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Publication numberUS20020024307 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/567,059
Publication dateFeb 28, 2002
Filing dateMay 8, 2000
Priority dateMay 8, 1999
Also published asDE19921450C1, DE19921450C5, US6404151
Publication number09567059, 567059, US 2002/0024307 A1, US 2002/024307 A1, US 20020024307 A1, US 20020024307A1, US 2002024307 A1, US 2002024307A1, US-A1-20020024307, US-A1-2002024307, US2002/0024307A1, US2002/024307A1, US20020024307 A1, US20020024307A1, US2002024307 A1, US2002024307A1
InventorsDr Christian Bader
Original AssigneeDr Christian Bader
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric vehicle drive
US 20020024307 A1
Abstract
An electric vehicle drive has an electric machine which can be alternatively driven as a motor or as a generator and has a d.c. connection to which a supply voltage can be applied, from a first energy source and/or a second energy source. The first energy source is designed for base load supply of the electric machine, while the second energy source comprises an energy accumulator designed for a short-term peak load supply of the electric machine. Also, vehicle braking energy can be stored by way of the electric machine in its generator operating mode. According to the invention, the second energy source in the form of an energy accumulator is coupled via a bidirectional DC/DC converter to a supply connection of the first energy source connected with the direct-voltage connection of the electric machine.
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Claims(7)
What is claimed is:
1. An electric vehicle drive, comprising:
an electric machine which can be driven alternatively as a motor or as a generator, and which has a direct voltage connection to which a supply voltage can be applied from a first energy source and a second energy source; wherein
the first energy source is adapted to provide a base load power supply of the electric machine;
the second energy source comprises an energy accumulator which is adapted for a short-term peak load supply of the electric machine, and for storing vehicle braking energy generated by the electric machine when operated as a generator; and
the second energy source is coupled by way of a bidirectional DC/DC converter to a supply connection of the first energy source, which is connected with the direct-voltage connection of the electric machine.
2. An electric vehicle drive according to claim 1, wherein a power cut-off element is assigned to the first energy source for avoiding reverse flows.
3. An electric vehicle drive according to claim 1, wherein the bidirectional DC/DC converter comprises first and second voltage system converters of the same construction, which can be controlled in a timed manner in a single-phase bridge with one transformer winding respectively in the bridge arm.
4. An electric vehicle drive, comprising:
an electric machine which can be driven alternatively as a motor and as a generator;
a first energy source coupled to an input of the electric machine, and capable of providing a sustained load power supply for driving the electric machine in substantially steady state conditions;
a second energy source coupled to the input of the electric machine, and capable of providing a short term peak load power supply for driving the electric machine during an acceleration of the vehicle, and capable of storing vehicle braking energy generated when the electric machine is operated as a generator;
a DC-DC converter coupling said first and second energy sources and said input of said electric machine, for regulating a bidirectional transfer of energy between said first energy source and said second energy source, and between said energy sources and said electric machine.
5. An electric vehicle drive according to claim 4, wherein said DC-DC converter comprises:
a first bridge circuit having a first plurality of controllable switching elements and being connected between said first energy source and said input of the electric machine;
a second bridge circuit having a second plurality of controllable switching elements and being connected between said second energy source and said input of the electric machine; and
a transformer having a primary winding coupled into the first bridge circuit and a secondary winding coupled into the second bridge circuit, for bidirectional transfer of electric energy between said first and second energy sources in response to switching of said first or second plurality of controllable switching elements.
6. A power supply for an electric vehicle drive having an electric machine which can be driven alternatively as a motor and as a generator, comprising:
a first energy source coupled to an input of the electric machine, and capable of providing a sustained load power supply for driving the electric machine in substantially steady state conditions;
a second energy source coupled to the input of the electric machine, and capable of providing a short term peak load power supply for driving the electric machine during an acceleration of the vehicle, and capable of storing vehicle braking energy generated when the electric machine is operated as a generator;
a DC-DC converter coupling said first and second energy sources and said input of said electric machine, for regulating a bidirectional transfer of energy between said first energy source and said second energy source, and between said energy sources and said electric machine.
