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Publication numberUS20020017070 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/896,045
Publication dateFeb 14, 2002
Filing dateJun 28, 2001
Priority dateJun 30, 2000
Publication number09896045, 896045, US 2002/0017070 A1, US 2002/017070 A1, US 20020017070 A1, US 20020017070A1, US 2002017070 A1, US 2002017070A1, US-A1-20020017070, US-A1-2002017070, US2002/0017070A1, US2002/017070A1, US20020017070 A1, US20020017070A1, US2002017070 A1, US2002017070A1
InventorsJuan Batch
Original AssigneeBatch Juan R.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Plastic module for insulated concrete waffle wall
US 20020017070 A1
Abstract
A foamed plastic module for building an insulated concrete wall structure by stacking the modules together until the desired configuration of the structure is completed, and when the form is filled, a concrete monolithic waffle wall structure having foam insulation permanently attached to the opposed wall surfaces to form the inner and outer wall surfaces of an enclosure is realized. The module is made of foamed plastic material, such as expanded polystyrene, for example, and is built in a pressure molding apparatus. Each module comprises a rigid form block of a generally rectangular configuration having a hollow interior of a particular predetermined configuration formed between spaced apart confronting sidewalls to form a cement waffle wall. The side walls of the module are secured one to the other by a plurality of spaced tension members. The tension members can be formed of metal or plastic material. When formed of plastic, the tension members can have plastic rebar seats into which reinforcing steel can be snapped and held in position. Regardless of being metal or plastic, the tension members are positioned at evenly spaced centers, including across adjoining modules, whereby the flanges thereof can be more easily located. Location of the recessed flanges is also accomplished by incorporation of molded raised vertical lines or depressed divets centered over the flanges and visible externally on the surface of the waffle wall module. The interlocking tongue and groove features of a conventional module have been modified to increase the nominal base width of the tongue and groove to be at least equal to the nominal height or depth of the tongue and groove, respectively, whereby the strength of the tongue is substantially increased and without increasing the lever arm of the tongue. These aspects provide synergistic benefits when employed together. The configuration of the new invention side panels is such, that the two ends of a module are only half cores, creating full cores when subsequent modules are placed in running bonds. This saves at least one tension member per module over conventional waffle wall formwork of similar size and dimension and hundreds of dollars per structure. When stacked vertically employing per-molded corner modules, the tension members, and internal horizontal and vertical core elements of the waffle wall are all evenly aligned.
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Claims(10)
1. A module comprising:
first and second foam panels each having inner and outer surfaces, said panels arranged in spaced parallel relation with their inner surfaces facing each other; and when said panels are filled with concrete and stacked vertically and in running bonds, the resultant structure is a series of vertical posts and horizontal beams with webs between cores forming a monolithic waffle shaped wall; certain modules containing first and second foam panels are “L” shaped forming corner modules with left and right hand corners; there is at least one tension member traversing said panels and anchored into said side walls, the tension member made of either polypropylene plastic or sheet metal;
2. The module of claim 1 wherein said waffle wall tension members are at evenly spaced centers within the module and adjoining modules; tension members have a polygonal shape with opposed faces, similar top and bottom, and opposed sides; each tension member includes a unitary piece of stamped sheet metal or molded polypropylene plastic anchored within the panels, and extending perpendicular to the walls face; the flanges of the tension member are parallel to the inner and outer wall surfaces of the module, each flange terminating in a free end, the free end being a stiffener; at least one stiffener rib extends parallel across the face of the tension member and terminates prior to the vertical flange imbedded in the polystyrene plastic on opposing sides; said tension member has preferably one hole located in the center of the unit whose size is at least ⅓ the height of the metal or plastic in this area of the tension member; the tension member hole is approximate equal-distant between the vertical flanges; said tension member has at least one stamped crescent shaped rebar support seat stamped into the top and bottom of the tension member located equal-distant form the tension member side flanges; a plurality of stamped approximately 90 degree tabs located in vertical lines just internal to the vertical flanges and within the molded polystyrene plastic help retain the unitary sheet metal tension member within the plastic side walls of the module;
3. The module of claim 2 wherein said waffle wall tension members are spaced away from the ends of the module about one-half the distance of the desired spacing of the subsequent tension members; i.e. six inches as opposed to one foot for subsequent tension members) whereby each tongue and groove end of a waffle module, completes a half core of the adjoining module; the tongue and groove end of modules when placed in running bonds, completes a full and virtually similar dimensioned core of the adjacent module, all equal distant and aligned with one another horizontally and vertically.
4. The module of claim 3 wherein said tension members are identified externally on said first and second panels of the module, by raised visual alignment lines or recessed divets within the polystyrene plastic module; said alignment lines or divets are located approximate to the center of the imbedded 1.5 inch flange which has its face parallel to the external surface of the module; said alignment lines and tension members are equal-distant horizontally throughout the modules, and align vertically with subsequent stacking of the modules.
5. The module in claim 4 wherein (4) tension members can be utilized within the module, (traditional waffle wall formwork of similar dimension and size, use 5 members); adjusting the position the tension member in the formwork to the area of maximum foam bridging and minimum concrete interference, while adding to the strength of the vertical and horizontal core.
6. Method of claim 5 wherein the module configuration has been substantially changed to now terminate in half cores; cores within the module have been elongated to retain strength within the core yet have the core approximately ½ inch narrower; reduction in core diameter while increasing amount of foam bridging across tension member, without appreciably increasing overall width of the module; repositioning the end tension member to ½ the distance of the desired one foot dimension, resulting in equal spacing on all tension members; tension member positioned in the module where it receives resistance to thermal transfer through the module;
7. The module of claims 1 and 6 wherein said “L” shaped corner modules have approximately 90 degree angles, right and left mirror images, of at least three tension members per module, with ends terminating in similar configuration to the straight modules with half cores and modified tongue and groove arrangements; each corner module when stacked it automatically displaces adjoining formwork establishing proper stagger, and alignment of the waffle wall system.
8. The module of claim 1 and 7 wherein said “L” shaped corner module has an additional polygonal shaped member made of steel or polypropylene plastic; said member is imbedded into module surface at the corner of the module; this member is molded or bent at an initial 90 degree angle, fitting vertically into the corner; this polygonal member extends as a flat sheet down both sides of the module for a predetermined distance, (approximately 2 inches) turning 45 degrees, it continues into the corner core of the module, terminating in the cavity; the polygonal 45 degree member has perforations within the member which allow for foam bridging throughout the member thus securing it into the foam plastic; once concrete is placed in the module, and cured, the corner piece is secure; sheetrock, siding, and other construction materials can be screwed to the imbedded corner tension member;
9. The module of claim 8 and claim 1 wherein the modules side panels all terminate in tongue and groove arrangements located at the ends top and bottom of the module; the tongue runs parallel to the form at the top and down the left or right hand sides of the panels, and the grooves run parallel across the bottom of the form and up the opposite side of the form as the tongue; this arrangement results in tongues at one end of the block and on top of the module side panels, and grooves at the other end of the module and on the bottom of the module side panels; the tongues on the top of the module are wider than they are high; the grooves on the bottom are wider than they are recessed into the module, usually by a factor of 1.5 i.e. tongue 1 inch wide, groove 0.50 high; the tongue and grooves at the ends of the module which interlock modules in running bonds are of essentially equal dimension, i.e. 1 inch by 1 inch.
10. Method of claim 7 whereby either plastic or sheet metal tension members can be molded within the module utilizing the same molding apparatus; design of mold apparatus to use removable inserts to replace the space left or needed when either plastic (thick) or metal tension members (thin) are molded; said inserts are anchored to the tension member insertion slots located in the center core web member of the tool centering the appropriate tension member within the mold apparatus; through addition or subtraction of dimensionally predetermined Teflon and metal inserts within the mold it is possible to produce multi-user modules some devoid of tension members altogether and using foam bridging to retain the two side panels.
Description

