Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20020004904 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/852,937
Publication dateJan 10, 2002
Filing dateMay 10, 2001
Priority dateMay 11, 2000
Also published asEP1405170A2, US6691143, US6820105, US20010042210, US20020010730, US20020013799, WO2001088692A2, WO2001088692A3, WO2001093012A2, WO2001093012A3
Publication number09852937, 852937, US 2002/0004904 A1, US 2002/004904 A1, US 20020004904 A1, US 20020004904A1, US 2002004904 A1, US 2002004904A1, US-A1-20020004904, US-A1-2002004904, US2002/0004904A1, US2002/004904A1, US20020004904 A1, US20020004904A1, US2002004904 A1, US2002004904A1
InventorsDavid Blaker, Raymond Savarda, Michael Hanna
Original AssigneeBlaker David M., Raymond Savarda, Michael Hanna
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Cryptographic data processing systems, computer program products, and methods of operating same in which multiple cryptographic execution units execute commands from a host processor in parallel
US 20020004904 A1
Abstract
Embodiments of cryptographic data processing systems, computer program products, and methods of operating same are provided. For example, cryptographic data processing systems include a host processor, a system memory coupled to the host processor, and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises a local memory. One or more operands are downloaded into the local memory from the system memory and the cryptographic processor executes an instruction that references one of the downloaded operands using a first relative position in the local memory. Operands and results may be packed together in the local memory, which may conserve storage space. In other embodiments, separate command interfaces are provided that are respectively associated with execution units in the cryptographic processor. Commands blocks are respectively provided to the execution units and these command blocks are executed simultaneously by the plurality of execution units. By performing operations in parallel using a plurality of functional units, the total number of operations that may be performed may be increased and the average latency for completing operations may be reduced.
Images(19)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(40)
We claim:
1. A method of operating a cryptographic data processing system that comprises a host processor, a system memory coupled to the host processor, and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises a local memory and is coupled to the host processor and the system memory, the method comprising:
loading at least one operand from the system memory to the local memory; and
executing an instruction using the cryptographic processor that references the at least one operand using a first relative position in the local memory.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein loading at least one operand from the system memory to the local memory comprises loading at least two operands from the system memory to the local memory, and executing the instruction comprises:
executing the instruction using the cryptographic processor that references a first one of the operands using the first relative position in the local memory and a second one of the operands using a second relative position in the local memory, the first and second relative positions being contiguous with one another.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein the first one of the operands and the second one of the operands comprise different numbers of bits.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein executing the instruction comprises:
generating a result based on the at least one operand; and
storing the result at a second relative position in the local memory.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein the first relative position comprises a first offset from a base address in the local memory, and the second relative position comprises a second offset from the base address in the local memory.
6. A method of operating a cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises a local memory, the method comprising:
executing an instruction using the cryptographic processor that references at least one operand using a first relative position in the local memory.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein executing the instruction comprises:
generating a result based on the at least one operand; and
storing the result at a second relative position in the local memory.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the first relative position comprises a first offset from a base address in the local memory, and the second relative position comprises a second offset from the base address in the local memory.
9. A method of operating a cryptographic data processing system that comprises a host processor and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit coupled to the host processor, the method comprising:
providing a plurality of execution units in the cryptographic processor;
providing respective ones of a plurality of command blocks to respective ones of the plurality of execution units using the host processor; and
executing the plurality of command blocks using the plurality of execution units so that at least a portion of the execution of the plurality of command blocks is carried out simultaneously.
10. The method of claim 9, wherein a system memory is coupled to the host processor and the cryptographic processor integrated circuit is coupled to the system memory, and wherein providing the respective ones of the plurality of command blocks to the respective ones of the plurality of execution units comprises:
providing a plurality of command queues in the system memory; and
loading the respective ones of the plurality of command blocks into respective ones of the plurality of command queues using the host processor.
11. The method of claim 9, wherein the plurality of execution units comprise a random number generator unit, an encryption/authentication unit, and a public key engine unit.
12. A cryptographic data processing system, comprising:
a system memory; and
a cryptographic processor that is coupled to the system memory and comprises a plurality of execution units, each of the execution units comprising a command interface manager that load respective ones of a plurality of command blocks stored in the system memory to respective ones of the execution units for parallel execution thereon independent of whether another of the execution units is executing a command block.
13. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 12, further comprising:
a host processor coupled to the system memory and being configured to load the system memory with the plurality of command blocks.
14. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 13, wherein the system memory comprises a plurality of command queues that contain the plurality of command blocks, and wherein respective ones of the command interface managers are configured to independently load respective ones of the plurality of command blocks from respective ones of the plurality of command queues to respective ones of the execution units for parallel execution thereon.
15. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 12, wherein the plurality of execution units comprise a random number generator unit, an encryption/authentication unit, and a public key engine unit.
16. A cryptographic data processing system that comprises a host processor, a system memory coupled to the host processor, and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises a local memory and is coupled to the host processor and the system memory, the system further comprising:
means for loading at least one operand from the system memory to the local memory; and
means for executing an instruction using the cryptographic processor that references the at least one operand using a first relative position in the local memory.
17. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 16, wherein the means for loading at least one operand from the system memory to the local memory comprises means for loading at least two operands from the system memory to the local memory, and the means for executing the instruction comprises:
means for executing the instruction using the cryptographic processor that references a first one of the operands using the first relative position in the local memory and a second one of the operands using a second relative position in the local memory, the first and second relative positions being contiguous with one another.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein the first one of the operands and the second one of the operands comprise different numbers of bits.
19. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 16, wherein the means for executing the instruction comprises:
means for generating a result based on the at least one operand; and
