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Publication numberUS2000403 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 7, 1935
Filing dateJul 1, 1927
Priority dateApr 7, 1927
Also published asUS1853443
Publication numberUS 2000403 A, US 2000403A, US-A-2000403, US2000403 A, US2000403A
InventorsMichael Maul
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of and means for analyzing record cards
US 2000403 A
Images(8)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

vMay 7, 1935. M. MAUL 2,000,403

METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR ANALYZING RECORD CARDS Filed July 1, 1927 8 Sheets-Sheet 1 May 7, 1935. M. MAUL 2,000,403

METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR ANALYZING RECORD CARDS Filed July 1, 1927 8 Sheets-Sheet 2 y 1 M. MAUL 2,000,403

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METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR ANALYZING RECORD CARDS Filed July 1, 1927 a Sheets-Sheet 5 May 7, 1935.

M. MAUL 2,000,403

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g o :2 Q A foiaoiowsoma'oaoiao gnvenfoz May 7, 1935. M, MAUL METHOD OF'AND MEANS FOR ANALYZING RECORD CARDS Filed July 1, 1927 8 Sheets-Sheet 7 WORNEY May 7, 1935.

M. MAUL METHOD OF AND MEANS FOR ANALYZING RECORD CARDS Filed July 1, 1927 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 V Snoeutoz Patented May 7, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE DIETHOD OF AND MEANS FOR ANALYZING RECORD CARDS poration of New York Application July 1, 1927, Serial No. zoasos In Germany April I, 1927 7 Claim.

This invention relates to accounting or tabulating machines which are controlled by tabuiator record cards or sheets for effecting the sorting of the records into groups, the accumulating of the items on the records, the listing of the items, the printing of the totals of the items, or other related accounting operations. The control of the operations of accounting or tabulating machines has, previous to this invention, been eifected by means of index points in the form of perforations. The perforations were positioned variously in a record field according to the data interpreted. It was also necessary to represent a character, in most known code systems by a plurality of perforations, arranged in separate adjacent columns, thus resulting in increasing the minimum width of a record sheet. The employment of a code, required a skilled operator to read and transpose from the written data into variously positioned perforations on the record. The transposition of the written data to the record required a special punching operation. The index points in the form of perforations were sensed by an analyzing means, usually a pair of contacts which were made through the perforations. The analyzing means then set up the sorting accumulating or printing mechanisms in accordance with the analysis.

The object of this invention is to control the accounting of tabulating machines by index points on the records other than in the form of perforations for example, by means of printed characters. The invention includes the provision of an analyzing device which may be controlled by the form of the index point, its shape, size, or other physical characteristics. The analyzing mechanism may operate by means of radiant energy, regulated by the index point or character on the record. The radiant energy may take the form of light for energizing sensitive cells. The object of this invention is, further, to analyze the index points or characters by means out of contact with the record during analysis. It is also an object of this invention to cause differential operation of the accounting mechanisms not by means of variously positioning the index points in the record field but by varying the form of the index points. The latter may be located in the same position onthe record to diiferentially control the operation of the accounting mechanisms, its position in the record field being immaterial. The analyzing means, according to this invention, sets up circuits, varied acneath each character of its resulting representam tion in a four point code.

Fig.2 shows the code points in a standard field.

Fig. 3 is a table showing the combination of points corresponding to each character. v

Fig. 4 shows the optical analyzing device.

Fig. 5 is a top view of the photocells unit of the device shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. '6 is a schematic showing of a sorting machine using the optical analyzing device.

Fig. 7 shows the optical analyzer applied to a tabulating machine.

Fig. 8 is a detail of Fig. 7 showing the parts when digit 4 is under the analyzing light.

Fig. 9 is a detail of Fig. '7.

Fig. 10 is a modification of the device shown in Figv '1.

Fig. 11 shows an alternate system of causing variations in the analyzing light by the form of the printed characters.

Fig. 12 is a graph showing the proportion of the field covered by each character and the resulting current.

Fig. 13 is a schematic showing of a form of sorter used with the characters of Fig. 11.

Fig. 14 is a detail -of the analyzers used in Fig. 13.

Fig. 15 is a detail of Fi 13.

Fig. 16 is a schematic showing of a tabuiator for records using the character system of Fig. 11.