[0001] This is a continuation of a previous filing enclosed dated Jun. 30, 2000 with expiration date Jun. 30, 2001. This invention relates to foamed plastic modules for use in building insulated concrete waffle walls of a building.

BACKGROUND OF INVENTION

[0002] The objective of using a concrete waffle wall construction with a plurality of insulated form modules is to obtain a wall that is more cost effective because it uses less concrete than flat wall concrete systems yet sufficiently strong for residential and many light commercial applications.

[0003] Apparatuses are known for building an insitu insulated concrete waffle wall by the use of a plurality of modules stacked together to provide a continuous concrete form which results in a unitary wall structure when the interior thereof is filled with concrete. The resultant structure is a concrete monolithic waffle wall structure with foam insulation permanently attached to the inner concrete waffle wall and forming the inner and outer wall surfaces thereof. Accordingly, a plurality of the modules are easily assembled into a concrete building form to provide a new and inexpensive method of building a rugged monolithic waffle wall of a building enclosure. The module per se provides a building component by which the method of this invention can be carried out.

[0004] All of the previous prior art attempts to employ waffle wall systems in the building of an insitu insulated concrete waffle wall have employed the use of tension members placed or molded across the module at even intervals terminating at both ends of the module. Usually this would require five tension members be present to secure adequately a four foot long module from failure during concrete placement. Often due to the inadequacy of the tongue and groove and the distance between tension members within the module, end tension members in convention waffle wall assemblies are vital to module structural integrity.

[0005] These prior embodiments used end tension members for the purpose of strengthening the module ends so during concrete placement module failure would not occur. In addition end tension members provided a fastening surface for materials such as brick ties, sheetrock, siding, etc.

[0006] At least one prior art embodiment U.S. Pat. No. 5,566,518 ) dated Oct. 22, 1996 Martin et al. attempted to remove these undesirable end tension members by placing the tension member in the center of the core of the module with the resulting problems:

[0007] 1. Insufficient foam bridging around the tension member made it ineffective structurally when concrete was placed in the formwork.

[0008] 2. Not changing the basic design of the formwork shifting the maximum concrete point of pressure to the place in the formwork of maximum foam bridging around the tension member results in high failure rates of the module.

[0009] 3. Placing a tension member in the center of the concrete core tends to weaken the core and the structural integrity of the overall structure.

[0010] 4. The overall thickness of the modules polystyrene retaining the concrete was left unchanged leading to high failure rates of prior embodiments.

[0011] If you will note in the present invention embodiment contained in this application, I have changed the basic design of the form. In the invention I have removed the problematic position of the end tension member away from the end module position. Successfully accomplishing this has virtually eliminated the problem of voids being created by two tension members being close to one another when modules are placed in running bonds. In addition unrestricted flow of concrete during concrete placement is realized. Problems associated with concrete voids were; compromise of wall integrity, compromise of fire resistance, creation of insect breading ground, and possible failure of the structure. I have transferred this tension member to a place of maximum strength and maximum foam bridging within the module. As a result of this strategic positioning of the tension member and the basic design changes of the module, I have achieved a formwork that works well.

[0012] Previous “prior art” attempts to employ waffle wall systems using conventional tension member arrangements also had the undesirable drawback that when the forms were stacked end to end (which is necessary for the construction of the wall) it inevitably presented the aforementioned situation of two tension members being in very close proximity to one another. Structurally two tension members in such close proximity are unnecessary, a waste of numerous tension members within the wall once the concrete is placed, and creates confusion for the sheetrock installers attempting to align the tension members. In view of the above, it was necessary to create a waffle wall that would (1) structurally hold the concrete during concrete placement, (2) have a tension member arrangement that would allow for smooth flow of concrete through the form eliminating the potential for voids (3) have the tension members so oriented, that when the forms were placed end to end and vertically, the tension members would be on even centers and aligned, for the continuous efficient attachment of sheetrock and other uniformly dimensioned construction materials, when view from the outside of the form. (4) Invent a means to identify the recessed tension member within the module allowing for the efficient identification of the recessed attachment flange of the tension member. (5) reduce the use of at least one tension member over convention modules (saving the cost of one tension member per module) while maintaining or enhancing the structural strength of the wall (6) Create a tongue and groove locking system that would effectively reduce failures in shipping, handling, and during placement of concrete in the wall system.

[0013] This newly configured module with open ends and no end fastener such as conventional waffle wall forms will also have corner modules incorporated with like configuration. The main difference in the corner forms will be the ends of the forms will change directions 90 degrees to accommodate wall directional changes at the end of the waffle wall. These corners will be both right and left in nature or mirror images. The corners will be configured in such a manner that when stacked one on top the other, they will naturally align the module cores, tension members, and the horizontal and vertically spaced raised polystyrene alignment lines or recessed divets as viewed on the outside of the module.

