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Publication numberUS20010040977 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/022,473
Publication dateNov 15, 2001
Filing dateFeb 12, 1998
Priority dateFeb 12, 1997
Also published asCA2229395A1, CA2229395C, DE69834969D1, DE69834969T2, DE69836699D1, DE69836699T2, EP0859503A2, EP0859503A3, EP0859503B1, EP1515534A2, EP1515534A3, EP1515534B1, EP1628462A2, EP1628462A3, US6421450
Publication number022473, 09022473, US 2001/0040977 A1, US 2001/040977 A1, US 20010040977 A1, US 20010040977A1, US 2001040977 A1, US 2001040977A1, US-A1-20010040977, US-A1-2001040977, US2001/0040977A1, US2001/040977A1, US20010040977 A1, US20010040977A1, US2001040977 A1, US2001040977A1
InventorsHirotaka Nakano
Original AssigneeHirotaka Nakano
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electronic watermark system
US 20010040977 A1
Abstract
An electronic watermark system invisibly embeds watermark information into original image data and the watermarked image data is transferred to a first medium. At the same time, the embedded watermark information is transferred to a second medium. When a medium questioned is found, its watermark information can be easily identified by searching the second medium. Alternatively, the watermarked image data and the embedded watermark information are transferred to different storage areas of the same medium, respectively.
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Claims(22)
What is claimed is:
1. A system comprising:
an information generator for generating watermark information;
a combiner for invisibly embedding the watermark information into original image data to produce watermarked image data; and
a transfer controller for transferring the watermarked image data to a first medium and the watermark information to a second medium.
2. The system according to
claim 1
, wherein the transfer controller further transfers medium identification information identifying the first medium to the second medium.
3. The system according to
claim 2
, wherein the second medium stores the watermark information and the medium identification information to allow retrieval.
4. The system according to
claim 1
, wherein
the first medium is a first storage medium for storing the watermarked image data; and
the second medium is a second storage medium for storing the watermark information and medium identification information identifying the first storage medium to allow retrieval.
5. The system according to
claim 4
, wherein the medium identification information is a manufacture serial number of the first storage medium.
6. The system according to
claim 1
, wherein
the first medium is a communication medium through which the watermarked image data is transmitted to a destination in a communication network; and
the second medium is a storage medium for storing the watermark information and medium identification information identifying the destination to allow retrieval.
7. The system according to
claim 6
, wherein the medium identification information is an address of the destination in the communication network.
8. A system comprising:
an information generator for generating information;
a combiner for invisibly embedding the watermark information into original image data to produce watermarked image data; and
a transfer controller for transferring both the watermarked image data and the watermark information to a single medium.
9. The system according to
claim 8
, wherein the single medium is a storage medium having a first storage area for storing the watermarked image data and a second storage area for storing the watermark information, wherein the second storage area is dedicated to the watermark information so that only the watermark information is allowed to be read.
10. The system according to
claim 8
, wherein the transfer controller encrypts the watermark information and transfers encrypted watermark information to the single medium.
11. The system according to
claim 10
, wherein the single medium is a storage medium having a first storage area for storing the watermarked image data and a second storage area for storing the encrypted watermark information, wherein the second storage area is dedicated to the encrypted watermark information so that only the encrypted watermark information is allowed to be read.
12. An authorization check system for checking whether a medium questioned is authorized, comprising:
a storage for storing watermark information and medium identification information identifying a medium, the medium storing watermarked image data which is produced by invisibly embedding the watermark information into original image data;
a retrieval controller for retrieving watermark information corresponding to medium identification information of the medium questioned from the storage;
watermark extractor for extracting watermark information questioned from image data stored in the medium questioned; and
a checker for checking whether the medium questioned is authorized by comparing the extracted watermark information with the retrieved watermark information.
13. The authorization check system according to
claim 12
, wherein the medium identification information is a manufacture serial number of the medium.
14. The authorization check system according to
claim 12
, wherein the medium is a communication medium through which the watermarked image data is transmitted to a destination in a communication network, wherein the medium identification information is an address of the destination in the communication network.
15. An authorization check system for checking whether a medium questioned is authorized, the medium questioned having a first storage area for storing watermarked image data and a second storage area for storing watermark information, the system comprising:
a watermark extractor for extracting watermark information from image data stored in the medium questioned; and
a checker for checking whether the medium questioned is authorized by comparing the extracted watermark information with the watermark information stored in the second storage area of the medium questioned.
16. The authorization check system according to
claim 15
, wherein the watermark information stored in the second storage area is encrypted.
17. A method for checking whether a medium questioned is authorized, comprising the steps of:
generating watermark information;
invisibly embedding the watermark information into original image data to produce watermarked image data;
transferring the watermarked image data to an authorized medium;
transferring the watermark information and medium identification information identifying the authorized medium to a retrieval medium;
retrieving watermark information corresponding to medium identification information of the medium questioned from the retrieval medium;
extracting watermark information questioned from image data stored in the medium questioned; and
checking whether the medium questioned is authorized by comparing the extracted watermark information with the retrieved watermark information.
18. The method according to
claim 17
, wherein the medium identification information is a manufacture serial number.
19. A method for checking whether image data questioned is authorized, comprising the steps of:
generating watermark information;
invisibly embedding the watermark information into original image data to produce watermarked image data;
transmitting the watermarked image data to an authorized destination through a network;
transferring the watermark information and medium identification information identifying the authorized destination to a retrieval medium;
retrieving watermark information corresponding to identification information of a data provider providing the image data questioned from the retrieval medium;
extracting watermark information from the image data questioned received from the data provider; and
checking whether the image data questioned is authorized by comparing the extracted watermark information with the retrieved watermark information.
20. A method for checking whether a medium questioned is authorized, comprising the steps of:
generating watermark information;
invisibly embedding the watermark information into original image data to produce watermarked image data;
transferring both the watermarked image data and the watermark information to an authorized medium;
extracting watermark information from image data stored in the medium questioned; and
checking whether the medium questioned is authorized by comparing the extracted watermark information with watermark information stored in the medium questioned.
21. The method according to
claim 20
, wherein the authorized medium is a storage medium having a first storage area for storing the watermarked image data and a second storage area for storing the watermark information, wherein the second storage area is dedicated to the watermark information so that only the watermark information is allowed to be read.
22. The method according to
claim 21
, wherein the watermark information is encrypted and encrypted watermark information is stored to the authorized medium.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention generally relates to an authorization system and in particular to an authorization system using identification information embedded into image data to prevent unauthorized duplication of the image data.