Referring to Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the record card or sheet has a number of equal portions or fields 20a, in each of which is printed, in accordance with the statistics to be tabulated, one of the digits 0-9 in heavy black type. If four imaginary points be arranged in each field as 'A, B, C, and D, (see Fig. 2) then each digit when printed in the field will cover one or more of the points, depending on the contour of the digit. For example, character 0 will cover points A and D, leaving B and C exposed (as shown by the unprinted field below the printed digits where the black points are those covered and the white points those exposed); digit i will cover points B and C, leaving A and D uncovered; digit 2 will cover points A and C, leaving B and D uncovered; etc. Each digit will cover and uncover a diiferent c mbination of points thus providing a different code for each character as tabulated in Fig. 3. Now

if a single record field 20 be exposed as in Fig. 4 to a beam of light, hereinafter termed the analyzing beam, directed at an angle from the source 2| through a lens 22, the rays of light will be refiected by the exposed or white surfaces of the record field and be absorbed by the black surfaces or digit printed on the field. The reflected rays will pass through a lens 22 which will direct them on a transparent plate 24 such as plate glass, thus reproducing on said plate an image of the record field. Below the plate, in a frame 25 are arranged four light sensitive cells 25, such as potassium cells, in the same order and position relative to the reflected field 21 as imaginary points A, B, C and D in the actual record field. Since the reflected field is dark in portions corresponding to the character on the actual record field, those cells which are directly under the dark portions will not be energized as represented by the black points of Fig. i. For example, if digit 0 be reflected on field 21, cells 22A and 28D will not be energized while cells 268 and 22C will be exposed to the beam of reflected light and be energized. It is, of course, understood that the form of the digit may be varied, that the number of cells may also be varied both in number and arrangement or either; that, instead of digits, letters or other characters may be used; and that in each case, the printed character may be so shaped as to cover a different combination of basic points, thus giving a distinctive characteristic to each character.

One adaptation of this method of energizing light sensitive cells in combinations selected by a printed digit on a record card or sheet is in connection with a record sorting machine shown in Fig. 6. The picker blade 22, of any well known type, feeds one record card at a time from a magazine 25 to an analyzing station 22 where one field of the card is held exposed to the analyzing beam which reflects the digit occurring on the field onto the plate 24, resulting in energizing the cells in frame 25 according to the code of Fig. 3. When the reflected light strikes the photo cell, a current is produced in the cell which is amplified in a well known manner by amplifying unit 2i connected to each cell consisting preferably of vacuum tubes. The amplified current from each cell energizes a magnet 22 to cause it to attract its armature 22 which, by a connecting link 24, swings one of the deflectors 25 of the sorter to open position. To time the action of the magnets, a cam 24 moving in synchronism with the picker 2| closes contacts 21 at the proper time to complete the circuit from the photo cells through the magnets. Until the card has reached its proper pocket 22, the deflectors are held open by a detent 29 rigid with an armature 42, thus holding each armature 22 in its actuated position. At the end of the machine cycle, the circuit through all the magnets 4| is completed by a cam 42 closing contacts 42, thereby attracting armatures 40 causing the detents 22 to release the armatures 22 which return to their normal position. It will be understood that the combination of defiectors opened depends on the combination of energized cells, which in turn is selected by the digit on the field which is being then analyzed.

The adaptation of the invention to one form of a tabulating machine is shown in Figs. 7, 8 and 9. As is usual in tabulating machines, for each record column, or in this case record field,