[0014] The configuration of the module, along with modifications in the mold that makes the module, allow for the manufacture of both plastic and metal tension members being molded alternately within a module, or separately within a particular module. Previous to this invention it was necessary to have separate molds for the manufacture of the modules. If you were building in an area that plastic tension members were not allowed or preferred you could not switch to metal without manufacturing from a separate mold capable of manufacturing metal modules. The molds are very costly and re-hanging another mold for production takes valuable time away from production. The advantages of the newly configured module are: 1. Will use one less tension member per module, (2) simplify hanging sheetrock, (3) adapt itself to molding multiple types of tension members within the same mold, (4) eliminate propensity to create voids in the concrete due to the removal of two tension members in close proximity at the ends of adjacent modules, (5) have an integral corner piece to align the system during construction, (6) save hundreds of dollars per building eliminating one tension member per module, (7) because of tongue and groove modifications, reduced damage in handling and shipping were realized, along with gains in structural integrity during the construction phase.

[0015] The waffle wall module is built in a pressure mold using foamed plastic material, such as expanded polystyrene. Each module comprises a rigid, rectangular block having a hollow interior of a particular configuration formed between spaced apart confronting sidewalls.

[0016] The module further includes opposed ends and a top opposed bottom, and provides a concrete form within which there can advantageously be realized a concrete structure having spaced parallel vertical load bearing columns tied together by spaced horizontal sheer members, all of which is achieved after the concrete has been poured into the assembled modules.

[0017] The inner and outer walls of the module are secured one to the other by a plurality of spaced, vertically arranged, tension members. Each tension member is preferably made of a single perforated bent-up sheet of thin metal.

[0018] Opposed ends of the tension member terminate in flanges arranged perpendicular to the wall faces of the tension member and parallel respective to the inner and outer wall surfaces of the module. The flanges each have a flange face embedded within the polystyrene near the inner and outer wall surfaces thereof. A self tapping screw can be screwed into the flange face using an electric screwdriver to directly attach the paneling or other materials to the wall surface of either side of the structure.

[0019] Preferably, one large hole in the tension member is located between the flanges for flow of wet concrete therethrough in order to tie the opposed confronting module walls together and to the concrete structure. The upper marginal end of the tension member preferably has at least one cutout formed therein that results in a crescent shaped rebar seat that is connected to the upper and lower end of the flanges by a web member.

[0020] A plurality of tabs are preferably formed below the reinforcing steel support seat near the flanges, for example, an inner and an outer row of tabs bent perpendicular respective to the tension member faces. Preferably, the inner and outer row of tabs are bent about 90 degrees along a common plane or line for anchoring the outer marginal edge portion of the tension member within the polystyrene foam plastic of the module. Hence the tabs of each double row are oppositely bent toward one another in order to align tabs along a vertical line.

[0021] The outer edges of the walls of the module are in the form of tongue-and-groove construction for fastening the modules together in an interlocking manner at the top, bottom and lower edges thereof. However, several problems (in addition to the ones previously mentioned) have still been encountered with the typical plastic modules used in the construction of an insulated waffle wall.

[0022] For example, it has become increasingly desirable to be able to use plastic, rather than metal, tension members for the modules used in the construction of an insulated concrete waffle wall. Some of these changes have been simply the personal preferences of the client and others have been code specific for either metal or plastic in certain municipalities. Plastic is desirable for its corrosion resistance and lower thermal transfer as opposed to metal, although its behavior in fire and its propensity to transfer accumulative loads down the wall unlike metal limit its load caring capacities when items such as shelving or sheetrock are screwed onto the wall. Plastic material allows and requires a substantially different structure for the tension member. However, a conventional module is designed to accept only one kind of tension member, which has required separate molds for making modules with plastic tension members and metal tension member modules. The new invention would allow both plastic and metal tension members to be produced from the same mold saving valuable time and money in the production process as well as giving the manufacturer increased flexibility to satisfy code agencies and client personal preference. It would also be desirable to have a way to help retain the reinforcing steel positioned within the stacked metal tension member module before and during the pouring of the wet cement so that the waffle wall is properly reinforced according to the designed specifications. Such a retaining mechanism similar to the one incorporated in the embodied invention has not been forthcoming for the metal tension members used in the waffle wall assemblies. Prior to the present invention, the modules incorporating metal tension members would tie the horizontal reinforcing to the vertical reinforcing steel. In situations that required displacement from center positions of the reinforcing steel for structural reasons, placement of these vertical and horizontal bars was difficult or impossible to maintain through the placing of the concrete.

[0023] Prior embodiment art found the tongue and groove arrangement for attaching one module to the other most desirable. Unfortunately due to several factors, these tongue and groove arrangements were subject to frequent failure, either due to shipping damage inadequacy in the structural integrity during concrete placement, or handling damage while stacking the wall. Because of the new design of the proposed invention, it was necessary to change the typical design of the tongue and groove for structural integrity consideration adjoining two modules. This had the synergistic effect of solving prior conventional structural concerns about the tongue and groove.

[0024] Accordingly, there has been a long-felt need for improving the foamed plastic modules used in the construction of insulated waffle wall assemblies. Improvements in the form modules for constructing insulated waffle walls is thus necessary.

SUMMARY OF INVENTION

[0025] According to the invention, a new design is provided for the foamed plastic modules used in the construction of an insulated waffle wall. Each module comprises a rigid form block generally rectangular configuration having a hollow interior of a particular predetermined configuration formed between spaced apart confronting sidewalls. Certain of the modules are preferably of right-and -left hand “L” shaped configurations to provide for making corners between perpendicular sections of insulated waffle wall.

[0026] The sidewalls of the module are secured one to the other by a plurality of spaced tension members. Each tension member a central web portion with the opposed edges thereof terminating in end flanges arranged perpendicular to the wall faces of the confronting wall members and parallel respective to the inner and outer wall surfaces of the module. The opposed flanges of each tension member are embedded within the polystyrene plastic and terminate near the wall surface thereof.

[0027] According to one aspect of the invention, the module is designed to be made with either metal or plastic tension members. This allows the same basic molding equipment for making the module to be used for manufacturing modules with metal or plastic tension members, meeting the local building code requirements, or the customers design preferences.

