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Publication numberUS20010006691 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/739,175
Publication dateJul 5, 2001
Filing dateDec 18, 2000
Priority dateDec 16, 1998
Also published asUS6564699, US20030203093, WO2000035290A1
Publication number09739175, 739175, US 2001/0006691 A1, US 2001/006691 A1, US 20010006691 A1, US 20010006691A1, US 2001006691 A1, US 2001006691A1, US-A1-20010006691, US-A1-2001006691, US2001/0006691A1, US2001/006691A1, US20010006691 A1, US20010006691A1, US2001006691 A1, US2001006691A1
InventorsPatricia Vincente, Michael Cataldo, Robert Pitts
Original AssigneeDunkin' Donuts Incorporated
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Extended shelf life yeast-raised baked goods
US 20010006691 A1
Abstract
A formulation for making a yeast-raised baked good having an extended shelf life is provided. The ingredients that contribute to the shelf life extension of the product are hard and soft wheat flours, dextrose, soybean oil, nonfat dry milk or milk replacement, fermented flavor, a gum blend, vital wheat gluten, distilled monoglycerides, an enzyme blend, konjac flour, and methylcellulose.
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Claims(12)
We claim:
1. A formulation of dry ingredients for a yeast-raised baked good having an extended shelf life, the dry ingredients comprising:
at least 74 weight % flour;
6.5-9 weight % dextrose;
6-8 weight % soybean oil;
0.75-1.25 weight % nonfat dry milk or milk replacement;
0.04-0.06 weight % yeast flavor;
0.2-0.4 weight % blend of gums;
0.45-1.0 weight % vital wheat gluten;
0.1-0.4 weight % distilled monoglycerides;
0.6-1.0 weight % blend of enzymes;
0.0-0.18 weight % konjac flour; and
0.1-0.4 weight % methylcellulose.
2. The formulation of
claim 1
, further comprising:
at least 60.50 weight % hard wheat flour;
at least 17.33 weight % soft wheat flour;
at least 6.70 weight % dextrose;
at least 6.40 weight % soybean oil;
at least 1.00 weight % nonfat dry milk or milk replacement;
0.05 weight % yeast flavor;
at least 0.23 weight % blend of gums;
at least 0.45 weight % vital wheat gluten;
0.1 weight % distilled monoglycerides;
0.6 weight % blend of enzymes; and
at least 0.13 weight % methylcellulose.
3. The formulation of
claim 2
, further comprising:
62.00 weight % hard wheat flour;
18.20 weight % soft wheat flour;
6.70 weight % dextrose;
6.40 weight % soybean oil;
1.05 weight % nonfat dry milk or milk replacement;
0.05 weight % yeast flavor;
0.23 weight % blend of gums;
0.45 weight % vital wheat gluten;
0.10 weight % distilled monoglycerides;
0.60 weight % blend of enzymes; and
0.13 weight % methylcellulose.
4. The formulation of
claim 1
, wherein the yeast flavor comprises a spray dried beer flavor.
5. The formulation of
claim 1
, wherein the enzyme blend includes novo maltogenic amylase and novo xylanase.
6. The formulation of
claim 1
, wherein the enzyme blend comprises 7.59 weight % enzymes.
7. The formulation of
claim 1
, wherein the gum blend includes cellulose gum, guar gum, carrageenan, gum acacia, or xanthan, or a combination of cellulose gum, guar gum, carrageenan, gum acacia, and xanthan.
8. The formulation of
claim 1
, further comprising:
1-2 weight % salt;
0.1 weight % color;
0.5-0.9 weight % sodium acid pyrophosphate;
0.6-1.4 weight % soy flour;
0.08-0.4 weight % vanilla flavor; and
0.01 weight percent I-cysteine or L-cysteine.
9. A dough comprising the formulation of
claim 1
and further comprising:
yeast at a ratio of approximately 4% of the weight of the dry ingredients; and
water at a ratio of 43-46% of the weight of the dry ingredients.
10. A baked good comprising the baked dough of
claim 1
.
11. A baked good comprising the baked dough of
claim 1
having a shelf life of at least eight hours.
12. A baked good comprising the baked dough of
claim 1
having a shelf life of at least twenty-four hours.
Description
    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation-in-part of International Application No. PCT/US99/29809 filed on Dec. 16, 1999, which claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/112,349, filed on Dec. 16, 1998, and of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/112,350, filed on Dec. 16, 1998, the disclosures of all of which are incorporated by reference herein.