there is provided an individual analyzing, accumulating and printing means. For the purpose of simplifying the explanation, only one such unit is illustrated and described. Thus Fig. 7 shows the mechanism operating to analyze, accumulate and print in accordance with the digit contained in one standard record field 20. The analyzing beam energizes cells 26 in accordance with the character code hitherto explained and the resulting current is amplified by units 2| to energize translating magnets 22, at a period in the cycle determined by cam 36 closing contacts 31, as in the previous machine. In this case, the magnets 22 serve to control the differential mechanism which actuates the accumulator and printer in accordance with the analyzed digit. Magnets 22, upon energization thereof in accordance with the code, attract armatures 44 linked with contact fingers 45 by means of rods 46. After actuation, the armatures are retained in position by detents 41 which are moved to release the armatures at the end of the cycle, by a bar 42 having lugs 49 contacting the detents. Bar 44 is actuated by armature 50 attracted by magnet 5l when contacts 52 are closed at the end of the cycle by a cam 52. A commutator 54 is provided with ten conducting segments 55, corresponding in succession to the digits II to 9. R0- tating in synchronism with the movement of type bar 55 is a pair of diametrically opposed brushes 51, 51'. In the rotation of the brushes, contact will first be made with the segment corresponding to digit 0 then with the segment corresponding to digit I, etc. Fig. 8 illustrates the position of the contact fingers 45 when digit 4 is analyzed. The code for digit 4 (see Fig. 3) results in energizing cells 25A and 26B, causing magnet MA to move the contact finger 45A to close contacts 52A and magnet 2 IE to close contacts 588. When the brush 51 reaches the commutator segment 55 corresponding to digit 4, a circuit is completed from power source line through cam closed contacts I, contacts 52A, 58B, the fifth commutator segment 55, the brush 51, brush 51', line 52, magnet 63 and back to the other line 24 of the power source. This circuit results in energizing magnet 42 causing it to attract its armature 65 as more fully shown in Patent 1,780,685 to release a toothed detent member 66 for engagement with a toothed portion 51 of type bar 58 moving in synchronism with the rotation of the commutator brush 51. When stopped by the toothed member, the type bar has a type lug 55 (Fig. 9) corresponding to digit 4 in printing position. At the beginning of the rising movement of the type bar, an accumulator wheel 10 is demeshed from a rack 11 on the type bar in a manner fully shown in said Patent No. 1,780,685. Upon descent of the type bar after printing, the wheel is thrown into mesh with rack 1| to cause it to rotate four steps. For a more complete and detailed explanation of the aforesaid accumulating and printing mechanism shown in Fig. 9, reference may be had to said Patent No. 1,780,685, dated November 4, 1930 and assigned to the assignee of the instant case.

In Fig. 10 is shown a modified form of tabulator control which differs from the previous form in that the control magnets connected to the light responsive cells are dispensed with. In this form r a constantly rotating semi-conductor, such as an agate roll 12 for example, having a high contact resistance, as is well known, is associated with a plurality of metal strips 12 one end of each of which is connected to a spring 14 to hold the strip'in sliding engagement with thevroll 12. The tension of the spring is such that the iriction between the roll and strip is not sumcient to cause movement the strip in response to the rotation of the roll. In other words, the roll normally rotates freely without affecting the strip. Each strip is connected to one terminal 01. one of the light responsive cells 29 and the roll is connected to one terminal of a power source S the other terminal of which is connected to the tree terminals of the cells. A pair of cam-controlled contacts 15 is provided in series with the power source to prevent energization of the circuits except at such times as the records are in analyzing position,.as is usual in these machines. When any of the cells 29 are energized in response to light rays, circuits are established extending from the roll through the cells in question to the strips connected therewith and the resulting condenser action between the roll and strips causes an electrostatic attraction between them, whereupon the strips are held firmly to the roll and move with it. The movement of a strip shifts the associated switch member or members 49 in accordance with the particular digit on the controlling record field to differentially interruptthe upward movement of the corresponding type bar, as in the previous modification, shown in Fig. 7. The relay l2, 13 being operated by a very low current, there is a possibility that even a photo cell in the dark portion of the field may have sumcient minimum current to actuate the relay. To counterbalance the Iorce of this minimum current, springs 19 are provided to hold down the links actuating the switches 45.

In Fig. 11 is shown a system of printing characters on a standard field 29a which does away with the necessity oi analyzing the field at predetermined basic points. The characters are differentiated from each other by varying their relative sizes, each character covering a diflerent percentage 0 of a. standard field. It characters 0-9 for example be printed on the fields 2911, they may be varied in area according to the percentages marked in Fig. 11. If the analyzing beam of light be directed with uniform intensity at all portionsof the field, the quantity of light reflected toward the photo cell unit will be varied according to the area of the field covered by the character. In this system, only one photo cell is required for each analyzing mechanism, which cell will have a current produced therein varying with the quantity of light reflected and consequently with the size oi the character. Each character thus produces a different current in the photo cell as illustrated by the dotted line in Fig. 12 which also shows the graph of the area covered by the characters of Fig. 11, the intensity of the current varying inversely as the area of the character which constitutes the black portion of the field.

In Fig. 13 is shown an adaptation of this system to a sorter for record cards. The rotating picker device 11 feeds one card at a time from magazine 19 to a series of feed rollers 19 which conduct the card beneath a series of photo cells 89, one for each sorting pocket 9|. The card field is illumined diagonally at each sorting station by an individual light source 92 (Fig. 14). The rays of light reflected from the field are concentrated by means of a converging lens 93 on the transparent plate 84 above which is the photo cell 99. The current in the photo cell energizes a magnet 95 corresponding thereto to attract its armature 86 and raises deflector 91 to intercept the advancing card. causing it to drop into the pocket ll.

