US 2000499 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. J. ROLAND May 7, 1935.
CONVEYER Filed Aug. 8, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented May 7, 1935 PATENT OFFICE CONVEYER Robert John'Rolami,` Cincinnati, Ohio, assignor. to The Alvey-Ferguson Company, Oakley, Cincinnati, Ohio, a corporation kof Ohio Y Application August 8^, v1932 Serial No. 627,965
' 15 claims-. (o1. 19a-189) This application is a continuation in part of my application filed in the U. S. Patent Oice'July 2, 1930 and numbered, serially, 465,428.
This invention relates, in part, to certainim.-
:: provements in carrier chains of the roofV top type which; have been vemployed for many years as y load-supporting elements in the transfer of lum-A ber, packages, barrels, etc. along horizontal paths.
Chains of the type referred to are character pivotally. VIncertain instances each link in-V cludes a tongue-like projection from one end of its body and 'spaced side elements projecting from the opposite end of its body, said projection and side elements being relatively so arranged, when the links are in assembled relation, that the tongue-like projection from one link enters the space'between the side elements. at the end of the adjacent link and is rotatably mounted on a pivot pin which extends through said side elementsv and through said tongue-like projections.
In practice, thesey carrier chains traverse guide channels. Their lower surfaces engage the floor of thel guidechannels and their upperV surfaces protrude from said channels and, having beveled edges, permit the articles Which'are to be conveyed to be introduced upon the roof of the chain from either side of the latter. Itv may also be 35 mentioned that it is old in this type of carrier chain to curve the mating ends of the adjacent links in order to eliminate any obstruction to the relative pivotal movement of said links.V One example of a carrier chain having the foregoing characteristics is found in U. S. Patent No. 268,883 issued to George Gowan Dec. 12, 1882.
Various manufacturers have for a great many years featured chains of the type referred to., in either the identical form shown in the GoWan 45 patent or in a form which, in respect of the shape of the top or roof, is not greatly different therefrom.
One of the main features of novelty in the instant invention resides in the particularl manner 5U or means by which adjacent'links are pivotally connected with each other: the principal purpose of the present improvement in respect of the pivotal connection between the, links being to provide a construction of pivot pin and holes in 55. which the pivot pin is mounted which will enable the links to be assembled into a chain in a minimum space of time and in which each pin will bey automatically locked against displacement in all positions which the chain may assume in oper-f ation. 6
Each link forming part of the present invention, instead of having its surface adjacent the sprocket formed with a single opening, to receive the teethu of the sprocket wheel around which it travels in operation, has its body portion formed on opposite sides with ak pair of such openings separated fromv each other by a longitudinal Web: and the sprocket wheel has its rim formed With a series of successively arranged plane surfaces which join each Y other at an angle-and are eachl formed midway of its length with two' teeth whose opposite edges Y are spaced from the endsV of the plane surfaces from which they Projectv and Whose outer surfaces respectively arefarranged substantially in' the planes of the outery surfaces of the bodyof thel sprocket Wheel and whose `inner surfaces are spaced from each other. .The surface of each link for engagement with the sprocket wheel is sub. stantially fiat and each-plane surface of said sprocket'wheel isV ofthe same length as that of the said substantially flat surface of each link. In the operation of the carrier the pivots which connect successive links with each other permit the chainsV to bend at the ends of said plane surfaces of the sprocket wheel, and said links inpassing around the sprocket Vwheel have their said substantially fiat surfaces in engagement with said plane surfaces throughout their entire areas, and the Webs which separate the teeth openings in the` sides of the links travel in the space be- 35 tween the .confronting surfaces of the pairs of teeth and co-act with said teeth in holding the links against relative lateral displacement.
It is important, particularly in certain installations in which rules of sanitation must be rigidly regarded, to frequently cleanse the chains and the sprocket wheels with water, steam, or other appropriate fluid under pressure, and it is always of advantage in all installations to keep the chain asY free as possible from dirt, grit, ice, or other foreign'substances. In this connection it will be noticed that the outer sides of the sprocket teeth are exposed at the sides of the links, Whichconduces tothe easy and thorough cleansing of the openings, and that the teeth are so shaped and proportioned with respect to the' openings in Whichthey are received that they will exercise a clearing tendency on the seats, in addition to their function in driving and guiding the chain.