7. The power supply according to claim 6 wherein said DCDC converter comprises:
a first bridge circuit having a first plurality of controllable switching elements and being connected between said first energy source and said input of the electric machine;
a second bridge circuit having a second plurality of controllable switching elements and being connected between said second energy source and said input of the electric machine; and
a transformer having a primary winding coupled into the first bridge circuit and a secondary winding coupled into the second bridge circuit, for bidirectional transfer of electric energy between said first and second energy sources in response to switching of said first or second plurality of controllable switching elements.
Description
    BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The invention relates to an electric vehicle drive having an electric machine which can be driven alternatively as a motor or as a generator, and has a direct voltage connection to which a supply voltage can be applied, from a first energy source and a second energy source. The first energy source is designed for base load supply of the electric machine, while the second energy source comprises an energy accumulator designed for short-term peak load supply of the electric machine. Also, vehicle braking energy can be stored by way of the electric machine in its generator operating mode.
  • [0002]
    One problem associated with electric vehicle drives is that they must meet load profiles which fluctuate greatly with respect to time. However, conventionally used energy sources and energy accumulators can be optimized only with respect to a certain load profile. That is, accelerating operations require the provision of short-term power peaks; in contrast, for longer drives at a constant speed, a constant base load is required for a longer time period. Heretofore, there have been no electric energy accumulators or energy sources which are suitable both for the delivery of fairly large amounts of energy within a short time and for an unchangeable base load for a fairly long time period, and also have a power/weight ratio which is justifiable.
  • [0003]
    By a corresponding design of the electrodes, it is possible for a battery to provide high power for a short time (such as in the case of a lead starter battery, which is adapted in this manner). However, such a design leads to a reduced energy accumulating capacity of the battery. Battery systems on an alkaline base, such as nickel metal hydride batteries, also permit high power deliveries for a short time. However, they also have a limited energy accumulating capacity. Capacitors are also typical “power accumulators” with a limited accumulating capacity. On the other hand, metal/air batteries are known to have a high energy accumulating capacity, achieving gravimetric energy densities of up to 200 Wh/kg—more than twice as high as those achieved in the best conventional electrochemical energy accumulators. However, such batteries can be utilized only in the case of a discharge which is largely constant with respect to time.
  • [0004]
    When vehicles are braked, the braking energy converted into electric energy can be accumulated well in those electric energy accumulators which are also suitable for the input of high power peaks. However, a battery with a high internal resistance, which is incapable of delivering high power peaks for accelerations (to the extent achieved, for example, by nickel/metal hydride batteries) because of its characteristic, is also unable to absorb all energy occurring during such regenerative braking. Inversely, while the accumulating capacity is, however, limited, lead starter batteries as well as capacitor banks and fly wheels are capable of a high power input for a short time, such as occurs when braking energy is converted to electric energy.
  • [0005]
    In contrast to batteries, fuel cells provide electric energy sources in which no electric charge is accumulated. If electric driving energy is generated by means of a fuel cell, a reaccumulation of braking energy cannot take place without an additional accumulator of electric energy. In this case, braking energy converted into electric energy can be dissipated only without recoverability for the vehicle drive in an electric braking resistance.
  • [0006]
    An electric vehicle drive of the initially mentioned type is disclosed in German Patent Document DE 41 18 594 C1. Two electric energy accumulators with differing load profiles are assigned to the vehicle drive, and a discharge operation control device and automatic control device control, the supply of electric energy alternately from one, the other, or from both energy accumulators to the electric vehicle drive. In this case, the first energy accumulator is a high-performance battery which can provide a largely constant base load supply; while the second energy accumulator is a smaller battery which is connected to the energy accumulator when load peaks are present. Both energy accumulators are charged either by a connection with an electric supply network or during a braking or coasting operation of the motor vehicle assigned to the electric vehicle drive.
  • [0007]
    German Patent Document DE 195 22 563 A1 discloses an electric vehicle which has a traction battery and a capacitor accumulator, with braking being provided by way of the electric driving motor. Electric energy recovered in the process is supplied to the capacitor accumulator, and is intermediately stored there. As the result, a service-life-reducing exceeding of the maximal charging current of the traction battery is avoided.
