- BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The field of this invention is apparatus and methods for playing live table playing card games; namely, games which use playing cards and are played at a casino, cardroom, residential or other gaming table with live human participants.
In the gaming industry there is a significant volume of gambling which occurs at live table games which use playing cards. Exemplary live table games include blackjack, poker, baccarat, and others. There is also a number of proprietary or specialty live table card games which have developed, such as pai-gow poker, Let-It-Ride™, Caribbean Stud™ and others. These and many other games all involve play using playing cards. The use of playing cards has a number of associated limitations and disadvantages which have long plagued the casino industry. Some of these are of general concern to all or most playing card games. Others are problems associated with the use of playing cards in particular games. Some of the principal concerns and problems are discussed below.
The use of playing cards at live table games typically involves several operational requirements which are time-consuming. These operations are conveniently described as collecting, shuffling and dealing of the cards. In many card games there is also a step of cutting the deck after it has been shuffled.
In the collecting operation a dealer typically collects the cards just played at the end of a hand of play. This is done in preparation for playing the next hand of cards. The cards are best collected so all are in a face-down or face-up condition. The cards also are typically straightened into a stack with the long sides and short sides aligned. These manipulations take time and are not typically appreciated by either the dealer or players as enhancing the play and entertainment value of the game.
In many games the cards collected at the end of the hand are deposited in a discard rack which collects the played cards until the time a new stack is obtained or the stack is shuffled. In some games the cards are immediately shuffled into the stack either manually or using a shuffling machine. More typically, the cards are collected and then shuffling is performed later by the dealer.
When shuffling is needed, it involves a break in the action of the table game and consumes a significant amount of time. Shuffling is also the most time consuming operation in preparing for the next hand. Thus, shuffling is of substantial financial significance to the casino industry because it requires significant time and reduces the number of hands which can be played per hour or other period of time. The earnings of casinos is dependent upon the number of hands played. Since many casinos are open on a 24-hour basis, earnings are limited by the number of hands that can be played per hour. Thus, there is a significant and keen interest by casino owners to develop practices which allow more games to be played in a given amount of time. Accomplishing this without detracting from the players enjoyment and desire to play the game is a challenging and longstanding issue with casino owners and consultants in the gaming industry.
An additional consideration in the casino industry is the costs associated with shuffling machines. Shuffling machines currently available have costs in the thousands of dollars. Such machines save time in performing the shuffling process, but still require time to load, operate and unload. These factors reduce the savings associated with reduced shuffling time and effort. Further reductions in the costs and time associated with shuffling of cards is still desired.
The amount of time consumed by collecting, shuffling and dealing is also of significance in private card games because it also delays action and requires some special effort to perform. In private games there is also some added complexity due to card players remembering or figuring out who previously dealt and who should now shuffle and re-deal the cards as needed.
In addition to the time delay and added activity needed to collect, shuffle and deal cards, there is typically some time devoted to cutting the deck of cards which have been shuffled and which are soon to be dealt. This traditional maneuver helps to reduce the risk that the dealer who has shuffled the cards may have done so in a way that stacks the deck in an ordered fashion which may favor the dealer or someone else playing the game. Although cutting the deck does not require a large amount of time, it does take some time. The amount of time spent on cutting reduces the frequency at which hands of the card game can be played.
The above and related considerations clearly demonstrate that a substantial amount of time is consumed by collecting, shuffling, cutting and dealing playing cards. The casino industry has long felt the desire to reduce the time spent and increase play of live table games.
In the gaming industry there is also a very significant amount of time and effort devoted to security issues which relate to play of the casino games. Part of the security concerns stem from frequent attempts to cheat during play of the games. Attempts to cheat are made by players, dealers, or more significantly by dealers and players in collusion. This cheating seeks to affect the outcome of the game in a way which favors the dealer or players who are working together. The amount of cheating in card games is significant to the casino industry and constitutes a major security problem which has large associated losses and for which very large and costly expenditures are made on a daily basis in an effort to prevent such cheating.
Many of the attempts to cheat in the play of live table card games involve some aspect of dealer manipulation of cards during collection, shuffling, cutting or dealing of cards. Thus, there is a need for methods and apparatuses which can be used in the play of live table card games which reduces the ability of the dealer and/or players to cheat by manipulation of playing cards. Of greatest concern are schemes whereby the deck is stacked and the stacked deck is used to the collusive player's advantage. Stacked decks represent huge potential losses since the player is aware of the cards which will be played before play occurs and can optimize winnings by increasing bets for winning hands and decreasing bets for losing hand.
Casinos have recognized that their efforts to reduce cheating would be improved if the casino had comprehensive information on the cards which have been played, the amounts bet, the players and dealers involved and other information about actions which have taken place at the card tables. This is of particular importance in assessing the use of stacked decks. It is also important where card tracking is occurring. Additional explanation about card tracking is discussed below. The information desired by the casinos includes knowing the sequence and exact cards being dealt.
Some attempts have been made to record card game action. The best current technology involves cameras which are mounted above the tables to record the action of the card games. This approach is disadvantaged by the fact that not all cards dealt are easily known from a camera position above the table because some or all of the cards are not dealt face-up, or are hidden by overlying cards. Although many blackjack games are sufficiently revealing to later determine the order of dealt cards, others are not. Other card games, such as poker, have hands which are not revealed. The covered cards of the players do not allow the order of dealt cards to be ascertained from an above-table camera.
Even where above-table cameras are used, their use may not be effective. Such cameras may require time-consuming and tedious human analysis to go over the video tapes or other recordings of table action. This human study may be needed just to ascertain the sequence of cards dealt or to determine the amount of betting. Such human analysis is costly and cannot economically be used to routinely monitor all action in a casino cardroom. It is also required because there is no current way for easily ascertaining whether the dealer or player won the hand, such as in a blackjack game. It is typically not possible to discern the indicia number or letter presented in the corner of the playing card when viewed in a recorded video tape. Counting the individual pips in the center field of the playing cards can be done; however, it cannot be done in all situations with the desired reliability. This is true because cards may be partly or totally covered by another overlying card contained in the same hand, leading to missing information or mistaken interpretations. Thus, the video camera monitoring techniques have only found very limited effectiveness as a routine approach for identifying cheating. There has also been relatively limited use as a serious analytical tool because of the difficulty of analysis. Such camera surveillance techniques are also of only limited effectiveness as a deterrent because many of the people involved with cheating have a working knowledge of their limitations and utilize approaches which are not easily detectible by such systems.
Another use of video camera monitoring and recording has been made in the context of analyzing card table action after someone has become a suspect. The tape recordings serve as evidence to prove the cheating scheme. However, in the past, this has generally required other evidence to initially reveal the cheating so that careful analysis can be performed. More routine and general screening to detect cheating has remained a difficult and continuing problem for casinos.
Another approach to reducing security problems utilizes card shoes having card detection capability. Card shoes hold a stack of cards containing typically from one to six decks of cards. The cards are held in the card shoe in preparation for dealing and to secure the deck within a device which restricts access to the cards and helps prevent card manipulations. Card shoes can be fit with optical or magnetic sensors which detect the cards as they are being dealt. Some of the problems of security analysis using above-table cameras is reduced when the sequence of cards dealt can be directly determined at the card shoe using optical or magnetic sensors.
One advantage of such card shoes is that the card sequence information can be collected in a machine readable format by sensing the specific nature (suit and count) of each card as they are dealt out of the card shoe. However, most such card shoes have special requirements for the cards being used. Such cards must carry magnetic coding or are specifically adapted for optical reading. This increases the cost of the cards and may not fully resolve the problems and difficulties in obtaining accurate information concerning sequence information.
The automated data collecting card shoes also do not have an inherent means for collecting data on the assignment of the card to a particular player or the dealer. They further do not collect data on the amounts bet. These factors thus require some other manual or partially automated data collection system to be used, or require that time-consuming human analysis be performed using video tapes as explained above.
An additional issue which has continued to be a concern in the casino industry relates to the use of automated shuffling machines. Prior automated shuffling machines have not demonstrated a sufficient ability to thwart highly skilled gamblers. Such gamblers have demonstrated an ability either by human intellect and training, or with the aid of computers, to determine information about the decks being dealt. This information is typically derived from information collected concerning the preceding hand or hands of play. Armed with such information, the skilled gamblers track a specific sequence or multiple sequences or groupings of cards within a deck or large stack. Tracking is often done for a group of cards forming part of a stack rather than an entire stack. These techniques in card tracking can significantly shift the advantage from the casino to a skilled gambler. Prior card shuffling machines all show a weakness in that skilled gamblers can observe operation of the machines and in many situations make predictions which serve as a means for card tracking.
The use in blackjack of numerous card decks, such as six decks, has been one strategy directed at minimizing the risk of card tracking. Such tracking should be contrasted with card counting strategies which are typically less accurate and do not pose as substantial a risk of loss to the casino. Use of numerous card decks in a stack along with proper cut card placement can also reduce the risk of effective card counting. However, it has been found that multiple decks are not sufficient to overcome the skilled gambler's ability to track cards and turn the advantage against the house.
Card tracking can be thought of as being of two types. Sequential card tracking involves determination of the specific ordering of the card deck or decks being dealt. This can be determined or closely estimated for runs of cards, sequences of cards forming a portion or portions of a stack. Sequential card tracking can be devastating to a casino since a player taking advantage of such information can bet large in a winning situation and change the odds in favor of the player and against the casino.
