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Publication numberUS20010028271 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/769,493
Publication dateOct 11, 2001
Filing dateJan 26, 2001
Priority dateJan 28, 2000
Also published asUS6445225
Publication number09769493, 769493, US 2001/0028271 A1, US 2001/028271 A1, US 20010028271 A1, US 20010028271A1, US 2001028271 A1, US 2001028271A1, US-A1-20010028271, US-A1-2001028271, US2001/0028271A1, US2001/028271A1, US20010028271 A1, US20010028271A1, US2001028271 A1, US2001028271A1
InventorsTore Andre
Original AssigneeTore Andre
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Line driver
US 20010028271 A1
Abstract
The invention relates to a line driver supplied with a power supply voltage from a power supply and an amplifying method. According to the invention the following steps are performed: using whole or part of the power supply voltage to generate the output voltage if the input voltage is within the predefined range; loading at least one capacitor with at least one capacitor voltage; and using whole or part of the capacitor voltage in addition to whole or part of the power supply voltage to generate the output voltage if the input voltage is outside the predefined range.
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Claims(21)
1. Line driver (12) including at least one input and at least one output, said line driver being supplied with a power supply voltage (Vcc) from a power supply, and being arranged to amplify an input voltage (Uin) to an output voltage (Uout), where the probability that the input voltage (Uin) is within a predefined range is higher then the probability that the input voltage (Uin) is outside said predefined range, characterized in that the line driver is arranged to use whole or part of the power supply voltage (Vcc) to generate the output voltage (Uout) if the input voltage (Uin) is within the predefined range, that the line driver further includes at least one capacitor (25), which is arranged to be loaded with at least one capacitor voltage (Vc), and that the line driver is arranged to use whole or part of the capacitor voltage (Vc) in addition to whole or part of the power supply voltage (Vcc) to generate the output voltage (Uout) if the input voltage (Uin) is outside the predefined range.
2. Line driver according to
claim 1
, characterized in that the line driver further includes a voltage-generating block (30), which includes a first (21) and a second (22) switch connected in series between the power supply and ground, a third (23) and a fourth (24) switch connected in series between the power supply and ground and the capacitor (25) connected on one side to a first connection point (26) between the first (21) and the second (22) switch and on the other side to a second connection point (27) between the third (23) and the fourth (24) switch.
3. Line driver according to any of the claims 1-2, characterized in that the line driver further includes a drive stage (31) connected to the input, to a first transistor (32) and to a second transistor (33), that the first transistor (32) is connected to the first connection point (26), that the second transistor (33) is connected to the second connection point (27) and that the first (32) and the second (33) transistor are connected to the output.
4. Line driver according to
claim 3
, characterized in that the line driver further includes a third transistor (41) connected to the drive stage (31) and between the power supply and the output and also a fourth transistor (42) connected to the drive stage (31) and between ground and the output.
5. Line driver according to
claim 3
or
4
, characterized in that the line driver further includes a feedback connection between the output and the drive stage (31).
6. Line driver according to any of the claims 1-5, characterized in that the line driver further includes a comparator (51, 55), which is arranged to read the input voltage (Uin) or a voltage or signal related to the input voltage (Ud) and to compare it with at least one threshold (Vth1, Vth2).
7. Balanced line driver, characterized in that said balanced line driver includes a first (12 a) and a second line driver (12 b) according to any of the claims 1-6 connected in parallel and further including a phase difference block (61) connected in series with the second line driver (12 b).
8. Line driver according to any of the claims 1-7, characterized in that the line driver is used in a multicarrier modulation system.
9. Line driver according to 8, characterized in that the line driver is connected after a digital-to-analogue converter (7) with at least one input and in that the signal related to the input voltage is a digital signal (UD) which also is arranged to enter the digital-to-analogue converter (7).