[0003] 2. Description of the Related Art

[0004] Recently, unauthorized copying of digital image data has become a serious problem because duplication of digital data can be extremely easy. To prevent unauthorized copying, several authorization systems using identification information (an electronic watermark) embedded into image data have been proposed.

[0005] A visible-watermarking system is disclosed in Japanese Patent Unexamined Publication No. 8-241403 which corresponds to U.S. Pat. No. 5,530,759. In this system, a visible watermark is placed on a digital image such that the corresponding pixel of original image changes its brightness but its chromaticities.

[0006] An invisible-watermarking system is disclosed in NIKKEI ELECTRONICS 1996.4.22 (no. 660). In this system, original image data is converted into frequency spectrum and then ID information is embedded into the frequency spectrum which is in turn converted into image data invisibly including the ID information. In authorization check, image data questioned is converted into frequency spectrum. ID information embedded in the image data questioned is obtained from a difference between the frequency spectrum questioned and the original frequency spectrum. Since the ID information is embedded into frequency spectrum of the original image data, it has little effect on the image quality and further it has become very difficult to delete the ID information from the image data.

[0007] In the above invisible-watermarking system, since the ID information cannot be seen, it is difficult to check whether image data is authorized in the case where no one knows the ID information. Especially, in a distribution system of data storing medium including CD-ROMS, there are cases where a different watermark is used for each distribution channel. In this case, the authorization check and manufacture management become very complicated and time-consuming jobs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] An object of the present invention is to provide a system which can rapidly check whether image data is authorized to effectively prevent unauthorized copying of the image data.

[0009] Another object of the present invention is to provide a system which can easily identity an electronic watermark invisibly embedded in image data to check whether the image data is authorized.

