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Publication numberUS20010041415 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/765,510
Publication dateNov 15, 2001
Filing dateJan 19, 2001
Priority dateJul 3, 1997
Also published asUS6180485, US6207523, US6306705, US6309941, US6383887, US6710390, US6825095, US20010013619, US20020110975
Publication number09765510, 765510, US 2001/0041415 A1, US 2001/041415 A1, US 20010041415 A1, US 20010041415A1, US 2001041415 A1, US 2001041415A1, US-A1-20010041415, US-A1-2001041415, US2001/0041415A1, US2001/041415A1, US20010041415 A1, US20010041415A1, US2001041415 A1, US2001041415A1
InventorsKunal Parekh, John Zahurak, Phillip Wald
Original AssigneeParekh Kunal R., Zahurak John K., Wald Phillip G.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Methods of forming capacitors
US 20010041415 A1
Abstract
The invention includes a number of methods and structures pertaining to semiconductor circuit technology, including: methods of forming DRAM memory cell constructions; methods of forming capacitor constructions; DRAM memory cell constructions; capacitor constructions; and monolithic integrated circuitry. The invention includes a method of forming a capacitor comprising the following steps: a) forming a mass of silicon material over a node location, the mass comprising exposed doped silicon and exposed undoped silicon; b) substantially selectively forming rugged polysilicon from the exposed undoped silicon and not from the exposed doped silicon; and c) forming a capacitor dielectric layer and a complementary capacitor plate proximate the rugged polysilicon and doped silicon. The invention also includes a capacitor comprising: a) a first capacitor plate; b) a second capacitor plate; c) a capacitor dielectric layer intermediate the first and second capacitor plates; and d) at least one of the first and second capacitor plates comprising a surface against the capacitor dielectric layer and wherein said surface comprises both doped rugged polysilicon and doped non-rugged polysilicon.
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Claims(43)
1. A method of forming a capacitor comprising the following steps:
forming a mass of silicon material over a node location, the mass comprising two forms of silicon;
substantially selectively forming rugged polysilicon from one of the forms of silicon and not from the other of the forms of silicon; and
forming a capacitor dielectric layer and a complementary capacitor plate proximate the rugged polysilicon.
2. The method of
claim 1
wherein the two forms of silicon comprise doped silicon and undoped silicon.
3. The method of
claim 2
wherein the doped silicon comprises a dopant concentration of at least 5×1018 atoms/cm3 and wherein the undoped silicon comprises a dopant concentration of less than 5×1018 atoms/cm3.
4. The method of
claim 2
wherein the doped silicon comprises a dopant concentration of at least 1×1019 atoms/cm3 and wherein the undoped silicon comprises a dopant concentration of less than or equal to 1×1018 atoms/cm3.
5. A method of forming a capacitor comprising the following steps:
forming a mass of silicon material over a node location, the mass comprising exposed doped silicon and exposed undoped silicon;
substantially selectively forming rugged polysilicon from the exposed undoped silicon and not from the exposed doped silicon; and
forming a capacitor dielectric layer and a complementary capacitor plate proximate the rugged polysilicon and doped silicon.
6. The method of
claim 5
wherein the step of forming a mass of silicon material comprises forming a layer of doped silicon between two layers of undoped silicon.
7. The method of
claim 5
further comprising conductively doping the undoped silicon after forming the rugged polysilicon.
8. The method of
claim 5
further comprising, after forming the rugged polysilicon, out-diffusing impurity from the doped silicon into the undoped silicon to conductively dope the undoped silicon.
9. The method of
claim 5
wherein the step of forming the mass comprises forming the exposed undoped silicon to be substantially amorphous.
10. The method of
claim 5
wherein the step of forming the mass comprises forming the exposed doped silicon to be substantially polycrystalline.
11. A method of forming a capacitor comprising the following steps:
forming an insulative layer over a node location;
forming an opening through the insulative layer to the node location;
forming two forms of silicon within the opening, the two forms of silicon together forming a capacitor storage node;
exposing the two forms of silicon to common subsequent processing conditions which substantially selectively forming rugged polysilicon from one of the exposed two forms of silicon and not from the other of the exposed two forms of silicon;
forming a dielectric layer proximate the storage node; and
forming a cell plate layer proximate the dielectric layer.
12. The method of
claim 11
wherein the two forms of silicon comprise doped silicon and undoped silicon.
13. A method of forming a capacitor comprising the following steps:
forming an insulative layer over a node location;
forming an opening through the insulative layer to the node location;
forming silicon material within the opening, the silicon material comprising doped silicon and undoped silicon and defining a capacitor storage node;
removing a portion of the insulative layer to expose a sidewall surface of the storage node, the exposed sidewall surface comprising undoped silicon;
forming HSG from the undoped silicon of the exposed sidewall surface;
forming a capacitor dielectric layer proximate the storage node; and
forming a complementary capacitor plate proximate the capacitor dielectric layer.
14. The method of
claim 13
wherein the doped silicon comprises polysilicon and the undoped silicon comprises substantially amorphous silicon.
15. The method of
claim 13
wherein the step of forming the silicon material comprises forming a layer of doped silicon between two layers of undoped silicon.
16. The method of
claim 13
wherein the step of forming the silicon material comprises forming a layer of doped polysilicon between two layers of undoped substantially amorphous silicon.
17. A method of forming a capacitor comprising the following steps:
forming an insulative layer over a node location;
forming an opening through the insulative layer to the node location;
forming an undoped silicon layer within the opening to narrow the opening;
forming a doped silicon layer within the narrowed opening, the undoped silicon layer and doped silicon layer together defining a capacitor storage node;
forming a capacitor dielectric layer proximate the storage node; and
forming a complementary capacitor plate proximate the capacitor dielectric layer.
18. The method of
claim 17