Having thusA in a general Way set forth impor 5 tant features of this invention, I will now proceed to describe the particular embodiment illustrated in the accompanying drawings, wherein like characters or reference denote corresponding parts in the several figures. kIn said drawings:-
Fig. 1 is a detail side elevation of one end of an endless carrier chain and its correlated sprocket constructed in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical section on the line 2.-2 of Fig. l;
Fig. 3 is a detail view, partly in plan and partly in section, of a part of the chain;
Fig. 4 is a detail vertical sectional View on the I irregular' line 4 4 of Fig. 3, showing the ends of the chain links in the positions they occupy when they have been assembled oneiwith the other;
Fig. 5 is a view of the same parts showin in Fig. 4, but shows the ends of two adjacent links in the positions they occupy while they are being connected with or disconnected from each other; Y- Fig. 6 isA a sectional view'of the parts shown in Fig. 5 in the positions they are seen in the latter iigure, the line of section being 'indicated at 6--6 in Fig. 7;
Fig. 7 is a side elevation of two adjacent links showing, in full lines, their relative positions when in working relationship with each other and in dot-and-dash outline one of the links turned up to a position it occupies relatively to its mate when the pivot pin is being inserted or removed;
Figs. 8 and 9 are views of one of the pivot pins; Fig. 8 being a side view of the same and Fig. 9 a View at right angles to Fig;r 8;
Fig. 10 is a vertical section'through any one of the links of the chain, on a line represented by the line Ill-I0 of Fig. 7; Fig. 11 is an elevation of a part of a conveyer provided with the correlated sprocket and chain forming this invention;
Fig. 12 is a View of the receiving end ofthe conveyer and shows two chains which conjointly support the article being carried; and
Fig. 13 is a view to show a curve in the conveyer around which the chains are adapted to travel.
The carrier chain illustrated in the accompanying drawings is composed of a series of links each comprising a body A, a longitudinal tonguev A projecting from'one end of the body and longitudinal spaced side members A2 projecting'from the other end of said body.
The surface of the body A of each link which is to engage the rimof the sprocket wheel is regarded as being Ythe bottom and the opposite surface is regarded as being the top, of the link, for purposes of description. Said bottom is substantially flat, as` hereinbefore stated and said body A is formed with a closed top having a central ridge I from which the tongue VA projects and with beveled sides 2 which respectively extend from the outer'longitudinal edges of the ridge I to the side walls 3 of the body. Upon reference to Fig. 3 it will be noticed that the top of the body is free from any curved lines; the upper surface of ythe longitudinal ridge I being perfectly at and having definite breadth and the beveled sides2 beingformed of straight lines which slant downward and outwardfrom the longitudinal edgesrof 'the ridge I to the upper edges of the sides of the body.. Said sides 3 the body are formed wth'laterally open recesses which extend through the bottom of the body but terminate short of the top ofv said body. The recess at one side of the body is separated from the recess in the other side of the body by a web 5. The tongue A substantially forms a continuation of the ridge I and, like said ridge, has a flat upper surface. Said tongue cooperates with the ridge I in supporting the load carried by the chain. The projections A2 from the body A substantially form continuations of the beveled sides 2 of the top of the body and their upper surfaces are correspondingly beveled.
The vertical forward face of the body of each link has its surfaces 6 at opposite sides of the tongue A and in the longitudinal line of the spaced projections A2, formed plane from the top of said body to the bottom of the same-that is, said surfaces are not substantially rounded or curved at the top of the body since the construction of the top makes it unnecessary to round oif the 'upper ends of the surfaces 6 to avoid interference with the load carried by the chain.