Slug tracking involves determining runs of the deck or stack which show a higher frequency of certain important cards. For example, in the play of blackjack there are a relatively large number of 10-count cards. These 10-count cards are significant in producing winning blackjack hands or 20-count hands which are also frequently winning hands. Gamblers who are proficient in tracking slugs containing large numbers of 10-count cards can gain an advantage over the house and win in blackjack.
There is also a long-standing problem in the play of blackjack which concerns the situation when the dealer receives a blackjack hand in the initial two cards dealt. If the dealer has a 10-count card or ace as the upcard, then it is possible for the dealer to have a blackjack. If the dealer does have a blackjack, then there is no reason to play the hand out since the outcome of the hand is already determined without further dealing. If the hand is fully played out, and the dealer then reveals that the dealer has received a blackjack hand, then a significant amount of time has been wasted. It also causes players to often be upset when a hand is played out to no avail.
In many casinos the waste of time associated with playing out hands with a winning dealer blackjack has lead to various approaches which attempt to end the hand after the initial deal. Some of these allow the dealer to look at the down card to make a determination whether a blackjack hand has been dealt to the dealer. This looking is commonly called “peeking” and is an operation which has been the source of numerous cheating schemes involving dealers and players who work in collusion.
In such cheating associated with peeking at the down card, the dealer cheats in collaboration with an accomplice-player. This cheating is frequently accomplished when the dealer signals the accomplice using eye movements, hand movements or other signals. If a dealer does not peek, then he does not know the value of his hand until after the players have completed their play. If the dealer does peek, then he can use such eye movements, hand movements or other techniques to convey instructions to his accomplice-player. These signals tell the accomplice what hand the dealer has been dealt. With this knowledge of the dealer's hand, the accomplice has improved odds of winning and this can be sufficient to turn the long-term odds in favor of the accomplice-player and against the casino.
Because of this potential for cheating, peeking as a normal procedure in the play of blackjack has been viewed with disfavor by many casinos. Some casinos which have experienced losses due to such cheating have eliminated the peeking procedure and decided to instead incur the waste of time and problems associated with playing out the hand of cards.
There has also been a substantial number of apparatuses devised to facilitate the peeking procedure or render it less subject to abuse. Such peeking devices are intended to allow determination of whether the dealer has received a blackjack hand; however, this is done without revealing to the dealer what the down card is unless it makes a blackjack. Some of these devices require a special table with a peeking device installed in the table. Others allow the down card to be reviewed using a table top device in which the card is inserted. These systems and others involve the use of special playing cards. These devices and methods generally add greater costs and slow the play of the game in a way which often offsets the original intent of saving the time of playing out possible dealer blackjack hands. The prior attempts have often ended up unacceptable and are removed. This problem has nagged the casino industry for many years and a fully acceptable solution has never been found.
Another notable problem suffered by live table games is the intimidation which many novice or less experienced players feel when playing such games. Surveys have indicated that many new or less experienced people who come to a casino are inclined to play slot machines and video card games. These people feel intimidation at a live table game because such games require quick thinking and decision making while other people are watching and waiting. This intimidation factor reduces participation in table games.
The intimidation factor experienced by many in connection with live table games has had a very significant effect on casinos and the games offered in the casinos. About 20 years ago, live table games constituted approximately two-thirds of the casino business, with slot machines being the remaining one-third. Now it is just the opposite, with two-thirds of the business being in slot machines and similar single person gaming machines while live table games constitute only one-third of the business. Since betting at live table games is generally larger, this development is something of a disadvantage to the casinos as compared to the same persons participating in a live table game. Efforts to stem or reverse this trend using specialty table games with different play and larger jackpots have not been effective or of only temporary beneficial effect. Some of the efforts have produced fads or other temporary increases in interest levels but the overall effect has not had a long-term benefit. Thus, there is a need for improved live table games which reduce the intimidation factor and enhance the ease with which a player adopts play of such games. There is also need for live table games which provide satisfaction to those who play, such that repeat participation is improved.
A further problem associated with live table card games are the costs associated with purchasing, handling and disposal of paper and plastic playing cards. Casinos pay relatively favorable prices for card decks, but the decks roughly cost about $1 per deck at this time. Each casino uses decks for a very limited period of time, typically only one shift, and almost always less than one day. After this relatively brief life in the limelight, the decks are disposed of in a suitable manner. In some cases they can be sold as souvenirs. This is done after the cards are specially marked or portions are punched out to show they have been decommissioned from a casino. This allows the cards to be sold as souvenirs while reducing the risk that they will later be used at the card tables in a cheating scheme which involves slipping a winning card into play at an appropriate point. In other cases the playing cards are simply destroyed or recycled to eliminate this last risk. In any case, the cost of playing cards for a casino is significant and can easily run in the hundreds of thousands of dollars per year.
In addition to the above problems, there are also a significant cost associated with handling and storing the new and worn playing cards. Sizable rooms contained in the casino complexes are needed just to store the cards as they are coming and going. Thus, the high costs of casino facilities further exacerbates the costs associated with paper and plastic playing cards.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
These and other considerations have been partially or fully addressed by the current invention which is described more fully below. Additional benefits and advantages of the current invention will be given in the following description, or will be apparent from the nature of the invention.
Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the accompanying drawings, which are briefly described below.
FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing a gaming table fitted with a preferred system according to the current invention.
FIG. 2 is a top view of the gaming table and system shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a sectional view showing portions of the gaming table and system of FIG. 1.
FIG. 4 is a top view showing the presentation unit of FIG. 1 shown in isolation.
FIG. 5 is a perspective view of a preferred dealing shoe module forming a part of the preferred system of FIG. 1.
FIG. 6 is an enlarged top view showing in isolation a dealer display which forms part of the preferred presentation unit shown in FIG. 4.
FIGS. 7-22 are enlarged top views showing portions of a single player station with a display which forms part of the preferred presentation unit shown in FIG. 4. Each of FIGS. 7-22 show a different stage in a sequence of display images as a hand of cards is played.
FIGS. 23-25 are schematic diagrams showing a preferred electronic system forming part of the system of FIG. 1.
FIGS. 26-37 are operational flow diagrams showing significant steps in the logical processes employed for data processing functions carried out by the preferred system of FIG. 1.
FIG. 38 is a top view of an alternative betting chip used with a system similar to the system of FIG. 1.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
FIG. 39 is an enlarged sectional view of the betting chip shown in FIG. 38 as taken along line 39—39.
This disclosure of the invention is submitted in furtherance of the constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws “to promote the progress of science and useful arts” (Article 1, Section 8).
|TABLE 1 |
|Listing of Subsections of Detailed Description and |
|Pertinent Items with Reference Numerals and Page Numbers |
| ||Gaming Table and System General Layout ||16 |
| ||gaming table 50 ||16 |
| ||table support trestle 51 ||16 |
| ||legs 52 ||16 |
| ||table top 53 ||16 |
| ||perimeter pad 54 ||16 |
| ||playing surface 55 ||16 |
| ||betting chip rack 59 ||17 |
| ||money drop slot 57 ||17 |
| ||card game system 60 ||17 |
| ||presentation unit 100 ||17 |
| ||simulated dealing shoe 80 ||17 |
| ||game processor 90 ||18 |
| ||main module 92 ||18 |
| ||game processor support casing or housing ||18 |
| ||91 |
| ||bottom access door 95 ||18 |
| ||main power switch 96 ||18 |
| ||Presentation Unit-Generally ||19 |
| ||presentation unit 100 ||19 |
| ||presentation unit 100 ||19 |
| ||outer shell or housing 101 ||19 |
| ||semicircular periphery segment 104 ||19 |
| ||back periphery segment 106 ||19 |
| ||Presentation Unit Participant Displays ||20 |
| ||dealer display 102 ||20 |
| ||player displays 103 ||20 |
| ||central centerline 110 ||20 |
| ||radial display centerline 111 ||20 |
| ||Presentation Unit Betting Chip Detectors ||21 |
| ||betting chip detection zone 120 ||21 |
| ||betting chip 160 ||21 |
| ||betting chip sensors 121 ||22 |
| ||betting chip 164 ||23 |
| ||betting chip 160 ||23 |
| ||transponder 161 ||23 |
| ||first betting chip part 162 ||23 |
| ||second betting chip part 163 ||23 |
| ||insurance bet detection zones 130 ||24 |
| ||insurance bet sensors 131 ||24 |
| ||Dealer Controls and Dealing Shoe ||25 |
| ||simulated dealing shoe 80 ||25 |
| ||dealing shoe case 84 ||25 |
| ||first dealing shoe display 81 ||25 |
| ||second dealing shoe display 82 ||25 |
| ||key operated switch 83 ||26 |
| ||dealer control sensors 85-89 ||27 |
| ||Electronics and Control Processor ||28 |
| ||data and control processing subsystem 90 ||28 |
| ||main control module 92 ||28 |
| ||power supply 181 ||29 |
| ||power distribution and sensor electronics ||29 |
| ||control circuit 184 |
| ||first mode control switch 182 ||29 |
| ||second mode control switch 183 ||29 |
| ||controller mother board 185 ||29 |
| ||flat panel display control boards 188 and ||30 |
| ||189 |
| ||player bet interfaces circuits 196, 198, 201 ||30 |
| ||and 203 |
| ||dealing shoe interface circuit 190 ||30 |
| ||dealer interface 194 ||30 |
| ||display electronic drive circuits 192 and ||30 |
| ||195 |
| ||backlight power supplies 193 ||30 |
| ||serial port 187 ||30 |
| ||control key interface 179 ||31 |
| ||Optional Player Identification ||31 |
| ||Alternative Presentation Unit Features ||33 |
| ||Alternative Embodiment Table Game ||34 |
| ||System With Integrated Video Playing |
| ||Card Displays |
| ||Preferred Dealer Display Images ||34 |
| ||dealer display 102 ||34 |
| ||virtual playing card images 107 and 108 ||34 |
| ||Preferred Player Display Images ||35 |
| ||player station 118 ||35 |
| ||player station display 103 ||35 |
| ||display border zone 105 ||35 |
| ||outer display perimeter line 113 ||36 |
| ||inner border zone boundary 114 ||36 |
| ||secondary display section 141 ||37 |
| ||tertiary display section 151 ||37 |
| ||primary display section 146 ||38 |
| ||hand count total numeral 147 ||38 |
| ||secondary display dealer upcard 148 ||38 |
| ||dealer hand count numeral 150 ||38 |
| ||second dealer card 149 ||39 |
| ||active player display 170 ||40 |
| ||active player card images 171, 172 ||40 |
| ||active player hand count numeral 173 ||40 |
| ||third active player card image 174 ||40 |
| ||third player card 143 ||40 |
| ||fourth player card 144 ||40 |
| ||fifth player card 145 ||40 |
| ||sixth player card 146 ||40 |
| ||Description of Control Software Flow ||41 |
| ||Charts |
| ||Additional Operation and Methods ||59 |
| ||* * * (End of Table 1) * * * |
| || |
FIG. 1 shows a gaming table 50 which is shown adapted and provided with a preferred system for playing live card games built in accordance with the invention. Gaming table 50 can be of a variety of common constructions. As shown, table 50 includes a table support trestle 51 having legs 52 which contact an underlying floor to support the gaming table thereon. The gaming table has a table top 53 and perimeter pad 54 which extends fully about a semicircular portion of the table periphery. The straight, back portion of the periphery is used by the dealer 56 and can be partly or wholly padded as may vary with the particular table chosen.