[0028] According to another aspect of the invention, the tension members are positioned at evenly spaced centers, including across adjoining modules, whereby afterwards the flanges can always be quickly and easily located by vertical raised lines, or recessed divets centered on the outside surface of the foam form module and centered over the recessed metal or plastic tension member. Most preferably, the tension members are positioned to have the flanges located on convenient one-foot centers, although any convenient spacing can be used. Using this design, the tension members are appropriately placed from the ends of a module about one-half the distance of the desired spacing of the remaining tension members, whereby two tension members are not positioned more closely adjacent to one-another than the desired spacing when the forms are positioned end to end and stacked vertically. This also solves the problem of voids forming between closely adjacent tension members. Unfortunately positioning the tension members away from the ends of the module tends to weaken the ends of the module for holding the hydrostatic pressure of poured wet concrete. Redesign of the waffle wall module itself allows for proper tension member positioning and hydrostatic integrity.

[0029] Accordingly to yet another aspect of the invention, the interlocking tongue and groove features of a convention module have been modified to increase the nominal base width of the tongue and groove to be at least equal to the nominal height or depth of the tongue and groove, respectively, without increasing the lever arm of the tongue. All else being equal, making the nominal base width of the tongue and groove be at least equal to the height or depth of the tongue and groove, respectively, decreases the propensity of breaking the tongue off the module. As used herein, the same “nominal” dimensions is understood to mean that the tongue and groove have substantially, but not exactly, the same dimensions, whereby the tongue can be easily guided to fit snugly within the groove. Furthermore, this aspect of the invention with the changed spacing of the tension members is particularly advantageous and provides a synergistic result with increasing the relative with of the tongue and groove.

[0030] These and other aspects and advantages of the invention will become apparent to persons skilled in the art from the following drawings and detailed description of a presently most preferred embodiment of the invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING

[0031] The accompanying drawings are incorporated into and form a part of the specification to provide illustrative examples of the present invention and to explain the principles of the invention. The drawings are only for purposes of illustrating preferred and alternate embodiments of how the invention can be made and used. It is to be understood, of course, that the drawings are not to engineering scale, but are merely intended to represent and illustrate the concepts of the invention. The drawings are not to be construed as limiting the invention to only the illustrated and described examples. Various advantages and features of the present invention will be apparent from a consideration of the accompanying drawings in which:

[0032]FIG. 1 is a fragmentary, broken, pictorial representation of a conventional insitu insulated concrete wall structure;

[0033]FIG. 2 is a fragmentary, broken, perspective view of a completed insitu insulated concrete wall structure of FIG. 1;

[0034]FIG. 3 is a side view of one conventional module shown in FIG. 1;

[0035]FIG. 4 is a top view of one conventional module shown in FIG. 1;

[0036]FIG. 5 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of FIG. 4 taken along lines 10-10;

[0037]FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view of FIG. 4 taken along lines 11-11;

[0038]FIG. 7 is a side elevation view of a first face of an example of a metal tension member that can be used in the new modules according to the present invention;

[0039]FIG. 8 is a side elevation view of a second face that is opposite the first side elevation on view of the tension member shown in FIG. 7;

[0040]FIG. 9 is a top (or bottom) elevation view that is perpendicular to the side elevation views of the tension member shown in FIG. 7;

[0041] the tension member shown in FIG. 7;

[0042]FIG. 10 is an end elevation view that is perpendicular to both the side elevation views and a perpendicular to the top (or bottom) elevation views of the tension member shown FIG. 7;

[0043]FIG. 10 is an end elevation view that is perpendicular to both the side elevation views and also perpendicular to the top (or bottom) elevation views of the tension member shown in FIG. 7;

[0044]FIG. 11 is a side elevation view of a face of a plastic tension member that can be used in the new modules according to the present invention;

[0045]FIG. 12 is a top (or bottom) elevation view that is perpendicular to the side elevation view of the tension member shown in FIG. 11;

[0046]FIG. 13 is a top plan view of a foamed plastic module according to the invention;

[0047]FIG. 14 is a side elevation view of the foamed plastic module shown is FIG. 13;

[0048]FIG. 15 is a bottom plan view of the foamed plastic module shown in FIG. 13;

[0049]FIG. 16 is an end elevation view of the foamed plastic module shown in FIG. 13;

[0050]FIG. 17 is another end elevation view of the foamed plastic module shown in FIG. 13;

[0051]FIG. 18 is a top plan view of a foamed plastic module for making a “right” corner according to the invention (which is a mirror image of a foamed plastic module for making a “left” corner);

[0052]FIG. 19 is a side elevation view of the foamed plastic module shown in FIG. 18;

[0053]FIG. 20 is a bottom plan view of the foamed plastic module shown in FIG. 18; and

[0054]FIG. 21 is an end elevation view of the foamed plastic module shown in FIG. 18.

[0055]FIG. 22 is an exploded three view of the invention corner module with exposed metal cross members.

[0056]FIG. 23 is an exploded three view of the invention with metal cross members.

[0057] This concludes all presented figures.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PRESENTLY MOST PREFERRED EMBODIMENT AND BEST MODE OF PRACTICING THE INVENTION Prior Art Context of the Invention

[0058] In FIG. 1, the reference numeral 10 indicates a wall structure undergoing construction supported by a footing 11, by using a modular construction block or module 12. As shown in FIG. 2, the module 12 can be attached to a plurality of similar blocks of modules 12 of like or similar dimensions to provide a structural form or mold within which recently-mixed cementitious material can be poured, thereby forming a monolithic, composite, concrete wall of great structural integrity. Accordingly, the filled modular hollow blocks cooperate with one another to provide an insitu insulated composite concrete and steel wall structure.

[0059] The term “composite” is intended to mean that the hollow plastic modular construction blocks have reinforcing means, such as steel bars and metal tension members, incorporated therewith so that when freshly mixed, or wet, concrete is poured therewithin, the resultant is a monolithic, insulated, composite, reinforced, concrete wall structure. The term “insitu” is intended to mean that the fresh concrete is poured directly into the assembled plastic modular construction blocks, all of which jointly cooperate together to form a new monolithic “poured-in-place” structure that exhibits great structural strength.

[0060] The term “waffle wall” is intended to mean a poured in place series of modules which who's concrete filled wall structure forms a series of vertical posts, horizontal beams, and adjoining webs which together comprise a monolithic concrete wall of great structural integrity.