10. Line driver according to
claim 9
, characterized in that a delay circuit (52) is provided on the input to the digital-to-analogue converter (7).
11. Line driver according to
claim 8
, characterized in that the line driver is connected after a digital-analogue converter (7) and that the output of the digital-to-analogue converter (7) is connected to the input of the comparator (55).
12. Amplifying method in an line driver (12) supplied with a power supply voltage (Vcc) from a power supply, in which method an input voltage (Vin) is amplified to an output voltage (Vout) and the probability that the input voltage (Vin) is within a predefined range is higher then the probability that the input voltage (Vin) is outside said predefined range, characterized by the following steps:
using whole or part of the power supply voltage (Vcc) to generate the output voltage (Vout) if the input voltage (Vin) is within the predefined range,
loading a capacitor (25) with a capacitor voltage (Vc),
using whole or part of the capacitor voltage (Vc) in addition to whole or part of the power supply voltage (Vcc) to generate the output voltage (Vout) if the input voltage (Vin) is outside the predefined range.
13. Amplifying method according to
claim 12
, characterized in that the capacitor is included in a voltage-generating block (30), which further includes a first (21) and a second (22) switch connected in series between the power supply and ground, a third (23) and a fourth (24) switch connected in series between the power supply and ground and the capacitor (25) connected on one side to a first connection point (26) between the first (21) and the second (22) switch and on the other side to a second (27) connection point between the third (23) and the fourth (24) switch, wherein the following steps are executed:
loading the capacitor (25) by keeping the first (21) and the fourth (24) switch closed and the second (22) and the third (23) switch opened.
14. Amplifying method according to
claim 13
, characterized in that if a voltage outside the specified range is needed the following steps are executed after loading the capacitor:
opening the first (21) and the fourth (24) switch, closing the third (23) switch and keeping the second (22) switch open,
using a voltage potential at the first connection point (26).
15. Amplifying method according to
claim 13
, characterized in that if a voltage outside the specified range is needed the following steps are executed after loading the capacitor:
opening the first (21) and the fourth (24) switch, closing the second switch (22) and keeping the third (23) switch open,
using a voltage potential at the second connection point (27).
16. Amplifying method according to any of the claims 12-15, characterized by the following steps:
generating a control signal (Ucon) by reading the input voltage (Uin) or a voltage or a signal related to the input voltage (Ud) and making a comparison with at least one threshold (Vth1, Vth2)
using the control signal (Ucon) to control the line driver (12) depending on the outcome of the comparison.
17. Amplifying method according to any of the claims 12-16, characterized by
generating a double output voltage by using a first line driver (12 a) to generate a first output voltage and a second line driver (12 b) to generate a second output voltage
generating the two output voltages with 180 phase difference (61)
taking the difference (13) between the two output voltages.
18. Amplifying method according to any of the claims 12-17, characterized in that the line driver (12) is connected after a digital-to-analogue converter (7) in a multicarrier modulation system, wherein the following step is executed:
using a digital input voltage to the digital-to-analogue converter (7) for the comparison.
19. Amplifying method according to
claim 18
, characterized by delaying (52) the digital input voltage (UD) before it enters the digital-to analogue converter (7).
20. Amplifying method according to any of the claims 12-17, characterized in that the line driver (12) is connected after a digital-analogue converter (7) in a multicarrier modulation system, wherein the following step is executed:
using an analogue output voltage from the digital-to-analogue converter (7) for the comparison.
21. Amplifying method according to
claim 20
, characterized by delaying (56) the analogue output voltage before it enters the line driver (12).
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] The present invention relates to a line driver and an amplifying method in said line driver.