  • STATEMENT REGARDING FEDERALLY SPONSORED RESEARCH OR DEVELOPMENT
  • [0002]
    N/A
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Yeast-raised doughnuts and other yeast-raised or yeast-leavened baked goods, such as Danish pastries and croissants, are prized for their soft texture and their fresh yeasty flavor characteristics. Doughnuts are particularly recognized for their airy texture and distinctive fresh yeasty aroma and flavor. The primary components for commercial yeast raised doughnuts are flours, sugars, proteins, flavors, enzymes, emulsifiers, hydrocolloids, chemical leavenings, and fats and oils.
  • [0004]
    The current shelf life for the optimum quality of commercial yeast-raised doughnuts is about eight to ten hours. These doughnuts lose their eating quality “freshness” as they age and become stale. Staling is any change, other than microbiological spoiling, that occurs in doughnuts during storage and that makes them less acceptable to consumers. Staling occurs when the starch molecules crystallize or “retrograde.” Starch retrogradation occurs when the molecules of gelatinized starch reassociate in an ordered structure. In the initial phase, two or more starch molecular chains form a simple juncture point that then may develop into more extensively ordered regions. Ultimately, this crystalline ordering causes the doughnuts to become stale.
  • [0005]
    The changes due to staling are sensory (flavor) and/or physical (loss of crumb softness) . Regarding the flavor changes, stale doughnuts have an oxidized off flavor and/or lose the fresh yeasty flavor that is characteristic of fresh, yeast-raised doughnuts. Many consumers who are served “stale” doughnuts are dissatisfied. Thus, any improvement that could extend the shelf life of doughnuts or other baked goods and/or retard or delay staling would be beneficial.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0006]
    The present invention provides a formulation for baking a yeast-raised baked good having an extended shelf life. The ingredients that contribute to the shelf life extension of the product are hard wheat flour, soft wheat flour, dextrose, soybean oil, nonfat dry milk or milk replacement, fermented flavor, gums, vital wheat gluten, distilled monoglycerides, enzymes, konjac flour, and methylcellulose.
  • [0007]
    In particular, a formulation of dry ingredients for a yeast-raised baked good having an extended shelf life comprises at least 74 weight % flour; 6.5-9 weight % dextrose; 6-8 weight % soybean oil; 0.75-1.25 weight % nonfat dry milk or milk replacement; 0.04-0.06 weight % yeast flavor; 0.2-0.4 weight % blend of gums; 0.45-1.0 weight % vital wheat gluten; 0.1-0.4 weight % distilled monoglycerides; 0.6-1.0 weight % blend of enzymes; 0.0-0.18 weight % konjac flour; and 0.1-0.4 weight % methylcellulose.
  • [0008]
    A particularly preferred formulation of dry ingredients comprises at least 60.50 weight % hard wheat flour; at least 17.33 weight % soft wheat flour; at least 6.70 weight % dextrose; at least 6.40 weight % soybean oil; at least 1.00 weight % nonfat dry milk or milk replacement; 0.05 weight % yeast flavor; at least 0.23 weight % blend of gums; at least 0.45 weight % vital wheat gluten; 0.1 weight % distilled monoglycerides; 0.6 weight % blend of enzymes; and at least 0.13 weight % methylcellulose.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0009]
    The present invention provides an optimization of the formulation of the ingredients for yeast-raised baked goods to increase the shelf life of the baked goods. The present optimized formulation is particularly beneficial for increasing the shelf life of doughnuts.
  • [0010]
    The dough for yeast-raised baked goods typically comprises a number of dry ingredients to which one or more liquids are added. The basic ingredients for doughnuts include flours, sugars, proteins, flavors, enzymes, emulsifiers, hydrocolloids, chemical leavenings, and fats and oils. The critical functional ingredients, for example, emulsifiers, enzymes, and humectants, in the formulation of prior art yeast-raised doughnuts are either at an inappropriate amount or are not of the appropriate class of compounds. Two formulations are provided. The first formulation, Formula A, gives an acceptable extended shelf life product, as indicated in parent international application no. PCT/US99/29809. The second formulation, Formula B, is preferred to optimize the cost of certain ingredients. The resulting product does not differ substantially from the product resulting from Formula A.