  • [0008]
    German Patent Document DE 196 28 877 A1 discloses a motor vehicle having an electric machine and a battery constructed as a large-scale energy accumulator for providing a constant driving power. In addition, another high-performance energy accumulator is provided which is constructed as a power capacitor, a gyro accumulator, a spring-type accumulator or a pressure-type accumulator. During driving at a constant speed on a flat road, energy is taken only from the large-scale energy accumulator. If additional energy is required for acceleration operations or driving on slopes, energy can be taken from the high-performance energy accumulator. It is provided to brake the motor vehicle by means of the electric machine and to supply the energy released thereby at least partially back to the energy accumulators.
  • [0009]
    In British Published Patent Application GB 2 271 228 A, a power supply is free of interruptions, and under normal conditions a load is supplied by a main power supply, while a battery is uncoupled from the load and from a charging unit. In the case of an interruption of the main power supply, energy is provided to the load by the battery via a controllable voltage system converter and a transformer, whose winding is situated in the bridge arm of the voltage system converter. The battery can be charged by the main power supply via the charging unit, if defined conditions exist.
  • [0010]
    Japanese Patent Document JP 09-009417 A discloses a bidirectional DC/DC converter which consists of two voltage system converters, with one transformer disposed in-between. Via the transformer, a connection of a main battery connected with a direct voltage of an electric machine as well as another battery provided for feeding an auxiliary machine are supplied.
  • [0011]
    German Patent Document DE 198 10 467 C1, which is not prior art, discloses a hybrid driving concept for fuel cell vehicles, which contains a DC/DC converter arranged between an energy accumulator and an electric machine which can be driven alternately as a motor or a generator. Furthermore, a fuel cell connected to the electric machine, in addition to feeding the electric machine, can also cause the charging of the energy accumulator by way of the DC/DC converter.
  • [0012]
    It is an object of the invention to provide an electric vehicle drive of the initially mentioned type, in which one energy source is designed for the base load supply and the other energy source, constructed as an energy accumulator, is designed for short-term load peaks, and in which braking energy can be recovered and utilized efficiently.
  • [0013]
    This object is achieved by means of an electric vehicle drive in which the second energy source representing an energy accumulator is coupled by way of a bidirectional DC/DC converter to a supply connection of the first energy source connected with the direct-voltage connection of the electric machine. In this manner, braking energy can be supplied during braking operations to the second energy source constructed as an energy accumulator, and on the other hand it is also possible to operate the electric machine by means of energy from the second energy source when load peaks exist. In addition, it is possible to charge the second energy source by way of the DC/DC converter by means of energy of the first energy source.
  • [0014]
    In one embodiment of the invention, a power cut-off element is assigned to the first energy source, to avoid reverse currents. In this manner, the first energy source can be protected from excess voltage which may occur when recovering braking energy, or when load peaks are present during which the electric machine is operated by means of energy from the second energy source.
  • [0015]
    In another embodiment of the invention, the bidirectional DC/DC converter is constructed of two voltage system converters of the same type, which can be controlled in a timed manner, in a single-phase bridge with one transformer winding respectively in the bridge arm. In this manner, it is possible, by appropriate timing of the voltage system converters, to supply recovered braking energy to the second electric energy source constructed as an energy accumulator, and to operate the electric machine by means of energy from the first electric energy source as well as from the second energy source.
  • [0016]
    Other objects, advantages and novel features of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0017]
    The single FIGURE is a block diagram of an electric vehicle drive according to the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0018]
    The illustrated electric vehicle drive 1 has a three-phase inverter 2 with a connected permanently excited synchronous machine 3. However, it may also be constructed as any drive of a different type suitable for the DC power supply. The vehicle drive 1 has a direct voltage connection 4 a, 4 b to which a first energy source (a traction batter 6) is connected, via a diode 5. (The diode 5 protects this energy source from possibly damaging reverse flows.) As an alternative, the first energy source may also be constructed as a fuel cell, for example.
