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Publication numberUS20020012709 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/756,452
Publication dateJan 31, 2002
Filing dateJan 8, 2001
Priority dateJan 7, 2000
Also published asCA2396093A1, CA2396093C, CN1254191C, CN1575133A, US6383529, US7425343, US7501137, US20030091668, US20040120987, US20060062828, WO2001050881A2, WO2001050881A3
Publication number09756452, 756452, US 2002/0012709 A1, US 2002/012709 A1, US 20020012709 A1, US 20020012709A1, US 2002012709 A1, US 2002012709A1, US-A1-20020012709, US-A1-2002012709, US2002/0012709A1, US2002/012709A1, US20020012709 A1, US20020012709A1, US2002012709 A1, US2002012709A1
InventorsGary Davenport, Gregory Sunvold, Gregory Reinhart, Michael Hayek
Original AssigneeDavenport Gary Mitchell, Sunvold Gregory D., Reinhart Gregory A., Hayek Michael Griffin
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process and composition for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation
US 20020012709 A1
Abstract
A process and composition for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in animals such as cats and rabbits is provided and includes feeding the animal a composition comprising from about 10 to about 42 wt % crude protein, from about 4 to about 30 wt % fat, from about 1 to about 25 wt % total dietary fiber, and a supplemental fiber source. The supplemental fiber source is present in amounts which provide from about 1 to about 13 weight percent of supplemental total dietary fiber. The animal is maintained on the diet for a sufficient period of time to control fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation.
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Claims(22)
What is claimed is:
1. A composition for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in an animal comprising from about 10 to about 42 wt % crude protein, from about 4 to about 30 wt % fat, from about 1 to about 25 wt % total dietary fiber, and a supplemental fiber source.
2. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source is present in an amount which provides from about 1 to about 13 weight percent of supplemental total dietary fiber.
3. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source is present in an amount which provides from about 6 to about 12 weight percent of supplemental total dietary fiber.
4. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source is present in an amount which provides from about 10 to about 12 weight percent of supplemental total dietary fiber.
5. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source is selected from the group consisting of at least one fermentable fiber; a blend of at least two fermentable fibers; a blend of at least one fermentable fiber and a cellulose ether; a blend of at least one fermentable fiber, a cellulose ether, and mineral oil; and a blend of at least one fermentable fiber and at least one non-fermentable fiber.
6. The composition of claim 5 wherein said fermentable fiber(s) are selected from the group consisting of beet pulp, gum arabic, fructooligosaccharides, and blends thereof.
7. The composition of claim 5 wherein said fermentable fibers have an organic matter disappearance of at least 20 percent.
8. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp and carboxymethylcellulose.
9. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp, carboxymethylcellulose, and mineral oil.
10. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp and cellulose.
11. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp, about 2.0 wt % gum arabic, and about 1.5 wt % fructo-oligosaccharides.
12. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp and about 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose.
13. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp and about 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose, and about 2 wt % mineral oil.
14. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp and about 6.5 wt % cellulose.
15. The composition of claim 1 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises about 12 wt % beet pulp.
16. A process for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in an animal comprising feeding said animal a composition comprising from about 10 to about 42 wt % crude protein, from about 4 to about 30 wt % fat, from about 1 to about 25 wt % total dietary fiber, and a supplemental fiber source.
17. The process of claim 16 wherein said supplemental fiber source is present in an amount which provides from about 1 to about 13 weight percent of supplemental total dietary fiber.
18. The process of claim 16 wherein said supplemental fiber source is selected from the group consisting of at least one fermentable fiber; a blend of at least two fermentable fibers; a blend of at least one fermentable fiber and a cellulose ether; a blend of at least one fermentable fiber, a cellulose ether, and mineral oil; and a blend of at least one fermentable fiber and at least one non-fermentable fiber.
19. The composition of claim 18 wherein said fermentable fiber(s) are selected from the group consisting of beet pulp, gum arabic, fructooligosaccharides, and blends thereof.