[0010] According to an aspect of the present invention, watermarked image data having watermark information invisibly embedded is transferred to a first medium and the embedded watermark information is transferred to a second medium. Since the embedded watermark information is stored in the second medium, watermark identification can be easily made.

[0011] Further, in an authorization check system for checking whether a medium questioned is authorized, a storage stores watermark information and medium identification information identifying a medium, the medium storing watermarked image data which is produced by invisibly embedding the watermark information into original image data. A retrieval controller retrieves watermark information corresponding to medium identification information of the medium questioned from the storage. A watermark extractor extracts watermark information questioned from image data stored in the medium questioned. A checker checks whether the medium questioned is authorized by comparing the extracted watermark information with the retrieved watermark information.

[0012] According to another aspect of the present invention, watermarked image data having watermark information invisibly embedded and the embedded watermark information are both transferred to a single medium. Preferably, the embedded watermark information may be stored in a dedicated storage area of the single medium. Further, the embedded watermark information may be encrypted and stored. Since the embedded watermark information is stored in the same medium, watermark identification can be easily made.

[0013] Further, in an authorization check system for checking whether a medium questioned is authorized, the medium questioned having a first storage area for storing watermarked image data and a second storage area for storing watermark information. After extracting watermark information from image data stored in the medium questioned, a checker checks whether the medium questioned is authorized by comparing the extracted watermark information with the watermark information stored in the second storage area of the medium questioned.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0014]FIG. 1 is a schematic block diagram showing an encoding side of an electronic watermark system according to the present invention;

[0015]FIG. 2 is a schematic block diagram showing a watermark check section of the electronic watermark system according to the present invention;

[0016]FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram showing an example of watermarking section of the encoding side of FIG. 1;

[0017]FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram showing an example of a watermark extractor of the watermark check section of FIG. 2;

[0018]FIG. 5 is a diagram showing a first embodiment of an electronic watermark system according to the present invention;

[0019]FIG. 6 is a diagram showing an electronic watermark system according to a second embodiment of the present invention;

[0020]FIG. 7A is a schematic diagram showing an encoding side of an electronic watermark system according to a third embodiment of the present invention; and

[0021]FIG. 7B is a schematic diagram showing a decoding side of the electronic watermark system according to the third embodiment.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0022] Referring to FIG. 1, an encoding side of an electronic watermark system inputs a stream of original image data D0 and produces both MPEG (Motion Picture Experts Group) data stream D4 and watermark data which is invisibly embedded into the MPEG data D4. More specifically, a stream input section 101 inputs a stream of the original image data which is converted to frequency spectrum data D1 by a DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform) section 102. A watermarking section 103 reads a watermark DWM selected from a plurality of watermarks stored in a watermark data table 104, and then embeds the selected watermark DWM into the frequency spectrum data D1 to produce watermark-embedded frequency spectrum data D2. The watermark-embedded frequency spectrum data D2 is quantized by a quantizing section 105 and the quantized data D3 is encoded to produce MPEG data by an encoding section 106. A transfer controller 107 inputs the MPEG data from the encoding section 106 to produce a stream of the MPEG data D4 and a transfer controller 108 inputs the selected watermark DWM from the watermark data table 104 to produce selected watermark data. The stream of the MPEG data D4 is transferred to a storage medium or a client through a communication channel and the selected watermark data is transferred to another storage medium or the same storage medium, as will be described later.

[0023] It should be noted that the above sections 101-106 may be implemented with a program-controlled processor such as CPU or DSP. In other words, the processor runs programs including the functions of the above section 101-106 to perform the watermarking and MPEG data compression as described above.

WATERMARK CHECKING SECTION

[0024] Referring to FIG. 2, in a watermark checking section of the electronic watermark system, a stream data input section 201 inputs a stream of MPEG data D4′ and a watermark input section 202 inputs watermark data associated with the input MPEG data D4′. The input MPEG data D4′ is decoded to produce date D3′ by a decoding section 203 and then the date D3′ is inverse-quantized to produce data D2′ by an inverse-quantizing section 204. On the other hand, the watermark checking section is provided with an original image memory 205 storing the original image data D0. The original image date D0 is converted to frequency spectrum data D1 by a DCT section 206.

