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Publication numberUS1999451 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 30, 1935
Filing dateOct 29, 1932
Priority dateDec 8, 1931
Publication numberUS 1999451 A, US 1999451A, US-A-1999451, US1999451 A, US1999451A
InventorsNoel Finlay Robert
Original AssigneeNoel Finlay Robert
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Internal combustion engine
US 1999451 A
Abstract  available in
Images(8)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

R. N. FINLAY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Oct, 29, 1932 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 April 3@, I R N. FHNLAY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Oct. 29, 1932 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 pril MD, 1193. N FINLAY 11,9,451

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed O0t.- 29, 1952 8 Sheets-Sheet 3 A ril! W 193. R. N. FINLAY v INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed 0012.29, 1932 8 Sheet Sheet 4 awai April 30, 1935. R. N. FINLAY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE 8 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Oct. 29, 1932 April 13(1 1935. FINLAY 1,999,451

INTERNAL COMBUSTI ON ENGINE Filed Oct. 29, 1932 8 Sheets-Sheet 6 m w, R930 R. N. FINLAY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed Oct. 29, 1932 8 Sheets-Sheet '7 April 39, 1935. R N, HNLAY 1,999,451

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed 001:. 29, 1932 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 Patented Apr. 30, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Application October 29,

1932, Serial No. 640,226

In Great'Britain December 8, 1931 14 Ciaims.

This invention relates to internal combustion engines of the type in which reciprocatory units receive power strokes in alternately opposite 1ongitudinal directions and are adapted to impart rotary motion to a rotor through the intermediary of rollers engaging cam means provided on the rotor.

An object of the invention is to provide an improved transmission involving the use of a rotor consisting of inner and outer cam cylinders.

Another object is to provide a roller assembly so constructed and arranged as to transmit the thrust received from a. piston-and-cylinder unit as a true rolling pressure divided uniformly and stably between both cam cylinders.

Another object is to, providea support'which serves as a journal for the rotor and as a guide for crossheads carrying the roller assembly.

Another object is to ensure smooth interaction between the rollers and cams by making provision to obviate any shock due to the piston action.

An internal combustion engine according to the invention comprises a plurality of reciprocating piston units which act, through the intermediary of appropriately guided crossheads, on outer and inner co-axial drive-transmitting cams, which serve to convert the reciprocatory motion of the piston units into rotary motion and which are provided on a rotor,.the said cams being engaged on both sides by rollers on said cross-heads.

Each reciprocating unit may consist of at least one cylinder operating on the two-stroke or two or a multiple of two operating on the four-stroke cycle. I

In the preferred arrangement, the said rollers are frusto-conical, the apices of co-nicity being located on the axis of the rotor, and the surfaces of the cams thereon being inclined to conform with the conicity of the rollers. The rotor comprises outer and inner cam cylinders respectively provided with drive-transmitting cams on their internal and external surfaces; and the said cylin-. ders are borne by a stationary intermediate cylindrical frame having guides for the crossheads. The engine cam-shaft may be directly secured to the rotor, its valve-actuating cams each having one hump for each complete cycle of pistonstrokes per revolution of the rotor.

If desired, the camshaft may have cams of gradually varying size longitudinally of their axis of rotation, in which event the cam shaft is axially adjustable to vary the timing and/or lift of the valvesand also of the fuel-injecting pumps, if such be provided.

Referring to the accompanying drawings:-

Figs. 1 and 1A conjointly constitute a longitudinal sectional elevation on the line 1-1 of Fig. 2 and illustrating, by way of example, an internal combustion engine operating on the fourstroke cycle constructed according to the present invention and adapted to the use of vaporized, atomized or carburetted fuel, with high-tension electric spark ignition, and having provision for fluid cooling.

Fig. 2 is an end elevation in the direction of the arrow X, Fig. 1, the right hand half of Fig. 2 beingshown in section on the line II-II of Fig. 1.