[0061] Preferably, the modular block is marketed as a unitary module, less the concrete and rebar to enable one to assemble the modules 12 into a structural hollow form, or mold, within which rebar is incorporated thereinto, and then recently-mixed cementitious material, or wet concrete, subsequently is poured thereinto, thereby forming a monolithic concrete wall of great structural integrity, and having many advantages, including cost effectiveness as well as reduced heat loss, and rapid, low-cost construction, but most important is the simple method of construction that is within the comprehension of most handymen.

[0062] Moreover, decorative sheets of selected paneling material, sheetrock, stucco and brick can be attached to the sidewalls 13 and 14 of the modules 12 and of the resultant monolithic structure 10 to provide a conventional appearing interior wall surface of pleasing design and high quality.

[0063] In FIGS. 1-6, there is disclosed a modular construction block 12, by which the aforesaid wall structure 10 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 can be fabricated. The structural form provided by the blocks 12 is ready to be filled with concrete, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, wherein spaced apart sidewalls 13 and 14 are formed from the foam plastic walls of the module and provides a cavity 15 therebetween.

[0064]FIGS. 1 and 5 and 6 best illustrate that the peripheral edge of the top 16 of each module 12 has an upwardly directed tongue 16 a formed thereon while bottom 17 has a co-acting tongue receiving groove 17 a formed thereon. The tongues and grooves located on the opposed top 16 and bottom 17 of the module 12 enable adjacent rows of blocks to be releaseably engaged with one another in the illustrated manner of FIG. 2.

[0065] In FIG. 4, it is shown that ends 20 and 21 of each module 12 are provided with co-acting tongues 20 a and grooves 21 a to enable one end of the block to be releaseably engaged with respect to the adjacent end of another block, as indicated in FIG. 2.

[0066] As known in the art, a tension member 18, made of sheet metal, is provided to connect the sidewalls 13 and 14 of the module 12.

[0067] Lengths of rebar 22 and 24 are suitably tied in supported relationship within the cavity 15 to impart further strength into the monolithic concrete structure.

[0068] In FIG. 2, the before-mentioned cavity 15 (also see FIG. 1 ) forms the illustrated vertical load bearing columns 19 and 28 and when concrete is poured into the cavity between the confronting, spaced, sidewalls 13 and 14. Note the intervening web 26 of concrete attached integrally between the aforesaid vertical columns 19, and the horizontal beam 30, all units acting in consort to form a monolithic “waffle wall” structure.

Presently Most Preferred Embodiment of A Metal Tension Member 100 a—FIGS. 7-10

[0069] The presently most-preferred embodiment of a metal tension member has increased strength and reduces the manufacturing costs of a modular construction block of the type generally described above. A metal tension member, generally referred to by the reference numeral 100 a, is illustrated in FIGS. 7-10 of the drawing. The metal tension member 100 a can be substituted for the type of prior art tension member 18 shown in FIG. 1, resulting in a new modular construction block or module.

[0070] The tension member 100 a is preferably made of a sheet of thin metal, which is cut perforated, creased, and bent to obtain the illustrated structure according to metal working methods well known to those skilled in such arts. As will be appreciated by those skilled in such arts, the small circular apertures 101 shown in FIGS. 7 and 8 are initially formed in the sheet metal for alignment purposes during the manufacture of the tension member 100 a.

[0071] As shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, the tension member 100 a can be described as having opposed faces 102 and 104 of the tension member 100 a. As shown in the drawing, the faces of the tension member 100 a also can be helpfully described with reference to a center line X.

[0072]FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate the presently most preferred design of the new shape for the opposed faces 102 and 104 of the tension member 100 a. As shown in the drawing, the faces of the tension member 100 a preferably present a generally octagonal shape, having edges 111-118.

[0073] It is to be understood that the set of edges 112-114 and/or the set of edges 116-118 of the faces can be modified to present a single substantially curved edge rather than several substantially straight edges. As will hereinafter be described in more detail, the feature of having edges 112-114 present a substantially triangular or curved cutout portion of the tension member of a feature known in the art to provide a cantilever action between the weight of any rebar that is placed on and partially supported by the edge 113 of the tension member 100 a and the uppermost portion or tip 119 of the tension member 100 a, when shown in the orientation of FIGS. 7 and 8.

[0074] According to one aspect of the invention, the new tension member 100 a is provided with a symmetrical design when rotated 180 degrees about an imaginary center line X. Thus, the new tension member 100 a can be oriented in a module as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, with edges 112-114 facing upward, or, equally, the new tension member 100 a can be rotated about center line X and oriented with edges 116-118 facing upward. As will hereinafter be described in more detail, this additional degree or orientation freedom for the new tension member 100 a simplifies manufacturing considerations for the new modules made using tension members 100 a.

[0075] As shown in FIGS. 8-10, a plurality of anchoring tabs 120 are formed on the tension member 100 a by cutting and bending or by punching the anchoring tabs 120 out of the sheet metal forming the tension member. These anchoring tabs 120 are bent substantially perpendicular to the plane of the faces 102 and 104 of the tension member 100 a. (Of course, it is not critical that the tabs 120 be bent exactly perpendicular to the faces 102 and 104.) The anchoring tabs 120 are located on the tension member 100 a at the end portions 107 and 109 and near the side edges 111 and 115. The end portions 107 and 109 are to be placed in a mold and embedded in the foam plastic that forms the sidewalls 13 and 14 of an otherwise conventional module 12.

[0076] The anchoring tabs 120 are preferably arranged in at least two rows. As best shown in FIG. 8, the inner and outer rows of tabs are preferably oppositely bent relative to one another, but extending from the same face 104 of the tension member 100 a. Further, the cutouts 120 a in the sheet metal of the tension member 100 a that forms the anchoring tabs 120 provide apertures through which the plastic can freely flow, and thereby help provide anchoring and attachment at locations between the mass of plastic material found adjacent either face 102 and 104 after the tension member 100 a is positioned to be molded and embedded in the plastic material of the module. The placement of the anchoring tabs can be further optimized by staggering at least one of the rows of the anchoring tabs 120, for example as shown in FIGS, 7-10. The staggered arrangement of the anchoring tabs 120 in the opposed plastic walls 13 and 14 associated with the tension member 100 a helps anchor the tension member in the plastic and increases its rigidity to avoid deformation when subjected to the hydrostatic head of the wet concrete.