wherein the undoped silicon layer comprises substantially amorphous silicon.
19. The method of
claim 17
wherein the doped silicon layer comprises polysilicon.
20. The method of
claim 17
further comprising:
removing a portion of the insulative layer to expose a sidewall surface of the storage node comprising the undoped silicon layer; and
forming rugged polysilicon from the exposed sidewall surface.
21. The method of
claim 17
further comprising:
exposing a surface of the capacitor storage node comprising undoped silicon;
exposing a surface of the capacitor storage node comprising doped silicon; and
substantially selectively forming HSG polysilicon from the exposed capacitor storage node surface comprising undoped silicon and not from the exposed capacitor storage node surface comprising doped silicon.
22. The method of
claim 21
wherein the formation of the rugged polysilicon comprises:
in situ HF cleaning of the exposed sidewall surface;
seeding the exposed sidewall surface with polysilicon; and
annealing the seeded sidewall surface at about 560° C. for about 20 minutes.
23. The method of
claim 21
wherein the formation of the rugged polysilicon comprises:
in situ HF cleaning of the exposed sidewall surface;
seeding the exposed sidewall surface with polysilicon;
annealing the seeded sidewall surface at about 560° C. for about 20 minutes; and
a polysilicon etch after the annealing to remove any monolayers is of silicon.
24. A method of forming a capacitor comprising the following steps:
forming an insulative layer over a node location;
forming an opening through the insulative layer to the node location;
forming a first undoped silicon layer within the opening to narrow the opening;
forming a doped silicon layer within the narrowed opening to further narrow the opening;
forming a second undoped silicon layer within the further narrowed opening; the first undoped silicon layer, second undoped silicon layer and doped silicon layer together defining a capacitor storage node;
removing a portion of the insulative layer to expose a sidewall surface of the storage node comprising the first undoped silicon layer;
forming rugged polysilicon on the exposed sidewall surface;
forming a dielectric layer proximate the storage node; and
forming a cell plate layer proximate the dielectric layer.
25. The method of
claim 24
further comprising:
exposing a surface of the capacitor storage node comprising the second undoped silicon layer;
exposing a surface of the capacitor storage node comprising the doped silicon layer; and
substantially selectively forming HSG polysilicon from the exposed capacitor storage node surface comprising undoped silicon and not from the exposed capacitor storage node surface comprising doped silicon.
26. A method of forming a DRAM array comprising the following steps:
defining a first node location, a second node location and a third node location; the second node location being electrically coupled to the first node location through a first transistor gate; the second node location being electrically coupled to the third node location through a second transistor gate;
forming an electrically insulative layer over the node locations;
removing portions of the electrically insulative layer to form a first opening, a second opening, and a third opening; the first, second and third openings extending to the first, second and third node locations, respectively;
forming an undoped silicon layer within the first, second and third openings to narrow the first, second and third openings;
forming a doped silicon layer within the narrowed openings; the undoped silicon layer and the doped silicon layer within the first opening together defining a first storage node; the undoped silicon layer and the doped silicon layer within the third opening together defining a second storage node; the undoped silicon layer and the doped silicon layer within the second opening together defining a conductive contact;
removing a portion of the electrically insulative layer to expose sidewall surfaces of the first storage node, the second storage node and the conductive contact;
forming rugged polysilicon on the exposed sidewall surfaces;
forming a dielectric layer proximate the first and second storage nodes;
forming a cell plate layer proximate the dielectric layer; the cell plate layer, dielectric layer and first storage node together defining a first capacitor; the cell plate layer, dielectric layer and second storage node together defining a second capacitor; and
forming a bitline electrically connected to the conductive contact; the conductive contact and first capacitor together defining a first DRAM cell; the conductive contact and second capacitor together defining a second DRAM.
27. The method of
claim 26
wherein the exposed sidewall surfaces comprise undoped silicon, the method further comprising:
exposing a surface of the first storage node comprising the doped silicon layer;
exposing a surface of the second storage node comprising the doped silicon layer; and
substantially selectively forming HSG polysilicon from the exposed first and second storage node surfaces comprising undoped silicon and not from the exposed first and second storage node surfaces comprising doped silicon.
28. The method of
claim 26
wherein the doped and undoped silicon layers are formed over the insulative layer, the method further comprising polishing the doped and undoped silicon layers to remove the doped and undoped silicon layers from over the electrically insulative layer.
29. A method of forming a DRAM array comprising the following steps:
defining a first node location, a second node location and a third node location; the second node location being electrically coupled to the first node location through a first transistor gate; the second node being electrically coupled to the third node location through a second transistor gate;
forming an electrically insulative layer over the node locations;
removing portions of the electrically insulative layer to form a first opening, a second opening, and a third opening; the first, second and third openings extending to the first, second and third node locations, respectively;
forming an undoped silicon layer within the first, second and third openings to narrow the first, second and third openings;
forming a doped silicon layer within the narrowed first, second and third openings to further narrow the first, second and third openings;
forming a second undoped silicon layer within the further narrowed first, second and third openings; the first undoped silicon layer, second undoped silicon layer and doped silicon layer within the first opening together defining a first storage node; the first undoped silicon layer, second undoped silicon layer and doped silicon layer within the third opening together defining a second storage node; the first undoped silicon layer, second undoped silicon layer and doped silicon layer within the second opening together defining a conductive contact;
