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Publication numberUS20010002709 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/747,966
Publication dateJun 7, 2001
Filing dateDec 27, 2000
Priority dateMar 16, 1999
Also published asUS6420729
Publication number09747966, 747966, US 2001/0002709 A1, US 2001/002709 A1, US 20010002709 A1, US 20010002709A1, US 2001002709 A1, US 2001002709A1, US-A1-20010002709, US-A1-2001002709, US2001/0002709A1, US2001/002709A1, US20010002709 A1, US20010002709A1, US2001002709 A1, US2001002709A1
InventorsRobert Wallace, Glen Wilk, Yi Wei, Sunil Hattangady
Original AssigneeWallace Robert M., Wilk Glen D., Yi Wei, Hattangady Sunil V.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process to produce ultrathin crystalline silicon nitride on Si (111 ) for advanced gate dielectrics
US 20010002709 A1
Abstract
A method of making a semiconductor device and the device. The device, according to a first embodiment, is fabricated by providing a silicon (111) surface, forming on the surface a dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride and forming an electrode layer on the dielectric layer of silicon nitride. The silicon (111) surface is cleaned and made atomically flat. The dielectric layer if formed of crystalline silicon nitride by placing the surface in an ammonia ambient at a pressure of from about 110 −7 to about 110 −5 Torr at a temperature of from about 850 C. to about 1000 C. The electrode layer is heavily doped silicon. According to a second embodiment, there is provided a silicon (111) surface on which is formed a first dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride having a thickness of about 2 monolayers. A second dielectric layer compatible with silicon nitride and having a higher dielectric constant than silicon nitride is formed on the first dielectric layer and an electrode layer is formed over the second dielectric layer. A third dielectric layer of silicon nitride having a thickness of about 2 monolayers can be formed between the second dielectric layer and the electrode layer. The second dielectric layer is preferably taken from the class consisting of tantalum pentoxide, titanium dioxide and a perovskite material. Both silicon nitride layers can be formed as in the first embodiment. The electrode layer is preferably heavily doped silicon
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Claims(21)
1. A method of making a semiconductor device which comprises the steps of:
(a) providing a silicon (111) surface;
(b) forming on said surface a dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride; and
(c) forming an electrode layer on said dielectric layer of silicon nitride.
2. The method of
claim 1
further including the step of cleaning said surface and making said surface atomically flat.
3. The method
claim 1
wherein said step of forming said dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride comprises the steps of placing said surface in an ammonia ambient at a pressure of from about 110−7 to about 11−5 Torr at a temperature of from about 850 C. to about 1000 C.
4. The method
claim 2
wherein said step of forming said dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride comprises the steps of placing said surface in an ammonia ambient at a pressure of from about 110−7 to about 110−5 Torr at a temperature of from about 850 C. to about 1000 C.
5. The method of
claim 3
wherein said electrode layer is boron doped silicon.
6. The method of
claim 4
wherein said electrode layer is boron doped silicon.
7. A semiconductor device which comprises:
(a) a silicon (111) surface;
(b) a dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride on said surface; and
(c) an electrode layer on said dielectric layer of silicon nitride.
8. The device of
claim 7
wherein said surface is cleaned and atomically flat.
9. The device of
claim 7
wherein said electrode layer is boron doped silicon.
10. The device of
claim 8
wherein said electrode layer is boron doped silicon.
11. A method of making a semiconductor device which comprises the steps of:
(a) providing a silicon (111) surface;
(b) forming on said surface a first dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride having a thickness of about 2 monolayers;
(c) forming on said first dielectric layer a second dielectric layer compatible with silicon nitride and having a higher dielectric constant than silicon nitride; and
(d) forming an electrode layer over said second dielectric layer.
12. The method of
claim 11
further including the step of forming between said second dielectric layer and said electrode layer a third dielectric layer of silicon nitride having a thickness of about 2 monolayers.
13. The method of
claim 11
wherein said second dielectric layer is taken from the class consisting of tantalum pentoxide, titanium dioxide and a perovskite material.
14. The method of
claim 12
wherein said second dielectric layer is taken from the class consisting of tantalum pentoxide, titanium dioxide and a perovskite material.
15. The method
claim 11
wherein said step of forming said first dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride comprises the steps of placing said surface in an ammonia ambient at a pressure of from about 110−7 to about 110−5 Torr at a temperature of from about 850 C. to about 1000 C.
16. The method
claim 14
wherein said step of forming said dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride comprises the steps of placing said surface in an ammonia ambient at a pressure of from about 110−7 to about 110−5 Torr at a temperature of from about 850 C. to about 1000 C.
17. The method of
claim 16
wherein said electrode layer is boron doped silicon.
