|Publication number||US2001932 A|
|Publication date||May 21, 1935|
|Filing date||May 20, 1933|
|Priority date||May 20, 1933|
|Publication number||US 2001932 A, US 2001932A, US-A-2001932, US2001932 A, US2001932A|
|Original Assignee||W H Maze Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
R E5 www w1 EM, O G2 my Fa OM May 21, 1935.-
Patented May 2l, 1935 UNITED STATES ROLL ROOFING FASTENER Hamilton Maze, Peru, Ill., assignor to W. H. Maze Company, Peru, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Application May 20, 1933, Serial No. 671,957
This invention relates to roll roofing, and more particularly to a fastener of the nail type Which will securely hold so-called roll roofing on a roof for an extended period of time and fully meet all 5 of the desirable requirements of the roofing manufacturers, dealers and users.
Recent years have seen a general advance and improvement'in the quality of all types of roofing, and it is pretty well recognized, for example, that asphalt roll rooiings are at a high state of perfection. In fact, this is true of the whole asphalt line. The weight of felt, the process of saturation, permanency of surfacing, colors, and color harmony, have all been receiving major amounts of attention. i
In this development, the laboratory has played an important role. Through the device of accelerated atmospheric conditions, in which air, Water, heat, cold, and even intense artificial sunlight are all faithfully reproduced, asphalt goods can now, for the purpose of testing, be artificially weathered in a few days time. These few days are equivalent to years of normal out-of-door conditions. The relative merits of any piece of roofing can be thus quickly determined. As a result, asphalt roongsin their respective grades, have and are passing through tests and checking methods so rigorous that the factors making for their long life are known-processes of production correspondingly changedand out of it all comes a finished product that stands high in quality, long life and uniformity.
However, the best roll roong must still be dependent 01; its fastening, and, while the roll roofing itself is very satisfactory for the purpose,
it has been very difficult and, so far as the applicant knows, impossible to secure the rooting with exposed fasteners in such a manner that it would give satisfactory service for more than a relatively short time.
Roll roofing is furnished by the manufacturers in rolls of a standard width and is nailed to the sheathing of the roof by various types of nails or staples.
The completed roof is apparently very satisfactory for a short time. However, the nails or other fasteners soon become loose or even entirely removed, a condition known to the trade as drawing, backing out, or pcpping. This causes a great deal of dissatisfaction with this type of roong and it is necessary for roofing manufacturers, dealers and contractors to make many costly adjustments on roofs of this type.
The roofing trade has given the following reasons as to why roof nails come out:
(Cl. 10S-33) Wind pressures on the under side; wind suction on the top side; the sun pops the nail; the bevel on the point moves the nail; water freezing under the head; Wet lumber getting dry after the nails are in; dry lumber getting Wet after the nails are in; expansion and contraction of the nail with rise and fall of temperature; moisture getting down around the shank of the nail; weave and distortion in the sheathing and frame of the building; too large heads is thought to have some influence, and warpage of the roofing itself.
To provide a satisfactory and permanent roof under all normal conditions has been a very serious problem and it is essential that the fasteners or nails should not become even slightly loosened as this causes the roof to leak around the shank of the fastener, and even when a leak is not immediately apparent any access of moisture under the head of the nail or to the fibres of the wood surrounding the nail shank will cause the nail to be forced outwardly.
When first driven the common roofing nail has enough holding power for the purpose. However, this holding power decreases with time and thus opens the door for other forces to act.
Itis essential that this holding power should be accomplished with a nail shank of such size, structure and length that the sheathing will not be split and large slivers will not be knocked out from the under side thereby reducing the holding power by a large percentage. Also the nail head must be such as to snugly fit the inequalities of the roof and prevent access of moisture thereunder.
Yellow pine and similar sheathing, such as ordinarily used under roll roofing, one type of such sheathing being commonly known as No. 2 shiplath, has been reduced in thickness as compared to old standards, by the manufacturers, approximately 14 per cent. Roofing nails for securing roll roofing are driven into this thin sheathing. The holding power of ordinary roofing nails is materially reduced by any reduction in thickness of the sheathing.4 The problem of providing a nail fulfilling all requirements and overcoming all difculties noted herein, and as solved by the instant invention, assumes still greater importance to the trade in View of the new problem now presented to the manufacturer of roofing nails; that is, it is now desirable to obtain a greater holding power in a shorter nail, or, in other words, to provide a nail having the greatest effective holding characteristics to the limited amount of sheathing thickness. This problem has been successfully solved by the present invention which provides a nail having, in combination with other desirable characteristics, a shank with peculiarly efficient holding power relative to the limited thickness of the sheathing in which it is used, and which holding power will not decrease appreciably over extremely long periods. In fact, careful tests have shown that -the holding power actually increases.