Fig. 3 is an end elevation in thedirection of the arrow Y, Fig. 1A, the parts Illa and 111i) in Fig. 3 being shown in section on the lines IIIa--IIIa, and IIIb-IIIb respectively, Fig. 1A.

Fig. 4 is a diagram of the development of the internal surface of one of the drive-transmitting cams.

Figs. 5 and 5A conjointly constitute a longitudinal sectional elevation corresponding to Figs. 1 and 1A, but illustrating, by way of example, a modified form of internal combustion engine made according to this invention, also operating on the four-stroke cycle, but adapted to the employment of liquid fuels directly injected or sprayed into the combustion heads, with high compression ignition, and having provision for air cooling. The upper and lower parts of Fig. 5 are in section on the lines V--V, Fig. 6.

Fig. 6 is partly an end elevation in the direction of the arrow W, Fig. 5A, and partly a section on the line VI-VI, Fig. 5A.

Fig. 7 is partly an end elevation in the direction of the arrow Z, Fig. 5, the parts VIIa and VIII) being sectional parts respectively on the lines VIIa-VIIa and VIIbVIIb Fig. 5.

Fig. 8 is a fragmentary sectional view of a fuel pump and injector.

Referring to Figs. 1 to 4, the central axes of the six stationary reciprocator units are arranged, in the form of a regular hexagonal prism, equidistantly from, and parallel to, the axis of a central common valve-actuating camshaft I I.

Each reciprocator unit includes two pistons 30 interconnected by a piston tube system I which permits circulation of cooling fluid through them, and which is extended at one end to two resiliently mounted sliding crossheads 2, which carry on roller or ball bearings 3 four frusto-conical roller rings 4, the imaginary apices of conicity of which lie on the axis of the central camshaft II in order to prevent skidding, or rubbing, due to the increase of radial distance from the camshaft axis of difierent points on the surface of the rollers. These rollers 4 roll freely in contact with correspondingly bevelled and faced surfaces provided for them on two ridges or flanges 5 and i constituting drive-transmitting cams, which convert the reciprocating motion of the piston tubes I into rotary motion. The cam 5 forms an internal waved or undulating part of an external rotating cam-cylinder 6 and the cam l forms an external waved or undulating part of an internal rotating cam-cylinder 8. Each rotating camcylinder is mounted upon two ball bearings 9, and the cam-cylinder 8 has a conical extension ID to the central common valve-operating camshaft II, to which it is firmly fixed. The two concentric cam-cylinders are rigidly inter-connected by the annular end plate I2 so as to 1'0- tate as a single unitary rotor.

Between the rotating cam-cylinders is a stationary crosshead guide cylinder I3 firmly fixed at one end to the jacketing of the reciprocator units at the flanges I4 and bearing six pairs of longitudinal T flanges 36 which form the guiding walls of six slots for the six pairs of crossheads 2, and each of which has exteriorly a ridge 38a (Fig. 3) projecting from each side into each slot so as to take the radially inward thrust imparted through the conicity of the roller rings.

A spring 2a constituting a resilient buffer is interposed between each crosshead 2 and locknuts 2b or other stop on the piston tube I.

' To the other end of the cylinder I3 is firmly fixed the ball-race thrust ring I5, a gasket being interposed to ensure the watertightness of the six connecting channels I 6, which collect the cooling fluid from the six piston tubes I by means of six fixed tubes I1 upon which the piston rods I glide.

The fixed tubes I! are extended somewhat beyond the ends of the crosshead slots and are fitted with internally expanding glands I8 pressed outwardly by tubular threaded screws I9 so as to prevent leakage of the cooling fluid.

The curves employed in the form of the drivetransmitting cams 5, I are such as to allow the reciprocating parts of each reciprocator unit four strokes per revolution of the cam-cylinder, so having the properties of a two-to-one speed reduction gear as compared with the usual crank and connecting rod arrangement, and so allowing the central valve operating camshaft I I to be driven directly.