  • [0011]
    Accordingly, doughnuts according to the present invention include the following dry ingredients (excluding yeast):
    FORMULA A FORMULA B
    Acceptable Preferred Preferred
    Range Amount Amount
    Ingredient(s) (wt. %) (wt. %) (wt. %)
    Hard wheat flour 58.00-62.00 60.50 62.00
    (bread flour)
    soft wheat flour 16.00-18.20 17.33 18.20
    (pastry flour)
    dextrose 6.50-9.00 8.55 6.70
    (monohydrate)
    soybean oil, 6.00-8.00 6.60 6.40
    bulk
    salt 1.00-2.00 1.45 1.45
    color 0.10 0.10 0.10
    nonfat dry milk 0.75-1.25 1.00 1.05
    or milk
    replacement
    sodium acid 0.50-0.90 0.70 0.70
    pyrophosphate
    fermented flavor 0.04-0.06 0.05 0.05
    soy flour 0.60-1.40 1.20 1.25
    natural and 0.08-0.40 0.30 0.08
    artificial
    vanilla flavor
    sodium 0.40-0.60 0.50 0.50
    bicarbonate
    I-cysteine or 0.01 0.01 0.01
    L-cysteine
    Crumb Softener 1.45-3.38 1.71 1.51
    Blend
  • [0012]
    In Formula A, the Crumb Softener Blend includes the following:
    FORMULA A FORMULA A
    Range in Preferred Preferred
    Total Amount in Amount in
    Formula Blend Total Formula
    Ingredient(s) (wt. %) (wt. %) (wt. %)
    Enzyme blend 0.60-1.00 35.191 0.60
    Distilled 0.10-0.40 5.865 0.10
    monoglycerides
    Vital wheat 0.45-1.00 29.326 0.50
    gluten
    Konjac flour 0.00-0.18 4.692 0.08
    Gum blend 0.20-0.40 14.663 0.25
    Methylcellulose 0.10-0.40 10.264 0.18
  • [0013]
    In Formula B, the Crumb Softener Blend includes the following:
    FORMULA B FORMULA B
    Range in Preferred Preferred
    Total Amount in Amount in
    Formula Blend Total Formula
    Ingredient(s) (wt. %) (wt. %) (wt. %)
    Enzyme blend 0.60-1.00 39.74 0.60
    Distilled 0.10-0.40 6.62 0.10
    monoglycerides
    Vital wheat 0.45-1.00 29.80 0.45
    gluten
    Konjac flour 0.00-0.18 0.00 0.00
    Gum blend 0.20-0.40 15.23 0.23
    Methylcellulose 0.10-0.40 8.61 0.13
  • [0014]
    The ingredients that contribute to the shelf life extension of the product are the hard wheat flour, soft wheat flour, dextrose, soybean oil, nonfat dry milk or milk replacement, the fermented flavor, the gum blend, vital wheat gluten, distilled monoglycerides, the enzyme blend, konjac flour, and methylcellulose.
  • [0015]
    Vital wheat gluten is a wheat protein that acts as a humectant, to retain doughnut moisture, as well as a crumb softener. It is available as Provim ESP® from ADM/Arkady in Olathe, Kans.
  • [0016]
    The nonfat dry milk or milk replacement is a dairy protein that has a positive effect in delaying staling. The milk replacement may include, for example, whey solids, milk protein concentrate, and whey concentrate in suitable amounts, as would be known to those of skill in the art. Dairy Blend #DD001, available from Clofine Dairy Products, is suitable as a milk replacement.
  • [0017]
    The enzyme blend contains fungal amylase that is a blend of 96.18 weight % novo maltogenic amylase and 3.82 weight % novo xylanase. These enzymes break down starch molecules, preventing starch recrystallization. This helps prevent starch retrogradation and delays staling. The enzyme blend also includes lecithin (8.71 weight %), mono and diglycerides (34.65 weight %), sodium stearoyl lactylate (34.65 weight %), and whey protein concentrate (15.00 weight %), and whey powder (1.40 weight %), in addition to the enzymes (7.59 weight %).
  • [0018]
    Konjac flour is a blend of the dried root tuber of Amorphophallus Konjac and carrageenan. It helps retain moisture of the doughnuts, thus retaining crumb softness and delaying staling. Konjac flour is available as Nutricol® GP 312 Konjac Flour from the Food Ingredients Division of FMC Corporation, of Philadelphia, Pa. While preferred, konjac flour is not critical and may be eliminated if desired, as in Formula B.
  • [0019]
    Methylcellulose is a hydrocolloid that is also able to retain moisture of the doughnuts, thereby contributing to crumb softness. The methylcellulose is available as Methocell A4M from Dow Chemical U.S.A. of Midland, Mich.
  • [0020]
    The above ingredients are also able to tolerate a wider variation in the parameters in the process of making doughnuts, such as bowl time, dough temperature, proof time, proof temperature, or proof humidity.