'Ihe applicants years of experience in the manufacture of roofing nails and the practical application of roll roofing, as well as the results of numerous carefully tabulated tests over long periods, have demonstrated that to provide a satisfactory fastener of the exposed type, it is essential that all of the component parts shall be so correlated and coordinated with special reference to form, dimension, material and iinish, that all of the nails, when used as roll roofing fasteners in the usual type of sheathing, will remain snugly secured in position and will prevent the access of moisture underneath the heads and to the wood fibre surrounding the shank for not less than two years even when angularly inserted relative to the sheathing. It is also essential that the hole made through the roll roofing itself should snugly t the shank of the nail, 4and that the fabric should not be torn, crushed or distorted in a manner to preventthe shank of the fastener from completely closing the hole and the roofing being clamped snugly to the sheathing over the entire lower surface of the head. I
The above results have not been obtainable with any exposed fasteners heretofore available. Such fasteners show an inherent tendency to become loosened or otherwise unsatisfactory after exposure in normal .use for less than one year, while careful experimental use of applicants nails under normal and abnormal conditions has demonstrated that they will remain snugly in place and maintain the roof in satisfactory condition for an indefinite period very much longer than one year.
In the application of roll roofing, fasteners having rigid heads integral with the shank have not been satisfactory because roofing nails are often driven at an angle, and also have a tendency to tilt under the hammer thus causing an uneven clamping action of the rigid head against the roofing thereby allowing moisture to enter under the head. Also this tilting, or even irregularities' in the thickness of the roll roofing or in the surface of the sheathing, may cause the rigid head to `clamp `unevenly and angularly, often cutting or otherwise injuring the roll roofing.
In order to secure the maximum holding power in a roong nail of this type the shank of the nail must be of such size and construction that it will not unduly injure or displace the fibres of the sheathing to which it is applied. Also it must be easily driven with a hammer in the ordinary manner without splitting the wood even for a short distance, as any splitting of the wood or crushing of fibres reduces the holding efliciency thereof. It is also desirable that the nail should not tilt easily under the hammer.
Applicants device overcomes all of the above noted objections to prior devices and it is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a nail for fastening fabric base roll roofing to standard roof sheathing in which all of the component parts are so correlated and coordinated with special reference to form and dimension that when applied in the normal manner trated in Fig. l.
.portion rectangular unusual holding `and sealing qualities are obtained.
It is a further object to provide a fastener of the characterdescribed having the 'above noted desirable characteristics in which Jthe hole through the roll roofing made by the shank of the fastener will not be distorted and will conform snugly to the cross-sectional contour of the fastener and particularly thatk part of the fastener adjacent the head, and the head will conform to the surface of the roll roofing and clamp snugly over its entire lower surface.
It is also an object to provide a fastener of the character described in which the threaded shank is small relative to the diameter of the head and which will easily rotate in accordance with the pitch of thethreads while ,driven in the sheathing under a normal blow of the hammer without tearing or distorting the fibres of the wood suiiiciently to materially reduce their holding engagement with the shank over long periods.
A further object is to provide a fastener having a maximum holding power over a long period of time, and having a minimum length of shank in which no part of the point or leading portion has a cross-sectional diameter greater than a corresponding following portion.
Further objects will be apparent from the specification and the appended claims.
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a greatly enlarged side elevation of an embodiment of my invention.
Fig. 2 is a top view of the embodiment illus- Fig. 3 is a bottom view of the embodiment illustrated in Fig.- 1.
Fig. 4 is a full size side elevation of the fastener illustrated in Fig. l. Fig. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional view through the fastener and a portion of the roofing to which it is applied.
Fig. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken through the shank adjacent the head and on a line `corresponding to line 6-6 of Fig. 5.
Fig. *'7 is a greatly enlarged sectional view through the shank and taken on a line corresponding substantially to line T-'l of Fig. l and illustrates the slightly truncated form of the concave threads.
Fig. 8 is a side elevation of one of the nails as appliedv to a roof and illustrates the adaptability of the head when the fastener is driven in a tilted or angular position, the roll roofing and sheathing being shown in section.
Referring to the drawing in detail, the embodiment illustrated comprises a relatively small, short threaded shank I having a comparatively large and very nail is of malleable material and there is a definite correlation between the dimensions and other characteristics of the head to other parts and characteristics of the nail as will be explained later.