A playing surface 55 is provided upon the upwardly facing surface of table top 53 upon which participants of the card game play. A plurality of players (not shown) sit or stand along the semicircular portion and play a desired card game, such as the popular casino card game of blackjack. Other card games are alternatively possible, although the system described herein is specifically adapted for playing casino blackjack.
The gaming table 50 also advantageously includes a betting chip rack 59 which allows the dealer to conveniently store betting chips used by the dealer in playing the game. A money drop slot 57 is further included to allow the dealer to easily deposit paper money bills thereinto when players purchase betting chips.
Table 50 can support a system, or form a part of a system for playing live card games which is constructed according to the present invention. The card game system 60 described herein is a retrofit system which has been added to table 50. Such retrofit system includes a presentation unit 100 which displays images which depict the cards and card hands being played along with additional information used in the play of the card game. The presentation unit will be explained more fully below.
The system also preferably includes a dealer control which is preferably provided in the form of a simulated dealing shoe 80 upon which live dealer 56 can rest his hand and use control keys to provide control commands as will be detailed below. Dealing shoe 80 also advantageously includes a dealer control or dealing shoe display. In the preferred form of the invention the shoe display is subdivided into two different sections, one forms a first shoe display or stack display which is a video display which simulates the stack of cards from which the dealer is dealing cards. The other section of the shoe display forms a second shoe display used to simulate cards moving from the shoe. This second display section can also so the back of a traditional card, the name of the casino, or other desired information.
FIG. 3 shows that system 60 further includes at least one game processor, such as game processor 90. Game processor 90 includes a main module 92 which can advantageously be mounted beneath table top 53, such as by using a game processor support casing or housing 91. The housing can be directly connected to the underside of the table top using fasteners (not shown). The bottom panel of housing 91 is advantageously provided with a bottom access door 95 which is hinged and locked with a key lock (not shown) for security purposes. The controller main module 92 also is advantageously provided with a main power switch 96 which controls supply of power to an internal power supply. Electrical power is supplied to the module using a typical power cord. The main controller module 92 can further be provided with a second access door (not shown) which is also secured by a key lock to control access to a serial port and auxiliary keyboard port described below with regard to the electronics.
The game processor or processors 90 are connected with the dealing shoe 80 and presentation unit 100 using suitable connection cables 93. In the preferred construction there are fourteen data cables running between the module 92 and the presentation unit 100 to control operation of the seven displays used in the presentation unit. There are also two data cables running between the dealing shoe module 80 and main controller module 92.
Gaming table 50 has been fitted with a presentation unit 100 which is supported thereon. The presentation unit or units are preferably supported upon the upper or playing surface 55 of the gaming table. This allows the system to be easily installed upon a variety of differing gaming tables without extensive modifications being performed. Alternatively, the presentation unit can otherwise be mounted upon the gaming table in a manner which allows participants to view one or more of the displays which form a part of the presentation unit.
In the preferred construction shown, there is one presentation unit 100 which is adapted for use by a single live dealer 56 and six live players (not shown) who are in live attendance and positioned about the gaming table. FIGS. 2-4 show in greater detail the preferred form of the presentation unit. The unit includes an outer shell or housing 101 which can be advantageously be made from a transparent polycarbonate plastic so that the displays 102 and 103 can be viewed through the upper housing part without including special windows. The perimeter of the upper housing semicircular section which has a semicircular periphery segment 104. The semicircular periphery and associated player section of the presentation unit are along a player side of the unit. The opposing dealer side of the presentation unit can be of various shapes. As shown, it includes a back periphery segment 106 which has a central portion which is relatively straight and is designed to allow placement of the presentation unit near to the betting chip rack 59.
Presentation Unit Participant Displays
Presentation unit 100 includes a number of visual displays, herein termed participant video displays, which are capable of displaying changeable display images. The participant display images are intended to display virtual playing cards and other information used in the play of the card game. FIGS. 2 and 4 show presentation unit 100 with a single dealer display 102 and six player displays 103. Displays 102 and 103 are advantageously liquid crystal matrix displays having color capability and integrated backlights for added viewing ease and clarity. Such displays are used in recent notebook computers and are commercially available in a variety of types and sizes from several manufacturers. The exact nature and size of the display can vary and alternative types of displays and future display technologies will likely serve the intended purposes for participant video displays 102 and 103.
The dealer display 102 is advantageously centered along a central centerline 110 to allow easy viewing by both the dealer and players. The area of the presentation unit including and adjacent to dealer display 102 is the dealer section of the presentation unit.
Player displays 103 are preferably arranged in an arcuate array forming a segment of an annular band across the upper face of the presentation unit. Each display is centered upon a radial display centerline 111. This arrangement complements the semicircular player side of the presentation unit and the adjacent semicircular player side of the gaming table. In this arrangement the player displays are adjacent and opposite to each player seating position. In the preferred construction shown having six player positions, the displays are centered upon the player display centerlines at angularly spaced positions of about 20-30° of angular arc, more preferably about 25° of arc. Varying the number of player positions and table configuration will allow or require varying angular spacings to be used. This angular spacing arrangement facilitates easy viewing by the player who is viewing the virtual cards from his or her display. It also allows the dealer to have easy view from across the gaming table.
The player displays 103 are also advantageously presented in an upwardly facing orientation and contained in a single plane or approximately a single plane, to facilitate easy viewing by other players from around the table. Although this arrangement and capability are not essential, they increase viewing and interest of the nonparticipating players as a particular player's hand is being played out between the active player and dealer. This helps to maintain the ambiance of a live table game, enables skilled players to keep track of cards played, and overcomes some of the deficiencies of most video card games. Such games in particular lack significant interest to other people as the hand is being played out between a computer and a single player.
Presentation Unit Betting Chip Detectors
FIGS. 2 and 4 show that each player station also advantageously includes a betting chip detection zone 120. Betting chip detection zones 120 are zones into which a player must position a betting chip 160 to be considered a participant in the game being played.
The preferred presentation unit includes betting chip sensors 121 which are immediately below or otherwise adjacent to zones 120. Sensors 121 can be selected from several different types of sensors. One suitable type is a weigh cell which senses the presence of a betting chip thereon so that the game processor knows at the start of a hand, that a player is participating in the next hand being played. A variety of weigh cells can be used.
Another suitable type of sensor 121 includes optical sensors. Such optical sensors can be photosensitive detectors which use changes in the sensed level of light striking the detectors. In a preferred system according to this invention, sensor 121 uses ambient light which beams from area lighting of the casino or other room in which it is placed. When a typical betting chip 161 is placed in detection zone 120, the amount of light striking the detector 121 located beneath the zone is measurably diminished by the opaque betting chip. The detector conveys a suitable electrical signal which indicates that a betting chip has been placed within the detection zone 120. A variety of other alternative detectors can also be used.
A further type of preferred betting chip sensor is one which can detect coding included on or in the betting chips to ascertain the value of the betting chip or chips being placed by the players into detection zones 120. A preferred form of this type of sensor or detector 121 is used to detect an integrated circuit based radio frequency identification unit which is included in or on the betting chips. The most preferred sensors are sometimes referred to as radio frequency identification detection or read-write stations.
FIGS. 38 and 39 show an alternative betting chip 164 which can be used with an alternative card game system similar to system 60. The betting chips 164 are used in lieu of normal betting chips 160. Each betting chip 164 includes a radio frequency identification transponder 161 which is connected to the betting chip 160. In the preferred construction shown, the transponder 161 is sandwiched between a first betting chip part 162 and a second betting chip part 163. The parts 162 and 163 can advantageously be made from a formed paper or plastic material and then adhered or otherwise secured together to enclose the transponder and provide protection for the transponder during use. Alternatively, the transponder can be molded within the betting chip, or otherwise connected thereto, such as by using adhesives to an outer surface of the betting chip.