  • [0021]
    The flavors in the above formulation include a fermented flavor or encapsulated yeast flavor and a vanillin flavor. The fermented flavor extends the flavoring aromatics of doughnuts at least twenty-four hours. The fermented flavor may comprise a spray dried beer flavor and is available, for example, as Takasago Flavor's Artificial Beer Flavor #991005 or Cumberland Packing #868054. The natural and artificial vanilla flavor is available as, for example, BR Flavors Bench #082699 powder or Flavorchem #93.650 liquid vanilla concentrate. If a liquid flavoring is used/ it is sprayed or plated onto the dry ingredients. The amount of liquid flavoring as well as the soybean oil used in the formulation does not substantially affect the moisture content of the mix of dry ingredients.
  • [0022]
    The distilled monoglycerides are dough conditioners, available as I-cysteine Dimodan PV 300 K, from Danisco or L-cysteine LC#5 from Assist-American Ing. Co.
  • [0023]
    The gum blend typically includes cellulose gum, guar gum, carrageenan, gum acacia, and xanthan. The particular amounts of the gums are not critical, and those of skill in the art are able to select the appropriate types and proportions of gums. Other gums besides those listed may be used as well, as would be known by those of skill in the art.
  • [0024]
    Typically in the baking of commercial baked goods, the above dry ingredients are packaged and sent to bakeries or stores. To make the baked goods from the above formulation of dry ingredients, yeast and water are added and mixed at the bakery or store. Yeast is added at a ratio of 4 percent of the weight of the dry ingredients, and water is added at a ratio of 43-46 percent of the weight of the dry ingredients. The dough is then allowed to rest, formed, proofed, and baked, as known in the prior art or more preferably as particularly indicated in parent international application no. PCT/US99/29809.
  • [0025]
    The product resulting from Formula B was tested using standard textural analysis measurements performed in the baking industry to trend the shelf life of products. In particular, plate and poke tests were performed. The plate tests involved a plate force test, which determines the force necessary to compress the baked good to a specified distance for a specified time at a specified speed, and a plate area test, which determines the amount of work involved in compressing the baked good to this distance. The plate area test is the best overall indicator for softness. The poke tests involved a poke force test, which determines the force required to puncture the baked good, and a poke area test, which determines the amount of work involved in puncturing the baked good.
  • [0026]
    The tests compared product resulting from Formula B to control product resulting from Formula A twenty-four hours after baking. In these results, the lower the number, the greater the softness of the product. Representative test results, illustrated in the following table, show that the trend of the texture and freshness of the Formula B product is satisfactory.
    Poke Poke Plate Plate
    Force Area Force Area
    Formula A 122.62 832.86 122.60 20,876
    (control)
    Formula B 119.87 872.10 119.9  15,991
  • [0027]
    The formulation of the present invention is suitable for making any type of yeast-raised or yeast-leavened baked goods. Such yeast-raised baked goods include, but are not limited to, doughnut rings, doughnut shells, doughnut holes, croissants, Danish pastries, and fancies such as bowties, cinnamon rolls, turnovers, tarts, or eclairs.
  • [0028]
    The invention is not to be limited by what has been particularly shown and described, except as indicated by the appended claims.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8354131Nov 5, 2008Jan 15, 2013Kraft Foods Global Brands LlcMicrowavable food products
US20070042099 *Aug 16, 2006Feb 22, 2007Stanton Robert PReady to bake refrigerated batter
US20080063755 *Sep 13, 2006Mar 13, 2008Renee GanBaked Microwavable Frozen Bread and Bakery Products
US20090155419 *Nov 5, 2008Jun 18, 2009Renee GanMicrowavable Food Products
US20090155426 *Nov 5, 2008Jun 18, 2009Renee GanBaked Microwavable Frozen Bread and Bakery Products
US20110183059 *Jul 28, 2011Oven Luv'n LlcReady to bake refridgerated batter
US20120076892 *Jun 15, 2010Mar 29, 2012Maurus MartyProcess for encapsulating an active ingredient
Classifications
U.S. Classification426/62, 426/622, 426/654, 426/549, 426/63
International ClassificationA21D8/00, A21D6/00, A21D10/00, A21D2/18, A21D8/04, A21D2/36, A21C13/00
Cooperative ClassificationY10S165/919, A21D6/00, A21D2/366, A21D2/188, A21C13/00, A21D10/005, A21D8/042, A21D8/00, A21D10/00, A21D2/183
European ClassificationA21D10/00B2, A21D8/00, A21D6/00, A21D2/18F, A21D10/00, A21D8/04B, A21D2/18C, A21C13/00, A21D2/36D
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 18, 2000ASAssignment
Owner name: DUNKIN DONUTS INCORPORATED, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:VINCENTE, PATRICIA A.;CATALDO, MICHAEL D.;PITTS, ROBERT P.;REEL/FRAME:011392/0426;SIGNING DATES FROM 20001205 TO 20001212