means for storing the result at a second relative position in the local memory.
20. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 19, wherein the first relative position comprises a first offset from a base address in the local memory, and the second relative position comprises a second offset from the base address in the local memory.
21. A cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises:
a local memory; and
means for executing an instruction using the cryptographic processor that references at least one operand using a first relative position in the local memory.
22. The cryptographic processor integrated circuit of claim 21, wherein the means for executing the instruction comprises:
means for generating a result based on the at least one operand; and
means for storing the result at a second relative position in the local memory.
23. The cryptographic processor integrated circuit of claim 22, wherein the first relative position comprises a first offset from a base address in the local memory, and the second relative position comprises a second offset from the base address in the local memory.
24. A cryptographic data processing system that comprises a host processor and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit coupled to the host processor, the system further comprising:
means for providing a plurality of execution units in the cryptographic processor;
means for providing respective ones of a plurality of command blocks to respective ones of the plurality of execution units using the host processor; and
means for executing the plurality of command blocks using the plurality of execution units so that at least a portion of the execution of the plurality of command blocks is carried out simultaneously.
25. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 24, wherein a system memory is coupled to the host processor and the cryptographic processor integrated circuit is coupled to the system memory, and wherein the means for providing the respective ones of the plurality of command blocks to the respective ones of the plurality of execution units comprises:
means for providing a plurality of command queues in the system memory; and
means for loading the respective ones of the plurality of command blocks into respective ones of the plurality of command queues using the host processor.
26. The cryptographic data processing system of claim 24, wherein the plurality of execution units comprise a random number generator unit, an encryption/authentication unit, and a public key engine unit.
27. A computer program product for operating cryptographic data processing system that comprises a host processor, a system memory coupled to the host processor, and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises a local memory and is coupled to the host processor and the system memory, the computer program product comprising:
a computer readable program medium having computer readable program code embodied therein, the computer readable program code comprising:
computer readable program code for loading at least one operand from the system memory to the local memory; and
computer readable program code for executing an instruction using the cryptographic processor that references the at least one operand using a first relative position in the local memory.
28. The computer program product of claim 27, wherein the computer readable program code for loading at least one operand from the system memory to the local memory comprises computer readable program code for loading at least two operands from the system memory to the local memory, and the computer readable program code for executing the instruction comprises:
computer readable program code for executing the instruction using the cryptographic processor that references a first one of the operands using the first relative position in the local memory and a second one of the operands using a second relative position in the local memory, the first and second relative positions being contiguous with one another.
29. The computer program product of claim 28, wherein the first one of the operands and the second one of the operands comprise different numbers of bits.
30. The computer program product of claim 27, wherein the computer readable program code for executing the instruction comprises:
computer readable program code for generating a result based on the at least one operand; and
computer readable program code for storing the result at a second relative position in the local memory.
31. The computer program product of claim 30, wherein the first relative position comprises a first offset from a base address in the local memory, and the second relative position comprises a second offset from the base address in the local memory.
32. A computer program product for operating a cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises a local memory, the computer program product comprising:
a computer readable program medium having computer readable program code embodied therein, the computer readable program code comprising:
computer readable program code for executing an instruction using the cryptographic processor that references at least one operand using a first relative position in the local memory.
33. The computer program product of claim 32, wherein the computer readable program code for executing the instruction comprises:
computer readable program code for generating a result based on the at least one operand; and
computer readable program code for storing the result at a second relative position in the local memory.
34. The computer program product of claim 33, wherein the first relative position comprises a first offset from a base address in the local memory, and the second relative position comprises a second offset from the base address in the local memory.
35. A computer program product for operating a cryptographic data processing system that comprises a host processor and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit coupled to the host processor, the computer program product comprising:
a computer readable program medium having computer readable program code embodied therein, the computer readable program code comprising:
computer readable program code for providing a plurality of execution units in the cryptographic processor;
computer readable program code for providing respective ones of a plurality of command blocks to respective ones of the plurality of execution units using the host processor; and
computer readable program code for executing the plurality of command blocks using the plurality of execution units so that at least a portion of the execution of the plurality of command blocks is carried out simultaneously.
36. The computer program product of claim 35, wherein a system memory is coupled to the host processor and the cryptographic processor integrated circuit is coupled to the system memory, and wherein the computer readable program code for providing the respective ones of the plurality of command blocks to the respective ones of the plurality of execution units comprises:
computer readable program code for providing a plurality of command queues in the system memory; and
computer readable program code for loading the respective ones of the plurality of command blocks into respective ones of the plurality of command queues using the host processor.
37. The computer program product of claim 35, wherein the plurality of execution units comprise a random number generator unit, an encryption/authentication unit, and a public key engine unit.
38. A method of operating a cryptographic processor, comprising:
dividing functions of the cryptographic processor into a plurality of execution units; and
providing commands to the execution units independent of whether another of the execution units is processing a command.
39. The method of claim 38, wherein the execution units comprise at least one of an encryption/authentication execution unit, a public key engine execution unit, and a random number generator execution unit.
40. The method of claim 38, wherein at least a portion of the execution of the commands is carried out simultaneously by the execution units.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO PROVISIONAL APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application claims the benefit of Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/203,409, filed May 11, 2000, entitled Cryptographic Acceleration Methods and Apparatus, and Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/203,465, filed May 11, 2000, entitled Methods and Apparatus for Supplying Random Numbers, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety as if set forth fully herein.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates generally to the field of data processing systems, and, more particularly, to cryptographic data processing systems, computer program products, and methods of operating same.