18. A semiconductor device which comprises:
(a) a silicon (111) surface;
(b) a first dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride on said surface having a thickness of about 2 monolayers;
(c) a second dielectric layer on said first dielectric layer compatible with silicon nitride and having a higher dielectric constant than silicon nitride; and
(d) an electrode layer over said second dielectric layer.
19. The device of
claim 18
further including, between said second dielectric layer and said electrode layer, a third dielectric layer of silicon nitride having a thickness of about 2 monolayers.
20. The device of
claim 19
wherein said second dielectric layer is taken from the class consisting of tantalum pentoxide, titanium dioxide and a perovskite material an electrode layer on said dielectric layer of silicon nitride.
21. The device of
claim 20
wherein said electrode layer is boron doped silicon.
Description
    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    This invention relates to a method of producing ultrathin crystalline silicon nitride on Si (111) and formation of semiconductor devices using such ultrathin crystalline silicon nitride.
  • [0003]
    2. Brief Description of the Prior Art
  • [0004]
    The continued down-scaling of the geometries in VLSI technology has involved, as a result of such down-scaling, a reduction in component film thicknesses, examples being gate dielectrics for FET semiconductor devices and the capacitor dielectric for semiconductor memory devices. Thickness uniformity requirements for such films (about 0.14 nanometers in thickeness in present technology) requires extraordinary control over the silicon wafer surface morphology (i.e., subsequent interfacial roughness) to achieve necessary scaling. The acute sensitivity of interface roughness with ultrathin films is evident when one considers the control required over large (200 mm or 300 mm) wafers.
  • [0005]
    Conventional silicon semiconductor technology incorporates Si (100) substrates, largely because of interface trap density (Dit) considerations associated with oxide films on Si (100) which has been extensively researched over the past two decades. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that surface preparation methods currently developed, such as HF-last treatments, can result in a Si (100) hydrogen-terminated surface with a roughness which is unacceptable for prospective dielectric film thickness uniformity requirements. The use of alternative dielectric materials, such as silicon nitride, has been considered as a means to increase the gate dielectric constant and also to serve as a diffusion barrier to dopants in the gate material. However, the current silicon nitride fabrication techniques on Si (100) result in an amorphous nitride or oxynitride layer which may exhibit deleterious interface states (traps) which degrade ultimate device performance.
  • [0006]
    A further problem with silicon dioxide dielectrics over Si (100) substrates is that boron from boron-doped polysilicon gate structures can diffuse through the silicon dioxide, this problem increasing with decreased gate oxide thickness geometries, thereby degrading the properties of the device, particularly in the channel region. Boron, on the other hand, does not diffuise through silicon nitride, however, the interface between silicon nitride and Si (100) results in an amorphous silicon nitride and provides an inferior structure to that with silicon dioxide by causing a disruption of the electron flow in the channel of the active semiconductor devices.
  • [0007]
    A separate problem with silicon dioxide dielectrics is that the extremely small thicknesses allow unacceptable leakage currents as a result of electrons tunneling from the gate to the drain regions of transistors. Since silicon nitride has a larger bulk dielectric constant than silicon dioxide (˜7 compared to about 3.9), a thicker silicon nitride layer can be used which has the same capacitance density as a thinner silicon dioxide layer. Since electron tunneling currents depend exponentially on layer thickness, even an increase in dielectric thickness of about 10 to about 20 Angstroms could reduce leakage current by several orders of magnitude.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    Recent work has demonstrated that the Dit from oxides on Si (111) can be made comparable to those on Si (100), thus making devices on such substrates feasible. The silicon (111) surface can be controlled to be made hydrogen-terminated and atomically flat from a careful control of the surface preparation solution pH. The resultant smooth surface can therefore result in a low roughness (<0.1 nm, rms) interface after subsequent film deposition. Recent research has also demonstrated the potential formation of an ordered silicon nitride film on the Si (111 ) surface from the reaction of NH3 with an atomically clean Si (111) surface, i.e., where no surface impurities are detected, at temperatures between 800 C. and 1130 C. under high vacuum conditions of from about 10−7 to about 10−5 Torr NH3 partial pressures. The cleaning process could include, for example, a standard semiconductor wet clean followed by oxidation (chemical or thermal), then followed by HF-last stripping of the oxide for H-termination. The hydrogen is then desorbed in the course of the temperature ramp-up for nitride deposition. Alternatively, the cleaning can take place by ultra high vacuum (UHV), from about 10−11 to about 10−9 Torr, “flash heating” to about 1100 C. and cooling to room temperature to form a well-ordered surface. Under the proper temperature conditions (850 C. to 1000 C.), the nitride film covered Si (111) surface is atomically flat, i.e., where only single height steps between nitride terraces exist. The resultant crystalline film is thus useful for an epitaxial nitride layer, or it will be useful for the purpose of surface passivation and subsequent crystalline or amorphous dielectric film overgrowth.