removing a portion of the electrically insulative layer to expose sidewall surfaces of the first and second storage nodes and of the conductive contact;
forming rugged polysilicon on the exposed sidewall surfaces;
forming a dielectric layer proximate the first and second storage nodes;
forming a cell plate layer proximate the dielectric layer; the cell plate layer, dielectric layer and first storage node together defining a first capacitor; the cell plate layer, dielectric layer and second storage node together defining a second capacitor; and
forming a bitline electrically connected to the conductive contact; the conductive contact and first capacitor together defining a first DRAM cell; and the conductive contact and second capacitor together defining a second DRAM cell.
30. The method of
claim 29
wherein the exposed sidewall surfaces comprise the first undoped silicon layer, the method further comprising:
exposing a surface of the first storage node comprising the second undoped silicon layer;
exposing a surface of the first storage node comprising the doped silicon layer;
exposing a surface of the second storage node comprising the second undoped silicon layer;
exposing a surface of the second storage node comprising the doped silicon layer; and
substantially selectively forming HSG polysilicon over the exposed first and second storage node surfaces comprising undoped silicon and not over the exposed first and second storage node surfaces comprising doped silicon.
31. The method of
claim 29
wherein the doped and undoped silicon layers are formed over the insulative layer, the method further comprising polishing the doped and undoped silicon layers to remove the doped and undoped silicon layers from over the electrically insulative layer.
32. A method of forming a monolithic integrated circuit comprising the following steps:
fabricating integrated circuitry over a portion of a semiconductor substrate, the integrated circuitry comprising elements including transistors, capacitors and resistive elements;
the fabrication of at least one of the capacitors comprising the following steps:
forming a mass of silicon material over a node location, the mass comprising exposed doped silicon and exposed undoped silicon;
substantially selectively forming rugged polysilicon from the exposed undoped silicon and not from the exposed doped silicon; and
forming a capacitor dielectric layer and complementary capacitor plate proximate the rugged polysilicon and doped silicon.
33. The method of
claim 32
wherein the monolithic integrated circuit is fabricated as part of a microprocessor circuit.
34. The method of
claim 32
wherein the monolithic integrated circuit is fabricated as part of a microprocessor circuit and wherein the capacitor is integrated into a DRAM cell.
35. A capacitor comprising:
a first capacitor plate;
a second capacitor plate;
a capacitor dielectric layer intermediate the first and second capacitor plates; and
at least one of the first and second capacitor plates comprising a surface against the capacitor dielectric layer and wherein said surface comprises both doped rugged polysilicon and doped non-rugged polysilicon.
36. A capacitor comprising:
a capacitor storage node having a rugged-polysilicon-comprising lateral surface and a top surface, a predominate portion of the top surface not comprising rugged polysilicon;
a dielectric layer proximate the capacitor storage node; and
a cell plate layer proximate the dielectric layer.
37. The capacitor of
claim 36
wherein the storage node further comprises a container shape and an interior rugged-polysilicon-comprising surface.
38. A DRAM array comprising:
a first node location, a second node location and a third node location associated with a semiconductor substrate;
a first transistor gate electrically coupling the first node location to the second storage node location;
a second transistor gate electrically coupling the third node location to the second node location;
an electrically insulative layer over the node locations;
a first storage node extending through the electrically insulative layer to the first node location, the first storage node having a rugged-polysilicon-comprising lateral surface and top surface, a predominate portion of the top surface not comprising rugged polysilicon;
a second storage node extending through the electrically insulative layer to the third node location, the second storage node having a rugged-polysilicon-comprising lateral surface and a top surface, a predominate portion of the top surface not comprising rugged polysilicon;
a conductive contact extending through the electrically insulative layer to the second node location;
a first dielectric layer proximate the first storage node;
a first cell plate layer proximate the first dielectric layer; the first cell plate layer, first dielectric layer and first storage node together defining a first capacitor;
a second dielectric layer proximate the second storage node;
a second cell plate layer proximate the second dielectric layer; the second cell plate layer, second dielectric layer and second storage node together defining a second capacitor; and
a bitline electrically connected to the conductive contact; the conductive contact and first capacitor together defining a first DRAM cell electrically connected to the bitline; the conductive contact and second capacitor together defining a second DRAM cell electrically connected to the bitline.
39. The DRAM array of
claim 38
wherein the conductive contact has a rugged-polysilicon-comprising lateral surface.
40. The DRAM array of
claim 38
wherein the first and second capacitor storage nodes comprise container shapes and further include interior rugged-polysilicon-comprising surfaces.
41. A monolithic integrated circuit comprising:
fabricated circuitry over a semiconductor substrate, the integrated circuitry comprising elements including transistors, capacitors and resistive elements;
at least one of the capacitors comprising:
a first capacitor plate;
a second capacitor plate;
a capacitor dielectric layer intermediate the first and second capacitor plates; and
at least one of the first and second capacitor plates comprising a surface against the capacitor dielectric layer and wherein said surface comprises both doped rugged polysilicon and doped non-rugged polysilicon.
42. The monolithic integrated circuit of
claim 41
wherein the monolithic integrated circuit is part of a microprocessor circuit.
43. The monolithic integrated circuit of
claim 41
wherein the monolithic integrated circuit is part of a microprocessor circuit and wherein the at least one capacitor is incorporated into a DRAM cell.
Description
TECHNICAL FIELD

