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Publication numberUS20010003295 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/355,479
PCT numberPCT/EP1998/000639
Publication dateJun 14, 2001
Filing dateFeb 6, 1998
Priority dateFeb 8, 1997
Also published asCA2280029A1, CA2280029C, EP0960083A1, EP0960083B1, US6309484, WO1998034891A1
Publication number09355479, 355479, PCT/1998/639, PCT/EP/1998/000639, PCT/EP/1998/00639, PCT/EP/98/000639, PCT/EP/98/00639, PCT/EP1998/000639, PCT/EP1998/00639, PCT/EP1998000639, PCT/EP199800639, PCT/EP98/000639, PCT/EP98/00639, PCT/EP98000639, PCT/EP9800639, US 2001/0003295 A1, US 2001/003295 A1, US 20010003295 A1, US 20010003295A1, US 2001003295 A1, US 2001003295A1, US-A1-20010003295, US-A1-2001003295, US2001/0003295A1, US2001/003295A1, US20010003295 A1, US20010003295A1, US2001003295 A1, US2001003295A1
InventorsWalter Langlotz, Dietmar Muller
Original AssigneeWalter Langlotz, Dietmar Muller
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Propellent charge powder for barrel-type weapons
US 20010003295 A1
Abstract
A propellent charge powder for barrel-type weapons having a plasticizer on the basis of nitramine and nitrocellulose, nitramine and energetic and non-energetic plastic binders, or nitrocellulose or an explosive, and wherein the plasticizer is a mixture of at least two chemically different dinitro diaza compounds. The plasticizer facilitates the production and use of the propellent charge powder possessing a low temperature coefficient.
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Claims(9)
1. A propellent charge powder for barrel-type weapons having a plasticiser on the basis of
nitramine such as RDX, HMX and nitrocellulose,
nitramine and energetic and non-energetic plastic binders, or
nitrocellulose, or
an explosive, such as CL-20
characterised in that the plasticiser is a mixture of at least three chemically different dinitro diaza compounds.
2. A propellent charge powder as set forth in
claim 1
characterised in that the plasticiser comprises the following components:
4-Dinitro-2,4-diazapentane 40±10% by weight
2,4-Dinitro-2,4-diazahexane 45±10% by weight
3,5-Dinitro-3,5-diazaheptane 15±15% by weight
3. A propellent charge powder as set forth in
claim 1
. characterised in that the proportion of plasticiser in the propellent charge powder is between 2 and 55% by weight.
4. A propellent charge powder as set forth in
claim 1
or
claim 2
characterised in that the plasticiser comprises dinitro diaza alkanes, dinitro diaza alkenes or dinitro diaza alkines or a mixture thereof.
5. A propellent charge powder as set forth in one of
claims 1
to
4
characterised in that it contains stabilisers or stabilisers and combustion moderators.
6. A propellent charge powder as set forth in one or more of claims 1 through 5 characterised in that besides the dinitro diaza compound it additionally contains still other energetic or non-energetic plasticisers such as methy-nena, ethyl-nena or butyl-nena.
7. A propellent charge powder as set forth in
claim 1
or
claim 6
characterised in that the following can be used as energetic binders:
poly-3-nitratomethyl-3-methyloxetan (PolyNIMMO),
poly-glycidyl nitrate ester (Polyglyn)
glycidyl azide polymer (GAP)
poly-3-azidomethyl-3′-methyloxetan (AMMO),
poly-3,3′-bis-azidomethyloxetan (BAMO)
or a mixture thereof.
8. A propellent charge powder as set forth in
claim 1
or
claim 6
characterised in that the non-energetic binders are polybutadiene with terminal hydroxyl groups (HTPB), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) or a mixture thereof.
9. A propellent charge powder as set forth in one or more of claims 1 through 8 characterised in that the explosive comprises 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), ammonium dinitramide (AND), triaminoguanidine nitrate (TAGN) or hexanitro-hexa-aza-iso-wurtzitan (CL-20) or a mixture thereof.
Description

[0001] The invention relates to a propellent charge powder for barrel-type weapons as set forth in the classifying portion of claim 1.

[0002] DE 35 00 068 C1 concerns a monobasic or polybasic propellent charge powder using 0,0′-dioxy azobenzene for the purposes of improving mechanical properties at down to −55° C. No information is given about temperature coefficients. In addition no diaza compound is used.

[0003] DE 33 16 676 C2 describes a propellant composition based on nitrocellulose with hexogen, a blasting oil and plasticiser or softener as well as nitroglycerine. No mention is made of a diaza compound however and there is also no information about temperature coefficients.

[0004] DE 30 33 519 C2 concerns a rocket propellant for a usually low pressure range upon combustion. No information is given about the pressure range which is relevant for propellent charge powder of over 3000 bars. Admittedly, some indications are afforded in regard to mechanical properties in a wide temperature range. There is however no information about temperature coefficients, dependency of the gas pressure on the temperatures of the propellent charge powder. The energetic plasticiser or softener is blasting oil such or Ngl but no diaza compound.

