|Publication number||US2000684 A|
|Publication date||May 7, 1935|
|Filing date||Nov 21, 1932|
|Priority date||Nov 21, 1932|
|Publication number||US 2000684 A, US 2000684A, US-A-2000684, US2000684 A, US2000684A|
|Inventors||Grammer Allen L, Watson Allen William|
|Original Assignee||Curtis Publishing Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
May 1935- w. w.- ALLEN ET AL 2,000,684
OPPOSING OFFSET IN PRINTING AND\ THE LIKE Filed 'Nov. 21, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet l mmewro is h/z/lz azrz /(/a/sorz 4/1 22 2 WITNESS" 4[Zzn L Grammar cw a irranwk y w. w. ALLEN El AL 2,000,684
OPPOSING OFFSET IN PRINTING AND THE LIKE Filed Nov. 21, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 M M/'00s W11, a/m,//m l M #1122: G rammer" SLM% Ar a/Plan renewing the dielectric.
Patented Min 7. 1935 LIKE William Watson Allen, Aidan, and Allen L. Grammer, Meadowbrook, Pa., assignors to The Curtis Publishing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application November 21, 1932, Serial No. 643,548
' 4 Claims.
In our application, Serial No. 602,176, we have described and claimed a methodof solidifying ink, or like oleaginous substance, newly applied. to a web or sheet of paper, or like material, which consists in continuously passing the latter between a dielectric and one of two spaced electrodes between which a stream of electrons pass from the dielectric and through the ink or like substance. In that application we have shown plate or extended electrodes and a plate or sheet dielectric and while they work very well, still'it sometimes happens that the dielectric fails, with the result that current must be cut ofi and operations suspended during the time required for Such an interruption in the operation of printing presses is not desirable.
One object of the present invention is to obviate such disadvantageous features and to provide'an improvement in the method and to provide apparatus for better doing the work.
Another object of the invention is to improve multicolor printing by hardening one color before the application or superposition of another color to either or both faces of a sheet or web moving I between packing and printing rolls.
Other objects of the invention are hereinafter set forth, or will appear from the following description at the end of which the invention will be claimed.
Generally stated, the invention comprises passing an electric flux between two electrodes of which one comprises .a row of vacuum tubes spaced from the other electrode and of which the glass or like walls provide a dielectric, and passing the flux through ink or like substance on a newly printed paper or like sheet, web or object by leading the same through the space between the outside of thetubes and the other electrode.
The invention also comprises the apparatus and other improvements hereinafter described and finally claimed.
In' the following description reference will be made to the accompanying drawings forming part hereof and in which,
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view illustrative of the invention in its application to hardening ink or the like on one side of a sheet or web.
Fig. 2 is a similar view drawn to an enlarged scale and illustrating features of the invention.
Fig. 3 is a side view with parts broken away of the construction shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view illustrative'of the application of the invention between each stage in multi-color work and showing the same applied to both faces of a sheet or.web.
Fig. 5 is a cross sectional view drawn to an enlarged scale illustrative of a modification in the shape of thevacuum tubes, and I Fig. 6 is a similar view illustrating another modification.
In the drawings l and 2 indicate two electrodes of which one comprises a row of vacuum tubes 3, and this term is used to include evacuated mercury tubes, neon tubes and the like. The other electrode i may be referred to as of the plate type, meaning that it is somewhat extended. As shown the electrode I is in the form of a revoluble cylinder, and the row of vacuum tubes is in the form of a segment of the curved surface of a cylinder and conforms to the curvature of the electrode I and is spaced from the latter. The vacuum tubes 3 are connected with one terminal of the source of current, and the electrode l is connected to ground or to the other terminal. When the circuit is closed an electric flux passes across the air gap between the two electrodes and from the walls of the tubes 3, which are of glass or like appropriate material, constituting a dielectric. Among the advantages possessed by a dielectric made up of the walls of a row or group of vacuum tubes, reference may be made to the fact that if the wall of a tube fails or is punctured or broken, that tube is automatically cutout of the circuit and the remaining tubes continue to function normally. It may be said that the discharge causes ions to be formed between the two electrodes and in the space or air gap between the dielectric and one electrode by the electric flux. The flux or discharge is active in ionizing oxygen and no doubt produces some ozone but inmost cases substantially no oxides of nitrogen are formed. Ionized oxygen is of value as an oxidizing agent. Another way to say the same thing is to say that oxygen in the air is represented by 02', that the nascent oxygen in the flux is represented by O, and this new born oxygen represented by O combines to form 03 or ozone, and we believe that the nascent oxygen represented by O is an exceedingly valuable oxidizing agent and is in ionized air. At any rate according to the present invention good hardening or fixation results are produced by passing the flux through ink or like substance on a newly printed paper or like sheet, web or object by leading the same through the space between the outside of the tubes and the other electrode.