20. The process of claim 16 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp and carboxymethylcellulose.
21. The process of claim 16 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp, carboxymethylcellulose, and mineral oil.
22. The process of claim 16 wherein said supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp and cellulose.
Description
    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of U.S. provisional application Ser. No. 60/175,095, filed Jan. 7, 2000.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates to a process and composition for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in animals such as cats and rabbits which are prone to hairball formation.
  • [0003]
    Animals that constantly groom themselves, such as cats and rabbits, regularly ingest large quantities of hair. Normally, the ingested hair passes through the gastrointestinal tract of the animal and is excreted in the feces. However, the ingestion of large quantities of hair may cause the hair to accumulate in the stomach and form a hairball or trichobezoar. A hairball is typically composed of hair, mucous, water, food particles and mineral salts. A hairball can be harmful to the animal if it impedes the normal digestive process by blocking the pylorus and preventing the passage of digesta down the gastrointestinal tract. More frequently, hairballs are nothing more than a nuisance to the animal and its owner. For example, the cat will attempt to eliminate the hairball from the stomach through the vomiting reflex. A hairball may produce constipation and defecation difficulties if it passes from the stomach and becomes lodged in the lower bowel.
  • [0004]
    Hairballs have been historically treated using petrolatum jelly, mineral oil and other laxatives contained in various forms as dietary treats and(or) supplements. The effectiveness of these laxative type compounds on hairball control has been variable at best. An alternate strategy that has been attempted to control the formation and occurrence of hairballs involves the use of diets or dietary supplements which include high levels of indigestible (insoluble) fiber such as cellulose to increase the passage of hair through the gastrointestinal tract and into the feces without causing blockage or constipation. However, such diets may decrease stool quality, cause diarrhea, and otherwise do not promote gastrointestinal health.
  • [0005]
    Although fiber is not required in the diet of animals, research has shown that moderate amounts of fermentable fibers in the diet help to maintain gastrointestinal tract health. Depending upon the specific composition and physical properties, dietary fiber generally increases water-holding capacity, controls gastric emptying, increases intestinal transit time, and maintains the structural integrity of the intestinal mucosa. However, large amounts of highly fermentable fiber sources generally decrease dry matter, protein and lipid digestibility, and may produce diarrhea-like feces, especially when fed to cats. See, Sunvold G. D. et al, “Dietary fiber for cats: In vitro fermentation of selected fiber sources by cat fecal inoculum and in vivo utilization of diets containing selected fiber sources and their blends,” J. Anim. Sci. (1995)73:2329-2339. Other possible side effects, such as constipation, excessive stool output, decreased nutrient digestibility, and inferior haircoat appearance, have also been observed in cats fed large amounts of insoluble fiber sources.
  • [0006]
    Studies utilizing moderately fermentable (digestible) fiber sources, such as beet pulp, fructooligosaccharides (FOS), citrus pulp, and gum arabic, have been shown to increase short-chain fatty acid production, colonic cell proliferation, skin and coat quality, and stool consistency. See, Sunvold G. D. et al, supra; Drackley J. K. et al, “Energetic substrates for intestinal cells,” In: Reinhart G. A. and Carey D. P., eds., Recent Advances In Canine and Feline Nutrition: Volume 2. 1998 Iams Nutrition Symposium Proceedings, Wilmington, Ohio: Orange Frazer Press, (1998) 463-472.; and Kelley, R. et al, “Effect of beet pulp on nutrient digestibility in the feline,” J. Anim. Sci. (1998) 76 (Suppl 1):174. However, the effects of moderately fermentable fiber sources on hairball formation and fecal hair excretion have not been studied.
  • [0007]
    Accordingly, there exists a need in the art for a process and composition for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in animals such as cats and rabbits which is effective and does not have the drawbacks of the prior art.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0008]
    The present invention meets that need by providing a process and composition for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in animals such as cats and rabbits which is effective, which promotes gastrointestinal health, and which does not cause other gastrointestinal problems in the animal. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a process for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in an animal is provided and includes feeding the animal a composition comprising from about 10 to about 42 wt % crude protein, from about 4 to about 30 wt % fat, from about 1 to about 25 wt % total dietary fiber, and a supplemental fiber source.