  • [0009]
    Interface state densities associated with such an epitaxial layer are low because the dangling bonds are consumed with the epitaxial growth process. Moreover, the smooth interface afforded by the Si (111) surface preparation results in an atomically flat nitride layer as well. Such sharp smooth interfaces result in enhanced electron mobility properties (less interface scattering) as well as a superior dopant diffuision barrier. Any residual dangling bonds can be satiated from a H2 or D2 sintering process.
  • [0010]
    In accordance with the present invention, the above described problems of the prior art are therefore minimized and there is provided an ultrathin crystalline silicon nitride layer on Si (111) for use, primarily though not exclusively as a gate dielectric for semiconductor devices and as a capacitor dielectric in semiconductor memory devices.
  • [0011]
    Briefly, by growing crystalline silicon nitride on Si (111), the barrier to boron diffusion is retained and, in addition, the channel is not disrupted as in the case of amorphous silicon nitride over a Si (100) substrate.
  • [0012]
    Another problem of the prior art that is minimized in accordance with the present invention is based upon the fact that as that the drive current is proportional to the capacitance between the gate electrode and the substrate. Therefore, for a given drive current as the contact area of the dielectric decreases the dielectric thickness must also decrease. The result is that electrons from the gate electrode are then capable of tunneling through the dielectric and add to the channel or drain current, resulting in lack of device control. Since the dielectric constant of silicon dioxide is about 3.9 and the dielectric constant of silicon nitride is about 7, a thicker layer of silicon nitride can be provided with the same capacitance and drive current properties, yet prevent electron tunneling through the dielectric.
  • [0013]
    To form a semiconductor device in accordance with the present invention, there is initially provided a surface of Si (111) which has been cleaned and is atomically flat as defined hereinabove. The Si(111) surface is placed in a standard reaction chamber and the chamber purged and filled with ammonia (NH3) at an ammonia partial pressure of from about 110−7 to about 110−5 Torr at a temperature of from about 850 C. to about 1000 C. for from about 5 seconds to about 5 minutes to provide a thin layer of crystalline silicon nitride on the Si (111) of from about 0.3 nm to about 3 nm. The remainder of the semiconductor device is then fabricated in standard manner by, for example, depositing a doped layer of polysilicon or a metal layer over the silicon nitride layer. In the case of a boron-doped polysilicon electrode, the boron will be prevented from diffusing through the dielectric due to the use of silicon nitride as the dielectric.
  • [0014]
    While silicon nitride has been discussed above as being the dielectric material, it should be understood that other materials can be used that have a higher dielectric constant than and are compatible with silicon nitride. When there is a lack of silicon compatibility resulting in SiOx formation at the interface, such as, for example, with tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5), titanium dioxide (TiO2) or a perovskite material, a very thin layer of silicon nitride can be used to separate the dielectric material from the Si (111) substrate and/or the electrode over the dielectric, such thin layer having a thickness of about 2 monolayers.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0015]
    [0015]FIG. 1 is a cross sectional view of a semiconductor device fabricated in accordance with a first embodiment in accordance with the present invention; and
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 2 is a cross sectional view of a semiconductor device fabricated in accordance with a second embodiment in accordance with the present invention.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
  • [0017]
    Referring first to FIG. 1, there is shown a semiconductor device fabricated in accordance with a first embodiment of the present invention. The semiconductor device includes a Si (111) substrate 1 over which is formed a dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride (Si3N4)3. An electrode layer 5 of boron- or phosphorous- or arsenic-doped polycrystalline silicon is formed over the dielectric layer to form the completed semiconductor active transistor structure.
  • [0018]
    The semiconductor device of FIG. 1 is fabricated by providing a substrate 1 having an exposed surface which is cleaned in a manner as described above and is atomically flat. The substrate was placed in a reaction chamber which was purged and then filled with ammonia gas at a pressure of 110−6 Torr at a temperature of 900 C. for 4 minutes to form the layer of crystalline silicon nitride 3 having a thickness of 0.5 nm on the cleaned surface. The reaction chamber was then purged and polycrystalline silicon with boron or phosphorous or arsenic was deposited over the silicon nitride layer in standard manner to provide the electrode layer 5.
  • [0019]
    Referring first to FIG. 2, there is shown a semiconductor device fabricated in accordance with a second embodiment of the present invention. The semiconductor device includes a Si (111) substrate 11 over which is formed a first dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride (Si3N4) 13 having a two monolayer thickness. A second layer of tantalum pentoxide 15 is then deposited over the silicon nitride having a thickness of 4 nm followed by a third dielectric layer of silicon nitride 17 having a two monolayer thickness An electrode layer 19 of boron- or phorphorous- or arsenic-doped polycrystalline silicon is formed over the third dielectric layer 17 to form the completed semiconductor active transistor structure.