One type of integrated circuit radio frequency identification transponder is available from Texas Instruments and is sold under the trademarks TIRIS TAG-IT. This transponder is available in a very thin wafer shape, and can be laminated between paper and plastic to form the transponding betting chip 164.
When betting chips 164 are used, the betting chip detection sensor 121 will be a radio frequency interrogator detection unit which sends out a query signal and receives a detectable response from the betting chip transponder 161. The transponder can be either powered or unpowered, depending upon the specific vendor chosen and the associated sensor technology and detection device used with that type of sensor. In the case of one suitable type of transponder explained above from Texas Instruments, this same vendor has associated detection systems which can read data from the transponders. Also available are detection systems which can both read data from the transponder and write data onto the transponders. This vendor or other vendors may provide suitable detection and sensing subsystems which can be employed to not only read and write data thereto, but also provide confirmatory identification codes which deter counterfeiting of the gaming chips or provide additional data processing capabilities.
It is still further possible for other alternative sensors to be used instead of the sensors 121 described above. Such alternative sensors may work with typical betting chips or other types of betting chips. provide identification circuits or other identification or value coding inserts or appliques which can be included in or on the betting chips to provide value information and any other desired information.
FIGS. 2 and 3 further show that the preferred presentation unit includes insurance bet detection zones 130 which have associated insurance bet sensors 131. The insurance bet sensors can be of various types and constructions as explained above in connection with the general betting detection zones 120 and bet sensors 121. The insurance bet detection zones 130 are used by players to place an insurance bet during play of the card game blackjack. An insurance bet is placed as desired by the players upon the occurrence of the dealer receiving an ace as the dealer's up card. If the dealer's down card is a ten-count card, then the dealer has blackjack and the player does not lose his original or insurance bets. If the dealer's down card does not make blackjack, then the insurance bet is lost to the dealer and play continues in the normal fashion.
Dealer Controls and Dealing Shoe
Live card game system 60 also preferably includes a plurality of dealer controls which are advantageously provided in the form of a simulated dealing shoe 80. The dealer controls can alternatively be provided in the presentation unit or in other different forms which do not necessarily require the simulated dealing shoe and other features which are included therewith.
Dealing shoe 80 is shown in greater detail in FIG. 5. The dealing shoe has a dealing shoe case 84 which forms the outer surface of the dealing shoe. The dealing shoe case is connected to and covers a base plate (not shown) which serves as a structural frame to which case 84 is connected and upon which other internal components are mounted.
Case 84 has a first display opening or window which allows a first dealing shoe display 81 to be presented for viewing. The dealing shoe also advantageously includes a second display opening or window which allows a second dealing shoe display 82 to be presented for viewing. In the preferred construction the first and second displays 81 and 82 are provided by a single liquid crystal panel display. The display has two different portions or sections which are changeable and operated to provide different images through the display windows. The first display image typically shows a simulated stack of cards similar to what appears in viewing a traditional card stack contained in a manual dealing shoe long used in dealing blackjack. The first display image can also be varied to allow presentation of programming options which are available in setting up the system and customizing operational parameters to the desired settings for a particular casino or cardroom in which the system is being used.
The second shoe display 82 has a second display image which is advantageously used to provide a depiction of the back decorative side of a traditional playing card. This can be used along with some attractive presentation of the casino's name or other desirable image. The second shoe display image can also be moved or otherwise varied during the period of dealing to give the impression of movement and thus simulate cards being dealt from the shoe to add a touch of additional realism. Other display images are also clearly possible and can vary from casino to casino as management desires.
The dealer controls on the dealing shoe 80 also preferably include a key operated switch 83 which is used to control basic operation of the system and for placing the unit into a programming mode. The key operated switch can provide two levels of access authorization which restricts access by dealers to programming, or additional security requirements can be provided in the software which restricts programming changes to management personnel.
Programming may be input in several different modes consistent with the invention. In one form the programming can be provided using a touch screen display used as display 81 with varying options presented thereon and the programming personnel can set various operational and rules parameters, such as: the shuffle mode, number of decks of cards used in the virtual card stack, options with regard to the portion of the stack which is used before the stack is cut, limits on the amounts which can be bet at a particular table, whether splits are accepted for play and to what degree, options concerning doubling down plays, whether the dealer hits or stands on soft 17, and other rules can be made variable dependent upon the particular form of the system programming used in the system. It is alternatively, and more preferable to simply use the control keys 85-89 instead of a touch screen display in some forms of the invention to allow various menu options to be displayed and programming options to be selected using the control keys. Still further it is possible to attach an auxiliary keyboard (not shown) to the dealing shoe through a keyboard connection port 186 (see FIG. 24). The auxiliary keyboard can then be used to more easily program the system, or be used in maintenance and diagnostic functions.
The dealing shoe also includes a plurality of dealer operational controls provided in the form of dealer control sensors 85-89. Dealer control sensors 85-89 are advantageously electrical touch keys. The dealer control sensors are used by the dealer to indicate that desired control functions should take place or further proceed. For example, sensor 85 can be used to implement a player's decision to split his two similar cards and play them as two separate or split hands. Sensor 86 can be used to implement a player's decision to double down. Sensor 87 can be used to implement a player's decision to stand on the cards already dealt or assigned to that player. Sensor 88 can be used to “hit” a player by dealing him another card. Sensor 89 can be used to command shuffling and dealing of a new hand to the participants. In addition to or lieu of the above assignments, other functions can be attributed to other keys or input sensors of various types. In particular, it is planned that the above touch keys can be assigned to additional functions, such as in changeable soft key assignments during the programming or setup of the system.
Dealer control touch keys 85-89 can be selected from a wide variety of commercially available touch keys used to provide electrical control signals. Alternatively, the dealer control sensors can be provided in another form which are touch sensors, or other types of sensors which allow the dealer to indicate control commands being made or implemented by the dealer. The use of dealer control keys is designed with the object of minimizing most or all direct player input to the system. Instead, the players are required to provide the dealer with traditional hand gesture signals and/or oral instructions and then the dealer implements these instructions using the touch keys or other dealer control sensors.
Electronics and Control Processor
The card game system 60 also includes suitable data and control processing subsystem 90. Control and data processor 90 is largely contained within a main control module 92 supported beneath the table top 53 in casing 91 (FIG. 3). Alternatively, the control module can be at some other suitable location. Other portions of the data and control processing subsystem may reside in part or totally within the dealing shoe 80 or presentation unit 100, as convenient in a particular construction of the electronics and related components.
FIGS. 23-25 show the electronics and related components used in a preferred form of the invention. The control and data processing subsystem 90 includes a suitable power supply 181 for converting alternating current from the power main as controlled by main power switch 96 (FIG. 3). The power supply transforms the alternating line current to a suitable voltage and to a direct current supply. Power is supplied to a power distribution and sensor electronics control circuit 184. Control circuit 184 can be one of several commercially available power switching and control circuits provided in the form of a circuit board which is detachable, and plugs into a board receptacle of a computer mother board 185 or an expansion slot board receptacle.
Power control circuit 184 is connected to a first mode control switch 182 and a second mode control switch 183. The first and second mode control switches are operated by the key control 83 (FIG. 5) contained on dealer control shoe 80. The first switch controls powering up the system once current is supplied to the power supply. The second switch controls activation of the programming mode of operation.
FIG. 24 also shows a controller mother board 185 which includes a central microprocessor (not shown) and related components well-known in the industry as computers using Intel brand Pentium microprocessors and related memory (not specifically shown). A variety of different configurations and types of memory devices can be connected to the mother board as is well-known in the art. Of particular interest is the inclusion of two flat panel display control boards 188 and 189 connected in expansion slots of mother board 185. Display control boards 188 and 189 are each capable of controlling the images displayed and other operational parameters of the video displays used in system 60. More specifically, the display control boards are connected to player bet interfaces circuits 196, 198, 201 and 203 which show four of the six player stations (two are omitted for purposes of illustration brevity but are similarly connected). Additionally, the display control board 189 is shown connected to the dealing shoe interface circuit 190 and the dealer interface 194. This arrangement allows the display control boards to provide necessary image display data to the electronic driver circuits 197, 199, 202 and 204 used to drive the six player displays 103 of FIG. 2. This arrangement also allows the display control boards to provide necessary image display data to the display electronic drive circuits 192 and 195 associated with the dealing shoe displays 81 and 82 (FIG. 5) and the dealer display 102 (FIG. 2), respectively. The display electronic drive circuits just described have associated backlight power supplies 193.
The mother board 185 also includes a serial port 187 which allows stored data to be downloaded from the mother board to a central casino computer or other additional storage device. This allows card game action data to be analyzed in various ways using added detail, or by providing integration with data from multiple tables so that cheating schemes can be identified and eliminated. It also allows monitoring of dealer performance and accuracy on a routine basis. Player performance and/or skill can be tracked at one table or as a compilation from gaming at multiple tables. Additionally, player hand analysis can be performed.
FIG. 24 further shows a keyboard connection port 186 which can be used to connect a larger format keyboard (not shown) to the system to facilitate programming and servicing of the system.