[0077] As best shown in FIG. 9, it will be noted that a flange 130 extends outward from the face 102 at each end portion 107 and 109 of the tension member 100 a Each flange 130 more preferably receives a single bend at 132 to form a single stiffening lip 134. Thus, the flanges 130 and the anchoring tabs 120 preferably extend in opposite directions from the faces of the tension member 100 a. The entire flange 130 along with the anchoring tabs 120 are embedded within the polystyrene body of the module, with the polystyrene encapsulating the tabs 120 and the flanges 130, thereby helping to make the entire module 12 more rigid and forming the before-mentioned cavity 15 for containment of the wet concrete.

[0078] The end most surface 136 of the flange 130, which surface 136 extends substantially perpendicular to the web portion 105 of the tension member 100 a, and preferably spaced about ⅜ inch below the outermost surface of the polystyrene, lowering thermal bridging, and reducing, the need for application of additional polystyrene during synthetic stucco applications. After the concrete has set up, the location of the flanges 130 is apparent from observing the module exterior wall surface FIG. 13 raised center of tension member “identification lines” 114 and even if covered or removed, can still be quickly and easily located based on the even spacing, preferably on one-foot centers. A self tapping screw can be screwed into the flange face using an electric screwdriver to directly attach the paneling to the wall surface of either side of the structure.

[0079] A pair of alignment apertures 141 a, 142 a are located on the central web portion of the tension member 100 a for achieving exact alignment between the several tension members 100 a and with respect to the mold cavity during the manufacture of the modules 12. The apertures 141 a and 142 a formed by the punching of alignment tabs 141,142 and the apertures are used to allow the accurate alignment of the tension members 100 a in the modules 12 so that the subsequent attachment of panel members can be made onto the wall surface of a sidewall 13 or 14 of the completed structure by attachment to the flanges 130. The alignment apertures 140 a, 142 a are indexed with detents or small apertures that are formed during the manufacture of the metal molds (not shown) so that the polystyrene beads are molded or compressed about the tension member 100 a in a manner that precisely positions the plurality of tension members respective to one another and to the resultant sidewalls 13 and 14 of the module 12.

[0080] According to the new symmetrical design of the new tension member 100 a, a second pair of alignment apertures 143 a, 144 a are symmetrically positioned “below” the center line X. The apertures 143 a and 144 a formed by the punching of the alignment tabs 143 and 144 to allow the accurate alignment of the tension members 100 a in the modules 12 so that the subsequent attachment of panel members can be made onto the wall surface of a sidewall 13 or 14 of the completed structure by attachment to the flanges 130. Thus, the new tension member 100 a can be oriented in a module as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, with edges 112-114 facing upward, or equally, the new tension member 100 a can be rotated about the center line X and oriented with edges 116-118 facing upward. This additional degree of orientational freedom for the new tension member 100 a simplifies manufacturing considerations for the new modular construction block made using tension members 100 a.

[0081] The large cutout defined by edges 112-114 provides a rebar support structure at a location between the end portion of the tension members that are to be embedded in the plastic foamed sidewalls 13 and 14 if a module 12. In the orientation represented in FIGS. 7 and 8 of the drawing, the edges 112-114 extend “upwards” toward the “upper” edge portion 119 adjacent the “upper” end of the flanges 130. Hence, the large cutout can be in the form of a truncated inverted triangle, which feature provides a cantilever action between the weight of the rebar that is to be supported at the “upper” edge 113 of the new tension member 100 a. At least one rebar seat 151 is formed on the edge 113 of the tension member 100 a. More preferably, three rebar seats 151-153 are formed on the edge 113. The rebar seats 151-153 are preferably crescent-shaped as shown in FIGS. 7-8. The rebar seats 151-153 act to help position and support a length of rebar on the tension member 100 a.

[0082] According to the new symmetrical design of the tension member 100 a, the edges 116-118 are symmetrically designed about center line X relative to edges 112-114. At least one rebar seat 154 is also formed on the edge 117 of the tension member 100 a. More preferably three rebar seats 154-156 are formed on the edge 117. This, the new tension member 100 a can be oriented in a module as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, with edges 112-114 facing upward, or, equally, the new tension member 100 a can be rotated about the center line X and oriented with edges 116-118 facing upward, in which case the rebar seats 154-156 act to help position and support a length of rebar on the tension member 100 a. This additional degree of orientational freedom for the new tension member 100 a simplifies manufacturing considerations for the new modular construction block make using tension members 100 a.

[0083] One hole 160 is preferably formed in the central web portion of the tension member 100 a. The hole 160 is sufficiently large enough to allow cementitious material to freely flow between the spaces formed in the interior of a module 12.

[0084] According to another aspect of the invention, the new tension member 100 a has at least one, and preferably two, stiffening structures in the central web portion 105. The stiffening structure is most preferably in the form of an elongated rib 170 pressed or otherwise formed in the central web portions 107 and 109. According to the presently most preferred embodiment of the invention, the elongated ribs 170 are pressed from the side of face 102 to create the elongated rib extending outward from face 104 of the tension member. The stiffening structure provides additional strength to the tension member 100 a, which helps maintain the rigid form of the modules made with the tension member 100 a against the hydrostatic head of the wet cememt.

[0085] The confronting polystyrene sidewalls 13 and 14 of a module 12 can be secured one to the other by a plurality of the spaced tension members 100 a disclosed in FIGS. 7-10.

[0086] A module can be fabricated having, for example, the following dimensions: width 9.25 inches; length 4 feet; height 16 inches; tension member width 8.25 inches; height 12.5 inches; and the flange width 1.5 inches; height 12.5 inches; upper cutout dimensions at rebar seat 3 inches; anchoring tab size 1 inch×0.75 inch; alignment tab size 0.25×0.25 inch; and 8 tabs on each side arranged in two rows of four per row to provide a total of 8 tabs aligned in two rows, or 16 anchor tabs in four rows; and additionally the two alignment tabs at each of the opposed ends of each tension member.

[0087] It is to be understood, or course, that while this is the presently most preferred embodiment of a metal tension member for used in the present invention, numerous variations and modifications to the tension member can be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention.