  • [0009]
    The supplemental fiber source is preferably selected from the group consisting of at least one fermentable fiber; a blend of at least two fermentable fibers; a blend of at least one fermentable fiber and a cellulose ether; a blend of at least one fermentable fiber, a cellulose ether, and mineral oil; and a blend of at least one fermentable fiber and at least one non-fermentable fiber. The supplemental fiber source is preferably present in an amount which provides from about 1 to about 13 weight percent of supplemental total dietary fiber, more preferably, from about 6 to about 12 weight percent, and most preferably, from about 10 to about 12 weight percent.
  • [0010]
    By “fermentable fiber” we mean fiber sources which have an organic matter disappearance of between about 15 to about 100 percent when fermented by fecal bacteria for a 24 hour period. Preferably, the fermentable fibers used in the composition of the present invention have an organic matter disappearance of at least 20 percent. The fermentable fibers are preferably selected from the group consisting of beet pulp, gum arabic, fructooligosaccharides, and blends thereof.
  • [0011]
    By “non-fermentable fiber” we mean fiber sources which have an organic matter disappearance of less than about 15 percent when fermented by fecal bacteria for a 24 hour period.
  • [0012]
    In one embodiment of the invention, the supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp and carboxymethylcellulose. In another embodiment, the supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp, carboxymethylcellulose, and mineral oil. In yet another embodiment, the supplemental fiber source comprises a blend of beet pulp and cellulose.
  • [0013]
    In another embodiment of the invention, the supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp, about 2.0 wt % gum arabic, and about 1.5 wt % fructo-oligosaccharides. In another embodiment, the supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp and about 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose. In another embodiment, the supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp, about 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose, and about 2 wt % mineral oil. In another embodiment, the supplemental fiber source comprises about 6 wt % beet pulp, and about 6.5 wt % cellulose. In another embodiment, the supplemental fiber source comprises about 12 wt % beet pulp.
  • [0014]
    The animal is maintained on the diet for a sufficient period of time to control fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation.
  • [0015]
    Accordingly, it is a feature of the present invention to provide a process and composition for controlling fecal hair excretion and trichobezoar formation in animals such as cats and rabbits which is effective, which promotes gastrointestinal health, and which does not cause other gastrointestinal problems in the animal. This, and other features and advantages of the present invention, will become apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying claims.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0016]
    The present invention provides a composition which, when fed to an animal such as a cat or rabbit which is prone to hairball formation, effectively controls the formation of hairballs and fecal hair excretion, while at the same time promotes gastrointestinal health in the animal. The present invention provides an improvement over prior treatments for hairballs such as the use of pineapple juice, hay, petrolatum, and mineral oil which function by either dissolving some of the protein in the hairball or by moving hair through the intestine. The present invention not only provides an effective method for the removal of hairballs from an animal's gastrointestinal tract, but also promotes gastrointestinal health by including blends of fermentable fibers capable of producing short chain fatty acids which promote epithelial cell health and modulate the bacterial population in the intestine.
  • [0017]
    The fermentable fibers used in the practice of the present invention display certain organic matter disappearance percentages. The fermentable fibers will have an organic matter disappearance (OMD) of from about 15 to about 100 percent when fermented by fecal bacteria in vitro for a 24 hour period. That is, from about 15 to about 100 percent of the total organic matter originally present is fermented and converted by the fecal bacteria. The organic matter disappearance of the fibers is preferably at least 20 percent, and most preferably is at least 30 percent.