On this central valve operating camshaft, one exhaust and one inlet cam each having one lifting hump, are thus sufficient to operate the valves of a ring of six internal combustion cylinder heads; eight valve-operating cams, therefore, sufficing for the twenty-fourcombustion heads of twelve double-acting cylinders.

In cases, however, where it is desired to reduce the gear-ratio still further, cam ridge or flange curves to give ratios of four to one, six to one, eight to one and so on, may be fitted instead of the cams 5 and I shown, so as to allow respectively, eight, twelve, sixteen and so on, reciprocator strokes per revolution of the cam-cylinder, the valve-operating cams being still directly driv en but requiring two, three, four and so on lifting humps, respectively.

The eight valve-operating cams 20 act directly upon the ends of the push rods 2! which pass out radially through tubes between the reciprocator units and act through the rocker arms 22 upon the obliquely placed poppet valves 23. These poppet valves open the combustion heads through the ports 24 to the manifolds 25, the

two middle rings of combustion heads having their valves slightly staggered to allow of their stems crossing in the ports 24.

Two sparking plugs 26 are fitted to each combustion head, and their high tension cables may be led through flattened tubes 2'! to the usual distributor (not shown) to avoid contact with heated surfaces.

The twelve double-acting cylinders may conveniently be made in three castings of light alloy fixed together at the two gasketed flanged joints 28, and the cylinders may have steel or other liners 29.

I The pistons 30 may be light castings fixed on the piston tubes I and fitted with cast iron or other piston rings 3I, as shown.

The cylinder head glands 32 may each consist of a tightly wound spiral of square section phosphor bronze or cast iron coned at both ends and pressed into its coned orifice by a screw-threaded ring.

Cooling fluid is led simultaneously to the cylinder jackets andpiston tubes through fixed tubes 33. Part of the fluid passes through the piston tubes I, the pistons 30 and the fixed guide tubes [1, and reaches the connecting channels I6, whence, after passing through the tubes 34 (see Fig. 3) alongside the crosshead guide flanges 36 in the cylinder I 3, it reaches the cooling fluid outlet space 35, in flowing from which it rejoins the other part of the cooling fluid flowing from the reciprocator unit jacketing. The outflowing fluid may be led to suitable coolers or radiators.

Referring now to Figs. 5 to '7, the construction is generally similar to that of the engine described above, and the same numerals of reference indicate like parts. The following modifications, however, which were found to be necessary in practice, have been introduced in this adaptation.

Orifices 31 are formed in the end plate I2 and admit a current of air collected and propelled by the scoop-shaped blades 38 which are secured to said plate. Thence the cooling air blast passes through the coned orifices in the ball race thrust ring I5 continued through the annular forepart of the intermediate stationary cross-head guide cylinder I3 (from which the cooling fluid channels I5 and the tubular ducts 34 of the hereinbefore described engine have been omitted), thence the air, after passing through the piston tubes I and the pistons 30, passes out through the fixed tubes 33.

From the front ring of combustion heads the C001ing fluid outlet spaces have been omitted, while from the reciprocating units the jacketing has been omitted, the latter being replaced by longitudinal cooling fins as shown.

The valves 23 are placed horizontally in the cylinder heads, and are of dual function, acting both as exhaust and air inlet valves. When a valve acts as an air inlet, air is drawn through one of several openings 39 in branches of the exhaust manifold 25 against an adjacent deflector 40, which directs the air into the cylinder head by way of the respective port 24; but, when the valve acts as an exhaust, the expelled gases impinge upon a deflector II and are thereby directed into the manifold 25.

The central axial portions of the engine are kept cool by means of a forced blast of air delivered by rotating fan blades 42 which are firmly fixed to the interior of the internal cam cylinders.