Referring to Figs. 1, 2, and 3, the web a is led between the packing cylinder b and the printing cylinder c, so that ink is deposited upon one face of the web a. The web a. is then led through the space between the dielectric and one electrode and through the flux passing between them. The result of this is to harden or iii: the ink. The web a then passes around the packing cylinder d, and the face of it opposite the face last printed receives ink from the printing cylinders e, and inasmuch as the ink from the printing cylinder c is flxed and solidified, it does not offset on the packing cylinder d. The web, printed on both sides, may be cut into sheets as at 1.
Referring to Fig. 4, there are several groups, three in the present case, of vacuum tubes 3 constituting an electrode, such as has been described, and there is one packing cylinder 4 with four printing cylinders 5, and the printing cylinders 5 are arranged between the groups of the vacuum tubes, and they are adapted to apply inks of difierent color, so that after the application of ink of one color, it is dried by passing through an electric flux before theapplication or superposition of ink of another color, and thus the color eiiect in the finished work is much improved. At the right in Fig. 4 is shown a duplication of the described multi-colored apparatus but arranged to print upon the other side of the sheet or web 0.
Referring to Figs. 5 and 6, the departures there shown from the circular cross section for the tubes result in the presentation toward the second electrode of additional area adapted to operate as a dielectric.
It will of course be understood that the vacuum tubes are fitted with terminals, but the construction of such tubes is too well known to require detail description or illustration.
In the foregoing description and in the appended claims reference is made to opposing offset in printing but that reference is introductory matter as the invention includes fixing or hardening ink and oleaginous substances on a web, sheet or moving body.
It will be obvious to those skilled in the art to which the invention relates that modifications may be made in details of construction and procedure without departing from the spirit of the invention which is not limited to such matters or otherwise than the prior art and the appended claims may require.
1. Apparatus for opposing offset in printing comprising in combination, a revoluble cylindrical electrode, a cylindrical row ofvacuum tubes constituting another electrode and spaced from the surface of the cylindrical electrode and of which the glass provides a dielectric, electrical means for flowing electrons from the dielectric and between the electrodes, and means for leading a newly printed sheet or web between one of the electrodes and the dielectric.
2. Apparatus for opposing offset in printing comprising in combination, a revoluble cylindrical electrode, a cylindrical row of vacuum tubes of oblong cross section constituting another electrode and spaced from the surface of the cylindrical electnodeand of which the glass provides a dielectric, electrical means for flowing electrons from the dielectric and between the electrodes, and means for leading a newly printed sheet or web between one of the electrodes and the dielectric.
3. Apparatus for opposing oilset in printing comprising in combination, a revoluble cylindrical electrode, a cylindrical row of vacuum tubes of triangular cross section constituting another electrode and spaced from the surface of the cylindrical electrode and of which the glass provides a dielectric, electrical means for flowing electrons from the dielectric and between the electrodes, and means for leading a newly printed sheet or web between one of the electrodes and the dielectric.
4. Apparatus for opposing ofiset in printing comprising in combination, a revolubie cylindrical electrode, a cylindrical row of vacuum tubes of rectangular cross section constituting another electrode and spaced from the surface of the cylindrical electrode and of which the glam provides a dielectric, electrical means for flowing electrons from the dielectric and between the electrodes, and means for leading a newly printed sheet or web between one of the electrodes and the dielectric.
WILLIAM WATSON ALLEN GRAM'MER
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2459622 *||Mar 18, 1944||Jan 18, 1949||Fred K H Levey Co Inc||Method of and apparatus for drying sheet materials by high-frequency electric fields|
|US2654315 *||May 15, 1947||Oct 6, 1953||Huebner Company||Process of multicolor electronographic printing|
|US2700775 *||May 4, 1951||Feb 1, 1955||Martin Horace G||Combustion sanitation system|
|US2737955 *||Feb 8, 1950||Mar 13, 1956||Koerber & Co Kg||Method and apparatus for drying tobacco products|
|US2768576 *||Jun 21, 1952||Oct 30, 1956||Maschf Augsburg Nuernberg Ag||Drying means for offset rotary printing machine|
|US2935418 *||Jun 3, 1953||May 3, 1960||Olin Mathieson||Method for treating preformed polyethylene with an electrical glow discharge|
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|US5634402 *||Oct 12, 1995||Jun 3, 1997||Research, Incorporated||Coating heater system|
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|U.S. Classification||219/773, 101/424.1, 361/225, 264/483, 313/594, 34/246, 101/416.1, 219/780, 313/607, 101/211, 101/171|