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Publication numberUS20010001367 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/332,755
Publication dateMay 24, 2001
Filing dateJun 16, 1999
Priority dateJul 9, 1998
Also published asCA2275559A1, DE19830817A1, DE19830817B4, EP0970765A2, EP0970765A3, EP0970765B1, US6269670
Publication number09332755, 332755, US 2001/0001367 A1, US 2001/001367 A1, US 20010001367 A1, US 20010001367A1, US 2001001367 A1, US 2001001367A1, US-A1-20010001367, US-A1-2001001367, US2001/0001367A1, US2001/001367A1, US20010001367 A1, US20010001367A1, US2001001367 A1, US2001001367A1
InventorsKarl-Heinz Koestermeier
Original AssigneeKarl-Heinz Koestermeier
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for forming a workpiece by flow-forming
US 20010001367 A1
Abstract
The invention relates to a method for working or forming a workpiece by flow-forming, particularly for the manufacture of internal teeth on the workpiece, in which a cup-shaped preform or blank is axially fixed against a tool chuck and pressed by means of at least one rolling body onto said tool chuck and the blank is rotated relative to the rolling body, the at least one rolling body, at the start of forming, at the open end of the blank is pressed against the cylinder wall area thereof and in axial relative movement is guided in forming contact over the cylinder wall area to the base of the blank.
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Claims(8)
1. Method for forming a workpiece by flow-forming, in which a cup-shaped blank is axially fixed against a tool chuck and pressed by means of at least one rolling body onto the tool chuck and the blank is rotated relative to the rolling body, wherein the at least one rolling body, at the start of forming, at the open end of the blank is pressed against its cylinder wall area and is guided in an axial relative movement over the cylinder wall area to the base of the blank in forming contact.
2. Method according to
claim 1
, wherein internal teeth are formed on the cylinder wall area with an axial length smaller than the length of the cylinder wall area and that the shaped in internal teeth are formed at a clearly defined distance from the base.
3. Method according to
claim 1
, wherein in a corner area between the base and the cylinder wall area is formed a transition contour with a wall thickness increase.
4. Method according to
claim 1
, wherein the blank is formed by a plurality of rolling bodies, which are arranged in ring-like manner round the blank and are in each case mounted in rotary manner in a cage.
5. Method according to
claim 4
, wherein the blank is moved in an axial relative movement through the ring-like arrangement of the rolling bodies and is pressed by the latter onto the tool chuck.
6. Method according to
claim 4
, wherein the blank is formed by conical rolling bodies, which roll in a conical outer race inclined to the rotation axis of the blank.
7. Method according to
claim 1
, wherein
the blank is fixed between two axially movable drive spindles of a flow-forming machine and on one of the drive spindles is provided the tool chuck and on the other drive spindle a centring device,
the blank is initially positioned and kept centred with the centring device on the drive spindle and
for fixing the blank on the tool chuck the drive spindles are moved axially against one another.
8. Method according to
claim 7
, wherein the centring device is constituted by a centring pin, on which the blank is mounted in accurately fitting manner with a hub opening.
Description
    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The invention relates to a method for working or forming a workpiece by flow-forming, particularly for the manufacture of internal teeth on the workpiece, in which a cup-shaped preform or blank is axially fixed against a tool chuck and pressed by means of at least one rolling member onto the tool chuck and the blank is rotated relative to the rolling member.
  • [0002]
    Numerous different methods are used in the non-cutting manufacture of internal teeth by flow-forming. Thus, DE 196 36 567 A1 (cf. FIG. 4) describes a manufacturing method called climb-stretching. In the latter a blank is radially centered and fixed by an axial pressure against the tool chuck. The feed movement of the spinning rollers takes place from the tailstock side, so that the spinning rollers set to the external diameter of the workpiece reduce the external diameter of the blank and press the material into the profile on the circumference of the tool chuck and thereby roll it out in the axial direction.
  • [0003]
    DE 196 36 567 A1 (cf. FIG. 5) describes the manufacture of internal teeth by radial rolling in. The blank is radially centred and axially fixed on the base side, so that in the case of a radial infeeding of the spinning rollers the displaced material radially and axially penetrates the profile of the tool chuck.
  • [0004]
    In another method variant (cf. DE 196 36 567 A1, FIG. 6), the preform or blank is radially centred and axially fixed on both sides, so that on a radial infeeding of the spinning rollers the displaced material penetrates and fills the tool chuck profile.