The camshaft H has conoid cams and is contained in a light tube 43 in which it is free to slide longitudinally along its axis when moved by the coarse threaded screw gear t4 operated by the lever 45. This sliding motion brings different contours of the conoid cams into contact with the fuel pump tappets 46 and valve tappets 48a so that, simultaneously and equally, the stroke of all the fuel pumps 48 may be reduced gradually to zero and the pairs of dual purpose valves at the same time caused to close at or before the end of the exhaust stroke and open late on the induction stroke; or alternatively, the stroke of all the fuel pumps may be increased gradually to a predetermined maximum, the pairs of valves being kept wide open during both strokes.

The object of the former cam adjustment just described is to retain some portion of the exhaust gases in the cylinder heads when the fuel pump stroke has been reduced and thespeed of the engine is consequently low, this helping to eliminate the great excess of air, and to maintain the temperature of the cylinder heads so that the firing may be regular at such speeds.

For greater compactness, flat strip springs H are employed to return the valves 23 to their seats. I

It will be understood that although it is considered that the advantages of this invention will be greatest when it is employed for aircraft purposes, an engine constructed according to this present invention is not limited to such use.

The drive-transmitting cams 5, l have been described and illustrated as being of wave or undulating formation, but it will be obvious that they may be of elliptical formation.

I claim:-

1, In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams comprising on said outer cylinder an internally projecting waved ridge or flange and on said inner cylinder an outwardly projecting waved ridge or flange, an assembly of rollers provided on said unit and located in said housing space, said rollers engaging opposite faces of said cams, and stationary guide means for said roller assembly, said guide means extending longitudinally through said housing space.

2. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external drivetransmitting double cams comprising on said outer cylinder an internally projecting waved ridge or flange and on said inn-er cylinder an outwardly projecting waved ridge or flange, an assembly of rollers on said unit, said rollers engaging said cams at opposite faces thereof, a stationary frame supporting said rotor and extending through said housing space, and means on said frame for guiding said roller assembly.

3. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drivetransmitting cams comprising on said outer cylinder an internally projecting waved ridge or flange and on said inner cylinder an outwardly projecting waved ridge or flange, an assembly of rollers mounted on crossheads slidably connected to spring buffers acting on said cross-heads to force the rollers in opposite directions against the respective cams, and stationary guide means for said crossheads, said guide means extending longitudinally through said housing space.

4. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external drivetransmitting cams comprising on said outer cylinder an internally projecting waved ridge or flange and on said inner cylinder an outwardly projecting waved ridge or flange, an assembly of rollers mounted on crossheads slidably connected to said unit, spring buffers acting on said crossheads to force the rollers against the respective cams, and a stationary frame supporting said rotor and extending through said housing space, and means on said frame for guiding said crossheads.

5. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double-faced drive-transmitting cams comprising on said outer cylinder an internally projecting waved ridge or flange and on said inner cylinder an outwardly projecting waved ridge or flange, an assembly of four rollers provided on said unit and located in said housing space, said rollers engaging the faces of said cams, there being one roller to each cam-face, and stationary guide means for said roller assembly, saidguide means extending longitudinally through said housing space.

6. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external doublefaoed drive-transmitting cams comprising on said outer cylinder an internally projecting waved ridge or flange and on said inner cylinder an outwardly projecting waved ridge or flange, an assembly of four rollers mounted on crossheads slidably connected to spring buflers acting on said crossheads to force the rollers in opposite directions against the faces of the respective cams, there being one roller against each face, and stationary guide means for said crossheads, said guide means extending longitudinally through said housing space.

'7. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on said inner cylinder respectively, an assembly of rollers provided on said unit and located in said housing space, said assembly comprising two pairs of rollers arranged two at each side of the central longitudinal axis of the unit so as collectively to co-act with the cams at opposite faces thereof, and stationary guide means for said roller assembly, said guide means extending longitudinally through said housing space.

8. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on each inner cylinder respectively, an assembly of coned rollers provided on said unit and located in said housing space, said rollers being arranged collectively to engage opposite faces of both cams and being arranged with their apices of conicity approximately on the rotor axis, and stationary guide means for said roller assembly, said guide means extending longitudinally through said housing space.

9. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on said inner cylinder respectively, crosshead means on said unit, said crosshead means being located in said housing space, an assembly of rollers provided on said crosshead means at opposite sides thereof, said rollers being arranged collectively to engage opposite faces of said cams, and a stationary rotor-support extending centrally of the roller assembly and between the cams and providing a guide means for the crosshead means.

10. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on said inner cylinder respectively, an assembly of coned rollers provided on said unit and located in said housing space, said assembly comprising two pairs of coned rollers arranged two at each side of the central longitudinal axis of the unit so as collectively to co-act with the cams at opposite faces thereof and said rollers having their apices of conicity approximately on the rotor axis, and stationary guide means for said roller assembly, said guide means extending longitudinally through said housing space.

11. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power'strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a pair of crossheads slidably mounted on said unit, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on said inner cylinder respectively, an assembly of rollers provided on said unit and located in said housing space, said assembly comprising two pairs of rollers arranged two at each side of the central longitudinal axis of the unit so as collectively to co-act with the cams at opposite faces thereof, stationary guide means for said roller assembly, said guide means extending longitudinally through said housing space, and

springs acting upon said crossheads to pressthe pairs of rollers into cushioned engagement, with the cam faces.

12. In an internal combustion engine including a unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a pair of crossheads slidably mounted on said unit, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on said inner cylinder respectively, an assembly of coned rollers provided on said unit and located in said housing space, said assembly comprising two pairs of coned rollers arranged two at each side of the central longitudinal axis of the unit so as collectively to co-act with the cams at opposite faces thereof and said rollers having their apices of conicity approximately on the rotor axis, stationary guide means for said roller assembly, said guide means extending longitudi nally through said housing space, and springs acting upon said crossheads to press the pairs of rollers into cushioned engagement with the cam faces.

13. In an internal combustion engine including a piston unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on said inner cylinder respectively, an assembly of piston-thrust-transmitting coned rollers provided in alternatively operative pairs on said unit and located in said housing space, the rollers of each pair being arranged at opposite sides of the piston unit axis of movement to engage the adjacent faces of the respective cams, and said rollers all having their apices of conicity approximately on the rotor axis, a stationary frame whereon the rotor is journalled, said frame extending through said housing space, and guides for the rollers on said frame extending in the line of piston-thrust centrally of the roller assembly.

14. In an internal combustion engine including a piston unit adapted to receive power strokes in opposite longitudinal directions, a pair of crossheads slidably mounted on said unit, a rotor whose axis is longitudinal, said rotor comprising outer and inner cylinders providing between-them an annular housing space, internal and external double drive-transmitting cams on said outer cylinder and on said inner cylinder respectively, an assembly of piston-thrust-transmitting coned rollers provided in alternatively opposite pairs on the respective crossheads and located in said housing space, the rollers of each pair being arranged at opposite sides of the piston unit axis of movement to engage the adjacent faces of the respective cams, and said rollers all having their apices of conicity approximately on the rotor axis, a stationary frame whereon the rotor is journalled, said frame extending through said housing space, guides for the rollers on said frame extending in the line' of piston-thrust centrally of the roller assembly, and springs acting upon said crossheads to press the pairs of rollers into cushioned engagement with the cam faces.

ROBERT NOEL FINLAY.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5950580 *Mar 27, 1998Sep 14, 1999Birckbichler Engine Research, Inc.Reciprocating engine with crankplate
Classifications
U.S. Classification74/56, 123/56.2
International ClassificationF01B3/00, F02B75/26, F02B75/02, F02B75/00, F01B3/04
Cooperative ClassificationF02B75/26, F02B2075/025, F01B3/04
European ClassificationF01B3/04