[0003] Signal processors and integrated circuit chips have been developed to accelerate cryptographic operations, such as public key operations. Examples of such chips include, but are not limited to, the Hifn 6500 available from Hifn, Inc., the SafeNet ADSP 2141 available from SafeNet, Inc., and the Rainbow Mykotronx FastMAP available from Rainbow Mykotronx, Inc. Despite the availability of cryptographic accelerator products, there remains room for improvement in the art.

[0004] For example, conventional cryptographic data processing systems generally use two main methods for issuing a command to a cryptographic accelerator: The first method involves the provision of a command register on the cryptographic accelerator that a host processor uses to issue a single command. Once the cryptographic accelerator completes executing a command, the host processor may issue a new command. After completing a command, the cryptographic accelerator is generally idle until the host processor issues a new command. Unfortunately, the host processor may spend much time interacting directly with the cryptographic accelerator to download data and issue commands. This may reduce the amount of time available to the host processor for attending to other tasks.

[0005] The second method allows the host processor to download one or more command sequences to the cryptographic accelerator and then to instruct the cryptographic accelerator to execute one or more of the downloaded command sequences. After completing a command sequence, the cryptographic accelerator is generally idle until the host processor issues a new command. The size of the command sequences may be limited based on the amount of memory that may be placed on the cryptographic accelerator. Like the first method, the host processor may spend much time interacting directly with the cryptographic accelerator to download data and issue command sequences. This may reduce the amount of time available to the host processor for attending to other tasks.

[0006] Cryptographic accelerators generally perform operations using one or more operands. These devices may include general-purpose operand storage that comprises fixed length registers to store the operands and results. To execute an instruction, a register number is used to indicate which operand should be used for the operation and where the output should be stored. For example, if the operation were “a+b=c,” then part of the instruction would indicate that “a” is in register 7, “b” is in register 1, and “c” should be put into register 2.

[0007] Because the registers are fixed in size and the operands and results are variable in size, the size of the operands will always be less than or equal to the register size. As a result, some of the memory in the registers may be wasted. This reduces the number of operands that may be stored on a chip in a given amount of space. In addition, if the cryptographic accelerator is redesigned to accommodate larger operands, then each of the registers may need to be modified. More registers may be designed into a cryptographic accelerator; however, adding more memory to a cryptographic accelerator may reduce the amount of other functionality that may be included and/or increase the cost.

[0008] Cryptographic processors and/or other types of signal processors and integrated circuits may use a hardware-based random number generator. Various conventional methods may be used to retrieve random numbers from an integrated circuit incorporating a random number generator. One method is for the random number generator to provide one or more data registers that a host processor may read to obtain random numbers. The host processor may tell the random number generator to provide more random data before or after retrieving random data from the registers. The random number generator may generate the random data in the background so that random data may be available when needed by the host processor.

[0009] Another method for obtaining random data is for the host processor to request a block of random data from the random number generator. The host processor may provide the random number generator with a request that specifies an amount of random data and a location in memory where the random data should be placed. The random number generator may then generate the random data and transfer the random data to the requested location in the background.

[0010] Unfortunately, by providing random data through data registers on the random number generator or other integrated circuit chip, any buffer management that may be desired is generally performed by the host processor. Moreover, the bus that connects the host processor with the random number generator may be used inefficiently because single data reads are typically used instead of block reads. If a host processor requests a block of random data, however, then the host processor may initiate the data transfers and any desired buffer-management that may be desired is generally performed by the host processor. The foregoing operations may be performed in the background and/or a fast host processor may be used; however, a faster host processor may increase system costs.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0011] Embodiments of the present invention provide cryptographic data processing systems, computer program products, and methods of operating same. For example, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, cryptographic data processing systems comprise a host processor, a system memory coupled to the host processor, and a cryptographic processor integrated circuit that comprises a local memory. One or more operands are downloaded into the local memory from the system memory and the cryptographic processor executes an instruction that references one of the downloaded operands using a first relative position in the local memory. In further embodiments of the present invention, a result is generated based on the operand referenced when executing the instruction and this result is stored at a second relative position in the local memory. The first and second relative positions may comprise first and second offsets from a base address in the local memory. Advantageously, operands and results may be packed together in the local memory, which may conserve storage space.

[0012] In accordance with further embodiments of the present invention, the performance of cryptographic data processing systems may be improved by providing separate command interfaces that are respectively associated with execution units in the cryptographic processor. For example, a plurality of execution units may be provided in the cryptographic processor. Commands blocks may be respectively provided to the execution units and these command blocks may be executed simultaneously by the plurality of execution units. By performing operations in parallel using a plurality of functional units, the total number of operations that may be performed may be increased and the average latency for completing operations may be reduced.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0013] Other features of the present invention will be more readily understood from the following detailed description of specific embodiments thereof when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:

[0014]FIG. 1 is a block diagram that illustrates cryptographic data processing systems, computer program products, and methods of operating same in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

[0015]FIG. 2 is a flowchart that illustrates operations of cryptographic data processing systems and computer program products in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

[0016] FIGS. 3-5 are block diagrams that illustrate functional execution units of a cryptographic accelerator processor in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

[0017]FIG. 6 is a flowchart that illustrates operations of cryptographic data processing systems and computer program products in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention;

[0018] FIGS. 7-8 are block diagrams that illustrate an encryption/authentication command queue and a public key command queue, respectively, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

[0019] FIGS. 9-11 are flowcharts that illustrate operations of cryptographic data processing systems and computer program products in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention;

[0020] FIGS. 12A-12D are block diagrams that illustrate command blocks in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

[0021]FIG. 13 is a flowchart that illustrates operations of cryptographic data processing systems and computer program products in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention;

[0022]FIGS. 14A, 14B, and 15 are block diagrams that illustrate command blocks in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention;

[0023]FIGS. 16 and 17 are flowcharts that illustrate operations of cryptographic data processing systems and computer program products in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention;

[0024]FIG. 18 is a block diagram that illustrates a random number generator data queue in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

[0025]FIG. 19 is a flowchart that illustrates operations of cryptographic data processing systems and computer program products in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention;

[0026]FIG. 20 is a block diagram that illustrates a command interface for a conventional application specific integrated circuit;

[0027]FIG. 21 is a block diagram that illustrates parallel command interfaces for an application specific integrated circuit in accordance with embodiments of the present invention;

[0028]FIG. 22 is a block diagram of a cryptographic accelerator processor in which command interface managers are respectively associated with functional execution units in accordance with embodiments of the present invention; and

[0029]FIG. 23 is a flowchart that illustrates operations of cryptographic data processing systems and computer program products in accordance with further embodiments of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS

[0030] While the invention is susceptible to various modifications and alternative forms, specific embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and will herein be described in detail. It should be understood, however, that there is no intent to limit the invention to the particular forms disclosed, but on the contrary, the invention is to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the claims. Like reference numbers signify like elements throughout the description of the figures. It will also be understood that when an element is referred to as being “connected” or “coupled” to another element, it can be directly connected or coupled to the other element or intervening elements may also be present. In contrast, when an element is referred to as being “directly connected” or “directly coupled” to another element, there are no intervening elements present.