It will be understood that in a chain composed of a series. of these links the tongue A' of each link will Vextend into lthe space between the projections A2 of the adjacent link andvthat the linksare connected with eachother by pivot pins which extend through' openings provided in said projections and in saidtongues,V as is usual in chains whose links have tongues and spaced projections at their opposite ends. One of the important features` of the instant invention, presently to be described in detail, resides in the construction of the pivot pins and the shapes 'of the holes in the tongues and projections formed to receive said pivot pins.
Before describing the new features of the chain, I wish to state that although the ridge I of the roof top link shown in the accompanying drawings is somewhat broader than the corresponding part of the Gov/an patent hereinbefore referred to and, accordingly, is better adapted to carry loads of various kinds, no claim of patentable novelty is based on the proportional width of the flat ridge and bevels 2, since this part of the link is not substantially different from the shape of thetops of said links forming parts of carrier chains of the lumber transferring type which fora great many years have been old and well known in the conveyer art and my knowl edge of which was utilized by me in designing the shape and proportions of the lreferred to parts `of the roof of the link shown in the accompanying drawings.. I may also state that no novelty is claimed for the utilization of a tongue at-one end of the link and spaced side members at the other end of the link to receive a pivot pin connecting the links with each other, 'since these parts are very old and well known in the art. In short, the particular shape of the top of each link and the formation of each link with a tongue extending from one of its ends and with spaced projections at its opposite ends, and theconnection of the links with each other by pivot pins extending through said projections and tongue are all old and well known in the conveyer art and, indeed, are now public property.
The tongues A of the several links included in a chain are formed with pivot receiving holes 'I and the side. projections A2 are formed with pivot receiving holes 8, as usual, but according to this invention, these holes 'I and 8 are of an approved non-circularform, each having a minor and a major axis and are relatively so positioned in each link that .the major axis of the hole 'I will be perpendicular to the major axes of the holes 8. As shown in the accompanying drawings, veach hole 'If and 8 is elliptical (but'equivalently maybe oval,-if so desired) and the major axis of the hole I in each link is in the directionV of' the length of the tongue A' while thev major axes of the holes 8 inl the side members A2 of each link extend inthe direction of the height of said side members.
The pivot pins which extend through theholes 'I and 8 in the several links and thereby connect the links to each other are marked A3. Each of these pins is formed at its opposite ends with heads 9, Sand with a substantially cylindrical portion Ill between said heads. These heads conform in shape and size tothe shape and'size of the holes 8 in the side members A2 of one link and the diameter of the cylindrical portion I0 conforms to the diameter of the hole I in the tongue A", at the minor axis of saidopening. Accordingly, it will be apparent that when one of two adjacent links is turned up to a position at right angles with the other of said links, as
shown in Figs. 5 and 6 and also in dot-and-dash outline in Fig. '7, the holes 'I and 8 will be in reg-Y istration with each other and with their major axes extending in the same direction. Thisvposition of the links enables the pin A3 to be inserted into or removed from its operative relationship with the links, in assembling or disassembling the links.
When, however, the two links are positioned in horizontal alinement with each other the hole I in the tongue A of one will be positioned with its major axis at right angles to the major axes of the vholes 8 in the side members A2 of the other and to the length of each headV 9, 9 of 'the pin which connects ,said links with each other, and which length is greater than the diameter of said hole' at the minor axis of the latter.
The heads S, 9 are preferably formed by flanging one side of the respective ends of each pivot pin thereby providing projections which form shoulders II between which the corresponding tongue is mounted to have pivotal movement in planes perpendicular to eachother and against which the sides of the tongue impinge or abut in all positions of said tongue. The function of these shoulders isl to prevent lateral vdisplacement of the pin within the links at all times except when the corresponding pair of links are arranged perpendicular one to the other, and to this end each shoulder is formed in lines which diverge from each other and merge at their outer ends into the body of the pin. When thus formed the shoulders not only prevent the pin from passing Vthrough the hole 'I in the tongue but, moreover, overcome a tendency for the pin to work out too far to either side of the link, as would be the case if the shoulders were vpositioned truly diametrically with relation to the 1n. p The links, accordingly, are pivotally connected with each other by pins which are not liable to become displaced in any of the relative positions assumed by the links when in operation, notwithstanding said pins need not, and in practice are not, riveted or equivalently fastened to the side members of the links. The ends of said pins, as here shown, terminate flush with the sides of ythe links.