The shank is sharply pointed at 3 and this is accomplished in a manner to provide a tapered in cross-section and having substantially flat portions 4 and sharp corners 5. The shank l is formed to provide a quadruple threadA over its entire length, the threads being preferably concave with slightly truncated tops 5 0f the rectangularly sharpened point 3 prefer.
thin head 2 thereon. 'Ihe entire l ably form a continuation of the tops of the threads. However, in any case, no part of the point or leading portion has a cross-sectional diameter greater than a corresponding following portion, that is, the longitudinal contour of the point always 'forms a reduced continuation of the longitudinal contour of the shank.
These nails are preferably formed by rst upsetting thereon a very thin head to the required dimensions and then forming the shank of the nail to form the concave threads. The shank of the nail is very small in cross-section and this method of forming the threads leaves the shank with substantially the same cross-sectional area as the original stock from which it was formed. The tops of the threads may be slightly truncated if desired, as shown in Fig. 7, and this formation together with the slight roughness caused by the owing of the metal at the top of the truncated portion allows the wood fibres to so engage the nail as to materially resist any tendency to rotate outwardly due to lifting pressure, such as may be caused by the normal contraction and expansion of the sheathing or other forces such as mentioned previously.
Figs. 5 and 8 illustrate the nails in position after being driven into position in a roof. In
driving the nail, the point 3 rst punctures the roll roofing 8 and forms a' rectangular opening, the tops of the threads being guided into the corners of the rectangle formed by the corners 5 of the point. As the shank enters the sheathing 9, it rotates slowly in accordance with the high pitch of the threads and as the threads extend completely to the head the roofing is not torn or distorted but maintains a snug contact and conforms to the cross-sectional contour of the shank at all times.
The combined cooperative functioning of all parts of the nail during driving and after being completely driven permits all parts of the nail to be snugly seated and to cooperatively function after being seated in a manner to provide a maximum efficiency in holding power and in sealing against leakage. In other words, due to the cooperative cross sectional relation of all parts of the shank with a type of point which punctures without materially distorting or tearing, the
threads will follow the edges` cut by the point without material distortion of the roofing. Also, no cross section of the point and shank portion is larger than a corresponding following portion of the shank; therefore the roofing material snugly engages the shank in all driving positions as well as after being snugly driven in.
During the nal seating of the nail, the flexible head makes possible its adjustment to the surface of the roofing in such a way as to compress the roofing material very snugly around the shank and between the head and the sheathing,
thereby making a snug weatherproof engagement which is one of the first essentials of a good fastener. The point acts somewhat as a drill and does not distort or displace the fibres of the wood for any appreciable distancefrom the surface of the shank, and as the threads follow in the path of the point, each unbroken wood fibre snugly engages a corresponding shank surface and is rigidly supported in this engaging and retaining relation by adjacent unbroken fibres.
The above-noted desirable cooperating features of the point and shank in combination with the thin exible head permits the nail to easily r otate under a hammer blow and without undue friction on the hammer face at points remote from the nail shank. The nail is therefore easily completely seated and the roofing material, which snugly engages the shank while the nail is being driven, is further compressed around the shank and still more snugly engages the shank when the nail is completely seated.
The entire surface area of the shank is engaged by cooperating wood bres in a maximum holding relation and, due to the combination with the flexible head, this holding relation is maintained even when subjected to strains incident to expansion and contraction of the roofing material under extreme Weather conditions.
As soon as the nail enters sufficiently to engage I the threads, the nail rotates in accordance therewith and the sharp corners' of the rectangular point 3 act as drill-like cutting edges and tend to force the cut-off particles of wood outwardly into the pores of the wood whereby the fibres are not materially displaced but instead yform a solid compact fibrous clamping surface engaging all parts of the shank, thus providing a fastening means which is retained in its original holding relation for a much longer period than has been possible heretofore.
The nails are preferably completely covered with a galvanized metal coating which also assists in providing a surface suitable for efficient engagement of the Wood fibres therewith and prevents oxidation of the entire nail under all weather conditions. When the nail is driven vertically into the sheathing the extreme thinness of the head, which is preferably malleable, Will cause it to adjust itself to slight variations in the thickness of the roll roofing or to irregularities in the surface of the sheathing. Also the head may be easily flexed by an uneven blow of the hammer whereby friction is relieved' and the force of the blow may be concentrated on the shank until the head is in contact with the roof; that is, the extreme thinness of the head and the fact that it is easily flexed permits it to give or iiex slightly under an uneven hammer blow and therefore the driving force of the blowwill be concentrated on that part of the head directly over the shank until the nail is driven completely in when the head will conform to the surface of the roofing material.