FIG. 25 further shows a number of sensor interface connections 191 which indicate schematically connection of both the player bet sensors 121 and insurance bet sensors 131. With regard to shoe interface 190 there is a control key interface 179 which is used to interact with the control keys 85-89 (FIG. 5). Dealer interface circuit 194 has an associated interface 179 should any touch screen or other desired capability be provided with respect to dealer display 102.
Optional Player Identification
Although the preferred system shown does not have features illustrated for receiving automated player identification information, such can alternatively be provided. Card readers such as used with credit cards, or other identification code reading devices (not shown) can be added in the presentation unit to allow or require player identification in connection with play of the card game and associated recording of game action by the controller 90. Such a user identification interface can be implemented in the form of a variety of magnetic card readers commercially available for reading a user-specific identification information. The user-specific information can be provided on specially constructed magnetic cards issued by a casino, or magnetically coded credit cards or debit cards frequently used with national credit organizations such as VISA, MASTERCARD, AMERICAN EXPRESS, or banks and other institutions.
Alternatively, it is possible to use so-called smart cards to provide added processing or data storage functions in addition to mere identification data. For example, the user identification could include coding for available credit amounts purchased from a casino. As further example, the identification card or other user-specific instrument may include specially coded data indicating security information such as would allow accessing or identifying stored security information which must be confirmed by the user after scanning the user identification card through a card reader. Such security information might include such things as file access numbers which allow the central processor 90 to access a stored security clearance code which the user must indicate using input options provided on displays 103 using touch screen displays.
Another alternative with regard to player identification having particular attraction is employed with regard to use of coded betting chips 164 described above. Each player can carry a transponder card which can be read and written to by the sensor 121. Upon arrival at the table, the player presents the transponder card to sensor 121 and the player is logged in. Thereafter bets can be charged from and winnings can be applied to the transponder according to the wishes of a casino customer. Alternatively, the player identification card could be used merely to identify the player and all betting could be accomplished using betting chips 164.
A still further possibility is to have participant identification using a fingerprint image, eye blood vessel image reader, or other suitable biological information to confirm identity of the user. Still further it is possible to provide such participant identification information by having the dealer manually code in the information in response to the player indicating his or her code name or real name. Such additional identification could also be used to confirm credit use of a smart card or transponder.
Alternative Presentation Unit Features
It should also be understood that presentation unit 100 can alternatively be provided with suitable display cowlings or covers (not shown) which can be used to shield display of card images from viewing by anyone other than the player. Such an alternative construction may be desired in systems designed for card games different from blackjack, where some or all of the player or dealer cards are not presented for viewing by other participants or onlookers. Such display covers or cowlings can be in various shapes and configurations as needed to prevent viewing access. It may alternatively be acceptable to use a player controlled switch which allows the display to be momentarily viewed and then turned off. The display can be shielded using a cover or merely by using the player's hands. Still further it is possible to use a touch screen display that would be controlled by touch to turn on and turn off. Similar shielding can be used to prevent others from viewing the display.
Alternative Embodiment Table Game System With Integrated Video Playing Card Displays
It should still further be understood that although a retrofit game system is preferred, it may in some situations be desirable to use displays which are mounted in an integrated fashion to the gaming table. Such displays may be provided adjacent to the betting sensors 121 and 131 in a configuration similar to that described above. Alternatively, the systems can have either touch screen display for added player or dealer input convenience, or other sensors which allow input of player or dealer decisions and options.
Preferred Dealer Display Images
FIG. 6 shows a preferred display image which can be displayed by the dealer display 102. Various features of the preferred display and related operational information will now be described.
FIG. 6 shows the dealer display 102 in greater detail. A typical dealer display image is portrayed. In this image there are two virtual playing cards represented by two virtual playing card images 107 and 108. Card 107 is the dealer's upcard and card 108 is the dealer's down card or hole card. The upcard is faceup and the hole card is facedown. The image of FIG. 6 depicts the dealer's card hand after the initial dealing of two cards to each participant. This is prior to the dealer playing out his hand. When the dealer plays out his hand, then the hole card will be shown faceup and the dealer will receive additional cards according to the casino's rules of play for the dealer. The dealer display image will change and show the cards either side-by-side if space allows, or overlapping if the dealer's hand has sufficient number of cards so as to require overlapping.
During play of the dealer's hand, the dealer will typically hit on his hand if the hand count is 16 or less and stand if it is 17 or more. A preferred option in setup of the system is to select according to casino procedures whether to hit or stand when the dealer has a soft 17 (ace and one or more cards which together total 17 when the ace is counted as 11).
Additional information can also be displayed on the dealer display 102 as may be desired by the casino or as provided by the manufacturer of the system. At the current time the dealer display is planned to display the card hand of the dealer and other information is presented on the player displays 103 as will be explained below in greater detail.
Preferred Player Display Images
FIGS. 7-22 shows preferred display images which can be displayed by the player displays 102. Various features of the preferred display images and related operational information will now be described.
FIG. 7 shows principal parts of a preferred player station 118. Station 118 includes the betting chip detection zone 120. Not pictured in FIGS. 7-22 are the added feature of the insurance bet detection zones 130 which are shown in FIG. 2.
The player station also includes a player station display 103 which includes a display border zone 105 which is part of the changeable display face and can vary from one display image to the next. The border zone lies within an outer display perimeter line 113 and an inner border zone boundary 114. The inner border zone boundary 114 is shown in dashed line to indicate it's position but it is not highlighted in this view and other views except when the border zone is turned on as an indication of whether the player's hand has won or lost. This is preferably done by two different mechanisms to clearly indicate to the live participants at the table the outcome of that player's hand. The outcome indicating zone is also used to indicate with certainty whether the hand has been won or lost in a manner which can be recorded by any monitoring camera used above or near the gaming table. When the player has won, the border zone 105 is highlighted in green or other suitable color. The border zone is also flashed on and off so that a black and white camera can also clearly identify the outcome as a win.
When the player has lost, the border zone 105 is highlighted in red or other suitable color. The border zone is maintained red and is not flashed on and off in distinction to the flashing used to indicate a winning hand. The constantly highlighted border zone is identifiable by a black and white camera because of this constant highlighting.
When the hand results in a push (tie) neither the dealer nor the player win, and the border zone 105 is not highlighted or can be dashed or otherwise distinguished. This too can be easily discerned from a black and white or color camera monitoring the table from above. The absence of the border zone from being either flashing or being on constantly provides certain indication that a tie outcome has occurred.
FIG. 7 shows the player station when no bet has been placed and nothing is being displayed. Alternatively, there can be some attract mode advertising of the casino or game in anticipation of the next game or the arrival of customers.
FIG. 8 shows player station 118 after a customer has placed a betting chip 160 into betting chip detection zone 120. The presence of the chip blocks part of the casino room light and serves to provide an indication of the bet being in place. This is interpreted by the controller as a player is present. There can alternatively be more overt login procedures for each player which can be accomplished by either the dealer or player either with or without added player identification subsystems.
FIG. 8 shows the player display 103 as being blank since the game has not become active. This condition applies when one player may have placed his bet and the dealer is awaiting similar action by one or more other players before beginning the next card hand.
FIG. 9 shows the player station with display 103 activated in part. The upper left corner includes a secondary display section 141. As shown, secondary display section 141 is used to indicate the content of the dealer's hand at any particular time. This is done with a background triangle for appearance and easy viewing. There is also a display subtitle “DEALER TOTAL”. Since no cards have been dealt as of the time associated with FIG. 9, there is no indication of the dealer's hand.
FIG. 9 also shows a tertiary display section 151 which is advantageously used for several different functions as will be explained more fully below. FIG. 9 does show a display subtitle “BASIC STRATEGY” and a background triangle. Since no cards have been dealt as of the time associated with FIG. 9, there is no basic strategy information presented in section 151.
FIG. 10 is similar to FIG. 9 except that the player has been dealt one virtual card, the ace of spades. This is shown faceup in the lower left-hand corner. The area displaying the player's hand is herein termed the primary display section 146. The virtual card image displayed in section 146 can be very realistic in the manner of paper or plastic playing cards, or it can be of various other styles.
FIG. 10 also shows a hand count total numeral 147 which represents the count of the player's card hand at any particular time. This is done to help the player and eliminate or greatly reduce the risk for mistakes about the count of the hand.
At the time the player receives the ace shown in FIG. 10, the dealer has not received any card and there is no basic strategy displayed because the player has not received his second card.
FIG. 11 shows the player display after the dealer has received his first card which is the secondary display dealer upcard 148. The secondary display 141 shows the ace and gives a dealer hand count numeral 150. In this case the dealer hand count is 11. There is still no basic strategy displayed at the tertiary display 151 because the player has not received his second card in the image of FIG. 11.
FIG. 12 shows play advanced by the player having been dealt his second virtual card which is a three of diamonds. The primary player display section shows the card image 142 in an overlapping relationship to the first card. The player hand count numeral 147 has been revised to the new count which is 14. A suggested basic strategy note is displayed at tertiary display section 151 which reads, “HIT”. This indicates that basic strategy is to receive another virtual card from the stack.
FIG. 13 shows the player display after the dealer has received his second card provided in the initial dealing. The second dealer card 149 is the hole card and is shown facedown and beneath the dealer upcard 148. The dealer hand count remains at 11 because the value of hole card 149 is not indicated until all players have played out their hands. The exception to this rule can occur when the dealer's hand count is twenty one and the dealer has a blackjack. In the situation shown in FIG. 13, there is the possibility that the dealer has a blackjack hand and thus players will typically be given an opportunity to place an insurance bet. This is done by placing a betting chip or chips into zone 130 (FIG. 2) and the hand is played as explained above with regard to insurance.