[0031] The present invention may be embodied as methods, data processing systems, and/or computer program products. Accordingly, the present invention may be embodied in hardware and/or in software (including firmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.). Furthermore, the present invention may take the form of a computer program product on a computer-usable or computer-readable storage medium having computer-usable or computer-readable program code embodied in the medium for use by or in connection with an instruction execution system. In the context of this document, a computer-usable or computer-readable medium may be any medium that can contain, store, communicate, propagate, or transport the program for use by or in connection with the instruction execution system, apparatus, or device.

[0032] The computer-usable or computer-readable medium may be, for example but not limited to, an electronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared, or semiconductor system, apparatus, device, or propagation medium. More specific examples (a nonexhaustive list) of the computer-readable medium would include the following: an electrical connection having one or more wires, a portable computer diskette, a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory (ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM or Flash memory), an optical fiber, and a portable compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM). Note that the computer-usable or computer-readable medium could even be paper or another suitable medium upon which the program is printed, as the program can be electronically captured, via, for instance, optical scanning of the paper or other medium, then compiled, interpreted, or otherwise processed in a suitable manner, if necessary, and then stored in a computer memory.

[0033] Referring now to FIG. 1, an exemplary cryptographic data processing system 12, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, comprises a cryptographic accelerator processor 14, a host processor 16, a cache memory 18, a system memory 22, and a system bus controller 24, such as a north-bridge system controller. The system bus controller 24 couples the host processor 16 to the cache memory 18 and the system memory 22, and also couples the host processor 16 and the system memory 22 to the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 via a system bus 26, which may be, for example, a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus. The host processor 16 may be, for example, a commercially available or custom microprocessor. The system memory 22 is representative of an overall hierarchy of memory devices containing the software and data used to implement the functionality of the cryptographic data processing system 12. The system memory 22 may include, but is not limited to, the following types of devices: ROM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, flash, SRAM, and DRAM.

[0034] In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 comprises a random number generator (RNG) execution unit 28, an encryption/authentication (E/A) execution unit 32, and a public key (PK) engine execution unit 34, which are coupled to a local memory 36 via a local bus 38. In accordance with particular embodiments of the present invention, the system memory 22 contains a random number (RN) data queue 42, an E/A command queue 44, a PK command queue 46, and data buffer(s) 47.

[0035] Although FIG. 1 illustrates an exemplary cryptographic data processing system architecture, it will be understood that the present invention is not limited to such a configuration, but is intended to encompass any configuration capable of carrying out operations described herein. Computer program code for carrying out operations of embodiments of the cryptographic data processing system 12 may be written in a high-level programming language, such as C or C++, for development convenience. Nevertheless, some modules or routines may be written in assembly language or even micro-code to enhance performance and/or memory usage. It will be further appreciated that the functionality of any or all of the program modules may also be implemented using discrete hardware components, a single application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), or a programmed digital signal processor or microcontroller.

[0036] The present invention is described hereinafter with reference to flowchart and/or block diagram illustrations of methods, data processing systems, and/or computer program products in accordance with exemplary embodiments of the invention. It will be understood that each block of the flowchart and/or block diagram illustrations, and combinations of blocks in the flowchart and/or block diagram illustrations, may be implemented by computer program instructions. These computer program instructions may be provided to a processor of a general purpose computer, a special purpose computer, or other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the processor of the computer or other programmable data processing apparatus, create means for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.

[0037] These computer program instructions may also be stored in a computer usable or computer-readable memory that may direct a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to function in a particular manner, such that the instructions stored in the computer usable or computer-readable memory produce an article of manufacture including instructions that implement the function/act specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.

[0038] The computer program instructions may also be loaded onto a computer or other programmable data processing apparatus to cause a series of operational steps to be performed on the computer or other programmable apparatus to produce a computer implemented process such that the instructions that execute on the computer or other programmable apparatus provide steps for implementing the functions/acts specified in the flowchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.

[0039] Exemplary operations of cryptographic data processing systems, computer program products, and methods of operating same, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, will be described hereafter. Referring now to FIG. 2, the host processor 16 loads a command block into one of the command queues 44 and 46 at block 52. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may be notified by the host processor 16 that the command block is available for processing or may periodically access the command queues 44, and/or 46 to determine if a command block is available for processing. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 downloads the command block from one of the command queues 44 and 46 and executes the command block at block 54. Once the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 completes execution of the command block, the host processor 16 is notified at block 56. Thus, according to embodiments of the present invention, the host processor 16 need not spend time interacting directly with the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 (e.g., issuing a command to the cryptographic accelerator processor 14, waiting for that command to complete, and then issuing another command). Instead, the host processor 16 may load commands into command queues 44 and 46, which may then be processed in background by the cryptographic accelerator processor 14. Moreover, the size and number of command block sequences may be less constrained because the availability of system memory is generally more abundant.