[0001] The invention pertains to semiconductor capacitor constructions and to methods of forming semiconductor capacitor constructions. The invention is thought to have particular significance in application to method of forming dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cell structures, to DRAM cell structures, and to integrated circuitry incorporating DRAM cell structures.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] A commonly used semiconductor memory device is a DRAM cell. A DRAM cell generally consists of a capacitor coupled through a transistor to a bitline. A semiconductor wafer fragment 10 is illustrated in FIG. 1 showing a prior art DRAM array 83. Wafer fragment 10 comprises a semiconductive material 12, field oxide regions 14, and wordlines 24 and 26. Wordlines 24 and 26 comprise a gate oxide layer 16, a polysilicon layer 18, a silicide layer 20 and a silicon oxide layer 22. Silicide layer 20 comprises a refractory metal silicide, such as tungsten silicide, and polysilicon layer 18 typically comprises polysilicon doped with a conductivity enhancing dopant. Nitride spacers 30 are laterally adjacent wordlines 24 and 26.

[0003] Electrical node locations 25, 27 and 29 are between wordlines 24 and 26 and are electrically connected by transistor gates comprised by wordlines 24 and 26. Node locations 25, 27 and 29 are diffusion regions formed within semiconductive material 12.

[0004] A borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) layer 34 is over semiconductive material 12 and wordlines 24 and 26. An oxide layer 32 is provided between BPSG layer 34 and material 12. Oxide layer 32 inhibits diffusion of phosphorus from BPSG layer 34 into underlying

[0005] Conductive pedestals 54, 55 and 56 extend through BPSG layer 34 to node locations 25, 27 and 29, respectively. Capacitor constructions 62 and 64 contact upper surfaces of pedestals 54 and 56, respectively. Capacitor constructions 62 and 64 comprise a storage node layer 66, a dielectric layer 68, and a cell plate layer 70. Dielectric layer 68 comprises an electrically insulative layer, such as silicon nitride. Cell plate layer 70 comprises conductively doped polysilicon, and may alternatively be referred to as a cell layer 70. Storage node layer 66 comprises conductively doped hemispherical grain (HSG) polysilicon.

[0006] A conductive bitline plug 75 contacts an upper surface of pedestal 55. Bitline plug 75 may comprise, for example, tungsten. Together, bitline plug 75 and pedestal 55 comprise a bitline contact 77.

[0007] A bitline 76 extends over capacitors 62 and 64 and in electrical connection with bitline contact 77. Bitline 76 may comprise, for example, aluminum.

[0008] The capacitors 62 and 64 are electrically connected to bitline contact 77 through transistor gates comprised by wordlines 26. A first DRAM cell 79 comprises capacitor 62 electrically connected to bitline 76 through a wordline 26 and bitline contact 77. A second DRAM cell 81 comprises capacitor 64 electrically connected to bitline 76 through wordline a 26 and bitline contact 77. DRAM array 83 comprises first and second DRAM cells 79 and 81.

[0009] If capacitors 62 and 64 are inadvertently shorted together, a so-called “double bit failure” will occur. Such double bit failures can occur if a stray piece of polysilicon, or HSG polysilicon, breaks off during formation of DRAM array 83 and disadvantageously electrically connects capacitors 62 and 64. Prior art capacitor fabrication methods employ chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) of HSG polysilicon. HSG polysilicon pieces can break off during such CMP processes and cause double bit failures. It would be desirable to develop alternative DRAM constructions which could be formed by methods avoiding double bit failures.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0010] The invention includes a number of methods and structures pertaining to semiconductor circuit technology, including: methods of forming DRAM memory cell constructions; methods of forming capacitor constructions; DRAM memory cell constructions; capacitor constructions; and integrated circuitry. For instance, the invention encompasses a method of forming a capacitor wherein a mass of silicon material is formed over a node location, and wherein the mass comprises exposed doped silicon and exposed undoped silicon. The method can further include substantially selectively forming rugged polysilicon from the exposed undoped silicon and not from the exposed doped silicon. Also, the method can include forming a capacitor dielectric layer and a complementary capacitor plate proximate the rugged polysilicon and doped silicon.

[0011] As another example, the invention encompasses a capacitor having a capacitor dielectric layer intermediate a first capacitor plate and a second capacitor plate, wherein at least one of the first and second capacitor plates has a surface against the capacitor dielectric layer, and wherein said surface comprises both doped rugged polysilicon and doped non-rugged polysilicon.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0012] Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings.