  • [0018]
    Thus, in vitro OMD percentage may be calculated as follows:
  • {1-[(OM residue−OM blank)/OM initial]}100,
  • [0019]
    where OM residue is the organic matter recovered after 24 hours of fermentation, OM blank is the organic matter recovered in corresponding blank tubes (i.e., tubes containing medium and diluted feces, but no substrate), and OM initial is that organic matter placed into the tube prior to fermentation. Additional details of the procedure are found in Sunvold et al, J. Anim. Sci. 1995, vol. 73:1099-1109.
  • [0020]
    Fermentable fibers which are useful in the present invention produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) within a range of from about 28 to about 85 mmol SCFA per 1000 Calories (kcals) of metabolizable energy (ME), and more preferably within a range of from about 42 to about 71 mmol SCFA per 1000 ME kcals. This equates to a composition which has a total fermentable fiber content which yields from about 100 to about 350 mmol SCFA/kg of diet.
  • [0021]
    Millimoles of SCFAs per 1000 metabolizable energy kilocalories are calculated by first calculating the total calories of metabolizable energy (ME) in a given diet composition per kilogram of the composition. The number of grams per 1000 kcal ME may be derived from the first calculation. Then the grams, and thus millimoles, of the fermentable fiber components of the composition may be calculated.
  • [0022]
    The fermentable fibers may be any fiber source which intestinal bacteria present in the animal can ferment to produce significant quantities of SCFAs. “Significant quantities” of SCFAs, for purposes of this invention, are amounts over 0.5 mmol of total SCFAs/gram of substrate in a 24 hour period. Preferred fibers include beet pulp, gum arabic, gum talha, rice bran, carob bean gum, citrus pulp, citrus pectin, fructooligosaccharides, mannanoligosaccharides and mixtures and blends of these fibers.
  • [0023]
    The fermentable fibers may also be blended with other non-digestible fiber sources such as cellulose and cellulose ethers, or with laxatives such as petrolatum jelly or mineral oil. In a preferred embodiment, the fermentable fibers are selected from the group consisting of beet pulp, gum arabic, fructooligosaccharides, and blends thereof.
  • [0024]
    Preferably, the blend of at least one fermentable fiber and a cellulose ether includes beet pulp and carboxymethylcellulose. Preferably, the blend of at least one fermentable fiber, a cellulose ether, and mineral oil includes beet pulp, carboxymethylcellulose, and mineral oil. Preferably, the blend of at least one fermentable fiber and at least one non-fermentable fiber includes beet pulp and cellulose.
  • [0025]
    Most preferably, the supplemental fiber source is selected from the group consisting of 6 wt % beet pulp, 2.0 wt % gum arabic, and 1.5 wt % fructooligosaccharides; 6 wt % beet pulp and 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose; 6 wt % beet pulp, 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose, and 2 wt % mineral oil; 6 wt % beet pulp and 6.5 wt % cellulose; and 12 wt % beet pulp.
  • [0026]
    The fermentable fibers are used in the pet food composition in amounts which provide from about 1 to about 13 weight percent of supplemental total dietary fiber, preferably from about 6 to about 12 weight percent, and most preferably from about 10 to about 12 weight percent.
  • [0027]
    A definition of “supplemental total dietary fiber” first requires an explanation of “total dietary fiber”. “Total dietary fiber” is defined as the residue of plant food which is resistant to hydrolysis by animal digestive enzymes. The main components of total dietary fiber are cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin and gums (as opposed to “crude fiber”, which only contains some forms of cellulose and lignin). “Supplemental total dietary fiber” is that dietary fiber which is added to a food product above and beyond any dietary fiber naturally present in other components of the food product. Also, a “fiber source” is considered such when it consists predominantly of fiber.
  • [0028]
    The animal is preferably fed a diet comprising from about 10 to about 42 wt % crude protein, from about 4 to about 30 wt % fat, from about 1 to about 25 wt % total dietary fiber, with from about 1 to about 13 wt % of supplemental total dietary fiber as described above. Other vitamins, minerals, and nutrients may also be present.