[0040] Referring now to FIGS. 3-5, the RNG execution unit 28, the E/A execution unit 32, and the PK engine execution unit 34 may use various registers that facilitate communication with the RN data queue 42 and the command queues 44 and 46. For example, as shown in FIG. 3, a control/status register 62, a RN data queue base address register 64, a RN data queue size register 66, and a RN data queue pointer register 68 may be defined for use by the RNG execution unit 28. The control/status register 62 may include a self-test error field, which may be set if the RNG execution unit 28 generates two successive random number samples that are the same, and/or an error flag field, which may be used to notify the host processor 16 of an error on the system bus 26. The RN data queue base address register 64 may be used to hold the base address of the RN data queue 42 in the system memory 22. If the RN data queue 42 does not have a fixed size, then the RN data queue size register 66 may be used to hold the size of the RN data queue 42. The RN data queue pointer register 68 may comprise a read pointer 72 portion and a write pointer 74 portion, which may be used by the RNG execution unit 28 and the host processor 16 as will be discussed in more detail hereinafter.

[0041] As shown in FIG. 4, a control/status register 82, an E/A command queue base address register 84, an E/A command queue size register 86, and an E/A command queue pointer register 88 may be defined for use by the E/A execution unit 32. The control/status register 82 may include an interrupt flag field, which may be set if the host processor 16 requests an interrupt upon completion of a command block and/or if execution of a command block fails and/or an error flag field, which may be used to notify the host processor 16 of an error on the system bus 26. The E/A command queue base address register 84 may be used to hold the base address of the E/A command queue 44 in the system memory 22. If the E/A command queue 44 does not have a fixed size, then the E/A command queue size register 86 may be used to hold the size of the E/A command queue 44. The E/A command queue pointer register 88 may comprise a read pointer 92 portion and a write pointer 94 portion, which may be used by the E/A execution unit 32 and the host processor 16, respectively, as will be discussed in more detail hereinafter.

[0042] As shown in FIG. 5, a control/status register 102, a PK command queue base address register 104, a PK command queue size register 106, and a PK command queue pointer register 108 may be defined for use by the PK engine execution unit 34. The control/status register 102 may include an interrupt flag field, which may be set if the host processor 16 requests an interrupt upon completion of a command block and/or if execution of a command block fails and/or an error flag field, which may be used to notify the host processor 16 of an error on the system bus 26. The PK command queue base address register 104 may be used to hold the base address of the PK command queue 46 in the system memory 22. If the PK command queue 46 does not have a fixed size, then the PK command queue size register 106 may be used to hold the size of the PK command queue 46. The PK command queue pointer register 108 may comprise a read pointer 112 portion and a write pointer 114 portion, which may be used by the PK engine execution unit 34 and the host processor 16, respectively, as will be discussed in more detail hereinafter.

[0043] Referring now to FIG. 6, operations for loading a command block into the E/A command queue 44 and/or the PK command queue 46, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, will be described in more detail hereafter. In general, the host processor 16 writes commands into the command queues 44 and 46 beginning at write address locations stored in the write pointers for the respective command queues (e.g., write pointers 94 and 114). Before writing a command block into a command queue, however, the host processor determines at block 122 whether the write address plus the command block size equals the read address stored in the corresponding read pointer 92 or 112. If the result determined at block 122 is “Yes,” then the host processor 16 postpones loading a new command block into the command queue until the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 has incremented the read address. If, however, the result determined at block 122 is “No,” then the host processor 16 loads a command block into the command queue at block 124 at the write address associated with the command queue and then increments the write address at block 126 by an amount corresponding to the size of the loaded command block. The host processor 16 need not check the current read address every time a new command block is loaded. Instead, the host processor 16 may check the read address when the write address is getting close to the last value the host processor 16 has for the read address. Checking the read address may be expensive in terms of processor cycles consumed. By checking the read address only when the read address is getting close to the write address (e.g., within a predefined threshold), host processor 16 cycles may be conserved.

[0044] The foregoing operations are illustrated, for example, in FIGS. 7 and 8, which show embodiments of the E/A command queue 44 and the PK command queue 46, respectively. As shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, both the E/A command queue 44 and the PK command queue 46 are configured to hold m command blocks, which each comprise eight, thirty-two bit words. The host processor 16 has written a single command block into the first command block position (i.e., the “0” position) and the write address has been incremented to point to the next empty command block slot. The addresses used in FIGS. 7 and 8 are based on command block slot numbers for purposes of illustration. These addresses may be converted into absolute addresses by multiplying the command block slot number by 256 and adding the resulting product to the respective base addresses for the command queues, which are stored in the E/A command queue base address register 84 and the PK command queue base address register 104, respectively. Note that the test used at block 122 of FIG. 6 to determine whether a new command block may be loaded into a command queue implies that if a command queue may hold up to m command blocks, then only m−1 command blocks may be stored in the command queue at the same time.

[0045] Referring now to FIG. 9, operations for executing a command block that has been loaded into the E/A command queue 44 and/or the PK command queue 46, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, will be described in more detail hereafter. At block 132, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 determines whether the write address is equal to the read address. Specifically, the E/A execution unit 32 determines whether the write address is equal to the read address for the E/A command queue 44 and the PK engine execution unit 34 determines whether the write address is equal to the read address for the PK command queue 46. If the result determined at block 132 is “Yes,” then the cryptographic processor 14 waits until the host processor 16 loads a new command block into the command queue. If, however, the result determined at block 132 is “No,” then the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 downloads the command block at the read address associated with the command queue and executes the command block at block 134. In particular embodiments of the present invention, multiple command blocks may be downloaded for execution on the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 at the same time, which may further improve performance. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 then increments the read address at block 136 by an amount corresponding to the size of the executed command block.

[0046] Returning to FIGS. 7 and 8, the read addresses are set to point to the first command block slot, which has been loaded with a command block by the host processor 16. The E/A execution unit 32 and the PK engine execution unit 34 may read the command blocks loaded in the E/A command queue 44 and the PK command queue 46, respectively, with only minimal interaction with the host processor 16, e.g., maintenance of the read pointers 92 and 112, and the write pointers 94, and 114. In general, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may continue to execute commands located in a circular command queue in system memory until the read address equals the write address for that command queue.