FIG. 14 shows further progress of the hand and a changed player display image. In the image of FIG. 14, the tertiary display section has been changed to have a subtitle which reads “PLAYER 3 TOTAL”. This indicates that instead of basic strategy information, the tertiary display is now showing how player 3 is playing out his hand. This progresses as the various active players play out each hand until the current player is up. The active player display 170 shows the active player card images 171, 172. Also shown is the active player hand count numeral 173.
FIG. 15 shows the active player display 170 changed to reflect a third active player card image 174. The hand count 173 has been revised to reflect the third card dealt to player 3. Also indicated is the decision by player 3 to stand.
FIG. 16 shows the player display 103 after the current player has come up as the active player and has elected to receive a third player card 143. The hand count numeral 147 has been revised to reflect the new count of 16. The basic strategy has returned to the tertiary display 151 and is suggesting to the player that he should be hit to receive another card. Although basic strategy has been suggested, there is no limitation on how the player decides and he indicates such to the dealer and the dealer operates the dealer controls 85-89 to implement the player's decision.
FIG. 17 shows the player display after the player has elected to have another card dealt. The fourth player card 144 results in a changed hand count of 12 because the valuation of the ace is necessarily changed from 11 to 1 because otherwise the player is over 21 and has lost. The basic strategy display again suggests a hit because of the low hand count.
FIG. 18 shows a fifth player card 145 which revises the hand count to 16 and the basic strategy is again to hit.
FIG. 19 shows a sixth player card 146 which is counted with the other player cards to reach a hand count of 26 which is a bust. The tertiary display shows that the player has busted. The border zone 105 is shown highlighted and maintained in an on condition to show a bust and loss for easy dealer, pit and camera detection from above the table.
FIG. 20 is similar to FIG. 19 except the player has lost the betting chip 160 due to collection by the dealer.
FIG. 21 shows the losing player's display has been cleared with regard to the primary display section and the tertiary display section due to the loss. If other players have yet to play out, then the tertiary display 151 will show the active player hand as previously illustrated in FIG. 14. FIG. 21 indicates an image when there is no other player playing out his hand and prior to the dealer having played out the dealer's hand.
FIG. 22 shows the dealer's hand as being a 21 and thus the dealer is a winner. This ends the current hand of cards and similar processes are repeated.
Description of Control Software Flow Charts
The game processor controller 90 includes software which is used in the operation of the card game system 60. It should initially be understood that the particular software used will vary dependent upon the card game being played. The system described herein is being used for playing blackjack and so specific description in that context is provided. However, other games can be played and there will necessarily be modifications to the software and program routines to accomplish these changed games, or such may be required in connection with playing the wide variety of blackjack games played in casinos and cardrooms everywhere.
The game processor includes operational modules for performing a number of data processing functions in connection with the preferred blackjack card games. One key function is tallying the card array which forms the stack of virtual cards. Other key functions include: tallying the player hand counts; generating random number selections or listings; selecting virtual cards within a stack or selecting virtual cards which are to be distributed from the stack; monitoring a set of house rules or options to apply the correct rules during play of the game; monitoring player hand counts and cards dealt; providing basic strategy suggestions for use by the player in response to various different hands; and, communicating the various data processing sets and files between system components to achieve successful operation. Other functions and variations of the above are also indicated elsewhere in this document.
FIG. 26 shows an overview of game processor logic flow in the form of a block diagram. Power is applied at step 206 and the system goes into an initiation sequence using programming contained in a programmable read only memory forming part of mother board 185. Step 208 is provided to indicate possible editing of game rules if a properly authorized user indicates programming should occur in the manners described above.
After any desired editing of the game rules in step 208, the dealer initiates a new game by control command S, such as by pushing the deal control key switch 89 (FIG. 5). This leads to step 212 wherein the game processor performs by identifying who is participating in the game from the available player stations, and includes the dealer by default.
Step 215 involves dealing the two initial cards played in blackjack to the participating players and to the dealer. Such dealing involves generating random numbers which are used in selecting from the available cards contained in the set of cards defined to be the card stack. It further involves displaying the cards which have been dealt upon the displays in the manner and with the appearance described above, or some other suitable manner and appearance. Additional description of the two card dealing operation will be described below in connection with FIG. 28.
FIG. 26 also shows a step 218 which involves showing or displaying the dealer's top or upcard on the dealer display and in the secondary sections of the player displays. This block also represents not displaying the dealer's down or hole card.
The next step illustrated in FIG. 26 is a step of identifying players having a blackjack hand after the dealing of the two initial cards to each participating player station and to the dealer station (all participants). The following step 224 includes considering the next active player and analyzing the hand which is held by such player. After the analyzing the hand, there is a process of applying the basic strategy rules to the analyzed player hand to perform a deriving of basic strategy suggestion. This basic strategy suggestion is then implemented by displaying the basic strategy as step 227, such as in a manner explained above in connection with the player display descriptions.
FIG. 26 also shows some alternative playing options which are considered in the course of the data processing functions. Step 230 provides a surrender option which may be made available to the player by presenting some indication of surrendering, or by merely allowing the player to orally or otherwise indicate he or she is surrendering after the initial two cards have been dealt and as an initial play decision associated with the hand the player has received versus the knowledge the player has of what the dealer has been dealt. One possible playing rule in this regard might be to allow the player to surrender, in which case the player would lose at that point one-half of his bet. This might be done in case the dealer appeared to have a blackjack hand and the player did not have a blackjack hand and did not believe he was likely to achieve a winning hand by receiving one or more hit cards.
If surrender occurs then step 233 occurs which involves deactivating the surrendering player. The process can then be continued with regard to additional players who would either opt for surrendering or not surrendering.
FIG. 26 also shows a step 239 which involves, analyzing to determine if the dealer has been dealt an ace as his upcard. If so, then the game can advantageously perform by presenting the players with a notice, such as by displaying a message concerning insurance on the player or dealer displays. Although such a message is not shown in the figures, a simple flashing “INSURANCE?” might be used on either or both displays and then waiting sufficient time for the player to place their insurance bets upon the insurance bet detection zones 130. The game processor can then perform by detecting the presence of any insurance bets and logging such information into the game files being created in the game processor memory. If the dealer does not have a blackjack hand, then the step 242 of collecting the insurance bets can be performed by the dealer.
FIG. 26 further shows a step 245 which entails considering whether any player desires to split his or her hand. The split option typically occurs when the player has received two cards of similar kind, such as two kings or two aces. The player in particular may want to split on two aces since each has a relatively high probability of getting a ten-count card to make blackjacks. This is in comparison to valuing each of the aces as either 1 or 11 and further playing the cards as a single hand. Step 248 represents implementing the active split hands and dealing an additional card to the split hand to provide two cards. The first split hand is then played out and play continues on to the second or subsequent split hand of the same player.
FIG. 26 further includes a step 254 which performs by considering whether any players want to make a double down play. If so, then they indicate such to the dealer who depresses control key 86 (FIG. 5) and step 257 occurs which involves dealing the additional double down card to that player. The system then performs by evaluating the player's hand in step 263.
If a player does not elect to double down, but instead proceeds to either stand or be hit, then step 260 is performed and such an election is made and the player performs by communicating such to the dealer. The dealer follows through by depressing either the stand or hit control keys 87 and 88, respectively. If another or hit card is dealt, then step 266 is performed and the game processor performs by analyzing the player's hand to determine whether the player has busted. If not, then the player is given another opportunity to obtain a hit card and the process repeats until the player elects to stand. In the last case the processor performs in step 263 by evaluating the final hand count and hand composition and then proceeds to address the additional participating players. If the player busts, then step 269 is performed in which case the dealer proceeds to the next available participating player or proceeds to step 271.
In step 271 the process continues by playing out the dealer's hand. This may involve hitting or standing in a manner similar to play by the players as explained above.
Step 274 is performed by determining which players have won or lost, and then such information is displayed on the displays 103, or 102, such as described hereinabove.
FIG. 27 shows additional detail not depicted in FIG. 26 in the form of a main loop routine to further clarify processes used leading up to the dealing of the initial two cards. Steps 206 and 207 are as explained above. Step 283 involves testing for the edit rules security lock having been opened by the appropriate code key. If so, then the edit rules subroutine 208 is performed. If not, then various buffers and arrays are prepared for normal operation in an initiating step 292. This will involve loading programming from read only memory or other programming source to set up the game processor for operation.
Step 295 involves displaying any casino names or logos or otherwise displaying an attraction display image, such as upon the player displays 102, dealer display 103, or shoe displays 81 or 82. Thereafter, the game processor performs in step 298 by looking for any wagers as indicated by sensors 121. Step 301 represents initiating the active player stations and querying for a response that the player display has been activated.
The sequence shown in FIG. 27 then performs by waiting for the dealer to proceed by depressing the deal command key 89. If not pressed then the waiting process is continued. If pressed, then step 307 is passed. Thereafter step 310 is performed in which case the participating players are set and any additional information is loaded in preparation for dealing. Step 313 indicates that the shoe display 81 is performing a displaying operation and step 316 indicates the marking or highlighting of the cut card and performance of the cutting operation as further explained now.
Prior to the dealing step, the processes according to this invention can also include a cutting step which can be performed either by the dealer or by a player. In one form of the invention the cutting is performed by displaying a simulated card stack on the first shoe display 81 and then having the player perform a touching of display. In this process the display 81 is a touch screen display and the touching step causes a location in the stack to be selected as the cut position. The cut card can then be specially displayed, such as by using a highlighting color. Such a process can also involve progressively moving the cut card as virtual cards are dealt.