  • [0029]
    The use of fermentable fiber sources has proved to be beneficial for controlling hairballs by increasing the gastric and intestinal passage of ingested hair and their subsequent excretion in the feces of the animal. While not wishing to be bound by any particular theory, it is believed that the increased passage rate and fecal excretion reduce the opportunity for hair to collect in the gastrointestinal tract of the animal and form a hairball. Thus, it is believed that a viscous fiber source, such as a fermentable fiber alone or blended with other fibers, traps or binds the ingested hair to food particulate matter. The increased fiber level increases gastric emptying, allowing the hair to pass out through the feces of the animal more frequently. This increased passage frequency is believed to decrease the accumulation of hair in the stomach and the chronic formation of hairballs. An additional benefit of a supplemental fermentable fiber source is the enhancement of overall digestion by ensuring adequate time for digestion, thus preventing any nutritional deficiencies. In contrast, the use of insoluble fiber as the sole fiber source in feline diets may cause detrimental effects on nutrient digestibility and stool quality and may negatively impact skin and coat condition when fed for an extended period of time.
  • [0030]
    In order that the invention may be more readily understood, reference is made to the following examples, which are intended to be illustrative of the invention, but are not intended to be limiting in scope.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • [0031]
    A number of dietary compositions were tested for their effect on fecal hair excretion and prevention of the formation of hairballs in the gastrointestinal tract. The potential efficacy of dietary fiber sources for controlling hairball formation was evaluated by assessing the degree of fecal hair excretion and hair shedding. The fiber sources were evaluated by incorporating them into various dietary matrices containing chicken, poultry meal, ground corn, grain sorghum, egg, fishmeal, poultry fat, vitamins and minerals. The fiber sources and(or) blends that were evaluated were: (1) 6 wt % beet pulp, 2.0 wt % gum arabic, and 1.5 wt % fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS); (2) 6 wt % beet pulp and 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose; (3) 6 wt % beet pulp, 1.5 wt % carboxymethylcellulose, and 2 wt % mineral oil; (4) 6 wt % beet pulp and 6.5% cellulose; and (5) 12% beet pulp. Control diets that were used for comparative purposes included: a dietary matrix with 13 wt % cellulose added as the fiber source and a commercially available cat food formulation containing approximately 4 wt % beet pulp.
  • [0032]
    These five experimental diets and two control diets were evaluated by feeding to 80 cats during a 10-week feeding study. The study was comprised of a 6-week baseline period and a 4-week experimental period. During the baseline period, all cats were fed the commercially available cat food formulation to establish baseline shedding and fecal hair excretion rates for the individual cats. These results were used to allot the cats to the eight diets to standardize hair shedding and fecal hair excretion across the eight diets. Criteria used to assess efficacy of the various fiber sources and(or) blends were based on subjective stool scores (score of 4.0 being ideal), shedding index, wet feces, fecal moisture content, dry feces, and daily fecal hair excretion.
  • [0033]
    Fecal excreta was collected from each cat on a weekly basis during the experimental period to assess fecal hair content. The composited weekly sample for each cat was freeze-dried and ground before the hair component was quantitatively separated using a series of screens and mechanical tapping. A shedding index was assigned for each cat by collecting and weighing hair produced when a standardized brushing protocol was followed.
  • [0034]
    Test results are reported in Tables 1 through 6 below. As can be seen from Table 2, cats consuming Diet #3 exhibited significantly reduced shedding by the fourth week.