[0047] In accordance with further embodiments of the present invention, interaction between the host processor 16 and the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may be further reduced and overall system performance improved by including load and store commands in the cryptographic accelerator processor's command set. Referring now to FIG. 10, a load command loads one or more operands from the system memory 22 (e.g., the data buffer(s) 47) to the local memory 36 at block 142. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 then performs one or more operations on the operand(s) at block 144 to generate a result that is stored in the local memory 36. A store command then stores the result in the system memory 22 at block 146. Advantageously, the host processor 16 need not consume processing time downloading operands to the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 and/or uploading results from the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 into the system memory 22.

[0048] To improve utilization of the chip area used to implement the cryptographic accelerator processor 14, at least a portion of the operands downloaded from the system memory 22 may be stored in the local memory 36. Instead of using a register number to identify the location of operands and results, an offset is used that identifies the relative position of the operands and results in the local memory 36. For example, to perform the operation “a+b=c,” a cryptographic accelerator processor 14 instruction may indicate that “a” is at offset 0 relative to a base address of the local memory 36, “b” is at offset 8 relative to the base address of the local memory 36, and the result “c” should be placed at offset 122 relative to the base address of the local memory 36. In accordance with further embodiments of the present invention, the result generated in the local memory 36 may also be stored in a result field of a command block, which is located in one of the command queues 44 and 46 in the system memory 22. Advantageously, operands and results may be packed together into the local memory 36, which may conserve storage space. Because there is no wasted space in storing the operands and results in the local memory 36, memory utilization may be improved. If the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 needs to be redesigned to handle larger operands, then the local memory 36 may be easier to resize than resizing several registers.

[0049] In accordance with further embodiments of the present invention, interaction between the host processor 16 and the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may be further reduced and overall system performance improved by allowing the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 to inform the host processor 16 when command blocks have been executed. Referring now to FIG. 11, the host processor 16 loads a command block into one of the command queues 44 and 46 at block 152. As shown in FIG. 12A, the command block may include an interrupt field, which may be set by the host processor 16 to turn an interrupt request on or off. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 downloads the command block from one of the command queues 44 and 46 and executes the command block at block 154. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may optionally store error information in the command block as shown in FIG. 12B at block 156. The error information may comprise information that is associated with downloading the command block to the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 and/or executing the command block on the cryptographic accelerator processor 14. At block 158, if an interrupt has been requested in the interrupt field of the command block, then the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 invokes an interrupt to notify the host processor 16 that the command block has completed.

[0050] In other embodiments of the present invention, instead of invoking an interrupt to notify the host processor 16 that a command block has been executed, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may update a completion field in the command block as shown in FIG. 12C. In addition, a periodic interrupt may be defined that upon each occurrence triggers the host processor 16 to check one or more of the command queues 44 and 46 to determine whether any of the command blocks stored therein have been executed by examining their completion fields. In still other embodiments of the present invention, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may store the results from executing a command block in the command block as shown in FIG. 12D.

[0051] In still other embodiments of the present invention, the host processor 16 may set a timer when storing a command block into a command queue 42, 44. Upon expiration of the timer, the host processor 16 may check to determine whether the command block has been executed. Advantageously, the status of a command block may be determined by the host processor 16 without the need to process an interrupt from the cryptographic accelerator processor 14.

[0052] In accordance with further embodiments of the present invention, improved utilization of the system memory 22 may be attained by re-using at least a portion of a command block that contains input data to store a result or output that is generated by an adjunct processor, such as the cryptographic accelerator processor 14, upon executing the command block. It is assumed that the size of the result or output is small enough to fit into the portion of the command block containing the input data that is to be overwritten. In addition, the region of the command block in which the result or output is stored should be selected carefully to ensure that the input data that is overwritten is no longer needed by the host processor 16 after the command block has been executed by the adjunct processor.

[0053] Referring now to FIG. 13, exemplary operations begin at block 162 where the host processor loads a command block that includes input data into one of the command queues 44 or 46 in the system memory 22. Note that that instead of or in addition to including input data into the command block, the command block may include pointers to input data that reside, for example, in the data buffer(s) 47 in the system memory 22. An adjunct processor, such as the cryptographic accelerator processor 14, may download the command block and perform one or more operations on the input data to generate a result at block 164. If the command block includes pointers to input data, then the data are separately downloaded to the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 using the input data pointers. The result is then stored in the command block in the system memory 22 at block 166 such that at least a portion of the input data is overwritten. Advantageously, the memory reserved for the command block in the system memory 22 may be reduced because additional storage space need not be reserved to store the result of executing the command block either in the command block or elsewhere in the system memory 22.

[0054] The foregoing operations are illustrated by way of example in FIGS. 14A and 14B, which show an exemplary command block for decrypting an encrypted packet. Specifically, in FIG. 14A, a command block is shown that comprises a field that contains a hash key for the encrypted packet and another field that contains input information. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 downloads the command block of FIG. 14A and performs hash operations using the hash key and input information to generate a hash value. As shown in FIG. 14B, this hash value is then stored in the command block in the system memory 22 by overwriting the input information, which is no longer needed once the hash value has been computed. Note that the input information may be one or more pointers to input data stored, for example, in the data buffer(s) 47 in the system memory 22.

[0055] In accordance with further embodiments of the present invention illustrated in FIG. 15, the command block may include an input pointer field and/or an output pointer field, which are used to identify the location of the encrypted packet in the system memory 22 and the location where the decrypted packet is to be stored in the system memory 22. For example, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may use the input pointer to download the encrypted packet from the system memory 22 and may then decrypt the encrypted packet using the hash key and input information to generate a hash value as discussed hereinabove. Note that the input information may be one or more pointers to input data stored, for example, in the data buffer(s) 47 in the system memory 22. The hash value may be attached to the decrypted packet and the decrypted packet with the attached hash value may be stored in the system memory 22 at the address identified by the output pointer field in the command block.