  • [0005]
    Finally, in the case of a climb-stretching with axial stop member (cf. DE 196 36 567 A1, FIG. 7), the blank is radially centred and axially fixed on the base side of the blank. In the axial direction the tool chuck carries a stop member against which the material flows during flow-forming and which stops said material as soon as, through the feed movement, the spinning rollers set to an external diameter of the workpiece are moved from the tailstock side against the blank and displace the material. In this method the material can only penetrate in the radial direction into the tool chuck profile and can increase in diameter against the frictional resistance of the stop member face.
  • [0006]
    In all these methods the radial bulging problem arises, being caused by the mutual spacing of the spinning rollers, which occurs due to the geometrical dimensions of said spinning rollers with their bearings. The consequence is a reversed loading in the tool chuck profiles during working or forming.
  • [0007]
    It is also common to all these methods that at the start of forming the radial resistance of the material from the ring-shaped transition area between the base and wall of the blank must be overcome. To this must be added the support of the wall of the blank on the toothed crests of the tool chuck. Thus, varying forming forces due to the different resistance during the forming of the blank lead to different workhardnesses within the shaped profiles in the workpiece. As constant forming forces are a prerequisite for constant tolerance ranges on the workpiece profile, a fluctuating tolerance range must be expected. This is a method-caused, serious disadvantage during the manufacture of workpieces requiring precise dimensioning in accordance with the aforementioned methods.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    Thus, the object of the invention is to provide a method in which, for obtaining a high-quality workpiece, the forming resistance of the blank is virtually constant in the vicinity of the inner profile during flow-forming.
  • [0009]
    In the aforementioned method, this object is achieved according to the invention in that the at least one rolling body at the start of forming at the open end of the blank is pressed against the cylinder wall area thereof and is guided in forming contact in axial relative movement over the cylinder wall area to the base of the blank. As a result of the start of flow-forming at the open side of the blank, throughout the forming path a constant material cross-section is available for shaping. As a result the necessary forming force remains substantially constant, so that there is a constant tolerance range of the formed profile. The axial relative movement can be effected by an axial movement of the blank with respect to an axially stationary rolling body, by an axial movement of the rolling body with respect to an axially stationary blank or by a combined movement of the rolling body and the blank.
  • [0010]
    According to the invention, a reliable profiling of the inside of the blank is achieved in that axial teeth are shaped on the cylinder wall area with an axial length smaller than the length of the cylinder wall area and that the shaped internal teeth have a clearly defined spacing from the base. In the flow-forming according to the invention from the open side of the blank, material can be moved in the direction of the base. According to the invention, a free space is provided between the desired internal teeth and the base, in which the axially displaced material can be received without any undesired compression. The at least one rolling body thereby overtravels the cylinder wall of the blank not completely to the base, but instead stops at a clearly defined, axial distance in front of the base area. With a through, axial construction of the outer profile on the tool chuck, it is e.g. possible to provide an adequate free space. It is alternatively possible to have a special, ring-shaped groove on the tool chuck adjacent to the base of the fixed blank. This ensures that a necessary, axial length of the internal teeth can be reliably flowformed on the workpiece.
  • [0011]
    According to the invention, it is preferable to form a transition contour with a wall thickness increase in a corner area between the base and the cylinder wall area. In the corner area between the substantially radially directed base and the substantially axially directed cylinder wall area, the maximum bending load occurs if the formed workpiece is e.g. used as a toothed gear part. As there is no clearly defined shape development of the internal teeth on the inside of the corner area, a reliable, high strength is achieved by a specially constructed transition contour with a wall thickness increase compared with the shaped cylinder wall area. The transition area preferably has a conical contour, which tapers from the base to the cylinder wall area.
  • [0012]
    If, according to a preferred variant the blank is formed or worked by a plurality of rolling bodies arranged in ring-like manner around the blank and mounted in rotary manner in a cage in each case, the blank can be supported and simultaneously formed by the geometrically maximum number of spinning rollers, rolls or balls on the circumference during the rotation thereof. The rolling bodies to be formed orbit the blank in planet-like manner, when contacting and forming the latter.
  • [0013]
    In the known spinning rollers, due to the separate mounting and control of the spindles as a result of the axial displacement of the rollers, one roller always commences the shaping process, so that there is necessarily a tool deflection until further axially displaced rollers come into use. As a result of this alternating deflection of the forming tool, a uniform loading and a self-centring are not possible. However, in the present variant of the inventive method, the force is uniformly transferred symmetrically via an outer race of a bearing to all the rollers. All the rollers are simultaneously involved in the forming process. The inner tool can be independently centred and is uniformly loaded.