    TABLE 1
    Subjective stool scores
    Diet Fiber source Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
    1 6% Beet pulp, 4.22 4.03 3.97 4.10 3.86
    2% gum arabic
    1.5% FOS
    2 6% Beet pulp, 3.89 3.75 3.62 3.49 3.67
    1.5% carboxy-
    methylcellulose
    3 6% Beet pulp, 4.34 4.14 4.27 4.21 4.13
    1.5% carboxy-
    methylcellulose
    2% mineral oil
    4 6% Beet pulp, 4.43 4.59 4.57 4.57 4.64
    6.5% cellulose
    5 12% Beet pulp 4.34 4.49 4.48 4.48 4.60
    6 13% Cellulose 4.31 4.57 4.55 4.59 4.55
    7 Commercial 4.34 3.90 4.02 4.09 4.21
    Cat Food
    Formulation
  • [0035]
    [0035]
    TABLE 2
    Shedding index (grams hair collected following brushing)
    Diet Fiber source Baseline Week 4 Time Effect (P<)
    1 6% Beet pulp, .56 .41
    2% gum arabic,
    1.5% FOS
    2 6% Beet pulp, .44 .42
    1.5% carboxy-
    methylcellulose
    3 6% Beet pulp, .53x .25y .05
    1.5% carboxy-
    methylcellulose,
    2% mineral oil
    4 6% Beet pulp, .39 .28
    6.5% cellulose
    5 12% Beet pulp .58 .46
    6 13% Cellulose .40 .36
    7 Commercial .31 .27
    Cat Food
    Formulation
    Diet Effect NS
    (P<)
  • [0036]
    [0036]
    TABLE 3
    Week 1
    Wet feces Baseline Days Days Week 2
    (grams/day) g/d diet time 1-3 diet time 4-7 diet time g/d diet time
    Beet Pulp (6%) + gum 31.62 28.97 ab 40.06 ab 42.76
    arabic (2%) + FOS
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 32.12 x 53.55 c y 46.31 b y 42.78 x
    carboxymethylcell\ulose
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 31.47 40.26 b 31.73 ab 33.39
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%) + mineral oil
    (2%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 39.03 39.79 ab 41.87 ab 42.23
    cellulose (6.5%)
    Beet pulp (12%) 34.16 x 56.07 c y 41.44 ab x 41.67 x
    Cellulose (13%) 35.03 28.23 a 38.50 ab 35.83
    Commercial Cat Food 32.41 38.65 ab 36.32 ab 34.28
    Formulation
    Diet (P<) NS 0.10 0.05 NS
    Wet feces Week 3 Week 4 Time
    (grams/day) g/d diet time g/d diet time (p<)
    Beet Pulp (6%) + gum 40.03 ab 41.4 ab NS
    arabic (2%) + FOS 0
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 46.88 b y 43.2 ab 0.05
    carboxymethylcell\ulose 9
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 37.97 ab 42.1 ab NS
    carboxymethylcellulose 1
    (1.5%) + mineral oil
    (2%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 41.94 ab 48.0 a NS
    cellulose (6.5%) 1
    Beet pulp (12%) 43.35 ab xy 44.4 ab 0.05
    2
    Cellulose (13%) 36.55 ab 37.9 ab NS
    6
    Commercial Cat Food 34.40 a 35.9 ab NS
    Formulation 1
    Diet (P<) 0.10 0.05
  • [0037]
    [0037]
    TABLE 4
    Week 1
    Fecal moisture Baseline Days Days Week 2
    content (%) % diet time 1-3 diet time 4-7 diet time % diet time
    Beet Pulp (6%) + gum 61.9 x 66.2 bc xy 67 9 c y 68.3 bc y
    arabic (2%) + FOS
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 61.7 x 69.2 c y 70.6 c y 69.3 c y
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 61.0 61.9 b 63.4 bc 62.4 b
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%) + mineral oil
    (2%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 60.1 62.0 b 60.2 b 63.1 b
    cellulose (6.5%)
    Beet pulp (12%) 62.4 x 68.0 bc xy 69.5 c y 69.5 c y
    Cellulose (13%) 62.8 x 52.7 a y  53.80 a y 51.7 a y
    Commercial Cat Food 61.1 x 66.7 bc xy 67.4 c y 66.0 bc xy
    Formulation
    Diet (P<) NS 0.10 0.10 0.10
    Fecal moisture Week 3 Week 4 Time
    content (%) % diet time % diet time (p<)
    Beet Pulp (6%) + gum 67.83 b y 67.1 bc 0.10
    arabic (2%) + FOS