Each link is preferably formed of malleable iron hardened by a special treatment, which consists in placing the link in its annealed malleable iron state in a bath of cyanide having a temperaturev of approximately l500 Fah. for fifteen minutes, which produces a glassy hard shell and at' the same time retains the soft core originally inthe malleable iron. I have found that if the link be allowedfto remain in the cyanidev bath for more than twenty minutes itreverts tothe original state of glass-hard white iron, as was the-case before the casting wasannealed to finish the process of making malleable iron. Itis, therefore, essential 'that this process be continued in a cyanide bath whose temperature is 1500o Fah. for not less than fifteen minutes and not more than twenty minutes. v
v Each of thepins A3 employed by me consists of a steel` drop forging or of steel machined or cast by some other process speciallyv treated forV hardness and wear resisting qualities, thus producing pins of hard texture clear through the material. B designates one ofthe sprocket kwheels employed to drive or to guide the carrier chain hereinbeforeset forth. This sprocket wheelis formed with a set of teeth b at one side and with a like set of teeth b at the opposite side.
teeth b.' and the outer surfaces of these teeth are preferably in the vertical planes of the outer surfaces of the body of the wheel. The inner surface of each tooth b is spaced from the corre spondingtooth b'. The outer surface of the rim of the wheel is composed of a series of successively arranged plane surfaces I5 which join each other at an angle, as shown at I8. The pairs of teeth b, b project respectively from the plane surfaces I5 and each tooth is arranged equidistant between the ends of the particular surface from which it projects, which surface also extends between said teeth, as shown at I'I in Fig. 2. It will be noticed that the plane surfaces I5 of the sprocket wheel and the links of the chain are of such relative lengths that the sprocket teeth b, b' projecting from said surfacesY and the teeth receiving openings formed inthe sides of they links are so positioned that the pivotsA of the latter in passing around the sprocket wheel will be substantially in alinernent with the ends of corresponding rim surfaces I5 whereby the bending movements of the chains will bein alinement with the angles I6 joining successive plane sur@ faces.
In the operation of the sprocketwheel Band its correlated chain the teeth b, b of the wheel enter the recesses 4 in the opposite sidesV of the body A of the chain-links and each link travels around the rim of the wheel with its substantially ilat bottom in engagement substantially through,- out its entire length with the plane surfaces I5 of the wheel, the web 5 travelling in the spaces between the confronting inner surfaces of the teeth b, b. In short, the lcorrelation ofthe outer surface of the sprocket wheel and the links of thev chain is such that said links will be rnily supported throughout substantially their entire lengths by the plane surfaces of the rim of the wheel; all of the underneath surfaces of each link being 4engaged throughout by a corresponding part of the Wheel rim in the travel of the chain around the sprocket wheel, each plane surface including link-engaging portions at opposite sides of its teeth and also between said teeth and each link having substantially flat bottom to engage said portions of the plane surfaces. VMoreover, the relationship between the plane surfaces I5 of the sprocket wheel and the central webs 5 of the chain links and the inner faces of the sprocket teeth b, b is such that each link in passing around the sprocket Wheel not only is engaged and firmly Each tooth o is. arranged directly opposite the corresponding CFI supported throughout substantially` its entire length, but furthermore is held against lateral displacement relatively to its neighbors, and hence exercises a guiding effect upon the chain. Sincethe tops of the links are closed (and they are also free from projections and hence smooth) and since the bottoms of the links also are closed except for the teeth receiving openings 4 which are in the sides of the links and hence exposed, and since the outer faces of the sprocket teeth also are exposed, the chain and sprocket may be most readily ushed with steam or hot water to thereby cleanse the openings, anyforeign substances which may have accumulated in the openings, flowing out of the sides of the link. Moreover, the sprocket teeth act upon the walls of the laterally exposed openings to crush out any frost or ice which may have been formed therein and to push the same out of the: open sides of the link. Thus it will be seen that the correlation of the parts is such that the cleaning of the chain of any foreign substances is uninterfered with, since the parts upon which such substances would accumulate are fully exposed and are subjected to a wiping and crushing action by the sprocket teeth in the operation of the chain. i
As here shown, the teeth b, b are of somewhat less width and length than the corresponding dimensions of the teeth-receiving recesses 4 and are formed with substantially plane upper ends angularly disposed with respect to the width of the teeth to adapt them to exercise the selfclearing function hereinbefore referred to. Other specic shapes of the teeth may be resorted to for the purposes stated, but in any case the teeth must be exposed at the sides of the chain and the teeth-receiving openings must be relatively of such shape and dimensions that the self-clearing function hereinbefore set forth is secured. The relative shapes and proportions referred to also conduce to the cleansing of the openings in the fiushing of the latter with an appropriate fluid.