These nails are usually driven very rapidly by the roofer and are very often somewhat angularly disposed relative to the sheathing. Heretofore, integral heads o-f fasteners for roll roofing have been rigid and any angular displacement of the nail while being driven causes the head to cut or distort the roll roofing and also to exert its greatest clamping pressure upon the lowest portion leaving the opposite side tilted upwardly whereby moisture enters under the head of the nail and may even enter the sheathing around the shank. This Adestroys the efficiency of the nail in a short time and is particularly undesirable in cold weather as the moisture freezes under the head of the nail and causes the nail to raise or pop and ultimately becomes entirely removed.
Iny applicants device.' as illustrated in Fig. 8
capable of conforming to the irregularities is suflciently rigid to maintain the roll roofing securely clamped against the sheathing and over the entire lower area of the head, the materialof the nail, the finish, and the dimensions of its component parts being so correlated as to cooperatively function in a manner to maintain the nail snugly in position and to prevent the access of moisture thereto for a considerably longer period than heretofore possible. l
Satisfactory nails may-be made in which the ratio of the diameter of the threaded shank to the head may be on the order of 1 to 5 and the head may be of uniform thickness and substantially one twenty-five thousandths inch thick. ratio of the thickness of the head to the diameter thereof is preferably substantially 1 to 30, Very satisfactory results are obtained with a nail on the. order of seven-eighths inch to one inch long and having a quadruple thread, with a diameter at the top of the threads of substantially three thirty-seconds inch, and a head on the order of seven-sixteenths inch in diameter and twentyve thousandths inch thick, with/the threads of a pitch to cause a substantially three-fourths revolution of the nail when it is driven completely in the support.
Modifications may be made in the embodiment herein illustrated and described, and I, therefore, desire to be limited only by the prior art and the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my `invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A nail of the character described, comprising a completely threaded pointedl shank, acomparatively large thin iiat head integral therewith, said point being of angular cross-section conforming to the number of threads, the sides and corners thereof forming a continuation of said threads, said head being sufficiently thin to conform to the surface of a roof when the shank is driven angularly therein by the normal blow of a hammer, the threads being of sufficiently high pitch to cause the nail to rotate in accordance therewith when the nail is driven through roll roofing and into wood sheathing, and a coating of galvanized metal over the entire nail.
2. A nail of the character described, comprising a completely threaded pointed shank, a comparatively large thin flat head integral therewith, said point being of angular cross-section conforming to the number of threads, the sides and corners thereof forming a continuation of said threads,
lsaid head being sufficiently thin to conform tothe surface of a roof when the shank is driven angularly therein by the normal blow of a hammer, the threads being of suiiiciently high pitch to cause the nail to rotate in accordance therewith when the nail is driven through roll roofing and into Wood sheathing, and a coating ofgalvanized metal over the entire nail, said threads being concave and slightly truncated.
3. In a nail of the character described for fastening roll roofing to wood sheathing, the combination with a relatively small diameter shankA having high pitch threads over its entire length and a point forming a continuation of said threads, of a relatively large diameter and extremely thin head integral with said shank, the dimensions of said shank and` said head and the dimensions and pitch of the threads and their number and the material oi the nail being so correlated and coordinated that a hole made thereby through roll roofing will conform to the cross- The sectional contour of the'shank, the head willbe flexed enough to yield under the blow of a hammer sufficiently to prevent undue friction on the face of the hammer at points remote from the shank and to allow the nail to rotate in accordance with the threads without unduedisplacement of the wood fibres and to concentrate the force of the blow on the end of the shank, the head being suiliciently rigid to prevent distortion due to prolonged exposure to atmospheric conditions, and sufficiently deformable to conform "`to the surface of a roof when the shank is driven angularly therein by the normal blow of a hammer.
4. A rool roong nail of the character described comprising a shank having a high pitch quadruple shallow concave thread over its entire length, a thin flat head on said shank, said nail being entirely of malleable material, the ratio of the diameter of said threaded shank to said head being on the order of 1 to 5, said head being of uniform thickness and not substantially more than one twenty-five thous'andths inch, a point on said shank and forming a reducedcontinuation of -said threads, said threads being of a pitch to rotate said nail substantially three-fourths of a revolution.