[0025] When receiving the input frequency spectrum data D2′ from the DCT section 204 and the original frequency spectrum data D1 from the DCT section 206, a watermark extractor 207 extracts a watermark DWM1 from the input frequency spectrum data D2′ by calculating a difference between the input frequency spectrum data D2′ and the original frequency spectrum data D1. An inner product calculating section 208 inputs the extracted watermark DWM1 from the watermark extractor 207 and the received water ark DWM2 from the watermark input section 202, and performs the inner product thereof to produce a degree of statistical similarity between them. An authorization check section 209 checks whether the extracted watermark DWM1 is identical to the received watermark DWM2 by comparing the degree of statistical similarity with a reference value.

[0026] The input MPEG data D4′ may be received from a storage medium or a communication network. The watermark data associated with the input MPEG data D4′ is received from a management database storing manufacture management data or the same storage medium as the MPEG data D4′, as will be described later. In the case where the input MPEG data D4′ and/or the watermark data are received from a communication network, the watermark checking section is provided with a communication means such as a network interface or a radio transceiver.

[0027] It should be noted that the above sections 201-209 may be implemented with a program-controlled processor such as CPU or DSP. In other words, the processor runs programs including the functions of the above section 201-209 to perform the watermark extracting, MPEG data decompression and authorization check as described above.

WATERMARKING

[0028] Referring to FIG. 3, the watermarking section 103 receives the frequency spectrum data D1 from DCT section 102 and selects a set of N data samples: f(1)−f(n) which are greater than a predetermined threshold level from the frequency spectrum data D1. Further, the watermarking section 103 selects a set of watermark data: w(1)−w(n) from random numbers depending on a normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a variance of 1. The watermarking section 103 calculates F(i)=f(i)+α|f(i)|*w(i) for each variable i (1≦i≦n) using multipliers 301 and 302, a constant α and an adder 303, where α is a scaling element (hereinafter, assuming α=1). The calculated data samples F(1)−F(n) are substituted for the selected N data samples f(1)−f(n) of the frequency spectrum data D1 to produce watermarked DCT frequency spectrum data which will be subject to inverse DCT in the following stage 105. In this manner, the selected watermark DWM is invisibly embedded into the original image data D0.

WATERMARK CHECK

[0029] Referring to FIG. 4, the watermark extractor 207 inputs the received data samples F(1)−F(n) of the received frequency spectrum data D2′ and the original data samples f(1)−f(n) of the original frequency spectrum data D1. The watermark extractor 207 calculates w1(i)=(F(i)-f(i))/f(i) for each variable i (1≦i≦n) using subtracter 401 and a divider 402 to extract the watermark DWM1=(w1(1), w1(2), . . . , w1(n)).

[0030] Subsequently, the inner product calculating section 208 calculates a degree of statistical similarity C between the extracted watermark DWM1=(w1(1), w1(2), . . . , w1(n)) and the received watermark DWM2=(w2(1), w2(2), . . . , w2(n)) using the following equation: C=DWM1*DWM2/|DWM1|*|DWM2|. If C is equal to or greater than the predetermined level, it is determined that the received watermark is embedded into the received MPEG data D4′ and therefore the received MPEG data D4′ is the authorized data. If C is smaller than the predetermined level, it is determined that the received MPEG data D4′ is an unauthorized duplication.

FIRST EMBODIMENT

[0031] Referring to FIG. 5, the encoding side of the electronic watermark system is comprised of a processor 501, the watermark data table 104, a data storage controller 502 and a data transfer controller 503. As described before, the processor 501 runs programs including the functions of the sections 101-106 as shown in FIG. 1 to perform the watermarking and MPEG data compression.

[0032] The processor 501 inputs a stream of original image data D0 and produces the water-marked MPEG data stream D4 which is stored onto a storage medium 504 such as CD-ROM or magneto-optic disc by the data storage controller 502. At the same time, the data storage controller 502 outputs a serial number of the storage medium 504 to the data transfer controller 503. In this manner, an authorized medium 504 storing MPEG data stream D4 into which the selected watermark data DWM is embedded is manufactured. If the processor 501 selects another watermark data, an authorized medium 504 storing the same MPEG data stream D4 into which a different watermark data is embedded is easily manufactured. Needless to say, the data storage controller 502 outputs the serial number of the storage medium 504 to the data transfer controller 503.