Presently Most Preferred Embodiment of A Plastic Tension Member 100 f—FIGS. 11-12

[0088] As an alternative to using a metal tension member, it is sometimes desirable to use a plastic tension member. A tension member formed of plastic can have many of the same design features as described with respect to the various designs for a metal tension member. A representative example of a plastic tension member, generally referred to by the reference numeral 100 f is illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 12. The plastic tension member can have similar functions and dimensions as the metal tension member 100 a described above. Because the tension member 100 f is formed of plastic, rather than bent metal, it can have a symmetrical I-beam design, illustrated in the top plan view FIG. 12. The plastic tension member 100 f can be substituted for the type of prior art tension member 18 shown in FIG. 1, resulting in a new modular construction block or module.

[0089] The tension member 100 f is preferably made of a plastic molded into the desired shape according to plastic working methods well known to those skilled in such arts.

[0090] As shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, the tension member 100 f can be described as having opposed faces 102 and 104, a central web portion 105, and end portions 107 and 109. The tension member 100 f also can be helpfully described with reference to a center line X.

[0091]FIGS. 11 and 12 illustrate the presently most preferred design of the new shape for the opposed faces 102 and 104 of the tension member 100 f. As shown in the drawing, the faces of the tension member 100 f preferably present a generally octagonal shape, having edges 111-118.

[0092] It is to be understood that the set of edges 112-114 and/or the set of edges 116-118 of the faces can be modified to present a single substantially curved edge rather than several substantially straight edges. As will hereinafter be described in more detail, the feature of having edges 112-114 present a substantially triangular or curved cutout portion of the tension member is a feature known in the art to provide a cantilever action between the weight of any rebar that is placed on and partially supported by the edge 113 of the tension member 100 f and the uppermost portion or tip 119 of the tension member 100 f, when shown in the orientation of FIGS. 11 and 12.

[0093] According to one aspect of the invention, the new tension member 100 f is provided with a symmetrical design when rotated 180 degrees about an imaginary X. Thus, the new tension member 100 f can be oriented in a module as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, with edges 112-114 facing upward, or, equally, the new tension member 100 f can be rotated about center line X and oriented with edges 116-118 facing upward. As will hereinafter be described in more detail, this additional degree of orientational freedom for the new tension member 100 f simplifies manufacturing considerations for the new modules made using tension member 100 f.

[0094] Although not shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, if desired, a plurality of anchoring tabs, similar to the anchoring tabs 120 shown in FIGS. 7-10, can be formed on the tension member 100 f within the foam plastic that forms sidewalls 13 and 14 of an otherwise conventional module 12. The anchoring tabs can be preferably arranged in at least two rows, similar to the anchoring tabs 120 shown in FIGS. 7-10. However, because of the different nature of the molding process, such tabs on a polypropylene plastic tension member for example, may have-but would not require, apertures adjacent thereto, which in the metal embodiment are formed by cutting and bending the sheet metal. Like for the metal tension member described above, however, if formed in the tension member, the apertures would allow the plastic to freely flow and thereby help provide anchoring and attachment at locations between the mass of plastic material found adjacent either face 102 and 104 after the tension member 100 f is positioned to be molded and embedded in the plastic material of the module.

[0095] As best shown in FIG. 12, it will be noted that a flange 130 extends outward from both the faces 102 and 104 at each end portion 107 and 109 of the tension member 100 f. Because of the nature of plastic compared to metal, stiffening features similar to those described above for a metal tension member could be advantageously employed with plastic. The entire flange 130 is embedded within the polystyrene body of the module, with the polystyrene encapsulating the flange 130, thereby helping to make the entire module 12 more rigid and forming the before-mentioned cavity 15 for containment of the wet concrete.

[0096] The end most surface 136 of each flange 130, which surface 136 extends substantially perpendicular to the web portion 105 of the tension member 100 f, is preferably spaced about ⅜ inch below the outermost surface of the polystyrene so that sheets of paneling, or the like, can more easily be screwed directly into the flange 130. After the concrete has set up, the location of the flanges is apparent from observing the module exterior wall surface, but not, of course, after being covered with any wall finishing material. A self-tapping screw can be screwed into the flange face using an electric screwdriver to directly attach the paneling to the wall surface on either side of the structure.

[0097] The large cutout defined by the edges 112-114 provides a rebar support structure at a location between the end portions of the tension member that are to be embedded in the plastic foamed sidewalls 13 and 14 of a module 12. In the orientation represented in FIGS. 7 and 8 of the drawing, the edges 112-114 extend “upwards” toward the “upper” portion 119 adjacent the “upper” end of the flanges 130. Hence, the large cutout can in the form of a truncated inverted triangle, which feature provides a cantilever action between the weight of the rebar that is to be supported at the “upper” edge 113 of the new tension member 100 f.

[0098] At least one rebar seat 151 is formed on the edge 113 of the tension member 100 f. More preferably, three rebar seats 151-153 are formed on the edge 113. The rebar seats 151-153 are preferably crescent-shaped as shown in FIGS. 11-12. The rebar seats 151-153 act to help position and support a length of rebar on the tension member 100 f.

[0099] According to the new symmetrical design of the new tension member 100 f, the edges 116-118 are symmetrically designed about center line X relative to edges 112-114. At least one rebar seat 154 is also formed on the edge 117 on the tension member 100. More preferably, three rebar seats 154-156 are formed on the edge 117. Thus, the new tension member 100 f can be oriented in a module as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, with edges 112-114 facing upward, or, equally, the new tension member 100 f can be rotated about the center line X and oriented with edges 116-118 facing upward, in which case the rebar seats 154-156 act to help position and support a length of rebar on the tension member 100 f. This additional degree of orientational freedom for the new tension member 100 f simplifies manufacturing considerations for the new modular construction block made using tension members 100 f.

[0100] According to an aspect of the invention, the rear seats 151-156 are preferably adapted for supporting and actually engaging reinforcing rear for the cement waffle wall. More particularly, the rear seats are preferably sized and adapted such that the nature of the plastic material allows the rear to be “snapped” into a rear seat of the plastic tension member.

[0101] At least one hole 160 is preferably formed in the central web portion of the tension member 100 f.

[0102] The hole is sufficiently large to allow cementious material to freely flow between the spaces formed in the interior of a module 12.

[0103] Although not shown in FIGS. 11-12, like for the metal tension member 100 a previously described, the plastic tension member 100 f can have one or more stiffening structures in the central web portion 105.