[0013]FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a semiconductor wafer fragment comprising a prior art DRAM array.

[0014]FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional process view of a semiconductor wafer fragment at preliminary processing step of a processing method of the present invention.

[0015]FIG. 3 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 2.

[0016]FIG. 4 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 3.

[0017]FIG. 5 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 4.

[0018]FIG. 6 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 5.

[0019]FIG. 7 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 6.

[0020]FIG. 8 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 7.

[0021]FIG. 9 is a top view of the FIG. 8 wafer fragment.

[0022]FIG. 10 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 8.

[0023]FIG. 11 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 10.

[0024]FIG. 12 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 11.

[0025]FIG. 13 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 12.

[0026]FIG. 14 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a processing step subsequent to that of FIG. 6 processed according to a second embodiment of the present invention.

[0027]FIG. 15 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a step subsequent to that of FIG. 14.

[0028]FIG. 16 is a top view of the FIG. 15 wafer fragment.

[0029]FIG. 17 is a view of the FIG. 2 wafer fragment at a step subsequent to that of FIG. 15.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0030] This disclosure of the invention is submitted in furtherance of the constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws “to promote the progress of science and useful arts” (Article 1, Section 8).

[0031] Methods of forming DRAM arrays of the present invention are described with reference to FIGS. 2-17, with FIGS. 2-13 pertaining to a first embodiment of the invention, and FIGS. 14-17 pertaining to a second embodiment of the invention. In describing the first embodiment of the present invention, like numerals from the preceding discussion of the prior art are utilized where appropriate, with differences being indicated by the suffix “a” or with different numerals.

[0032] Referring to FIG. 2, a semiconductor wafer fragment 10 a is illustrated at a preliminary step of a process of the present invention. Wafer fragment 10 a comprises a semiconductive material 12 a, field oxide regions 14 a, and a thin gate oxide layer 16 a. Over gate oxide layer 16 a is formed polysilicon layer 18 a, silicide layer 20 a and silicon oxide layer 22 a. Silicide layer 20 a comprises a refractory metal silicide, such as tungsten silicide, and polysilicon layer 18 a typically comprises polysilicon doped with a conductivity enhancing dopant. Layers 16 a, 18 a, 20 a and 22 a can be formed by conventional methods.

[0033] Referring next to FIG. 3, polysilicon layer 18 a, silicide layer 20 a and silicon oxide layer 22 a are etched to form wordlines 24 a and 26 a. Such etching can be accomplished by conventional methods. Between wordlines 24 a and 26 a are defined electrical node locations 25 a, 27 a and 29 a, with wordlines 26 a comprising transistor gates which electrically connect node locations 25 a, 27 a, and 29 a. Node locations 25 a, 27 a and 29 a are diffusion regions formed within semiconductive material 12 a.

[0034] Referring to FIGS. 4 and 5, a nitride layer 28 a is provided over wordlines 24 a and 26 a and subsequently etched to form nitride spacers 30 a laterally adjacent wordlines 24 a and 26 a.

[0035] Referring to FIG. 6, an insulative material layer 34 a is formed over material 12 a and over wordlines 24 a and 26 a. Insulative layer 34 a may comprise, for example, BPSG, and can be formed by conventional methods. Insulative layer 34 a comprises an upper surface 35 a.

[0036] Openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a are formed extending through insulative layer 34 a to node locations 25 a, 27 a and 29 a, respectively.

[0037] Referring to FIG. 7, an undoped silicon layer 100 is formed over insulative layer 34 a and within openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a. Undoped silicon layer 100 narrows openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a, but does not fill such openings. Undoped silicon layer 100 preferably has a thickness of from about 50 Angstroms to about 1000 Angstroms, with a thickness of about 300 Angstroms being most preferred. Undoped silicon layer 100 preferably comprises substantially amorphous silicon. Such substantially amorphous layer can be 5-10% crystalline. Undoped silicon layer 100 can be formed by conventional methods, such as, for example, by deposition utilizing either silane or disilane. For purposes of the continuing discussion, and for interpreting the claims that follow, “undoped” silicon is defined as silicon having a dopant concentration of less than 5×1018 atoms/cm3, and “doped” silicon is defined, as silicon having a dopant concentration of at least 5×1018 atoms/cm3. “Undoped” silicon preferably comprises less than or equal to 1×1018 atoms/cm3, and “doped” silicon preferably comprises at least 1×1019 atoms/cm3.

[0038] A doped silicon layer 102 is formed over undoped silicon layer 100 and within openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a. In the shown embodiment of the invention, doped layer 102 completely fills openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a. However, in alternative embodiments of the invention, such as the embodiment discussed below with reference to FIGS. 14-17, layer 102 can only partially fill openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a. As will be appreciated by persons of ordinary skill in the art, the thickness of layer 102 will vary depending on whether layer 102 is chosen to completely fill openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a, or to partially fill such openings. Doped silicon layer 102 preferably comprises doped polysilicon, and can be formed by conventional methods.

[0039] After formation of layers 100 and 102, an upper surface of wafer fragment 10 a is planarized to remove layers 100 and 102 from over insulative layer 34 a. Such planarization can be accomplished by, for example, chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP).