Description of Related Art

[0002] Multi-carrier modulation is a known method for transmitting broadband information (for example, video, Internet or telephony) over radio connections or copper wire. The latter may be e.g. XDSL systems, such as Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), High-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) or Very high speed asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL). Two similar methods in multi-carrier modulation are Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDM), used in radio applications, and Discrete Multitone (DMT), which is used in copper wires.

[0003] Very briefly explained, the bits that are to be transmitted, (of for example a digitally encoded video signal) are encoded as complex numbers in a transmitter. In the transmitter an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) and a digital-to-analogue conversion are carried out whereupon the result is sent out on a line to a receiver.

[0004] The IFFT-modulation gives a sum of orthogonal carriers or tones, the amplitudes and phase displacement of which are determined by the values and phases of the complex numbers. These carriers are then transmitted in time slots at constant time intervals and are called symbols. In the receiver an analogue-to-digital conversion and a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) are carried out instead. In this way, the original bits are retrieved. Attenuation and phase displacement may be easily compensated for, by multiplication by a complex number for each carrier.

[0005] In an xDSL system there is a line driver after the digital-to-analogue conversion in the transmitter. Said line driver is an amplifier that feeds the line. Since the output from the IFFT-modulation approximately is Gaussian distributed, the peak-to-average ratio is very high. This means that the line driver must have a high supply voltage in order to adequately transmit the occasional high signal peaks that may occur.

[0006] Unfortunately, such a high supply voltage results in substantial power dissipation in the line driver. In fact, e.g. in a typical commercial ADSL-system, about 67% of the total power is consumed in the line driver. Thus, there is a need to reduce the power dissipation in such a line driver. Power dissipated in digital logic will be possible to reduce in the future by improved semiconductor technology, but physical laws limits the possibilities to reduce the power in the line driver.

[0007] In WO99/18662 reduced power dissipation is achieved by using several power supplies to the line driver. In the first embodiment two different positive power supplies are used, which provide power at first and second levels, respectively, where the second level is greater than the first level. A controller causes power to be supplied from the first power supply to the line driver when the magnitude of the input voltage is less than or equal to a predetermined threshold. When the magnitude of the input voltage is greater than the threshold, the controller causes power to be supplied from the second power supply to the line driver.

[0008] The problem with this embodiment is that when the amplifier is in an idle mode, it will take an idle voltage in the middle of the voltage range. Idle voltage is in the present description defined as the voltage that is received on the output of the line driver when there is no input signal to it. This is mainly applicable in circuits that are connected differential or in circuits that are AC-connected.

[0009] Thus, if the power supply voltage presently used is 5V, then the idle voltage will be 2,5V and if the power supply voltage presently used is 12V, then the idle voltage will be 6V. Hence, the idle voltage differs depending on which power supply voltage it is that is presently used. This is bad, because then the output voltage will change when the power supply voltage is changed, even though it is supposed to be an idle mode. Another problem is that it is necessary to use two different power supplies, which is expensive, inefficient and place consuming.

[0010] The second embodiment in WO99/18662 uses four power supplies, two positive and two negative of corresponding values. This makes the idle voltage at zero at all times. The problem with this embodiment is that as many as four different power supplies are needed.

SUMMARY

[0011] The purpose with the present invention is to provide a line driver, such as a line driver in a multi carrier system, with a low power dissipation and a stable idle voltage without having to use a lot of different power supplies.

[0012] The problems mentioned above with the different embodiments WO99/18662 are solved by defining a voltage range, within which it is the greatest probability that the input voltage to the line driver will fall. A power supply to the line driver is chosen accordingly and whole or part of the power supply voltage is used for generating the output voltage as long as the input voltage is within said range.

[0013] Further, a capacitor is included in the line driver and is loaded to a capacitor voltage. Whole or part of said capacitor voltage may then be used in addition to whole or part of the power supply voltage to generate the output voltage when the input voltage is outside said range.

[0014] The advantages are that a low power dissipation and a stable idle voltage is achieved in a simple circuit without the need for many power supplies. The larger the differences of probability are within the range compared to outside the range the larger is the gain of lowered power dissipation. This is particularly evident in e.g. systems with Gaussian distributed input voltage probabilities, such as is the case for a line driver in a multicarrier system.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0015] The features and advantages of the present invention outlined above are described more fully below in the detailed description in conjunction with the drawings where like reference numerals refer to like elements throughout.

[0016]FIG. 1 is a function block diagram showing an example multi-carrier modulation system in which the present invention may be employed.

[0017]FIG. 2a and 2 b are simplified illustrations of a line driver in a digital subscriber line environment.

[0018]FIG. 3 is a graph showing a Gaussian distribution of multi-carrier modulator output voltages.

[0019]FIG. 4a-c is a circuit diagram showing a voltage-generating block according to the present invention.

[0020]FIG. 5 is a circuit diagram showing a first embodiment of a line driver according to the present invention.

[0021]FIG. 6 is a circuit diagram showing a second embodiment of a line driver according to the present invention.

[0022]FIG. 7 is a simplified illustration of a first embodiment of a control circuit for the circuits in FIG. 5 or 6.