5. A roll roong nail of the character described comprising a comparatively short shank having a high pitch quadruple thread, a flat head integral therewith, the ratio of the diameter of said shank to said head being on the order of 1 to 5, all of said nail being of.malleable 'the nail to turn in accordance with the threads without undue friction on the hammer and the head will be caused to conform to the surface of a roof when the shank is driven angularly therein by the normal blow of a hammer, said shank having a tapered point rectangular in cross-section, the corners of said point forming continuations of the tops of said threads.
6. Aroll roofing nail of the character described comprising a comparatively small shank having high pitch threads over its entire length and arranged to rotate the nail substantially threefourths of a revolution, a comparatively large diameter head integral therewith, the ratio of the diameter of said shank to said head being onthe order of 1 to 5, the thickness of said head to the diameter thereof being on the order of 1 to 30, said head and shank being integral and of malleable material whereby the head is easily flexed under the blow of a hammer so that the major part of the force of the blow is concentrated on the head end of the shank, said shank having a. sharpened point.
'1. A roll roofing nail of the character described comprising a comparatively small shank having high pitch threads over its entire length and arranged to rotate the nail substantially threefourths of a revolution, a comparatively large diameter head integral therewith, the ratio of the diameter of said shank to sai-d head being on the order of 1 to 5, the thickness of said head to the diameter thereof being on the order of 1 to 30, said head and shank being integral and of malleable material and the head being suiiioiently thin whereby the head is easily flexed under the blow of a hammer, said shank having a sharpened point, rectangular in cross-section,
the corners thereof forming continuations of the tops of said threads.
8. A roll roofing nail of the character described comprising a shank on the order of from seveneighths inch to one inch long having a quadruple concave thread rolled therein, the diameter at the top of the threads being substantially three thirty-seconds inch, and a head on said shank and integral therewith and substantially on the order of seven-sixteenths inch in diameter and twenty-rive thousandths inch thick, all of said nail being of malleable metal, said shank having a sharpened point rectangular in cross-section, the iiat surfaces of said point forming continuations ofsaid threads. and the corners of said point forming continuations of the tops of said threads, said threads extending completely to said head and to a pitch to cause a substantially three-fourths revolution of said nail when it is driven into wood.
9. A nail of the character described for roll roong, comprising a pointed and threaded shank, said shank being arranged to be cornpletely engaged over its entire surface by wood bres when driven into wood, a flat head integral therewith, all of said nail being of malleable material, said head being suiciently thin over its entire area to conform to the surface of a substantially flat roof when the shank is driven angularly therein by the normal blow of a hammer and to permit exible adjustment in accordance with irregularities' of said roofing.
10. A nail of the character described for roll roong, comprising a pointed and threaded shank, said shank being arrange to be completely engaged over its entire surface by wood bres when driven into wood, a at head integral therewith, said head being suiliciently thin to conform to the surface of a substantially flat roof when the shank is driven angularly therein by the normal blow of a hammer and to permit 'exible adjustment in accordance with irregularities of said rooting, the threads on said shank being of suiciently high pitch to cause the nail to rotate in accordance with the threads when the nail is driven into wood.
11. A nail of the character described for roll roofing, comprising a pointed and threaded shank, said shank being arranged to be completely engaged over its entire surface by wood libres when driven into wood, a ilat head integral therewith, said head being suiciently thin to conform to the surface of a substantially at roof when the shank is driven angularly therein by the normal blow of a hammer and to permit flexible adjustment in accordance with irregularities of said roong, the threads on said shank being of suiicientlyv high pitch to cause the nail to rotate in accordance with the threads when the nail is driven into wood, and acoating of galvanizing metal over the entire nail.
(Seal) CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION.
Parent No. 2,001,932. May 21, 193s.
A It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the abovenumbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 4, second column, line 2, claim 3. for "flexed" read flexible; and page 5, second column, line 3, claim 10, for "arrange" read arranged; and that. said Letters Patent should be read withthese corrections therein that the same may conform to the record 0f the case in the Patent Office.
` Signed and sealed this 25th day of June, A. D. 1935.
Bryan M. Battey Acting Commissioner of Patents.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2864276 *||May 5, 1955||Dec 16, 1958||Edward M Parker||Deformable head nails|
|US7665942 *||Jan 10, 2007||Feb 23, 2010||Stanley Fastening Systems, L.P.||Nail with multiple shank deformations|
|US20090028665 *||Aug 9, 2007||Jan 29, 2009||Essence Method Refine Co., Ltd.||High screwing screw|
|U.S. Classification||411/454, 411/923|
|International Classification||F16B15/06, E04D5/14|
|Cooperative Classification||F16B15/06, E04D5/145, Y10S411/923|
|European Classification||F16B15/06, E04D5/14M1|