[0040] Referring to FIG. 8, after the above-discussed planarization, pedestals 104, 106 and 108 remain in openings 38 a, 39 a and 40 a (shown in FIG. 7), respectively. Pedestals 104, 106 and 108 comprise undoped silicon layer 100 and doped silicon layer 102, and are over node locations 25 a, 27 a and 29 a, respectively. Pedestals 104, 106 and 108 also comprise exposed upper surfaces 116, 118 and 120, respectively.

[0041]FIG. 9 illustrates a top view of the FIG. 8 wafer fragment, and shows that pedestals 104, 106 and 108 actually comprise a core of doped silicon layer 102 surrounded by undoped silicon layer 100.

[0042] Referring again to FIG. 8, insulative layer 34 a is selectively removed relative to the silicon of pedestals 104, 106 and 108 to form a new upper surface 37 a lower than previous upper surface 35 a (shown in FIG. 7). The preferred BPSG insulative layer 34 a can be selectively removed relative to pedestals 104, 106 and 108 using a conventional oxide etch. The selective removal of insulative layer 34 a exposes a sidewall surface 110 of pedestal 104, a sidewall surface 112 of pedestal 106, and a sidewall surface 114 of pedestal 108. Sidewall surfaces 110, 112 and 114 comprise undoped silicon layer 100. Additionally, in the shown embodiment a portion of undoped silicon layer 100 is below upper surface 37 a of BPSG layer 34 a, and remains unexposed. The depth of removal of insulative layer 34 a can be controlled by a number of methods. For example, layer 34 a could be removed via a timed etch. As another example, an etch stop layer could be formed within layer 34 a at a desired depth of surface 37 a. An example of a layer 34 a comprising an etch stop layer is a layer comprising BPSG and having a silicon nitride etch stop layer formed within the BPSG at a level of upper surface 37 a.

[0043] As exposed sidewall surfaces 110, 112 and 114 of pedestals 104, 106 and 108 comprise undoped silicon layer 100, and as exposed upper surfaces 116, 118 and 120 of the pedestals comprise exposed doped silicon layer 102, as well as exposed undoped silicon layer 100, the pedestals comprise exposed doped silicon and exposed undoped silicon at the processing step of FIG. 8.

[0044] Referring to FIG. 10, a rugged polysilicon layer 122 is substantially selectively formed from the exposed undoped silicon of surfaces 110, 112 114, 116, 118, and 120 (shown in FIG. 8), and not from the exposed doped silicon of surfaces 116, 118 and 120. Rugged polysilicon layer 122 comprises materials selected from the group consisting of HSG and cylindrical grain polysilicon. The substantially selective formation of a preferred HSG polysilicon layer 122 from undoped silicon surfaces but not from doped silicon surfaces can be accomplished by the following process.

[0045] First, wafer fragment 10 a is loaded into a conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) furnace and is subjected to an in situ hydrofluoric acid (HF) clean to remove native oxide. The in situ HF clean preferably comprises a flow rate of 85 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) of HF gas and 8500 sccm of H2O gas, at a pressure of 15 Torr, for a time of about 20 seconds. Wafer fragment 10 a is then exposed to silane to form amorphous silicon seeds on the undoped silicon. Wafer fragment 10 a is then annealed for approximately 20 minutes at about 560° C. The seeding and anneal steps convert undoped amorphous silicon into rugged polysilicon (such as hemispherical grain polysilicon), while leaving exposed doped silicon layers not converted to rugged polysilicon. It is noted that the above-described process for forming HSG polysilicon does not require disilane, and hence is different than the “pure” selective hemispherical grain deposition utilized in high vacuum tools with disilane.

[0046] After the formation of rugged polysilicon layer 122, a short polysilicon etch is performed to remove any monolayers of silicon deposited on insulative layer 34 a during the above-described seeding step. Such polysilicon etch can be accomplished with conventional conditions, and may comprise either a wet etch or a dry etch.

[0047] The above-described process for forming rugged polysilicon layer 122 advantageously avoids formation of polysilicon on a back side (not shown) of wafer fragment 10 a. The method can also avoid double bit failures by removing monolayers of silicon after formation of HSG.

[0048] Subsequent thermal processing of pedestals 104, 106 and 108 can out-diffuse dopant from doped polysilicon layer 102 into undoped silicon layer 100 (shown in FIG. 8), to convert unexposed portions of undoped silicon layer 100 into a doped polysilicon layer 119. Subsequent thermal processing can also out-diffuse dopant from doped polysilicon layer 102 into rugged polysilicon layer 122. Thermal processing to out-diffuse dopant from doped polysilicon layer 102 into adjacent undoped layers will typically comprise temperatures of 800° C. or greater.

[0049] Referring to FIG. 11, a dielectric layer 124 is provided over insulative layer 34 a and over pedestals 104, 106 and 108. Dielectric laver 124 will typically comprise silicon nitride and or silicon oxide, although other suitable materials are known to persons of skill in the art. A capacitor cell plate layer 126 is provided over dielectric layer 124. Capacitor cell plate layer 126 will typically comprise doped polysilicon, but other suitable materials are known to persons of skill in the art.