[0056] Cryptographic processors and/or other types of signal processors and integrated circuits may use a hardware-based random number generator. The cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may include a RNG execution unit 28 that may be used to generate random numbers for use by other execution units of the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 and/or the host processor 16. Exemplary operations that may be used to reduce interaction between the host processor 16 and the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 and to improve overall system performance will be described hereafter. Referring now to FIG. 16, operations begin at block 172 where the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 loads a random number sample into the RN data queue 42 beginning at the write address stored in the write pointer field 74 of the RN data queue pointer register 68 (see FIG. 3). At block 174 the host processor 16 reads the random number sample in the RN data queue 42 beginning at the read address stored in the read pointer field 72 of the RN data queue pointer register 68 (see FIG. 3). Thus, according to embodiments of the present invention, the host processor 16 need not spend time interacting directly with the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 to request blocks of random data and/or reading random data from, for example, one or more registers on the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 chip.

[0057] Referring now to FIG. 17, operations for loading a random number sample into the RN data queue 42, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, will be described in more detail hereafter. Before writing a random number sample into the RN data queue 42, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 determines at block 182 whether the write address plus the random number sample size equals the read address stored in the read pointer field 72. If the result determined at block 182 is “Yes,” then the cryptographic processor 14 postpones loading a new random number sample into the RN data queue 42 until the host processor 16 has incremented the read address. If, however, the result determined at block 182 is “No,” then the cryptographic processor 14 loads a random number sample into the RN data queue 42 at block 184 at the write address stored in the write pointer field 74 and then increments the write address at block 186 by an amount corresponding to the size of the loaded random number sample.

[0058] Note that in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the cryptographic processor 14 may include a register and/or may recognize a command block that may be written to the cryptographic processor 14 that allows the host processor 16 to, for example, provide the cryptographic processor 14 with a random number seed and/or instruct the cryptographic processor 14 to begin generating random numbers.

[0059] The foregoing operations are illustrated, for example, in FIG. 18, which shows an exemplary embodiment of the RN data queue 42. As shown in FIG. 18, the RN data queue 42 is configured to hold 512 random number samples, which each comprise 64 bits. The cryptographic processor 14 has written four random number samples into addresses 1 through 4 and the write address has been incremented to point to the next available address, which is empty or contains data that have already been read by the host processor 16. The addresses shown in FIG. 18 are based on random number sample units for purposes of illustration. These addresses may be converted into absolute addresses by multiplying the random number sample number by 64 and adding the resulting product to the respective base address for the RN data queue 42, which is stored in the RN data queue base address register 64. Note that the test used at block 182 of FIG. 17 to determine whether a new random number sample may be loaded into the RN data queue 42 implies that if the RN data queue 42 may hold up to m random number samples, then only m−1 random number samples may be stored in the RN data queue 42 at the same time. Thus, if the RN data queue 42 is filled to its capacity, then it may hold 32,704 bits (511, 64-bit random number samples), which exceeds the 20,000 bits required by the Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) 140-1, Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules issued Jan. 11, 1994.

[0060] Referring now to FIG. 19, operations for reading a command block that has been loaded into the RN data queue 42, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, will be described in more detail hereafter. At block 192, the host processor 16 determines whether the write address is equal to the read address. If the result determined at block 192 is “Yes,” then the host processor 16 waits until the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 loads a new random number sample into the RN data queue 42. If, however, the result determined at block 192 is “No,” then the host processor 16 reads the random number sample at the read address stored in the read pointer field 72 at block 194. The host processor 16 then increments the read address at block 196 by an amount corresponding to the size of the random number sample. The host processor 16 need not check the current write address every time a new random number sample is read. Instead, the host processor 16 may check the write address when the read address is getting close to the last value the host processor 16 has for the write address.

[0061] Thus, according to embodiments of the present invention, a cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may provide random number samples for use by a host processor 16 with reduced interaction between the host processor 16 and the cryptographic accelerator processor 14. In general, the host processor 14 need only interact with the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 to update the read address and to check the value of the write address when the read address approaches the last value the host processor 14 has for the write address. In addition, the cryptographic accelerator processor 14 may manage the buffering of the random number samples, which may conserve processor cycles of the host processor 16 and may reduce transactions on the system bus 26, which may improve overall system performance.

[0062] The performance of cryptographic data processing systems may be affected by the system architecture and the methodology used to perform operations. For example, conventional cryptographic data processing systems may comprise one or more ASICs, such as the ASIC 202 shown in FIG. 20. The ASIC 202 comprises a plurality of functional units 204, 206, and 208, which are configured to perform specific operations. As shown in FIG. 20, however, input commands are provided to the ASIC 202 serially and then routed to the appropriate functional unit 204, 206, and/or 208. The outputs and/or results of executing the input commands are provided serially as command outputs from the ASIC 202. Thus, the ASIC 202 typically processes commands sequentially such that a first command must finish before a subsequent command may be processed even if the commands are executed by different functional units.

[0063] Referring now to FIG. 21, the performance of cryptographic data processing systems may be improved, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, by providing separate command interfaces that are respectively associated with the functional units such that each functional unit may receive command inputs and may generate command outputs and/or results independently of other functional units. As shown in FIG. 21, an ASIC 212 includes a plurality of functional units 214, 216, and 218, which each receive command inputs through its own command interface and generate outputs and/or results that may be communicated to another processor through the command interface. By associating a separate command interface with each functional unit 214, 216, and 218, the functional units 214, 216, and 218 may operate independently and in parallel, thereby improving the performance of a cryptographic data processing system.