These chains are usually mounted in channels from whose upper ends their roofs or tops protrude` These channels usually form parts of a conveyer frame and when the articles conveyed project any substantial distance above the chains, it is usual to provide the frame of the conveyer with members positioned to prevent lateral displacement of said articles from the chains. -In some instances the articles may be carried by a single chain, but in other instances it is desirable to employ two or more chains suitably spaced from each other and serving conjointly to support the articles conveyed.
A typical installation of the character mentioned is illustrated in Figs. l1, l2 and 13. The frame of this conveyer is made up in a more or less conventional way, of vertical legs or supports 20 which are disposed at appropriate intervals along the opposite sides of the conveyer and of which those at one side ofthe conveyer are connected with corresponding legs at the other side of the conveyer by cross members 2i which also support upper and lower longitudinal members 22 which are traversed by the working and returning runs of the chains. All of thesemembers are preferably of angle-iron or channel construction, as shown, and the longitudinal angles or channels 22 serve to guide the chains and to prevent sagging thereof, as will be readily understood. rThe vertical legs or supports 2@ project to heights above the horizontal plane of the chains and their upper ends are connected with each other at the respective sides of the conveyer by other longitudinal members 23 which serve as guides for the articles being conveyed.
. It will be apparent that the clearance provided in the connection of each link with those on its opposite sides permits a relative bending movement of the links adapting the chain to traverse a curved path, such as that shown in Fig. 13 and that this relative movement of the links may be brought about through a proper disposition of the guide elements of the frame as is well understood by those familiar with conveying mechanisms employing endless chains, Without further description.
Having thus described the invention what I believe to be new and desire to secure by Letters Patent and what I therefore claim is:-
l. A carrier chain and its sprocket wheel adapted for use in moist and frigid temperatures:
said wheel comprising a rim formed of a series of successively arranged plane surfaces each disposed at an angle with those at its opposite ends and formed with a pair of teeth whose outer surfaces are in substantially the planes of the outer surfaces ofthe rim and Whose inner surfaces are spaced from each other, each of said teeth being arranged midway of the length of the plane surface from which it projects and being spaced from the ends of said surface; and said chain comprising a series of pivotally connected links each having Aits opposite longitudinal surfaces provided with a pair, of lateraly exposed and downwardly open teeth-receiving openings separated from each other by a web and having a substantially flat bottom which engages the plane surfaces of the rim, said web travelling between the pairs of teeth and co-acting with the latter in maintaining the chain in a central position in its travel around the wheel and said teeth and openings being relatively shaped and proportioned to provide spaces between their confronting surfaces and to adapt the teeth to exert a crushing and sweeping action uponfrost formed upon said surfaces to thereby force the same and other solid matter out of said openings through the lower ends of the latter.
