US 2001169 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 14, 1935. v o. R. WALLACE 2,001,169
' BUILDING STRUCTURE Filed Nov. 1, 1954 OSCAR R. I/l/AL/.A c5
INVENToR BYQohM l? /flmofw'f/ y ATTORNEY y Parent-ed; Mayflfi, 1935- UNITED STAI-Es, PATENT OFFICE' BUILDING surnoms omi-mwah, Nevron-k. Ier.v Anpuuon Nav-enter 1, 1934,A sem No. 150,915'
` 9 claim. (c1. 'zz-'11) My invention relates to building constructions and has particular reference to buildings and houses adapted to withstand earthquake shocks and which are reasonably noise and vibration proof.
Ordinary houses olfer very little resistance to strains caused by the earth movements during earthquakes, with the result that their walls rapidly crumble to pieces. Steel buildings offer greater l0 resistance,l but they often become permanently distorted, while the inner walls, floors and partitions become twisted, crushed or otherwise damaged. Thegreatest destruction is usually caused by the undulating movements of the earth crust causing the opposite walls of a house to move at different times and in different directions, literally pulling the house apart.
The obj ect of my invention is, therefore, to provide a structure which will effectively resist the undulating movements of the earth during earthquakes. For this purpose I provide a skeleton frame fora house and mount vertical posts of the frame on rollers in pockets provided for them in the foundation blocks, and I also provide springs for holding the posts in these pockets. These springs, while stabilizing the structure. permit a certain lateral motion for the posts thereby reducing and even eliminating dangerous stresses which otherwise wouldA appear in the horizontal memwaves of the earth crust.
Another object of my invention is to provide individual housing units for each floor of my structure, these units being self contained with .4 iioors, walls and ceilings.
' `Ikmount the iloors on rollers supported on the horizontal members of the frame. I also provide springs for .holding the side wallsand floors of these units spaced from the endmembers of the main frame or from its vertical posts, these springs acting as dampers.-y for the horizontal movements of the fioors caused by the earthquake shocks.
The arrangement ofl the individual housing units resiliently supported in the mainbuilding frame has also tendency to dampen and even completely eliminate vibrations and noises which would otherwise be transmitted to the house rooms from thestreets outside, 'as caused by Ithe movements of heavy trucks, street cars, trains, etc.
In localities, subjected to heavy floods, my I housing units can be made water-tight so as to enable them to f loat out of their retaining stationary frames.`
bers of the structure as a result of the longitudinal lAnother object of my invention is to provide housing units as described above,.having light and inexpensive side walls built of a plurality of thin sheets orboards separated by air clearances so as to render these walls sound prooi! and good 5 heat insulators. These boards may be made transparent or translucent thereby replacing ordinary glass windows, especially when heat and ventilation are supplied by a central air conditioning plant.
The outer frame members may be masked by suitable architectural decorations, and the spaces between them may be closed by panels made of a transparent material, in which case the clearances between theouter and inner walls may be y15 used as ducts for air conditioning system.
The inner wall boards in the housing may be made removable for replacements with freshly painted or renished sheeting.
My invention is more fully described in the ac- 20 companying specification and drawing in which- Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of my building structure, Fig. 2 is an outside view of the same,
. Fig. 3 isa detail view cfa portion of my building,
Fig. 4 is avdetail view of a modified construction, 25 Fig. 5 is a detail view of a window in a house of my construction, and Fig. 6n is a view of a small flood-proof house. l
My building structure consists of an outer frame formed of vertical posts I joined by hori- 30 zontal beams 2. The lower ends of the posts are provided with at enlarged portions 3 supported on rollers or balls 4 placed on steel plates 5. I'he latter are supported in pockets 6 of foundation blocks 1. Springs or similar resilient mem- 35 bers 8 are placed between the sidesl` of the posts and inner vwalls ofthe pockets 6. The walls of the pockets converge to the posts, above the springs, leaving, however, clearances 9 which are covered by inclined shields I0 attached to 40 the posts. With this varrangement the foundations `do not interfere with horizontal movements of the'posts within certain The shields I0 protect the pockets from rainwater and dirt, while the inner shields I I also protect the pockets from foreign matter. The horizontal beams 2 'have pockets I2 lfor balls or vrollers, I3 supporting floors I4. These floors do ,not reach the posts I and are separated therefrom by springs I5 placed in pockets I6 in 50 the posts or outer Walls. Inner walls are mounted on the floors I4, these walls being made of thin boards I1 separated from each other by spacing blocks I8 so as to form air spaces or clearances I9. The air clearances provide an effective heat insulation and also serve to deaden the noises reaching the building from the streets outside. The boards may be made of a translucent or transparent material in which case no separate Windows are required. The spaes between the posts I and iioors 2 can be closed by panels or plates 20 made 0f glass or similar transparent material. Clearances 2l between the panels 20 and inner walls I1 can be used for circulating air from a central air conditioning plant (not shown) to the self contained compartments formed inside of the walls I1 on the iioors I4 through apertures 22 in the floors and 23 in ceilings 24. It is understood, of course, thatthe glass panels 20 may be dispensed with for cheaper types of buildings. The boards I1 may be made of an ordinary compressed wall board, composition and, even, metal, in which case separate windows 25 must be used as shown in Fig. 5.