  • [0014]
    The blank is appropriately moved in an axial relative movement through the ring-like rolling body arrangement and is pressed by the rolling bodies onto the spinning or tool chuck. Alternatively, the rolling bodies mounted in the cage can be radially infed.
  • [0015]
    If, in preferred manner, the blank is formed by conical spinning rolls, which roll in an arrangement inclined to the blank rotation axis in a conical outer race, an improved centring can be achieved on introducing the blank into the rolling arrangement. Due to an axial displacement and positioning of the rolling bodies with the cage, a radial positioning and setting of the rolling bodies is possible.
  • [0016]
    The preform or blank is appropriately fixed between two axially movable drive spindles of a flow-forming machine and on one of the drive spindles is provided the tool chuck and on the other drive spindle a centring device, the blank is initially arranged and kept centred on the drive spindle with the centring device and for fixing the blank to the tool chuck the drive spindles are moved axially against one another. The movement unit formed by the two drive spindles and the blank can then be moved for producing a feed movement, so that rapid fixing and forming occur.
  • [0017]
    Preferably, the centring device is constituted by a centring pin, on which the blank is mounted in accurately fitting manner with a hub opening. The centring pin and hub opening can form a clearance fit or a slight press fit, which ensures that the blank is initially fixed on one drive spindle. For fixing the blank to the tool chuck, the facing drive spindle is axially introduced into the cup, the base area of the blank being fixed between the two drive spindles. The two mutually moved drive spindles form a unit, which is then preferably moved with the workpiece through an axially fixed forming device with the at least one rolling body.
  • [0018]
    The blank can in each case be moved with the open side towards the forming tool, i.e. the open side of the blank faces the large diameter of the conical reception opening formed by the rolling bodies.
  • [0019]
    The spacing between the rollers is reduced to a minimum as a result of the large number of rollers. Thus, the radial bulge of the blank and therefore the reversed loading on the tool chuck profiles are reduced to a minimum and a uniform material hardening is obtained.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0020]
    The invention is described hereinafter relative to an embodiment and with reference to the attached drawings, wherein show:
  • [0021]
    [0021]FIG. 1 In a sectional view a partial representation of a flow-forming machine with a device for performing the method according to the invention in a loading position.
  • [0022]
    [0022]FIG. 2 The device of FIG. 1 in a sectional view at right angles to a machine rotation axis.
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 3 The device of FIG. 1 in a sectional view with a blank fixed on a tool.
  • [0024]
    [0024]FIG. 4 The device in an operating position during the forming of the blank in a view according to FIG. 3.
  • [0025]
    [0025]FIG. 5 In a sectional view a blank on which are to be produced internal teeth in accordance with the inventive method.
  • [0026]
    [0026]FIG. 6 A workpiece with internal teeth produced by forming the blank shown in FIG. 5, in a sectional view.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0027]
    A device 10 or a forming or working tool for performing the method according to the invention (cf. particularly FIGS. 1 to 3) has a plurality of rollers 11 as rolling bodies or spinning rolls in a ring-like arrangement (in the represented embodiment there are 14 rollers, cf. FIG. 2), which are received in recesses, which are constructed in a ring-shaped support member or cage 13 of the device 10, and are axially and radially guided. A fixed, outer ball race or outer race 14 is inserted in a casing 15 of the device 10 and forms an outer, hardened track 16 for the rollers 11, whilst an inner track is formed by a blank 18 to be worked. By means of a ball bearing 19, the ring-shaped support member 13 is mounted radially and in rotary manner in the casing 15 of device 10. An axial bearing 20, e.g. a needle bearing, axially supports the support member 13 by means of a spring mechanism, e.g. in the form of several helical springs 21, on a casing terminating part 22 connected e.g. by screwing to the casing 15.