[0050] Referring to FIG. 12, a patterned masking layer 128 is formed over pedestals 104 and 108, leaving pedestal 106 exposed. Subsequently, wafer fragment 10 a is subjected to etching conditions which remove cell plate layer 126 and dielectric layer 124 from proximate pedestal 106. After such etching, pedestal 106 is electrically isolated from pedestals 104 and 108, with the only remaining electrical connection between pedestal 106 and pedestals 104 and 108 being through wordlines 26 a. Methods for removing cell plate layer 126 and dielectric layer 124 from proximate pedestal 106 are known to persons of ordinary skill in the art.

[0051] Referring to FIG. 13, masking layer 128 is removed and an insulative layer 130 is formed over pedestals 104, 106 and 108, and over insulative layer 34 a. Insulative layer 130 may comprise, for example, BPSG, and can be formed by conventional methods. A conductive bitline plug 75 a is formed extending through insulative layer 130 and in electrical contact with pedestal 106. Pedestal 106 comprises rugged lateral surfaces 136 and an upper surface 118 which has a predominant portion not comprising rugged-polysilicon. As shown, the non-rugged polysilicon of upper surface advantageously provides a smooth landing region for bitline plug 75 a.

[0052] Pedestal 106 and bitline plug 75 a together form a bitline contact 77 a. A bitline 76 a is formed over bitline plug 75 a and in an electrical connection with pedestal 106 through bitline plug 75 a. Bitline 76 a and bitline plug 75 a may be formed by conventional methods.

[0053] The above-describe method can be used to avoid chemical-mechanical polishing of a rugged polysilicon layer, thus avoiding a potential source of double bit failures.

[0054]FIG. 13 illustrates a DRAM array 83 a of the present invention. DRAM array 83 a comprises capacitors 62 a and 64 a. Capacitors 62 a and 64 a comprise capacitor storage nodes 132 and 134, respectively, which comprise doped polysilicon layer 102, doped polysilicon layer 119 and rugged-polysilicon layer 122. As the doped polysilicon layer 119 is formed from the undoped silicon layer 100 (shown in FIG. 8), the undoped silicon layer 100 and doped silicon layer 102 of pedestals 104 and 108 in FIG. 8 together define capacitor storage nodes 132 and 134. Storage nodes 132 and 134 have rugged-polysilicon-comprising lateral surfaces 138 and 140, respectively. Storage nodes 132 and 134 further comprise top surfaces 116 and 120, respectively, which have predominant portions which do not comprise rugged-polysilicon.

[0055] Cell plate layer 126 and dielectric layer 124 are operatively proximate to storage nodes 132 and 134 so that the storage nodes, together with cell plate layer 126 and dielectric layer 124, form operative capacitors 62 a and 64 a. Dielectric layer 124 contacts rugged surfaces 138 and 140, as well as top surfaces 116 and 120 of storage nodes 132 and 134.

[0056] Capacitors 62 a and 64 a are connected to pedestal 106 through wordlines 26 a. Capacitor 62 a, together with bitline contact 77 a and an interconnecting wordline 26 a, comprises a first DRAM cell 79 a. Capacitor 64 a, together with bitline contact 77 a and an interconnecting wordline 26 a, comprises a second DRAM cell 81 a.

[0057] A second embodiment of the invention is described with reference to FIGS. 14-17. In describing the embodiment of FIGS. 14-17, numbering similar to that utilized above for describing the embodiment of FIGS. 2-13 is utilized, with differences being indicated by the suffix “b”, or by different numbers.

[0058] Referring to FIG. 14, a wafer fragment 10 b is shown at a processing step subsequent to that of the above-discussed FIG. 6. Wafer fragment 10 b comprises wordlines 24 b and 26 b having constructions identical to that discussed above with regard to the prior art. Wafer fragment 10 b further comprises node locations 25 b, 27 b and 29 b between wordlines 24 b and 26 b. Wafer fragment 10 b also comprises a semiconductor substrate 12 b and field oxide regions 14 b formed over substrate 12 b.

[0059] An insulative material layer 34 b is formed over wordlines 24 b and 26 b, and over semiconductive material 12 b. Insulative layer 34 b may comprise a number of materials known to persons of ordinary skill in the art, including BPSG. Openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b extend through insulative layer 34 b to node locations 25 b, 27 b and 29 b, respectively.

[0060] A first undoped silicon layer 146 extends over insulative layer 34 b and within openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b. Undoped silicon layer 146 preferably comprises amorphous silicon, and preferably has a thickness of from about 50 Angstroms to about 500 Angstroms. Undoped silicon layer 146 can be formed by conventional methods, such as CVD. Undoped silicon layer 146 narrows openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b.

[0061] A doped silicon layer 148 is formed over undoped silicon layer 146 and within narrowed openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b. Doped silicon layer 148 preferably comprises polysilicon, and can be formed by conventional methods, such as CVD. Doped silicon layer 148 preferably has a thickness of from about 50 Angstroms to about 500 Angstroms, and preferably does not fill openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b. Rather, doped silicon layer 148 preferably further narrows openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b beyond where openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b were narrowed by undoped silicon layer 146.