An alternative cutting operation can be performed similar to the cutting just described but it is instead performed by the dealer touching display 81 rather than the player. This can be done in response to the dealer's judgement, or more preferably, the dealer can undertake such action in response to instructions from one of the players.
A still further alternative approach in performing a stack cutting operation is to have a selected player perform by instructing the dealer. The dealer in this alternative would be empowered to move a virtual cut card as it appears on the display. For example, during the cutting operation the stack image display 81 would function by displaying and highlighting a cut card. The dealer could then perform by moving or repositioning the cut card position within the stack by using one or more of the dealer control keys 85-89 which would become soft keys assigned to this repositioning function. The player performing the cutting judgement would then act by instructing the dealer as to the desired position of the cut card and the dealer would perform this repositioning as displayed on the display. The repositioning could be affected by adjusting the cut card position as needed in response to the instructions given by the player who is empowered with the cutting operation. After the cutting position is resolved, then the stack order is changed to reverse the two sections of the stack which are divided by the cutting position.
In preferred methods according to the invention there is also a house or dealer cut card placing action which is advantageously made. This is made after the stack cutting operation discussed above. In this operation the dealer or other representative of the casino moves the cut card indicator to a position which is set by casino policy to be within a defined range. For example the cut card position might be midway in the stack. In such situation cards would be played until the cut card position is achieved and then the stack would be reshuffled.
After the above steps are performed, then the two initial card dealing sequence is performed. This processing if further illustrated in FIG. 28. Step 322 of FIG. 28 illustrates the moving card routine advantageously performed by the second shoe display 82 in order to add realism to the game. Such a step includes indicating motion of playing card images after the dealer has commanded that dealing begin using touch key 89. This can advantageously be performed using the second shoe display 82. The motion indicating step can by done by shifting the apparent card back face image downwardly within the second shoe display and thus visually indicating that the dealing process is being performed. This can be of added realistic effect and aid the players in easily recognizing the action of the blackjack or other card game being played.
Step 322 is followed by adjusting the simulated stack display in the first shoe display 81 by shifting the position of the cut card and moving it closer to the second display.
FIG. 28 also shows step 328 which involves selecting a card from the stack using the random number generator. The shuffling processes used in the system can be performed in three preferred processes. In a first shuffling process, herein called traditional shuffling, the random number generator is used to create an assigned order to all cards of the stack prior to dealing any card to any participant in the game. This is akin to the manner in which paper or plastic playing cards are handled, since the decks comprising the stack are shuffled and reshuffled the desired number of times to reorder the stack. Once the shuffling is completed, then any desired cutting of the deck is performed and the stack is placed into a dealing shoe. Once placed into a dealing shoe the order of the cards is fixed and no reordering occurs.
Another form of shuffling is made available using system 60 which cannot reasonably be performed in playing card games using paper or plastic physical playing cards. This shuffling process is herein termed continuous random shuffle. In this shuffling process the order of distribution of cards from the stack is not predetermined before the hand is played. Instead the random number generator operates on the fly as needed when the game requires a card to be taken from the stack. The position from the stack is varied to produce the random distribution of potentially any card at any time. The entire set of virtual cards which make up the stack is maintained at all times, without removing cards which may already have been dealt in the same playing hand. This maintaining a set of all available cards in the stack achieves truer randomness than by reducing the stack set for removed cards. In any particular card assignment, the player can receive any of the possible cards. This procedure may be desirable in play of certain games or may be more attractive to the casino or players for objective or subjective reasons which become important.
Another shuffling or card assignment process which is contemplated by this invention is herein termed random balance shuffling. In random balance shuffling the set of available cards in the virtual stack is reduced by the assignment of prior cards dealt in the hand. For example, where the first card dealt is an ace of spades, and the stack is defined by the casino to be only one deck, then no other player in that hand can receive the ace of spades. In most casinos blackjack is played using stacks where there are multiple decks, for example six decks. In such situations, then there clearly would be additional aces of spades which might be dealt. However, the frequency of selecting the ace of spades after one or more other aces of spades have been already dealt in that hand does diminish. This should be contrasted to the continuous random shuffle wherein the expected statistical frequency does not change as cards are dealt.
Step 328 schematically represents the selection of the next card whether this is done on the fly using continuous random shuffle, or random balance shuffle. Alternatively, the selection process can be done with pre-ordering using the traditional shuffle.
The traditional shuffle does have a significant disadvantage which blackjack players may have noticed or experienced. This disadvantage is demonstrated by the situation where one player either stands or hits in a nonconventional manner, either by mistake or intent. Other players at the table often notice this apparent error, and as a result the next player or dealer would receive a different card than if the prior player had played his hand in a conventional manner. In some cases, the difference in cards can affect some or all who receive cards thereafter. In some cases, players become irate because of the realization that this mistaken choice by another player has cost the other players their bets and the wins which they otherwise would have enjoyed. This type of situation can be very upsetting and sometimes even leads to fights among the players. By utilizing the continuous random shuffle or the random balance shuffle procedures which can be accomplished with this system, there is no pre-ordering of the stack and no particular card can be said to have switched from one player to the next. In each of these procedures the random number generator goes through a selection process immediately prior to distribution of each card and thus the decisions of one player are not fairly attributable to some derogatory effect on other players.
The card selected by the above-described processes is then assigned to the next dealt card required and to the participant, whether player or dealer. Once assigned, then step 334 effects the displaying of the card on the player's display if it is a card assigned to a player. The preferred game system also effects displaying a copy of the player's card on all screens when appropriate as explained above in connection with the preferred player display images. The game then involves assessing whether the next action is with a player or dealer in step 340. This process repeats until all players have received their first card. Then a virtual card is assigned to the dealer in step 343. The first card to the dealer is dealt as a face-down card and is often referred to as the hole card. Step 350 indicates that the hole card of the dealer is dealt and displayed facedown. The process explained above repeats again for the active players and dealer until step 347 indicates that a second card has been received by the dealer.
After both initial cards are received by all participants, then the cards are assured in faceup condition in step 353 except for the dealer's hole card and copies of the cards are placed on other player's displays as previously indicated. Alternatively, initial cards may be dealt in a face-up condition. Thereafter process 221 proceeds to determine the players with blackjack hands.
FIG. 29 details the process, shown abbreviated as step 221 in FIG. 26, for determining players with blackjack hands. Step 362 involves going on to the next active player for consideration. Step 365 is evaluating the player's hand. Step 369 is a deciding whether a blackjack hand is present. Step 369 leads to repeating steps 362 and 365 for another player if no blackjack hand is present. If a blackjack hand is present, then the process branches to step 372 wherein the program functions by identifying the player or players with a blackjack hand by player number “n”. Step 375 performs a decision whether the player, more properly participant, is a player or the dealer. If the answer is yes indicating it is the dealer, then the game is over and the two card play sequence is then repeated in another hand. If the blackjack hand is not for the dealer, then the player's status is changed by step 381 to changing the status to inactive with regard to additional play of the hand.
FIG. 30 details a two card play sequence 387 which is shown in abbreviated form in FIG. 26. Step 224 includes going to the next active player. Thereafter the processor performs in step 393 by displaying the active hand on all player displays, in the tertiary part of the display as explained above. Step 396 involves displaying the dealer's hand to all displays. Step 399 involves calling up the strategy analysis monitor and performing such strategy analysis to provide a basic strategy note to be displayed to the active player. The step 227 of displaying the basic strategy on the active player's display is then included, thereby rendering helpful advice to the player.
FIG. 30 then shows more complete steps in assessing surrender. Step 405 involves checking the game rules to see if the casino allows surrender as a play option. If yes, then decision step 408 proceeds to branch to an instructing step for allowing surrender by a player or players in step 411. Step 414 indicates the player's individual decisions whether to surrender. If decision 414 is yes, then that player is rendered into inactive status by an inactivating step 417. This process is repeated via connection A for other players. If surrender is not selected, then step 420 provides for evaluating the dealer's upcard. If the dealer's upcard is an ace, then decision step 239 branches to an insurance sequence detailed in FIG. 31. Return occurs in returning from insurance sequence at step 429.
If there is no dealer ace as upcard, then the game processor performs by assessing whether the player's hand has a pair in steps 432 and 435. If no pair exists, then the process continues by proceeding on with the consideration of whether the player wants to double down as shown in step 254 of FIG. 26. If there is a pair, then a split sequence branch step 441 is performed as detailed in FIG. 32.
The insurance sequence shown in FIG. 31 branches from decision step 239 of FIG. 30 and advances to step 447 which involves going to the next active player. The possibility for taking insurance is publicized by notifying the players using a displaying step 450 which notes such on all displays 102
and 103. Step 453 then involves detecting whether insurance bets have been made. This is repeated by deciding in step 456 whether additional active players have taken insurance bets and the logical loop is again cycled until there are no more players and the process returns via branch 429 to the two card play sequence shown in FIG. 30.