[0104] It is to be understood, that while this is a representative example of a suitable plastic tension member for use in the present invention, numerous variations and modifications to the tension member can be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invitation.

Regular Foamed Plastic Module with Metal or Plastic Tension Members—FIGS. 13-18

[0105] Referring now to FIGS. 13-18 Engineering detailed drawings illustrate a regular, generally rectangular-shaped, foamed plastic module according to the presently most preferred embodiment of the invention and best mode for practicing the invention. Such a module is used for forming a new insulated concrete waffle wall according to the invention.

[0106] As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, these engineering drawings fully disclose the shape and structure of the foamed plastic module. The mold for making the disclosed module can be easily engineered based on these drawings for the module.

[0107] It should be noted, however, that FIGS. 13, 15 and 18 of these drawings illustrate a module having either a metal tension member 100 a or a plastic tension member 100 f, substantially as previously described in detail herein. Although both are illustrated in the drawing, it is to be understood that one or the other could actually be used, or the tension members could be alternated within a module. An insert (not shown) is used to help position one or the other of the tension members in the mold for making the foamed plastic module.

[0108] Please note FIG. 4. This is a typical embodiment of a conventional tension member positioned within the module. In FIG. 4 note the end tension member 9 and 9 a and their position to the ends of the module. Also note in FIG. 4 the closed face of the module ends 22 and 22 a along with 23 and 23 a compared to the ends of the module in FIG. 13 103 and 103 a. In FIG. 4 there are four cores per module as indicated by 28, 25, 26, 27.

[0109] In some prior art embodiment, attempts to leave the end tension member 9 and 9 a absent resulted in the tension members being moved to core center 16 of positions 28, 26,25, and 27 FIG. 4. Tension member placement at position 16 was at maximum concrete pressure, but minimum foam bridging, and resulted in module failure.

[0110] In the new invention embodiment FIG. 13 the number of complete cores 109, 109 a, and 109 b, have been reduced to three per module with half cores 103 and 103 a located on the ends of the module. In FIG. 13 the half core creates a complete core of similar size and dimension to the previous core when the next module is placed in running bond with the tongue 110 and 110 a and the groove 111 and 111 a of the adjacent module. In FIG. 13 the extra strength necessary to withstand the concrete pouring pressure, while increasing building integrity was achieved by increasing the size, dimension and design of the tongue 110 and 110 a and the groove 111 and 111 a, decreasing the core width 112 and increasing the nominal core length 113 relative to its width 112. Making these changes allowed more concrete to be placed into the wall increasing the overall strength of the wall system, while maintaining the strength of the module. When the modules are stacked in running bonds FIG. 2 with the corner modules in FIG. 18, all cores 103, 103 a, 109, 109 a, and 109 b in FIG. 13 and 18 will align with any and all subsequent modules stacked in the wall. In FIG. 13 external alignment lines 114, align with all other simialr lines of 114 throughout the module, ie. FIG. 18 alignment lines 114. All of these identification lines will be of equal spacing horizontally with the modules having the proper stagger. No two tension members will be in close proximity to one another creating possible voids in the wall structure.

L-shaped Foamed Plastic Module with Metal or Plastic Tension Members—FIGS. 18-23

[0111] Referring to FIGS. 18-21 of the drawings, engineering detail drawings illustrate a regular, generally rectangular-shaped, formed plastic module according to the presently most preferred embodiment of the invention and best mode for practicing the invention. Such a module is used for forming a corner portion for a new insulated concrete waffle wall according to the invention.

[0112] As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, these engineering drawings fully disclose the shape and structure of the L-shaped foamed plastic module. The mold for making the disclosed module can be easily engineered based on these drawings for the module.

[0113] Again, it should be noted, however, that FIGS. 18 and 20 of these drawings illustrate a module have either a metal tension member 100 a or a plastic tension member 100 f, substantially as previously described in detail herein Although both are illustrated in the illustrated, it is to be understand that one or the other would actually be used. An insert (not shown) is used to help position one or the other of the tension members in the mold for making the foamed plastic module.

[0114] In addition, the L-shaped member is preferably provided with a corner bracket 200, which can be used to help attached finishing materials to the corner of the finished insulated waffle wall.

Manufacture and Use of New Module Construction Blocks

[0115] The individual modules are fabricated by placing the plurality of tension members having one or more of the inventive features of the above-described tension members (e.g., 100 a or 100 f) within the mold cavities. As will be appreciated by those in the molding art, small mold inserts are used, not shown in the drawing, to position either metal or plastic tension members 100 f in the mold.

[0116] At least in the case of the metal members 100 a using the small apertures 140 a formed by the cutout of making the alignment tabs 140 as alignment means by which the individual tension members 100 a are precisely aligned with one another within the mold cavity, and also more perfectly aligned respective to the subsequently formed polystyrene side walls 13 and 14. The alignment tabs 140 are preferably adapted to be received within a detent formed in one of the polystyrene mold halves. The detent, or locating aperture 140 a formed by the cutout of the alignment tabs, places the flanges 130 of the tension members precisely spaced ⅜ inch below the outermost polystyrene wall surfaces of the completed product where they are accessible for subsequent attachment of paneling and the like thereof.

[0117] Referring again to FIGS. 1 and 2, in use, a first row of modules 12 is placed on the concrete footing 11 and arranged in the desired row, with adjacent ends being fastened together by the before-mentioned tongue-and-groove arrangement. The lower end of the first module can be either pressed into wet concrete footer, or glued to the footer 11 so it will be held in place resisting lateral movement of the forms during the place ment of the concrete.

Best Mode—Appendix

[0118] Additional information regarding the best mode of practicing the present invention, which is being marketed under the brand name “Granite Block” TM, is described in detail in the “Granite Block TM Forming System Structural Procedures Manual ” dated January 2000, a complete copy of which is attached hereto and incorporate by reference herein in its entirety.

Scope of Invention Not Limited to Preferred Embodiments

[0119] The invention is described with respect to presently preferred embodiments, but is not intended to be limited to the described embodiments. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art, that numerous such modifications may be made to the invention without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/309.11, 52/309.12, 52/742.14, 52/426, 52/562
International ClassificationE04B2/86
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2/8617, E04B2002/867
European ClassificationE04B2/86E1