[0033] The data transfer controller 503 inputs the embedded watermark data DWM from the watermark data table 104 and then transfers a pair of the embedded watermark data DWM and the serial number of the storage medium 504 to a manufacture management database 505 provided in a management center. Therefore, the watermark for each authorized medium 504 can be easily identified by searching the manufacture management database 505. In the case where the management center is located at a distance from the encoding side, the data transfer controller 503 may transfer them through a local-area network or a radio communication channel.

[0034] When a suspect medium 506 is found, the authorization check is performed by an authorization check section 507 running the programs including the functions of the above sections 201-209 as shown in FIG. 2 to perform the watermark extracting, MPEG data decompression and authorization check. In this case, the authorization check section 507 includes data communication means.

[0035] First of all, the authorization check section 507 reads the serial number from the suspect medium 506 and transmits a retrieval request using the read serial number to the manufacture management database 505 through a network. Upon receipt of the retrieval request, the manufacture management database 505 is searched for the corresponding watermark to the serial number. If the corresponding watermark is found, the retrieved watermark data is sent back to the authorization check section 507.

[0036] Using the retrieved watermark data, the authorization check section 507 performs the watermark extracting and watermark checking operations as described before. That is, if the degree of statistical similarity C between the extracted watermark and the retrieved watermark is equal to or greater than the predetermined level, it is determined that the medium 506 is one of authorized media. If C is smaller than the predetermined level, it is determined that the medium 506 is an unauthorized duplication.

SECOND EMBODIMENT

[0037] Referring to FIG. 6, the encoding side of the electronic watermark system is comprised of a processor 601, the watermark data table 104, a data communication controller 602 and a data transfer controller 603. As described before, the processor 601 runs programs including the functions of the sections 101-106 as shown in FIG. 1 to perform the watermarking and MPEG data compression.

[0038] The processor 601 inputs a stream of original image data D0 and produces the water-marked MPEG data stream D4 which is transmitted to a client 604 by the data communication controller 602. Here, it is assumed that the water-marked MPEG data is distributed depending on a data transmission request received from the client 604. At the same time, the data communication controller 602 outputs the address number of the client 604 to the data transfer controller 603. In this manner, the MPEG data stream D4 into which the selected watermark data DWM is embedded is transmitted to the authorized client 604. If the data transmission request is received from another client, the processor 601 selects another watermark data which is embedded into the MPEG data. The MPEG data stream D4 into which a different watermark data is embedded is transmitted to the new client. Needless to say, the data storage controller 602 outputs the address number of that new client to the data transfer controller 603.

[0039] The data transfer controller 603 inputs the embedded watermark data DWM from the watermark data table 104 and then transfers a pair of the embedded watermark data DWM and the client address number to a manufacture management database 605 provided in a management center. Therefore, the watermark for each authorized client 604 can be easily identified by searching the manufacture management database 605. In the case where the management center is located at a distance from the encoding side, the data transfer controller 603 may transfer them through a local-area network or a radio communication channel. Further the management database 605 is provided with data communication controller 606.

[0040] When a suspect data provider 607 is found, the authorization check is performed by an authorization check section 608 running the programs including the functions of the above sections 201-209 as shown in FIG. 2 to perform the watermark extracting, MPEG data decompression and authorization check. In this case, the authorization check section 508 includes data communication means.

[0041] First of all, the authorization check section 608 receives the address number from the suspect data provider 607 and transmits a retrieval request using the address number to the manufacture management database 605 through the data communication controller 606. Upon receipt of the retrieval request, the manufacture management database 605 is searched for the corresponding watermark to the address number. If the corresponding watermark is found, the retrieved watermark data is sent back to the authorization check section 608.

[0042] Using the retrieved watermark data, the authorization check section 608 performs the watermark extracting and watermark checking operations as described before. That is, if the degree of statistical similarity C between the extracted watermark and the retrieved watermark is equal to or greater than the predetermined level, it is determined that the data provider 607 is one of authorized clients. If C is smaller than the predetermined level, it is determined that the data provider 607 distributes an unauthorized duplication.