FIG. 32 details the split hands process sequence 441 from step 435 of FIG. 30. This first involves offering a player with a pair the option to split the hand in step 462. The player then decides whether to split his hand at step 465 and this is implemented by the dealer depressing key 85 to indicate the hand should be split by the game processor. If the hand is not split, then processing goes on to the additional two card play sequence of FIG. 33 at step 504. If the player elects to split by accepting the split offer, then step 468 is processed and a split counter is incremented. Thereafter in step 471 the processor processes data to split the original hand containing the pairs into two hands. Step 474 performs by identifying that each of the split hands has only one card. Step 477 performs by instructing that an additional card should be dealt. Step 480 performs by copying the instruction to deal cards to the split hands. Step 483 involves dealing the additional cards. Step 486 performs by deciding whether there are additional split opportunities which have developed from the newly dealt cards. If so, then step 489 performs by incrementing the split counter. Decision step 492 compares the split counter to make sure the maximum allowable splits programmed by the casino rules has not been exceeded. If not, then recycling through step 468 and the splitting function repeats. If there are no further split options from decision step 486, then processing continues on to step 504 of FIG. 33.
FIG. 33 shows an additional two card play sequence which includes a step 504 which involves calling the strategy monitor to apply the strategy rules to the player's hand after the splitting or insurance subroutines have been completed. The next step 507 involves displaying the suggested strategy. Thereafter, the players place an additional bet to “double down” in step 510. Decision step 254 responds to a yes with a doubling of the wager in the processor at step 516. Step 519 is dealing of the additional single double down card. Step 522 involves evaluating the player's hand after the double down card has been assigned. Decision step 525 involves determining whether the resultant player hand has busted. If yes, then step 528 involves displaying the bust outcome. If no, then a revised hand total results and this is performed by communicating or displaying the new hand total in step 531.
FIG. 33 also shows that if the player does not double down in decision step 254, then step 534 results. Thereafter the action is for the player to proceed by indicating whether he or she wants to be hit with another card or stand. If the decision in step 540 is to hit, then dealing of another card occurs as shown in step 543. The player's hand is then acted upon by the game processor performing an evaluating step 546 to proceed on with a decision step 549 whether the hand has busted. If not, then the hit/stand option is again considered by the player and the portion of the sequence is repeated until either there is a bust or a stand decision. If there is a bust, then step 552 involves displaying the bust as described above. If the decision is to stand as represented by standing step 555, then processing continues on to step 558 looking for more active players. If there are more active players, then circle A leads back to step 224 at the top of FIG. 30 for additional cycling of the processes discussed.
If there are no additional active players, then step 561 proceeds on to a finish sequence shown in FIG. 36.
FIG. 34 details a deal card subroutine used in the overall process at a number of steps discussed above, such at FIG. 33, step 543. The deal card sequence starts with step 564 which involves the simulated moving of a card from the dealing shoe using the second display 82 and suitable image processing techniques to suggest movement. Step 567 involves adjusting the first shoe display 81 to show repositioning of the cut card and any other desired adjustments in the image. Step 570 involves using the random number generator and selecting a virtual card from the stack as discussed more fully above. Step 573 involves assigning the selected card to the appropriate player. Step 576 involves displaying the assigned card faceup on the display screen for the player. Step 579 involves copying the assigned and displayed card onto other displays as needed for the tertiary display section explained above. Step 582 represents return to other points in the processing after the deal card subroutine has been completed.
FIG. 35 further details a play out sequence. This is illustrated in more abbreviated form at FIG. 26, steps 260 and 266. The play out sequence subroutine includes step 585 which involves the player instructing the dealer with regard to whether the dealer should command hit or stand, such as implemented by control keys 88 and 87, respectively. Step 591 shows decision branching when the player has decided to stand. In this case the step 594 is pursued which either returns the program to the calling routine from whence it branched to the play out sequence, or step 594 involves proceeding on to the finish sequence routine covered in FIG. 36, which will be further explained below. If the player does not decide to stand, then decision step 597 is implemented with regard to a hit. A decision to hit passes the processing onto the deal card sequence subroutine via step 600 as discussed above in connection with FIG. 34.
FIG. 36 shows a finish sequence which starts with step 603 which involves turning over the dealer's hole card and displaying this information to the players. Step 606 involves playing out the dealer's hand according to house rules. This step is detailed further by the content of FIG. 37. FIG. 36 shows step 609 which involves determining the winners and losers. Step 612 involves collecting from losers and paying winners. Step 615 is followed by another game which is indicated by initiate step 615.
FIG. 37 details the playing out of the dealer's hand which is shown in abbreviated form at step 606 of FIG. 36. Step 618 involves evaluating the dealer's hand count as a soft count, in which case any aces held are valued at 11 rather than at a value of 1. This is followed by step 621 which compares the soft hand count to whether it is greater than the value 17. If greater than 17 then the step 624 proceeds to step 609 of FIG. 36. If the dealer's soft hand count is equal to a value of 17, then decision step 627 branches to step 630 which involves considering the house rule on soft 17 dealer hand counts. This is a variable house rule option in system 60. Decision step 633 can result in either the dealer standing on a soft 17 as depicted by step 636. This leads back to step 609 of FIG. 36. Alternatively, the other soft 17 rule leads to the dealer hitting his hand at step 639. That in turn leads back to step 609 of the finish sequence.
FIG. 37 also shows a branch from decision step 627 toward evaluating step 642 indicating the situation where the dealer's soft hand count is less than the value 17. Evaluation step 642 considers the dealer's hand and determines the hard dealer hand count with the ace valued at 11. Decision step 645 branches on the basis of whether the hard dealer hand count is less than the value 17. If less than 17, then the dealer receives another card as illustrated by step 651. If the dealer's hard hand count is 17 or greater, then the dealer stands and step 648 leads back to step 609 of the finish sequence.
Additional Operation and Methods
Additional aspects of the novel methods and operation of system 60 are now further described. The methods are for playing a live card game involving a plurality of live participants. The live participants including at least one player and at least one dealer. The live participants attend the card game personally about a gaming table.
In one aspect the methods include providing at least one presentation unit which is supported by the gaming table and has a viewing face which is available for viewing by the participants attending the game about the gaming table. The providing step occurs by constructing or having constructed a gaming table with system, such as system 60, retrofit or otherwise installed thereon.
In another aspect the methods include displaying a plurality of changeable participant display images from at least one participant video display which forms a part of the at least one presentation unit. The plurality of participant video displays can be provided in the form of discreet displays are shown herein, or part of a large display if practical in terms of positioning about the gaming table. The displaying step involves providing participant display images which include playing card images indicating virtual playing cards dealt or otherwise assigned to the live participants.
The methods further advantageously include processing data using at least one game processor. The processing of data is advantageously used to perform a number of data processing functions as have been described herein. Of particular interest are the data processing steps which provide the following steps or functions. In one aspect such involves providing game rules which at least partially administer play of the card game. In another aspect such involves defining a stack of virtual playing cards having one or more decks of virtual playing cards included therein for use in playing the card game. Such decks can be conventional decks, abbreviated decks, or decks of unusual composition depending upon the card game being played.
The preferred data processing function further includes shuffling the stack of virtual playing cards to produce a stack sequence which determines the order of virtual playing cards dealt or otherwise assigned to the participants. The stack sequence referred to can be done in a single time frame, such as by using the traditional shuffle discussed above. Alternatively, such shuffling can be done on an intermittent basis to perform the continuous random shuffle, random balance shuffle or other shuffling routines on the fly as cards need to be dealt or otherwise assigned in play of the card game.
The data processing functions can further include dealing virtual playing cards to participants from the stack according to the game rules.
The data processing functions further advantageously include instructing the participant video displays to display at least playing card images indicating virtual playing cards assigned to the participants, said virtual playing cards assigned to the participant forming the participant's card hand. The instructing step relative to participant video displays can also include presentation of additional information as detailed above.
The methods of this invention further involve controlling play of the card game using at least one dealer control, such as dealer control keys 85-89. The dealer control keys act as dealer control sensors which are controllably activated by the dealer to control action of the card game. This control action includes at least dealing of virtual playing cards to the participants. The description given above further details other control actions of the dealer's operation of the system.
The novel methods can further include recording game action for the card game being played to enable subsequent analysis or replay. This can be done using the mother board memory described above or by recording the data on a remote memory device (not shown), such as connected through serial port 187. The analysis will likely be performed at some other location on a different data processing unit so that operation of the gaming table is not impeded.
Methods according to the invention may further include displaying a simulated stack image, such as at first dealing shoe display 81. This displaying can be further enhanced by display of a cut card image, and moving or adjusting the cut card image to simulate playing of the stack.
Methods according to the invention can further include sensing placement of betting chips by a player, such as at betting chip detection zones 120 using sensors 121. This is advantageously done for purposes of indicating participation in the card game.
Another method according to the invention can include sensing placement of betting chips by a player for purposes of indicating an insurance bet being placed in the card game, such as at insurance bet detection zones 130 using sensors 131.
The methods involving sensing the betting chips can be enhanced by using betting chips which are encoded to allow determination of the value of the betting chips. Such methods can further include sensing the value of chips placed by the players.
As explain above in the preferred methods the decisions of the players are effected by communicating instructions from the players to the dealer. These indicate playing decisions being made by the player in carrying out play of the card game. The dealer then implements the player's decision using dealer controls which perform by controlling the data processing and other functions of the card game system.
The methods according to this invention can use shuffling processes which are performed in a manner which reorders the stack after each card is dealt from the deck. The continuous random shuffling and random balance shuffling described above perform this function. The shuffling function can also be effected using a shuffling process which reorders the stack after each card is dealt from the deck, the reordering being performed after excluding any cards which have been dealt and are currently in the hand of a participant. This latter shuffling is performed by the random balance shuffling.
The methods of this invention preferably involve digital data processing functions and processes. This allows high speed, accuracy and clarity of display images.
In compliance with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.