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 68.44 b y 68.6 c 0.10
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 65.53 b 65.2 bc NS
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%) + mineral oil
    (2%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 62.81 b 62.0 b NS
    cellulose (6.5%)
    Beet pulp (12%) 68.45 b y 68.2 c 0.10
    Cellulose (13%) 52.76 a y 51.0 a 0.01
    Commercial Cat Food 61.96 b 66.0 bc 0.10
    Formulation
    Diet (P<) 0.05 0.10
  • [0038]
    [0038]
    TABLE 5
    Week 1
    Baseline Days Days Week 2
    Dry feces (grams/day) g/d diet time 1-3 diet time 4-7 diet time g/d diet time
    Beet Pulp (6%) + gum arabic 10.72 ab 9.50 a 12.43 ab 12.99 ab
    (2%) + FOS (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 10.38 ab x 15.54 bc y 13.03 ab y 12.17 ab x
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 11.19 ab x 14.49 bc y 10.92 a x 11.09 a x
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%) + mineral oil (2%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + Cellulose 13.51 a 13.82 bc 15.24 b 15.08 bc
    (6.5%)
    Beet pulp (12%) 11.33 ab x 16.33 c y 12.27 ab x 12.13 ab x
    Cellulose (13%) 11.46 ab x 12.72 b x 16.88 c y 16.95 c y
    Commercial Cat Food 11.13 ab 12.22 ab 11.50 ab 11.15 a
    Formulation
    Diet (P<) 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.05
    Week 3 Week 4 Time
    Dry feces (grams/day) g/d diet time g/d diet time (p<)
    Beet Pulp (6%) + gum arabic 12.32 a 12.85 bc NS
    (2%) + FOS (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 13.94 b y 12.65 bc 0.10
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 12.71 a xy 13.69 bc 0.10
    carboxymethylcellulose
    (1.5%) + mineral oil (2%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + Cellulose 14.76 b 17.34 a NS
    (6.5%)
    Beet pulp (12%) 13.39 a xy 13.29 bc 0.05
    Cellulose (13%) 16.42 b y 17.55 a 0.05
    Commercial Cat Food 8.30 11.72 c NS
    Formulation
    Diet (P<) 0.10 0.10
  • [0039]
    [0039]
    TABLE 6
    Daily fecal hair excretion
    (separated hair fraction subjected Baseline Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Overall Mean Time
    to modified crude g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet diet (p<)
    Beet Pulp (6%) + 0.097 x 0.126 c x 0.216 b y 0.082 c x 0.141 cd de 0.10
    gum arabic (2%) +
    FOS (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 0.142 0.177 c 0.207 b 0.154 bc 0.180 bcd cd NS
    carboxymethylcellulose (1.5%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + 0.088 x 0.313 ab y 0.237 b y 0.186 ab y 0.245 b bc 0.05
    carboxymethylcellulose (1.5%) +
    mineral oil (2%)
    Beet pulp (6%) + cellulose (6.5%) 0.111 0.204 bc 0.170 bc 0.185 b 0.186 bc bcd NS
    Beet pulp (12%) 0.103 0.142 c 0.124 c 0.130 bc 0.132 cd de NS
    Cellulose (13%) 0.083 x 0.369 a y 0.433 a y 0.260 a y 0.353 a a 0.01
    Commercial Cat Food Formulation 0.097 0.105 c 0.095 c 0.105 bc 0.101 d e NS
    Diet (P<) NS 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.05 0.08
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • [0040]
    A second study was conducted using the same evaluation method as in Example 1 with regard to a fiber blend of 6% beet pulp and 6% cellulose incorporated in a dietary matrix containing chicken, poultry meal, ground corn, grain sorghum, egg, fishmeal, poultry fat, vitamins and minerals. A commercially available cat food formulation containing approximately 4% beet pulp was included for comparative purposes.
  • [0041]
    The results are shown in Tables 7 to 12 below.