  • [0028]
    [0028]FIG. 1 shows the arrangement of the device 10 for rolling in internal teeth in a diagrammatically represented flow-forming machine. The cup-shaped blank 18 on a centring pin 30, which forms a fit with a hub opening 29 of the blank 18, is received and held on a first, right-hand drive spindle 31, serving as the pressing member, coaxially to the rotation axis 32 thereof. The base 33 of the blank 18 is applied to the front 34 of the drive spindle 31, so that the open end 35 of the blank 18 points towards a coaxially positioned, second, left-hand drive spindle 36, on which is fixed a tool chuck 37 with a tooth profile 38. The internal diameter of the blank 18 roughly corresponds to the external diameter of the tool chuck 37. The left-hand drive spindle 36 is axially moved against the right-hand drive spindle 31 until the tool chuck 37 has been introduced into the blank 18 and the base 33 of the latter has been fixed against the right-hand drive spindle 31 (cf. FIG. 3). As a result of a rotational drive of the left-hand drive spindle 36 and/or right-hand drive spindle 31, the blank 18 is rotated. The unit formed by the left and right-hand drive spindles 36 and 31 together with the blank 18 jammed between them is then given an axial feed movement by the device 10 (cf. FIG. 4), the free end 40 of the cylinder wall area 39 at the open end 35 of the blank 18 being introduced into the larger diameter of the ring formed by the conically adjusted rolling bodies 11 and pressed against said rolling bodies. During the axial feed movement of the cylinder wall area 39 at the open end 35 of the blank 18 being introduced into the larger diameter of the ring formed by the conically adjusted rolling bodies 11 and pressed against said rolling bodies. During the axial feed movement of the cylinder wall area 39 the diameter is reduced from the open end 35 of the blank 18 (cf. FIG. 4), so that by rolling the depressions on the toothed profile 38 of the tool chuck 37 are filled by material of the cylinder wall area 39 and the inner profile or internal teeth 41 (cf. FIG. 6) are produced. The length of the feed movement or feed path 42 is reached when the internal teeth 41 or inner profile has been formed in a red length 44 in the workpiece 43 constituted by the blank 18 and a clearly defined spacing 46 or free space with respect to the base 33 is maintained. Furthermore, between the base 33 and the shaped-in internal
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US7942969Sep 19, 2007May 17, 2011Applied Materials, Inc.Substrate cleaning chamber and components
US7981262Jan 29, 2007Jul 19, 2011Applied Materials, Inc.Process kit for substrate processing chamber
US8617672Jul 13, 2005Dec 31, 2013Applied Materials, Inc.Localized surface annealing of components for substrate processing chambers
US8790499Nov 12, 2006Jul 29, 2014Applied Materials, Inc.Process kit components for titanium sputtering chamber
US8980045May 17, 2011Mar 17, 2015Applied Materials, Inc.Substrate cleaning chamber and components
US9127362Oct 27, 2006Sep 8, 2015Applied Materials, Inc.Process kit and target for substrate processing chamber
US9481608Nov 22, 2013Nov 1, 2016Applied Materials, Inc.Surface annealing of components for substrate processing chambers
US20070059460 *Sep 9, 2005Mar 15, 2007Applied Materials, Inc.Flow-formed chamber component having a textured surface
US20070102286 *Oct 27, 2006May 10, 2007Applied Materials, Inc.Process kit and target for substrate processing chamber
US20070173059 *Nov 12, 2006Jul 26, 2007Applied Materials, Inc.Process kit components for titanium sputtering chamber
US20070283884 *May 30, 2006Dec 13, 2007Applied Materials, Inc.Ring assembly for substrate processing chamber
US20080178801 *Jan 29, 2007Jul 31, 2008Applied Materials, Inc.Process kit for substrate processing chamber
US20100065216 *Nov 20, 2009Mar 18, 2010Applied Materials, Inc.Ring assembly for substrate processing chamber
Classifications
U.S. Classification72/85
International ClassificationB21J5/12, B21D53/28, B21H7/18, B21D22/14, B21K1/30, B21H5/02, B21D22/16
Cooperative ClassificationB21K1/30, B21D53/28, B21H5/025, B21H7/187, B21J5/12
European ClassificationB21H5/02I, B21J5/12, B21K1/30, B21D53/28
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Sep 27, 2000ASAssignment
Owner name: LEICO GMBH & CO. WERKZEUGMASCHINENBAU, GERMANY
Free format text: CORRECTED RECORDATION FROM COVER SHEET REEL/FRAME 010869/0586, BAR CODE NUMBER *101416623A*, TO CORRECT THE SERIAL #, FILING DATE AND DELETE THE PATENT# & ISSUE DATE.;ASSIGNOR:KOESTERMEIER, KARL-HEINZ;REEL/FRAME:011184/0669
Effective date: 19990601
Feb 17, 2005SULPSurcharge for late payment
Feb 17, 2005FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Feb 23, 2005REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Jul 18, 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: LEIFELD METAL SPINNING GMBH, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LEICO GMBH & CO. WERKZEUGMASCHINENBAU;REEL/FRAME:019573/0694
Effective date: 20070515
Jan 28, 2009FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Mar 20, 2013REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Aug 7, 2013LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Sep 24, 2013FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20130807