As in Fig. 16, the magnet coil 95 for each pocket has a different number of ampere turns, the minimum number of turns being on the magnet in the reject pocket, taking care -o1 blank fields, the next higher number of turns on the magnet in the 9 pocket and the greatest number of turns on the magnet in the 9 pocket. In Fig. 13 the 9 pocket is omitted for lack of space. The card passes successively through the reject sorting station the l sorting station, the I sorting station, the 2 sorting station, etc., in the order indicated. It is known that the magnetic attraction of a coil varies directly as the number of ampere turns. If, for example, digit is on the card field, it will pass successively under the analyzing cells for the reject 9, I, 2, 3 and 4 pockets. The current produced in any of these cells energizes the magnets for these pockets but the magnetic field set up by the coils of these magnets is insuilicient to attract their armatures. When the card reaches the l analyzing cell, the number of ampere turns of the magnet in the 5 pocket is suificient to attract the 5 armature and hence guide the card into the 5 pocket. To hold the'armature in position till the end of the cycle, after actuation, a detent 99 is provided, behind which the armature 86 snaps as soon as it is attracted. At the end 01' the cycle, a magnet 89 under control of cam 99 closing contacts 9|, actuates detent I! to release the armature 96. The current through the cells, and the magnets is completed when the cards are in their proper position in front of the photo-cells, by means of contacts closed by cam 92.

In Fig. 16 is shown a tabulating machine built for the system of character differentiation illus-' trated in Fig. 11. The analyzing device used in this machine contains only one photo electric cell which is controlled by the analyzing light from a source 2|. The light passes through lens 22 and falls upon the field 290. having the character printed thereon, the image of the card field being concentrated onto the transparent plate 93, behind which is the photo cell 94 energized in proportion to the quantity of light cast on the plate. The photo cell current is then amplified by the amplifier unit 95 and fiows through 10 magnet coils 95 in series, each magnet coil having a different number of turns, graduated to correspond to the size of the black portion of the character field. Upon passage of a card field 'through the analyzing beam, a current is produced in the photo cell which varies in intensity inversely as the black area of the character, the strongest current thus produced being for digit 9 and the smallest for digit 9 (see the graph, Fig. 12). For each current flow through the series of magnet coils, that coil which corresponds to the digit in the illuminated position and those coils corresponding to the digits larger than the one in said position, will be sufilciently energized to attract their armatures 96'. Thus upon the passage of digit ll through the illuminating field, the maximum intensity of current will be produced which is sufilcient to energize all the magnet coils to attract their armatures. Upon the passage of a 4 digit, the current produced is not sumcient to make efiective the magnets corresponding to digits 0, I, 2 and 9, but does make effective magnets corresponding to 4 to 9, inclusive. The attraction of an armature 99' results in its actuating one of a series of detent bars 91-9 to 91-9 inclusive to engage a toothed segment 99, moving with which is the series o! type lugs II. An accumulator wheel III is rotated by the teeth III 01' the segment II. Upon thepsssageolsldigitasexplainedallthe armatures will be actuated; consequently all the detents II will be actuated and, as a result, oscillatlon of the segment is completely prevented, a lug III being engaged by the detent I'l-I corresponding to the I. When a digit higher than I is analysed, the segment will oscillate until lug III contacts the detent corresponding to the analyzed digit, which is the ilrst of all the raised detents. By means not necessary to an understanding of this invention, the hammer III is actuated to strike the type lugs II, when the segment comes to rest, and print on the paper III. The segment is provided with means (not shown) to cause it to move as soon as the detent bars U have been actuated, and the accumulator wheel is disengaged (by means not shown) from the drive of the teeth III upon the return stroke of the segment. It is, of course, understood that as many mechanisms, like that shown in Fig. 16 are provided, as there are columns on the record card or sheet.

It is apparent that in the above described machines, means are provided to prevent light not reflected by the card ileld irom reaching the photo cells.

It is understood that the invention may be carried out in a great number of ways and by a variety of means.

The record card per se terms the subject matter oi my copending application, Serial No. 202,806, filed July 1, 1927.

What is claimed is:

1. An device for controlling statistical mechanism from records bearing character designations, said device comprising a single light sensitive element, means including a source of light for examining a character designating held on the records and cooperating with the records to subject the single light sensitive element to diii'erent amounts of light according to designations of diiierent characters on the record held, and selective means controlled by the light sensitive element according to the different amounts of light to which it is subjected.