[0023]FIG. 8 is a simplified illustration of a second embodiment of a control circuit for the circuits in FIG. 5 or 6.

[0024]FIG. 9 is a circuit diagram showing a third embodiment of a line driver according to the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENTS

[0025]FIG. 1 shows, schematically, how the main parts of a prior art system for multi-carrier modulation may look. In a transmitter 1 modulation of data bits, for example from a digitally encoded video signal, is performed.

[0026] The bits to be transmitted are encoded in the transmitter 1 as N complex numbers before a hermit symmetry operation is carried out in a calculation block 4. 2N complex numbers are obtained having a symmetric real part and an asymmetric imaginary part.

[0027] An Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) is then performed in an IFFT calculation unit 5, as a modulation. Since the imaginary part becomes zero it may be eliminated and a real signal remains, which passes a parallel to serial converter 6, a digital-to-analogue converter 7 and a line driver 12.

[0028] This gives a sum of orthogonal carriers or tones, the amplitudes and phases of which are determined by the values and phases of the original complex numbers. These carriers are then transmitted in a line 2 at constant time intervals/time slots and are called symbols.

[0029] In a receiver 3 the data, in the opposite way, passes an analogue-to-digital converter 8, a serial-to-parallel converter 9 and an FFT calculation unit 10, in which an FFT is carried out, as a demodulation. This gives 2N complex numbers. For symmetry reasons, for example the upper half of the 2N complex numbers may be discarded, leaving a number N of complex numbers.

[0030] Finally, an equalizer 11 is used, which, compensates for attenuation and phase displacement by multiplying the different numbers with complex numbers so that finally the same data bits are obtained that were transmitted to begin with.

[0031] In FIG. 2a a line driver 12 is shown. A modulated input voltage Uin from the digital-to-analogue converter 7 is fed into the line driver 12, which is an amplifier supplied with a power supply voltage Vcc. The line driver 12 produces an output voltage Uout to a transformer 13, which feeds the line 2. From the point of view of the line driver 12 it may be seen as there is a resistive load RL on the output of the line driver 12, which is schematically shown in FIG. 2b.

[0032] Power dissipation Pd is the power that result -in heating the line driver 12 and may be characterised in accordance with the following equation:

P d=(V cc −U out) U out /R L +P f  (1)

[0033] The parameter Pf is a technology dependent power that may be possible to reduce in the future if new semiconductor technology is invented. It is however also partly dependent on the power supply voltage Vcc. The rest of the power dissipation Pd can only be reduced with a lower power supply voltage Vcc. However, the lower power supply voltage Vcc you use, the lower the clipping limit will be and the more disturbances it will be in the transmitted signal.

[0034] The output voltage Uout from a transmitter in a DMT, OFDM or similar system is approximately Gaussian distributed, see FIG. 3, i.e. it follows approximately the density function: P ( U out ) = 1 σ 2 π - ( U out - m ) 2 / 2 σ 2 ( 2 )

[0035] where the parameter m is a measure on where the peak of the curve is and the parameter a is a measure on the shape of the peak. Both parameters m, σ are dependent on the application.

[0036] If, as an example, a low probability of clipping of 10−8 is accepted, then the clip level will be at approximately 5, 6σ and thus the supply voltage Vcc must be at least 5, 6σ.

[0037] However, one may note that most of the time the output signal Uout will be in the mid-range. It would thus be desirable to have a solution where a lower supply voltage is used most of the time and a high supply voltage is used only when it is strictly necessary. That would reduce the overall power dissipation in the line driver.

[0038] In FIG. 4a-c is shown a part of the invention in the form of a voltage generating block 30, which makes it possible to generate different magnitudes of output voltage, without having to use many power supplies. A first 21 and a second 22 switch are connected in series between a power supply Vcc and ground G. In parallel with the first 21 and second 22 switches a third 23 and fourth 24 switch are connected in the same way. A capacitor 25 is connected on one side to a first connection point 26 between the first 21 and the second 22 switch. On the other side the capacitor 25 is connected to a second connection point 27 between the third 23 and the fourth 24 switch. A capacitor voltage Uc is indicated over the capacitor 25 between the first 26 and second 27 connection point. The switches 21, 22, 23, 24 may preferably be switch-transistors.