[0005] A further known propellent charge powder as disclosed in DE 22 60 259 A involves a propellant composition for rockets and not a propellent charge for barrel-type weapons. That propellent charge, like generally all dibasic propellants, is heavily temperature-dependent in the temperature range which is of interest.

[0006] U.S. Pat. No 4,567,296 A describes an energetic plasticiser or softener on the basis of a fluorine-bearing aza compound. That aza compound, more specifically 1-fluoro-1,1,5-trinitro-3-oxa-5-azahexane is not suitable for use in barrel-type weapons and propellent charge powders. Upon combustion in a weapon, the steel is destroyed, particularly at the usually high pressures and temperatures. In addition that compound gives rise to a major disposal problem. The starting material 2-nitro-2-aza-1 propanol is chemically basically different from a diaza compound.

[0007] Upon firing munitions with conventional propellent charge powder, the ballistic values maximum pressure and projectile velocity are also heavily temperature-dependent. The pressure and the velocity of 120 mm KE-munition rise from −40° C. to +50° C. by about 1500 bars and 165 m/s, that is to say 10% of the reference or target speed at normal temperature of +21° C. On the basis thereof, on the one hand the armament operational gas pressure cannot be fully utilised at normal temperature, which would result in a high velocity, and on the other hand, because of the only inaccurately known current initial projectile velocity the hit probability is markedly reduced or measures must be taken to ascertain the current projectile velocity in order not to suffer a loss in terms of hit accuracy.

[0008] The object of the present invention is to propose a propellent charge powder for barrel-type weapons, which has a low temperature coefficient in the temperature range of −50° C. to +70° C.

[0009] The invention attains that object in accordance with the characterising features of claim 1. Advantageous developments of the invention are set forth in the appendant claims.

[0010] By virtue of the use of a particular plasticiser or softener the invention makes it possible to produce and use propellent charge powder with a low temperature coefficient. In other words: a propellent charge powder of that kind makes it possible to fire armament munition with almost dibasic propellants, is heavily temperature-dependent in the temperature range which is of interest.

[0011] U.S. Pat. No. 4,567,296 A describes an energetic plasticiser or softener on the basis of a fluorine-bearing aza compound. That aza compound, more specifically 1-fluoro-1,1,5-trinitro-3-oxa-5-azahexane is not suitable for use in barrel-type weapons and propellent charge powders. Upon combustion in a weapon, the steel is destroyed, particularly at the usually high pressures and temperatures. In addition that compound gives rise to a major disposal problem. The starting material 2-nitro-2-aza-1 propanol is chemically basically different from the dinitro diaza compounds according to the invention.

[0012] A better plasticisable propellent charge powder, in accordance with U.S. Pat. No. 4,457,791, is based on a plasticiser DMMD. Further plasticisers as additives to that specified are not provided. There is no indication that the temperature coefficient upon combustion is positively influenced.

[0013] Transformation or the gas-generation rate of conventional monobasic and polybasic propellent charge powders is highly temperature-dependent. The greater the initial powder temperature, that much faster is combustion of the propellent charge powder. That property is substance-specific and can be described for example to a good degree of approximation by the combustion law as follows: γ = β · ( p p 0 ) a · τ T

[0014] with T as the temperature of the propellent charge powder. In that equation τ denotes the so-called temperature coefficient of the propellent charge powder, which is of different values for the various powder compositions and which represents a substance constant. In addition γ denotes the velocity with which the combustion front progresses, β and α represent substance constants and p is the pressure under which the propellent charge powder is, wherein po is atmospheric pressure.

[0015] As a result of the temperature-dependency of the combustion speed of the propellent charge powder, the maximum gas pressure which occurs when firing munition with conventional monobasic and polybasic propellent charge powder from an armament, in the charge chamber of the weapon, and thus also the projectile launch velocity are also severely temperature-dependent.

[0016] The pressure and the velocity of 120 mm KE-munition rise from −40° C. to +50° C. by about 1500 bars and 165 m/s, that is to say 10% of the reference or target speed at normal temperature of +21° C. On the basis thereof, on the one hand the armament operational gas pressure cannot be fully utilised at normal temperature, which would result in a high velocity, and on the other hand, because of the only inaccurately known current powder temperature and thus the initial projectile velocity the hit probability is markedly reduced or measures must be taken to ascertain the current projectile velocity in order not to suffer a loss in terms of hit accuracy.

[0017] The object of the present invention is to propose a propellent charge powder for barrel-type weapons, which has a low temperature coefficient in the temperature range of −50° C. to +70° C. so that in that way the specified ballistic values of maximum pressure and projectile velocity depend only slightly on the powder temperature.

[0018] The invention attains that object in accordance with the characterising features of claim 1. Advantageous developments of the invention are set forth in the appendant claims.

[0019] By virtue of the use of a particular plasticiser or softener the invention makes it possible to produce and use propellent charge powder with a low temperature coefficient. In other words: a propellent charge powder of that kind makes it possible to fire armament munition with almost constant values in respect of maximum pressure and projectile velocity in the entire temperature range of −50° C. to +70° C.