V2. A traveling conveyer bed including a carrier chain and a sprocket wheel for driving the chain, said chain comprising a series of pivotally connected links having laterally open recesses with downwardly open mouths formed in their sides and said sprocket wheel comprising a rim and alseries of successively arranged spaced teeth which project from said rim and have their outer surfaces substantially in the vertical plane of the corresponding surface of the rim and their outer ends substantially plane and angularly disposed with respect to their lateral edges, said teeth being arranged to successively enter the recesses in the chain and having their outer surfaces fully exposed when in operative relationship with said wheel and being of less width and length than the width and length of said recesses and capable of exercising a wiping action upon the walls of the recesses and of expelling foreign matter therefrom through said downwardly open mouths of the recesses.
3. A traveling conveyer bed including a carrier chain and a sprocket wheel for driving the chain, said chain comprising a series of Vpivotally connected links having recesses in their sides which terminate short of the opposite sides and tops of the links, thereby providing back and top walls, said recesses being laterally open and having downwardly open mouths and said sprocket vso wheelr comprising a rim and a series ofsuccessively arranged spaced teeth which project'from said rim and have their outer surfaces substantially in the vertical plane ofthe corresponding surface of the rim and their outer ends substantially plane and angularly disposed with respect to their lateral edges, said teeth being'arranged to successively enter the recesses in the chain and to have their inner sides in contact with the back walls oi the recesses and their outer side surfaces fully exposed when in operative relationship with said Wheel and being of less width and length than the width and length of said recesses to thereby provide communicating spaces between the top wall and a side wall of each recess and the corresponding edges of a tooth seated therein, the recesses and teeth being relatively'so proportioned that the teeth will be capable of a wiping action upon thewalls of the recesses 'and of eX- pelling foreign matter therefrom `through :said downwardly open mouths of the recesses. 4. In a carrier chain, a pair of links, each comprising a body having a pair of spaced side 'members projecting from one of its ends and a tongue projecting from its opposite end, said tongue extending'into the space between the side members of the adjacent link, and said tongue and side members having elliptical openings arranged with the major axis of the opening in the tongue substantially at right angles with the major axis of the openings in the side members; and a pivot pin having elliptical ends tightly iitted in the openings in said side members, and its portion between said ends of lesser diameter than said ends and extending through the opening in the tongue and providing a bearing on: which the latter is. pivotally mounted.
5'. In a carrier chain, a link having spaced side members, a second link having an'end member projecting into the space between said side members and overlapped by the latter, the overlapping portions of said links having non-circular openings in registration with each other, and a pivot pin which extends through said openings; said openings being so disposed in the respective links that the major axis oi one opening will be at an angle with the major axis of the other opening when said links are in an operative relationship and said pivot pin having its ends conforming to the shape of and tightlyY fitted in, the openings in the respective spaced side members of the first mentioned link and provided adjacent the inner surfaces of the latter with stops,`each having angularly disposed ends, between which the corresponding end oi the second link is mounted on said pin.
6. In a carrier chain, a link having spaced side members at one of its ends, a second link having a tongue at one of its ends extending into and overlapped by, the side members of the first mentioned link, and a pivot pin connecting the overlapping portions of said links with each other;A
said overlapping portions of the links being formed with elliptical openings and said openings being so disposed in the respective links that the major axis of one opening will be at an angle with the major axis of the other when the links are in an operative relationship and said pivot pin having elliptical ends and a cylindrical portion '7.' In a carrier chain,` a pair of links and a pivot pin connecting said links with cach other," each of teeth-receiving openings and one of said linksboing formed at oneof its ends with a pair of spaced side members andthe other with a tongue which projects into the space between and vis overlapped by said side members, said side members and tongue being formed with elliptical openings through which the pivot pin extends and said pivot pin having elliptical ends tightly tted in the openings in the side members and being cylindrical in cross section between-said members and the openings in the tongue and side members being relatively so disposed that when the links are in,operativerelationship the minor axis of the opening in the tonguev will be aline'd with the major axes of the openings in the side members, and Vwill thereby prevent displacement v'of the pivot pin transversely of the links.