The outer frame may be built of concrete as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, or wood. It may be also built of structural steel as shown in Fig. 4 using standard steel beams of a fabricated type, cut to size and provided with rivet holes at the factory. The vertical beams 26 and 21 may be covered with enclosures 28 made of sheet steel or similar material with stamped or otherwise formed ornamental decorations, if desired. The horizontal beams 29 may have similar enclosures.
'I'he panels 20 may be protected by steel plates or shutters 30 supported on hooks 3| and held by latches 32. These plates may be ordinarily stored in the basement or other suitable place and mounted-in front of the windows on the building in cases of emergency, such as fire,r rioting, war. etc.
The floors I4 may support inside partitions 33 forming separate rooms 34 as shown in Fig. 1 for the second story, or the iloor I4 may support a single compartment 35. In any case the floor` I4 with the walls I1 and partitions 33 is mounted on the rollers I3 as a single unit. It is provided, when necessary, with flexible connections for water and gas pipes, electric cables, etc.
My buildings and houses are especially adapte to withstand earthquake shocks, as the earth movements can be transmitted to the main building frame only through springs, the latter absorbing the sharp shocks and permitting the building to remain substantially stationary while the ground moves back and forth. Any elongation or contraction ofthe ground caused by longitudinal earthquake vwaves is also absorbed by the springs thereby relieving the building from dangerous longitudinal stresses.
The parts of the outer frame as well as compartments can be made of standardized beams, plates and boards, or similar members, in special fabricating shops, so that the buildings can be cheaply and easily erected from these standardized parts.
A modied design is shown in Fig. 6, especially adapted for small houses built in lowlands subjected to dangerous floods. The house represents a compartment 36 loosely set p between retaining stakes 31 so that it can be raised by the flood waters and floated like a life boat, the walls and floor being made waterproof.
In localities where the danger or earthquake shocks is rather remote, the posts I may be placed rigidly on foundations. for the compartments may be retained, however, in order to protect these inside compartments from the street noises and vibrations transmitted by heavy street traffic, railroad trains etc.
The movable supports 'I'he steel plates 30 may be made in the shape of sliding doors ordinarily located at the sides of the windows on a. plurality of hooks 3I which may be joined to form guiding channels. Such plates may be moved into positions in front of the windows at a moments notice, in order to protect the building against aerial attack, iire etc., especially during war.
1. A building structure, in combination an outer frame formed with vertical posts and horizontal members, foundations for said posts, the ends of said posts being adapted to slide horizontally on said-foundations, resilient means in said foundations adapted to yieldingly resist the horizontal movements of said posts, floors slidably mounted on said horizontal members, walls and ceilings supported on said iioors inside of said outer frame, and resilient means yieldingly separating said walls from said posts. A
2. A building structure, in combination an outer frame formed with vertical posts and horizontal members, foundations for said posts, said foundations being provided with pockets for the ends of said posts, rollers in said pockets movably supporting said posts, resilient members in said pockets adapted to yieldingly resist horizontal movements of said posts on said rollers, covers on said posts and horizontal members for said pockets, floors slidably mounted on said horizontal members, Walls and ceilings mounted on said floors inside of said frame, and resilient members yieldingly separating said floors and walls from said posts.
. 3. A building structure, in combination an outer frame formed with vertical posts and horizontal members, oors slidably mounted on said horizontal members, Walls and ceilings supported on said oors, and resilient members separating said floors and walls from said posts and adapted to yieldingly resist horizontal movements of said floors.
4. A building structure, in combination an outer frame formed with vertical posts and horizontal members, floors movably supported on said horizontal members, and walls mounted on said iioors, each wall .consisting of a plurality of thin translucent boards with air clearances therebetween.
5. A building structure, in combinaiton an outer framevformed with vertical posts and horizontal members, floors moi/ably supported on said horizontal members, transparent walls mounted on said floors, and transparent panels mounted between said posts and the outer portions of said horizontal members, said panels forming outer walls of said structure, said walls being spaced by air clearances from said panels.
6. A building structure, in combination an outer frame formed with vertical posts and horizontal members, rollers supported on said horizontal members, iioors movably mounted on said rollers, walls mounted on said floors, and resilient members placed between said floors and said vertical posts, said resilient members being adapted to yieldingly resist horizontal movements of said floors with said walls.
'1. A building structure, in combination an outer frame formed with vertical posts and horizontal members, floors movably supported on said horizontal members, walls supported on` said floors and spaced from said vertical posts, and ornamental shells enclosing said posts and the outer edges of said horizontal members.
- 8. A building structure, in combination an outer frame, a foundation supporting said frame, horizont'al members in said frame, transparent pnnels forming walls oi said frame, noors movably supported on said horizontal members inside of said frame, walls supported on said. floors, windows in said walls, said walls forming air clean ences with. said panels, and yielding resilient means for resisting horizontal movements of said floors in said frame. Y A
9,. d building structure, in combination an outer 10 frame liorianied with vertical posts and horizontal members, iioors supported on said horizontal members, inner oors movably supported on said frame iioors, walls mounted on said inner floors, resilient members yieldingly separating said inner iioors from said posts, andsteei plates slidably mounted on said posts and seid horizontal members, said plates being adapted to be moved in iront of the window openings in said outer Home when desired. v
OSCAR R. WALLACE.