  • [0020]
    The semiconductor device of FIG. 2 is fabricated by providing a substrate 11 having an exposed surface as in the first embodiment. The substrate was placed in a reaction chamber which was purged and then filled with ammonia gas at a pressure of 110−6 Torr at a temperature of 900 C. for 4 minutes to form the first dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride 13 having a thickness of two monolayers on the cleaned surface. The reaction chamber was then purged and the second dielectric layer of tantalum pentoxide 15 having a thickness of 4 nm was deposited over the first dielectric layer in standard manner. The reaction chamber was again purged and the third dielectric layer of crystalline silicon nitride 17 was deposited over the second dielectric layer 15 using the same procedure as used for the first dielectric layer. A layer of polycrystalline silicon with boron or phosphorous or arsenic was deposited over the silicon nitride layer in standard manner to provide the electrode layer 5.
  • [0021]
    Though the invention has been described with reference to specific preferred embodiments thereof, many variations and modification will immediately become apparent to those skilled in the art. It is therefore the intention that the appended claims be interpreted as broadly as possible in view of the prior art to include all such variations and modifications.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6693792 *Apr 11, 2003Feb 17, 2004Hitachi, Ltd.Semiconductor integrated circuits and fabricating method thereof
US6716695 *Dec 20, 2002Apr 6, 2004Texas Instruments IncorporatedSemiconductor with a nitrided silicon gate oxide and method
US7846822 *Dec 7, 2010The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of IllinoisMethods for controlling dopant concentration and activation in semiconductor structures
US7968440Jun 28, 2011The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of IllinoisPreparation of ultra-shallow semiconductor junctions using intermediate temperature ramp rates and solid interfaces for defect engineering
US8274116Nov 16, 2009Sep 25, 2012International Business Machines CorporationControl of threshold voltages in high-k metal gate stack and structures for CMOS devices
US8680629 *Jun 3, 2009Mar 25, 2014International Business Machines CorporationControl of flatband voltages and threshold voltages in high-k metal gate stacks and structures for CMOS devices
US8748991Jul 17, 2012Jun 10, 2014International Business Machines CorporationControl of flatband voltages and threshold voltages in high-k metal gate stacks and structures for CMOS devices
US8835260Jul 12, 2012Sep 16, 2014International Business Machines CorporationControl of threshold voltages in high-k metal gate stack and structures for CMOS devices
US8871670Jan 4, 2012Oct 28, 2014The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of IllinoisDefect engineering in metal oxides via surfaces
US20030205752 *Apr 11, 2003Nov 6, 2003Yasuhiro ShimamotoSemiconductor integrated circuits and fabricating method thereof
US20060024928 *Jul 28, 2005Feb 2, 2006The Board Of Trustees Of The University Of IllinoisMethods for controlling dopant concentration and activation in semiconductor structures
US20100048005 *Feb 25, 2010Seebauer Edmund GPreparation of ultra-shallow semiconductor junctions using intermediate temperature ramp rates and solid interfaces for defect engineering
US20100308412 *Dec 9, 2010International Business Machines CorporationControl of flatband voltages and threshold voltages in high-k metal gate stacks and structures for cmos devices
US20110115026 *Nov 16, 2009May 19, 2011International Business Machines CorporationControl of threshold voltages in high-k metal gate stack and structures for cmos devices
Classifications
U.S. Classification257/296, 257/E21.274, 438/3, 257/E21.193, 257/E21.396, 257/E21.647, 257/E21.293, 438/240, 438/791
International ClassificationH01L21/8242, H01L29/51, H01L21/28, H01L21/334, H01L21/316, H01L21/318
Cooperative ClassificationH01L21/28202, H01L21/3185, H01L21/28167, H01L29/517, H01L27/1085, H01L21/28194, H01L21/31604, H01L29/513, H01L29/66181, H01L29/518
European ClassificationH01L29/51B2, H01L21/318B, H01L21/28E2C2, H01L29/51M, H01L29/51N
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Feb 8, 2005B1Reexamination certificate first reexamination
Free format text: THE PATENTABILITY OF CLAIMS 5-8 IS CONFIRMED. CLAIMS 1 AND 4 ARE CANCELLED. CLAIM 2 IS DETERMINED TO BE PATENTABLE AS AMENDED. CLAIM 3, DEPENDENT ON AN AMENDED CLAIM, IS DETERMINED TO BE PATENTABLE.
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