[0039] To load the capacitor 25 the switches 21, 22, 23, 24 are switched as in FIG. 4a. The first 21 and the fourth 24 switch are closed, while the second 22 and the third 23 switch are open. This loads the capacitor 25 and the capacitor voltage Uc becomes approximately equal to the supply voltage Vcc minus losses in the switches 21, 24 and other losses.

[0040] When a positive voltage higher than the supply voltage Vcc is going to be used, the first 21 and the fourth 24 switch are opened, while the third switch 23 is closed, as in FIG. 4b. Then it is possible to take out a first voltage Vmax between the first connection point 26 and ground G. The output voltage Vmax is approximately equal to 2Vcc, due to the fact that the capacitor voltage Uc≈Vcc is added to the supply voltage Vcc.

[0041] Of course the capacitor 25 will discharge, but if the double voltage only is used under a short time and the capacitor 25 then is recharged, the capacitor voltage Uc will not drop very much. This condition is fulfilled if voltage peaks are not coming very often, as is the case in e.g. multi-carrier systems.

[0042] If instead a negative voltage is needed after loading, then the first 21 and the fourth 24 switch are opened, while the second switch 22 is closed, as in FIG. 4c. Then it is possible to take out a second voltage Vmin between the second connection point 27 and ground G. The second voltage Vmin is approximately equal to −Vcc, due to the fact that the capacitor voltage Uc≈Vcc.

[0043] Thus, a voltage interval of Vmin to Vmax, i.e. −Vcc to 2Vcc, is obtained. This makes the idle voltage at Vcc/2, independently of the magnitude of the output voltage.

[0044] An alternative to the embodiment in FIG. 4a-c is to use two capacitors, i.e. a first capacitor for positive output voltages larger than the idle voltage and a second capacitor for positive voltages smaller than the idle voltages and for negative voltages.

[0045] One example on how the embodiment with one capacitor may be implemented in practice in a line driver is shown in FIG. 5. The input signal Uin goes into a drive stage 31. A first transistor 32 and a second transistor 33 are connected with their respective bases to the output side of the drive stage 31. The voltage-generating block 30 from FIG. 4a-c has its first connection point 26 connected to the collector of the first transistor 32 and its second connection point 27 connected to the collector of the second transistor 32. Further, the emitters of the two transistors 32, 33 are connected in a third connection point 34. The output voltage Uout is taken out from said third connection point 34.

[0046] When a positive output voltage higher than the idle voltage is needed then the first transistor 32 leads, but the second transistor 33 does not lead. When a positive output voltage lower than the idle voltage or a negative output voltage is needed then the second transistor 33 leads, but the first transistor 32 does not lead. In both cases the magnitude of the output voltage Uout is controlled from the drive stage 31 via the base current to the transistor 32, 33 in use.

[0047] When a positive output voltage higher than the supply voltage is needed, then the switches are switched as described in FIG. 4b and the first voltage Vmax may taken out from the first connection point 26. Thus, the output signal Uout may become a value up to approximately the first voltage Vmax.

[0048] When a positive output voltage lower than the supply voltage or a negative output voltage is needed, then the switches are switched as described in FIG. 4c and the second voltage Vmin may taken out from the second connection point 27. Thus, the output signal Uout may become a value to approximately the second voltage Vmin.

[0049] In the figure the first transistor is an NPN-transistor and the second transistor is a PNP-transistor. This is only an example. The man skilled in the art can easily use other transistors or equivalent means, to get the same function.

[0050] One or more control signals may be employed in order to control when and how the switches are going to switch and to control how the drive stage is to control the base currents when the voltage-generating block 30 is used and not, respectively.

[0051] Further, the output signal Uout may be fed back to the input side of the drive stage 31 and be used to ensure that the output signal Uout is a linear function of the input signal Uin.

[0052] One advantage with the embodiment in FIG. 5 is that it is simple and that only two transistors need to be used. One disadvantage is that the current always has to pass switches also when no peak voltages are needed, with following losses in the switches.

[0053] A way of avoiding passing switches when no peak voltage is needed is shown in FIG. 6. FIG. 6 is the same figure as FIG. 5, but with a third transistor 41 and a fourth transistor 42 added in parallel with the first transistors 32, 33. Also for these transistors, the man skilled in the art can use other transistors or equivalent means, to get the same function.

