and. disposed'inxaxplane at annangleto the direction of longitudinal-movement ofsadobject;
10. Mechanisiarrv for fimparting. a combined roandY longitudinal fmovement'to a preformed object, including` annular driving; meansadapted tcm-:support .andav surround: said..'object and disposed inta plane aman-.angle tothe direction of longitudinal'H movement :of :..said object, said annular .means vhavingitaxtraction arc contact with saidnbect.
11. MechanismA forimparting: a combined rotary andlongitudinal movement toa cylindrically shaped preformed object, including annulardriving.:.mean.s..4 of :larger: diameter than .that Vof said objecta and adapted'rto .sur-round. and. support said object;i saiddrivingA meansfbeing disposed in a planeta't; ank angles; to the direction of longitudinal Vmovement of said: object so as to'have arc contact with said object..`
12 Mechanism-for imparting a .combined rotary-andlongitudinalmovement to a preformed object, including an 'annularv driving Vmember through -which the'y object can .pass and adapted to supportthe entireweight of 'the portion of the object passing therethrough,V said annular memberbeing-#disposedA in a plane at an angle to the-dlrectionv-of longitudinal movement of said object. Y
` `13. Mechanism for impartingfa combined rotary and longitudinal movement -to a preformed object; includinga driving ring through which theobject 'can pass and a'daptedto support the entire weight of1 theportionlof the object passing therethrough,4 said Aring beingdispos'ed in a plane at an-angle `to the direction'oflongitudinal movement of' said object-fandv having an.A edge formed toV provide" tractionalV engagement with Asaid object.
`14.` Mechanismfor imparting a' combined rotary-and longitudinal movement to a cylindrically shaped'preformedobject, comprising a rotatable annular4 member through 'which the object canpass randserving solely to propel andsupport said lobject;andmeansfoii'mounting said mem- 15. Mechanism for "impartingacombined rotary and longitudinal movement to acylindrically shaped preformed"object,comprising a rotatable .annularimember 'through Whichthe object canV passand serving solely to propel and support said object,'said.:member beinggdisposed atan angle with respect4 to. the direction of longitudinal. movement vof .said object and 'being' adapted to have' arc'contactwith an under portion of said object, and'yieldabl'e means for vengaging anopposite portion of said'ob'ject to cooperate in main-V tainingsaidarc contact.'v
16. Mechanism' for imparting a combined 1'0- tary'and'long'itudinal movement to a cylindrical-y 1y shapedpreformedobject, comprising a rotatable annular .member through which' the object can;pass` and serving to propel said object and to support the entireweight of theportion of the object passing therethrough, said member having a knurled edge .toxprovide' tra'ctionalA engagement. saidbbject,y yieldable" means engageable 3&1
with said object to cooperatein maintaining said tractional engagement, and means for mounting.
said member for adjustment about an axis perpendicular to the direction of longitudinal movement of said object to enable positioning of said member at a selected angle With respect to the axis of said object.
17. Mechanism for imparting a combined ro.- tary and longitudinal movement to a cylindrically shaped preformed object, comprising a rotatable annular driving unit through which the object can pass and constructed to have arc contact with and support said object only along one side of said object, said annular unit being disposed at an angle to the direction of longitudinal move- WILLIAM F. FOCHA.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2726820 *||Dec 6, 1951||Dec 13, 1955||Mcgraw Electric Co||Winding machine|
|US2795320 *||Feb 23, 1954||Jun 11, 1957||Soderhamn Machine Mfg Co||Apparatus for handling cylindrical objects|
|US3064826 *||Nov 24, 1958||Nov 20, 1962||Bendix Corp||Feeder mechanism|
|US4652195 *||Jan 26, 1984||Mar 24, 1987||Mcarthur James R||Casing stabbing and positioning apparatus|
|US4921386 *||Jun 6, 1988||May 1, 1990||John Harrel||Device for positioning and stabbing casing from a remote selectively variable location|
|US5062756 *||May 1, 1990||Nov 5, 1991||John Harrel||Device for positioning and stabbing casing from a remote selectively variable location|
|U.S. Classification||74/22.00R, 242/447.3, 414/433, 226/177|
|International Classification||B65H81/08, B65H81/00|