[0062] A second undoped silicon layer 150 is formed over doped silicon layer 148 and within openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b. Undoped silicon layer 150 preferably comprises the same preferable materials of first undoped silicon layer 146. Accordingly, second undoped silicon layer 150 preferably comprises substantially amorphous silicon. Second undoped silicon layer 150 preferably has a thickness of from 50 to 500 Angstroms, and in the shown preferred embodiment does not fill openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b.

[0063] After formation of layers 146, 148 and 150, wafer fragment 10 b is planarized to remove layers 146, 148 and 150 from over insulative layer 34 b. Such planarizing may be accomplished by, for example, chemical-mechanical polishing. After the planarization of wafer fragment 10 b, pedestals 104 b, 106 b and 108 b (shown in FIG. 15) having upper surfaces 116 b, 118 b and 120 b (shown in FIG. 15), respectively, remain within openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b.

[0064] Referring to FIG. 15, the material of insulative layer 34 b is selectively removed relative to the silicon of pedestals 104 b, 106 b and 108 b to form an upper surface 37 b of insulative layer 34 b which is below upper surfaces 116 b, 118 b and 120 b of pedestals 104 b, 106 b and 108 b. The removal of insulative layer 34 b exposes sidewalls 110 b, 112 b and 114 b of pedestals 104 b, 106 b and 108 b, respectively. The exposed sidewalls 110 b, 112 b and 114 b comprise first undoped silicon layer 146. Additionally, in the shown embodiment a portion of undoped silicon layer 146 is below upper surface 37 b of BPSG layer 34 b, and remains unexposed In the shown preferred embodiment, pedestals 104 b, 106 b and 108 b comprise hollow interiors corresponding to openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b (shown in FIG. 14). The depth of removal of insulative layer 34 b can be controlled by methods such as those discussed above with reference to FIG. 8 for controlling the depth of removal of insulative layer 34 a.

[0065] Referring to FIG. 16, which is a top view of the FIG. 15 wafer fragment, second undoped silicon layer 150 lines the hollow interiors corresponding to openings 38 b, 39 b and 40 b.

[0066] Referring to FIG. 17, wafer fragment 10 b is subjected to processing identical to that discussed above regarding FIG. 10 to convert exposed undoped silicon surfaces to rugged-polysilicon surfaces, while not roughening exposed doped silicon surfaces. Such treatment forms a rugged-polysilicon layer 122 b from exposed portions of first undoped silicon layer 146 shown in FIG. 15) and forms a rugged-polysilicon layer 160 from second undoped silicon layer 150 within the interiors of pedestals 104 b, 106 b and 108 b. Such processing also out-diffuses dopant from doped silicon layer 148 into adjacent undoped layers and thus converts unexposed portions of undoped layer 146 (shown in FIG. 15) into doped regions 119 b.

[0067] Subsequent processing, similar to the processing discussed above with reference to FIGS. 11-13, may be conducted to form a DRAM array from pedestals 104 b, 106 b and 108 b. In such DRAM array, pedestals 104 b and 108 b would be storage nodes for first and second capacitors, respectively, and pedestal 106 b would form a conductive contact to a bitline. Such subsequent processing is not illustrated as the description above regarding FIGS. 11-13 is sufficient to enable a person of skill in the art to form a DRAM array from the structure of FIG. 17. It is noted, however, that the storage nodes formed from pedestals 104 b and 108 b would differ from the storage nodes of FIG. 13 in that the storage nodes formed from pedestals 104 b and 108 b would have the shape of upwardly open containers, with the interiors of such containers being lined by rugged-polysilicon layer 160.

[0068] The above-described DRAMs and capacitors of the present invention can be implemented into monolithic integrated circuitry, including microprocessors.

[0069] To aid in interpretation of the claims that follow, the term “semiconductive substrate” is defined to mean any construction comprising semiconductive material, including, but not limited to, bulk semiconductive materials such as a semiconductive wafer (either alone or in assemblies comprising other materials thereon), and semiconductive material layers (either alone or in assemblies comprising other materials). The term “substrate” refers to any supporting structure, including, but not limited to, the semiconductive substrates described above.

[0070] In compliance with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural and methodical features. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the doctrine of equivalents.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7034353 *Sep 26, 2001Apr 25, 2006Micron Technology, Inc.Methods for enhancing capacitors having roughened features to increase charge-storage capacity
US7101756Feb 18, 2004Sep 5, 2006Micron Technology, Inc.Methods for enhancing capacitors having roughened features to increase charge-storage capacity
US7576380Aug 9, 2006Aug 18, 2009Micron Technology, Inc.Methods for enhancing capacitors having roughened features to increase charge-storage capacity
US7989864Aug 10, 2009Aug 2, 2011Micron Technology, Inc.Methods for enhancing capacitors having roughened features to increase charge-storage capacity
Classifications
U.S. Classification438/396, 257/E21.658, 257/E29.345, 257/E21.648, 257/E21.649, 257/E21.012, 257/E21.018, 257/E21.013
International ClassificationH01L21/8242, H01L21/02, H01L29/94
Cooperative ClassificationY10S438/964, H01L27/10852, H01L28/90, H01L27/10888, H01L28/82, H01L27/10855, H01L28/84, H01L29/94
European ClassificationH01L27/108M4D4, H01L28/82, H01L28/84, H01L29/94
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