[0054] The third transistor 41 is connected with its base to the output of the drive stage 31, with its collector connected to the power supply Vcc and with its emitter connected to the third connection point 34. The fourth transistor 42 is connected with its base to the output of the drive stage 31, with its collector connected to ground and with its emitter connected to the third connection point 34.

[0055] In this way the third and fourth transistor 41, 42 will be used in the mid voltage range, while the first and second transistor 32, 33 and the voltage-generating block 30 will be used when voltage peaks are needed. Since the switches are only passed when they are necessary, losses are further reduced.

[0056] In the figure the third transistor is an NPN-transistor and the fourth transistor is a PNP-transistor. This is only an example. The man skilled in the art can easily use other transistors or equivalent means, to get the same function.

[0057] In order to control the switches and the drive stage, a digital input signal UD to the digital-to-analogue converter 7 may be used as in FIG. 7. In a digital comparator 51 the digital input signal UD is compared to a first threshold Vth1 and a second threshold Vth2. If the digital input signal UD is larger than the first threshold Vth1, then the switches are controlled so as to connect the capacitor to generate a first voltage Vmax, compare FIG. 4b, and the output from the drive stage 31 is adjusted accordingly.

[0058] If the digital input signal UD is lower than the second threshold Uth2, then the switches are controlled so as to connect the capacitor 25 to generate a second voltage Vmin, compare FIG. 4c, and the output from the drive stage 31 is adjusted accordingly. In the range between the first Vth1 and the second Vth2 threshold the capacitor 25 is recharged.

[0059] The comparator 51 may be implemented in hardware or software. To ensure that the switches are switched at right time a delay 52 may be introduced before the digital-to analogue converter 7.

[0060] For the control it is also possible to use the analogue output from the digital-to-analogue converter, see FIG. 8. The compare is in this case made in an analogue comparator 55, but works otherwise as in FIG. 7. This however requires a faster comparison than in FIG. 7.

[0061] In practise the thresholds in the different embodiments will not be implemented to correspond to output voltages exactly to 0 V and to the supply voltage, but rather a little higher than 0 V and a little lower than the supply voltage, respectively. This applies particularly in the case with the analogue comparison, where it is an alternative or a complement to having a fast comparison.

[0062] To be able to output a large output voltage range, the line driver may be balanced, which is shown in FIG. 9. Between the digital-to-analogue converter 7 and the output transformer 13 two line drivers 12 a, 12 b are connected with 180 phase difference, which is schematically shown in FIG. 9 as a phase difference block 61. The phase difference may be accomplished before or after one of the line drivers. The total output voltage difference then becomes two times that from a single line driver. In FIG. 9 is shown the embodiment from FIG. 5, but of course the embodiment from FIG. 6 or anything equivalent will do as well.

Referenced by
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US7701262 *Jul 23, 2007Apr 20, 2010Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Transmission line drivers and serial interface data transmission devices including the same
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US8258847Mar 12, 2009Sep 4, 2012Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.Semiconductor device, electronic device having the same, and driving method of the same
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US8564329Jun 20, 2011Oct 22, 2013Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.Semiconductor device and driving method thereof
US8698356Nov 13, 2012Apr 15, 2014Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.Digital circuit having correcting circuit and electronic apparatus thereof
US8786349Jul 27, 2012Jul 22, 2014Semiconductor Energy Laboratory Co., Ltd.Semiconductor device, electronic device having the same, and driving method of the same
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Classifications
U.S. Classification330/251
International ClassificationH03K19/00, H04L27/26, H03K19/013, H04L27/00
Cooperative ClassificationH04L27/2614, H03K19/0008, H04L27/0002, H04L27/2626, H03K19/0136
European ClassificationH04L27/26M3, H03K19/00P, H04L27/00A, H03K19/013C
Legal Events
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May 4, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL), SWEDEN
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Effective date: 20010425
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Owner name: TELEFONAKTIEBOLAGET LM ERICSSON (PUBL)S-126 25 STO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:ANDRE, TORE /AR;REEL/FRAME:011771/0406