3. In acarrier chain, a pair of links anda pivot pin connecting the same with each other, according to claim 4, in which the correlation 'of the pivot pin and tongue permits the pivotal movement of the tongue upon the pivot pinl to be in planes perpendicular to each other and the tongue has contact with the heads of the pin in both of its .said pivotal movei'nents` 9.' In a carrier chain, Va pair of links, each com-f prising a bodyhavinga pair of spaced side mem' bers projecting from oneofits endsand a tongue projecting from its opposite end, said tongue extending into the space between the side members of the adjacent link, and said tongue `and side members having openings of non-circular form,l
Y respective openings in said side members and the portion of the pin between said endsextending through the opening in the tongue, said tongue having pivotal movement in both vertical and f horizontal planes upon said portion of the pin and said shoulders acting as stops to prevent displacement of the pin.
10. In a carrier chain, a pair of links and a pivot pin connecting said links with each other, each of said links having a closed top, and an open bottom, and one of said links being formed at one of its ends with a pair of spaced side members and the other with a tongue which projects into the space kbetween and is overlapped by, said side members, said pivot pin being iixedly mounted in the side members of one link and said tongue being mounted to have lateral pivotal movement on the pivot pin, permitting the links to have correspondingy movement in an arcuate path and being formed at each of its ends with diverging shoulders acting as stops to prevent displacement of the pin.
pin according to claim 6 in which the minor axis of the opening in the tongue will be alined'with the major axis of the openings in the side members, when the links are in operative relationship, and in which the tongue is mounted to have limited lateral play upon the pivot pin to permit 11. In a carrier chain, a pair of links and a pivot the links to have corresponding movement in a horizontal arcuate path.
12. A carrier chain comprising a pair of links and a pivot pin connecting said links with each other, one of said links having a plurality of side members and the other having a tongue arranged between said side members, said side members and tongue having aligned elliptical openings and said pivotV pin extending through said Openings and having its opposite ends xedly mounted in the openingsl in the side members and formed to provide stops arranged on opposite sides of the tongue, said openings in the side members being arranged with Ytheir major axes at an angle with respect to the major aXis ofV the opening in the tongue and said stops preventing displacement of the pin in various relative positions assumed by the links, in operation.
. 13. A carrierpchain comprising a pair of links and a pivot pin connecting said links with each other; one of said links having a plurality of side members and the other having a tongue arranged between said side members, said side members and tongue having alined openings and said pivotpin extending .through said openings and having its opposite ends fixedly mounted in the openings in the side members and formed with flanges each of which is outwardly bevelled in oppositedirections to provide stops arranged on Opposite sides of the tongue and serving to prevent displacement of the pin in various relative positions assumed by the links, in operation.
14. A carrier chain comprising a series of links and pivot pins respectively connecting successive links with each other and in which eachv link comprises a body portion having a tongue pro-l jecting from one of its ends and a pair of spaced side members projecting from its opposite end and the tongues and side members of successive links are relatively' so arranged that the tongue of each link will extend into the space between the side members of the adjacent link; said:
vtongues and side members having elliptical openings relatively arranged to permit the corresponding pivot pin to be inserted therethrough and removed therefrom only when the corresponding links are substantially at right angles with each other, and each of said pivot pins having elliptical ends tightly tted in the openings in said side members and its portion intermediate its said ends of reduced diameter substantially from the inner surface of one side member to the inner surface of the other side member to thereby form shoulders adjacent the inner surfaces of said side members, the tongue of the adjacent link being loosely mounted on the reduced portion of the pin between and substantially in contact with said shoulders and serving with said shoulders to prevent displacement of the pin in all operating positions of the links without the necessity of riveting the pin or otherwise fastening it against displacement; whereby the tongue is self-locked against displacement in all operating positions of the link and is free to be inserted and removed when the links are substantially at right angles with each other.
15. In acarrier chain, a pair of links and a pivot pin connecting said links with each other, one of said links having a member which has pivotal movement in planes perpendicular to each Yother upon said pin and said pin having shoulders contacting the sides of said member at all times in said movements of the latter.
ROBERT JOHN ROLAND.