THIRD EMBODIMENT

[0043] Referring to FIG. 7A, the encoding side of the electronic watermark system is comprised of a processor 701, the watermark data table 104, an encryption section 702 and a data storage controller 703. As described before, the processor 701 runs programs including the functions of the sections 101-106 as shown in FIG. 1 to perform the watermarking and MPEG data compression. Further, the processor 701 may include the encryption section 702 and the data storage controller 703.

[0044] The processor 701 inputs a stream of original image data D0 and produces the water-marked MPEG data stream D4 which is stored onto a storage medium 704 such as CD-ROM or magneto-optic disc by the data storage controller 703. At the same time, the encryption section 702 encrypts the selected watermark data DWM and the encrypted watermark data is stored onto the same storage medium 704 by the data storage controller 703. It is preferably that the storage medium 704 has a first area 705 for storing the water-marked MPEG data and a second area 706 dedicated to the encrypted watermark data. In the case of MPEG data reading mode, no data can read from the second area 706.

[0045] In this manner, an authorized medium 704 storing the encrypted watermark data DWM and the watermarked MPEG data stream D4 is manufactured. If the processor 701 selects another watermark data, an authorized medium 704 storing the new watermark data and the same MPEG data stream D, into which the new watermark data is embedded is easily manufactured.

[0046] Referring to FIG. 7B, when a suspect medium 707 is found, the authorization check is performed by an authorization check section 708 running the programs including the functions of the above sections 201-209 as shown in FIG. 2 to perform the watermark extracting, MPEG data decompression and authorization check. In this case, the authorization check section 708 includes decryption section 709.

[0047] First of all, the decryption section 709 reads the watermark data from the second area dedicated to watermark of the suspect medium 707 and decrypts it to output watermark data DMW′ to the authorization check section 708. Using the read watermark data DWM′, the authorization check section 708 performs the watermark extracting and watermark checking operations as described before. That is, if the degree of statistical similarity C between the extracted watermark and the read watermark DWM′ is equal to or greater than the predetermined level, it is determined that the medium 707 is one of authorized media. If C is smaller than the predetermined level, it is determined that the medium 707 is an unauthorized duplication.

[0048] As described above, since the authorized watermark can be easily obtained from a management center or the storage medium storing the watermarked MPEG data, the authorization check is rapidly performed with reliability.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6972698Jun 28, 2002Dec 6, 2005Sony CorporationGPS e-marker
US7062528Jul 13, 2001Jun 13, 2006Sony CorporationMethod and system for identifying a time specific event
US7107234Aug 17, 2001Sep 12, 2006Sony CorporationElectronic music marker device delayed notification
US7127454Aug 17, 2001Oct 24, 2006Sony CorporationE-marker find music
US7895265Apr 24, 2006Feb 22, 2011Sony CorporationMethod and system for identifying a time specific event
US8190901May 29, 2003May 29, 2012Digimarc CorporationLayered security in digital watermarking
US8271354Jul 20, 2006Sep 18, 2012Sony CorporationElectronic music marker device delayed notification
Classifications
U.S. Classification382/100, G9B/20.002, 386/E09.013, 375/E07.089, 375/E07.211
International ClassificationG11B20/00, H04N1/21, H04N1/41, H04N9/806, H04N7/08, H04N1/32, H04N7/30, H04N7/50, H04N7/26, H04N5/781, H04N7/081, G06T1/00, H04N9/804
Cooperative ClassificationH04N19/00781, H04N19/00557, G11B20/0021, H04N2201/3233, H04N2201/3274, H04N9/8063, G06T2201/0065, G06T1/0021, H04N21/8358, H04N5/781, H04N1/32154, G11B20/00086, G11B20/00884, G06T2201/0052, H04N1/32165, H04N2201/3235, H04N1/32277, G11B20/00557, H04N21/23892, H04N9/8042, G11B20/00094, H04N2201/327, G11B20/00855
European ClassificationH04N21/8358, H04N21/2389B, H04N1/32C19B2C, G11B20/00P12, G11B20/00P5, G11B20/00P1, H04N1/32C19B4C, G11B20/00P14, G11B20/00P5G5, H04N9/804B, H04N1/32C19B2, G06T1/00W, H04N7/26E10, G11B20/00P, H04N7/50
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