2. An analyzing device for controlling statistical mechanism from records bearing visually readable characters, each distinct character covering a diiierent proportion of a delimited area. comprising a single light sensitive element, means including a source or light for examining the delimited character baring area on the records and cooperating with the delimited area on the records to subject the single light sensitive element to diiierent amounts of light according to the proportion of the area covered by the characters represented thereon, and selective means controlled by the light sensitive element according to the diflerent amounts oi light to which it is subjected.

3. In an accounting machine having a plurality o! movable elements adapted to be ditierentially set, a plurality oi electromagnets adapted to control the setting of said elements, said magnets being connected in series. and a light sensitive device associated with said magnets ior controlling the energization thereof.

4. The invention set forth in claim 3 in which the diiierent magnets are designed to be operated by diiterent amounts of current.

5. In an accounting machine having a plurality of movable elements adapted to be diflerentially set, a plurality of electromagnets connected in series for controlling the setting of said elements, the different magnets being designed to be operated by diiierent amounts of current, a light sensitive device associated with said magnets for controlling the amount oi! current flowing there through, and a record having characters thereon for controlling the amount or light falling upon said device, said characters being of progressively different total areas in accordance with their values.

6. A process for carrying out calculating and like operations characterized by exploring a record by means of light rays and causing said rays to influence photo-sensitive means upon the record being of predetermined character, and causing such means to control operations of calculating mechanisms.

'7. A process for carrying out statistical and like operations characterized by exploring a record bearing statistical indications by means of light and causing the light to radiate as means ior selecting certain records.

- MICHAEL MAUL.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2429891 *Aug 7, 1944Oct 28, 1947Jack & Heintz Prec Ind IncElectrically responsive gaging mechanism for assorting bearing balls
US2571870 *Aug 9, 1946Oct 16, 1951Stanley A HayesEductor nozzle
US2600817 *Dec 10, 1945Jun 17, 1952Victoreen Instr CompanyMethod and apparatus for photoelectrically assorting, recording, or computing
US2704634 *Jul 2, 1949Mar 22, 1955 Rauch
US2723308 *Mar 19, 1953Nov 8, 1955Bell Telephone Labor IncAutomatic transcribing system
US2821302 *Apr 29, 1954Jan 28, 1958Fowler Gerald IBottle sorter
US2921300 *Nov 8, 1954Jan 12, 1960Cummins Chicago CorpElectronic selector
US2950049 *Nov 9, 1955Aug 23, 1960Ncr CoMethod of controlling apparatus from marks on record material
US3033448 *Oct 20, 1958May 8, 1962Cummins Chicago CorpAutomatic character reading apparatus
US3065850 *Aug 29, 1958Nov 27, 1962Billie B NixonAutomatic mail facing and sorting machine
US3108694 *Sep 14, 1959Oct 29, 1963Gen ElectricSystem for collating documents in response to indicia apparing thereon
US3144926 *May 17, 1961Aug 18, 1964Abraham EdelmanInstallation for selectively dispatching articles
US3152256 *Nov 21, 1958Oct 6, 1964Gen Atronics CorpPhotosensitive code identifying means and method
US3284772 *Nov 22, 1961Nov 8, 1966Space General CorpData correlation apparatus employing cathode-ray tube input and variable resistance data storage and comparison
US3675203 *Apr 9, 1969Jul 4, 1972Baumann Dwight M BAutomatic pattern recognition with weighted area scanning
US3806707 *Apr 17, 1972Apr 23, 1974Day ACredit card terminal
US3938186 *Dec 13, 1974Feb 10, 1976U.S. Philips CorporationApparatus for converting visually legible numerical characters into a binary code
US5128528 *Oct 15, 1990Jul 7, 1992Dittler Brothers, Inc.Matrix encoding devices and methods
US5283641 *Jun 16, 1993Feb 1, 1994Lemelson Jerome HFor automatically inspecting three-dimensional objects
US5351078 *Sep 16, 1993Sep 27, 1994Lemelson Medical, Education & Research Foundation Limited PartnershipApparatus and methods for automated observation of objects
DE924485C *Jun 1, 1939Mar 3, 1955Ibm DeutschlandVerfahren und Einrichtung zur Auswertung von Schriftzeichen (Buchstaben und Ziffern) mit Hilfe der lichtelektrischen Ablesung
Classifications
U.S. Classification235/454, 178/17.00D, 235/494, 209/583, 209/655, 235/456, 382/182
International ClassificationG06K9/18
Cooperative ClassificationG06K9/18
European ClassificationG06K9/18