    TABLE 7
    Subjective stool scores
    (1 = liquid, watery; 2 = liquid, gel; 3 = semi-formed; 4 = formed; 5 = hard, dry)
    Time
    Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Effect
    Diet Fiber source SS diet time SS diet time SS diet time SS diet time (P<)
    1 6% Beet pulp, 6% cellulose 3.95 x 3.90 x 4.35 y 4.03 xy 0.10
    2 Commercial Cat Food 4.17 3.99 4.04 4.10 NS
    Formulation
    Diet Effect (P<) NS NS NS NS
  • [0042]
    [0042]
    TABLE 8
    Shedding index (grams hair collected following brushing)
    Overall Mean
    Baseline (w/covariate)
    Diet Fiber source g diet g diet Time
    1 6% Beet pulp, 0.401 a 0.475 NS
    6% cellulose
    2 Commercial 0.283 b 0.461 NS
    Cat Food
    Formulation
    Diet Effect 0.01 NS
    (P<)
  • [0043]
    [0043]
    TABLE 9
    Wet feces Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Time
    (grams/day) g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time (p<)
    6% Beetpulp, 6% 20.5 x 32.7 a y 28.2 a y 33.1 a y 0.01
    cellulose
    Commercial Cat 16.6 16.6 b 43.7 b 13.7 b NS
    Food Formulation
    Diet (P<) NS 0.01 0.01 0.01
  • [0044]
    [0044]
    TABLE 10
    Fecal moisture Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Time
    content (%) % diet time % diet time % diet time % diet time (p<)
    6% Beet pulp, 6% 60.8 a x 59.9 x 54.4 y 59.6 x 0.05
    cellulose
    Commercial Cat 54.1 b 56.0 57.6 54.7 NS
    Food Formulation
    Diet (P<) 0.05 NS NS NS
  • [0045]
    [0045]
    TABLE 11
    Dry feces Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Time
    (grams/day) g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time (p<)
    6% Beet pulp, 6% 7.88 x 12.05 a y 12.41 a y 13.06 a y 0.01
    cellulose
    Commercial Cat 7.16 6.88 b 6.43 b 6.02 b NS
    Food Formulation
    Diet (P<) NS 0.01 0.01 0.01
  • [0046]
    [0046]
    TABLE 12
    Daily fecal hair excretion
    (separated hair fraction Baseline Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Time
    subjected to modified crude) g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time g/d diet time (p<)
    6% Beet pulp, 6% cellulose 0.084 x 0.107 x 0.191 a y 0.256 a z 0.01
    Commercial Cat Food 0.047 0.081 0.099 b 0.095 b NS
    Formulation
    Diet (P<) NS NS 0.01 0.01
  • [0047]
    As can be seen, cats consuming the diet containing 6% beet pulp and 6% cellulose exhibited increased hair excretion.
  • [0048]
    While certain representative embodiments and details have been shown for purposes of illustrating the invention, it will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes in the methods and apparatus disclosed herein may be made without departing from the scope of the invention.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8047771 *Nov 17, 2008Nov 1, 2011Honeywell International Inc.Turbine nozzles and methods of manufacturing the same
US20100124492 *Nov 17, 2008May 20, 2010Honeywell International Inc.Turbine nozzles and methods of manufacturing the same
WO2016130981A1 *Feb 12, 2016Aug 18, 2016Mars, IncorporatedPet food feeding system
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/725, 426/648, 424/195.18, 514/5.5
International ClassificationA61K31/715, A61P1/00, A61K36/185, A61P1/14, A61K31/717, A61K35/06, A61K36/18, A61K31/702, A23K1/00, A61K45/00, A23K1/16, A23K1/14, A23K1/18
Cooperative ClassificationY02P60/877, A23K20/105, A23K10/30, A23K20/163, A23K50/40, A23K20/10, A23K10/37, A61K31/00, A23K10/32, A23K50/50
European ClassificationA23K1/12, A23K1/18T, A23K1/14C, A61K31/00, A23K1/16L, A23K1/16D, A23K1/14, A23K1/16M, A23K1/18N
Legal Events
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