[0064] Referring now to FIG. 22, the functional units 214, 216, and 218 may comprise the E/A execution unit 32, the RNG execution unit 28, and the PK engine execution unit 34. The E/A execution unit 32 comprises a command interface manager 222, the RNG execution unit 28 comprises a command interface manager 224, and the PK engine execution unit 34 comprises a command interface manager 226. These respective command interface managers 222, 224, and 226 may be used to receive input command blocks from the E/A command queue 44, to transmit random number samples to the RN data queue 42, and to receive input command blocks from the PK command queue 46, respectively, and to allow the respective execution units 28, 32, and 34 to perform operations in parallel.

[0065] Referring now to FIG. 23, operations of cryptographic data processing systems in which command interface managers are respectively associated with a plurality of functional units, in accordance with embodiments of the present invention, will be described hereafter. Operations begin at block 232 where one or more command blocks are provided to each of the functional units, such as, for example, by providing command blocks in the E/A command queue 44 and the PK command queue 46 for the E/A execution unit 32 and the PK engine execution unit 34, respectively. At block 234, the command blocks are simultaneously executed by the functional units by accessing the command blocks in parallel through, for example, the command interface manager 222 and the command interface manager 226, which are associated with the E/A execution unit 32 and the PK engine execution unit 34, respectively.

[0066] Note that command blocks may be provided to the cryptographic processor 14 in serial fashion over the system bus 24. Nevertheless, the cryptographic processor 14 may distribute command blocks to the command interface managers 222, 224, and 226 associated with the execution units 32, 28, and 34, which may then process the command blocks in parallel.

[0067] For purposes of illustration, exemplary embodiments of the present invention have been discussed hereinabove in which operations related to random number generation, encryption/authentication, and public key generation are performed in parallel based on functional units defined therefor. It will be understood that the operations that may be performed in parallel may be adjusted based on requirements and/or needs. Moreover, commands may be provided to the command interface managers in a variety of ways. A processor may write commands directly to the command interface managers or, alternatively, commands may be stored in a memory and the command interface managers may be provided with the addresses where they may retrieve the stored commands for execution.

[0068] In summary, by performing operations in parallel using a plurality of functional units, the total number of operations that may be performed may be increased and the average latency for completing operations may be reduced.

[0069] The flowcharts of FIGS. 2, 6, 9-11, 13, 16, 17, 19, and 23 illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operations of possible embodiments of the cryptographic data processing system 12 of FIG. 1. In this regard, each block may represent a module, segment, or portion of code, which comprises one or more executable instructions for implementing the specified logical function(s). It should also be noted that in some alternative embodiments, the functions noted in the blocks may occur out of the order noted in FIGS. 2, 6, 9-11, 13, 16, 17, 19, and 23. For example, two blocks shown in succession may in fact be executed substantially concurrently or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending on the functionality involved.

[0070] In concluding the detailed description, it should be noted that many variations and modifications can be made to the preferred embodiments without substantially departing from the principles of the present invention. All such variations and modifications are intended to be included herein within the scope of the present invention, as set forth in the following claims.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7191341Jan 23, 2003Mar 13, 2007Broadcom CorporationMethods and apparatus for ordering data in a cryptography accelerator
US7240203 *Dec 19, 2001Jul 3, 2007Cavium Networks, Inc.Method and apparatus for establishing secure sessions
US7260217 *Mar 6, 2002Aug 21, 2007Cavium Networks, Inc.Speculative execution for data ciphering operations
US7305567Sep 4, 2002Dec 4, 2007Cavium Networks, In.Decoupled architecture for data ciphering operations
US7434043 *Jan 23, 2003Oct 7, 2008Broadcom CorporationCryptography accelerator data routing unit
US7568110 *Jan 23, 2003Jul 28, 2009Broadcom CorporationCryptography accelerator interface decoupling from cryptography processing cores
US7600131Jul 6, 2000Oct 6, 2009Broadcom CorporationDistributed processing in a cryptography acceleration chip
US7996670Jul 6, 2000Aug 9, 2011Broadcom CorporationClassification engine in a cryptography acceleration chip
US8135960 *Oct 9, 2008Mar 13, 2012International Business Machines CorporationMultiprocessor electronic circuit including a plurality of processors and electronic data processing system
US8295484Dec 9, 2005Oct 23, 2012Broadcom CorporationSystem and method for securing data from a remote input device
CN100385366CMay 11, 2005Apr 30, 2008国际商业机器公司Method for reducing encrypt latency impact on standard traffic and system thereof
WO2009090541A2 *Jan 15, 2009Jul 23, 2009Nokia CorpCo-processor for stream data processing
Classifications
U.S. Classification713/190, 712/E09.067
International ClassificationG06F1/00, G06F7/72, G06F9/38, G06F21/00
Cooperative ClassificationG06F9/3879, G06F7/728, G06F21/123, G06F21/72
European ClassificationG06F9/38S1, G06F21/72, G06F21/12A2, G06F7/72M
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 10, 2006ASAssignment
Owner name: NBMK ENCRYPTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC., NORTH CAROLINA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CYBERGUARD CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:017596/0264
Effective date: 20060421
Mar 19, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: CYBERGUARD CORPORATION, FLORIDA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NETOCTAVE, INC.;REEL/FRAME:013495/0063
Effective date: 20030304
Sep 27, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: NETOCTAVE, INC., NORTH CAROLINA
Free format text: TERMINATION OF SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTERSOUTH PARTNERS V, L.P. AS AGENT FOR THE SECURED PARTIES PURSUANT TO THE TERMINATION OF SECURITY INTEREST;REEL/FRAME:013335/0175
Effective date: 20020927
Sep 3, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: INTERSOUTH PARTNERS V, L.P. AS AGENT FOR THE SUCUR
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NETOCTAVE, INC.;REEL/FRAME:013268/0282
Effective date: 20020827
May 10, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: NETOCTAVE, INC., NORTH CAROLINA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CELOTEK CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:011816/0138
Effective date: 20000809
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BLAKER, DAVID M.;SAVARDA, RAYMOND;HANNA, MICHAEL;REEL/FRAME:011816/0114;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010504 TO 20010508