[0020] Embodiments of the invention are set out hereinafter, a diagram illustrating the temperature characteristics of a conventional propellent charge powder and a propellent charge powder according to the invention.

[0021] The invention concerns the following propellent charge powders:

[0022] glycidyl azide polymer (GAP)—,

[0023] hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), polybutadiene with terminal hydroxyl groups— and

[0024] cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)—

[0025] bound nitramine propellent charge powders with the dinitro diaza plasticiser mixture according to the invention and nitrocellulose propellent charge powders, NC, which comprise nitramines, nitrocellulose and dinitro diaza plasticiser or nitrocellulose and dinitro diaza plasticiser with or without blasting oil such as nitroglycerine (Ngl) or diglycol dinitrate (DEGN).

PCP-formulation
% by weight
RDX or HMX 70 ± 15 70 ± 15 70 ± 15 40 ± 15 60 ± 20 40 ± 15
Plasticiser DNDA- 10 ± 8  10 ± 8  15 ± 10 30 ± 25 20 ± 12 30 ± 25
mix (3 components)
GAP with isocyanate 20 ± 5 
GAP without 30 ± 20
isocyanate
HTPB with  20 ± 5
isocyanate
CAB 15 ± 5 
NC + stick 30 ± 5  20 ± 12 70 ± 25 30 ± 15
blasting oil 0 + 40

[0026] The abbreviations RDX=hexogen and HMX=octogen, while PCP is used to mean propellent charge powder.

[0027] With nitratoethyl nitramine (NENA), poly-3-nitratomethyl-3′ -methyloxetan (PolyNIMMO) and poly-glycidyl nitrate ester (Polyglyn) as energetic polymer binder, a comparable temperature behaviour occurs insofar as the plasticiser according to the invention is used in the above-specified quantitative proportion. In the case of Polyglyn the azide group of GAP is replaced by —O—NO2.

[0028] The dinitro diaza plasticiser comprises the following components:

[0029] 2,4-Dinitro-2,4-diazapentane 40±10% by weight

[0030] 2,4-Dinitro-2,4-diazahexane 45±10% by weight

[0031] 3,5-Dinitro-3,5-diazaheptane 15±15% by weight

[0032] The diagrammatically illustrated graph sets out the pressure configuration on the orinate 2 when the weapon is fired in relation to the temperature on the abscissa 1.

[0033] In the case of a propellent charge powder in accordance with the state of the art the pressure changes very severely in the specified temperature range of −50° C. to +70° C. in accordance with the rising curve 5.

[0034] In comparison the pressure remains almost constant as indicated by the curve 6 in the specified temperature range. The curve 6 initially rises and then falls somewhat from the reversal point 7. The optimum is an almost horizontal configuration corresponding to the curve 15.

[0035] If the propellent charge powder in accordance with the invention is altered by conventional measures such as altering the grain geometry in such a way that the original curve 6 lies as curve 6.1 with its reversal point 7.1 against the pressure limit 10, that denotes a considerable increase in power or performance of 10 to 20% with respect to the usual propellent charge powder as indicated by curve 5.

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US7998156Jan 8, 2010Aug 16, 2011Abbott Medical Optics Inc.Vacuum sense control for phaco pulse shaping
US8020565Dec 28, 2007Sep 20, 2011Abbott Medical Optics, Inc.Modulated pulsed ultrasonic power delivery system and method
US8034067Jan 8, 2010Oct 11, 2011Abbott Medical Optics Inc.Vacuum sense control for phaco pulse shaping
US8075715 *Jan 5, 2007Dec 13, 2011Alliant Techsystems Inc.Reactive compositions including metal
US8195286Nov 15, 2006Jun 5, 2012Abbott Medical Optics Inc.Control of pulse duty cycle based upon footswitch displacement
US8197436Dec 28, 2010Jun 12, 2012Abbott Medical Optics Inc.Micro-burst ultrasonic power delivery
US8202287Aug 2, 2011Jun 19, 2012Abbott Medical Optics Inc.Vacuum sense control for phaco pulse shaping
US8231564Nov 6, 2007Jul 31, 2012Abbott Medical Optics Inc.Modulated pulsed ultrasonic power delivery system and method
US8366728May 17, 2012Feb 5, 2013Abbott Medical Optics Inc.Vacuum sense control for phaco pulse shaping
DE102005037017B4 *Aug 5, 2005Sep 27, 2007Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V.Pulvervorkonzentrat und dessen Verwendung
Classifications
U.S. Classification149/19.91
International ClassificationC06B45/10, C06B25/34
Cooperative ClassificationC06B45/105, C06B25/34
European ClassificationC06B25/34, C06B45/10H
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Feb 28, 2013FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12
Apr 30, 2009FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
May 2, 2005FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Jul 30, 1999ASAssignment
Owner name: DIEHL STIFTUNG & CO., GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:LANGLOTZ, WALTER;MULLER, DIETMAR;REEL/FRAME:010176/0532;SIGNING DATES FROM 19990722 TO 19990729