  • [0019]
    A first voltage system converter 7 is connected between the first energy source 6 with the diode 5 and the vehicle drive 1. This voltage system converter 7 is inductively coupled with a second voltage system converter 8 by way of a transformer with windings 11, 12. The second voltage system converter 8 is coupled to a power energy accumulator 9 which operates as a second energy source for the vehicle drive 1. The power energy accumulator 9 is formed, for example, by a capacitor and is suitable for delivering and receiving short power peaks which occur during acceleration and braking of a motor vehicle which is driven by the electric vehicle drive.
  • [0020]
    The inductively coupled voltage system converters 7 and 8 together form a DC/DC converter and are each constructed as a single-phase bridge. They contain transistor switching elements 10 in order to provide, as required, an alternating current flowing in the corresponding bridge arm for the primary and secondary winding 11, 12 of the transformer. Instead of the illustrated bipolar transistors 10, other suitable semiconductor elements, such as the IGBT or the MOS-FET, can also be used. The power transfer and transfer direction of the DC/DC converter formed of the voltage system converters 7 and 8 is determined by the suitable control of the transistors 10 at a control (not shown) frequency which, if possible, is above the threshold of audibility. The transferred power can be adjusted by varying the pulse duty ratio. That is, by appropriate timing of the switching elements 10, the voltage transfer ratio between the traction battery 6 and the power energy accumulator 9 can be regulated. In this case, the winding ratio between the primary and secondary winding 11, 12 of the transformer is selected to correspond to a voltage transfer which permits a pulse duty ratio that is favorable with respect to switching loss performances of the transistors 10.
  • [0021]
    In order to rapidly increase the power supplied by the power energy accumulator 9 for the acceleration of the vehicle driven by the electric vehicle drive, operation of the transistors 10 in the voltage system converter 8 is timed such that an alternating-voltage signal is transmitted from the secondary winding 12 in the voltage system converter 8 to the primary winding 11 in the voltage system converter 7, which alternating-voltage signal is rectified there by diodes 13. When the acceleration has been concluded, normal average driving power is again provided by way of the traction battery 6, and to the extent necessary, the DC/DC converter formed by the voltage system converters 7 and 8 recharges the power energy accumulator 9. If possible, such recharge is limited to a charge value that is below the full load condition of the accumulator, by an amount of energy which is typical of a regenerative braking, in order to permit a recovery of braking energy during a braking operation in every case.
  • [0022]
    The switching arrangement for the semiconductor switching elements in the voltage system converters 7 and 8 is advantageously constructed as a pot-type or encapsulated component. As an alternative to a capacitor, the power energy accumulator 9 can also be constructed as an electrochemical battery or as a flywheel accumulator with a connected mechanical-electrical converter. The physical characteristics of such a flywheel accumulator are largely comparable to the characteristics of a capacitive power energy accumulator. However, while the energy accumulating capacity of a capacitive accumulator is proportional the square of the voltage, in the case of flywheel energy accumulators, the stored energy is a function of the square of the rotational speed. In the event that a converter with a constant excitation is assigned to the flywheel, the rotational speed of the flywheel is approximately proportional to the terminal voltage, so that the electric energy accumulated by the flywheel is proportional to the square of the terminal voltage of the flywheel accumulator.
  • [0023]
    The foregoing disclosure has been set forth merely to illustrate the invention and is not intended to be limiting. Since modifications of the disclosed embodiments incorporating the spirit and substance of the invention may occur to persons skilled in the art, the invention should be construed to include everything within the scope of the appended claims and equivalents thereof.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7723864Jul 26, 2005May 25, 2010Norgren, Inc.AC-to-DC electrical switching circuit
US8615341 *Oct 23, 2008Dec 24, 2013Mitsubishi Electric CorporationPropulsion control apparatus for electric vehicle
US20070025122 *Jul 26, 2005Feb 1, 2007Norgren, Inc.AC-to-DC electrical switching circuit
US20110166736 *Oct 23, 2008Jul 7, 2011Mitsubishi Electric CorporationPropulsion control apparatus for electric vehicle
US20150375628 *Jul 19, 2013Dec 31, 2015Intelligent Electronic SystemsMulti-directional converter comprising three ports and a single transformer for electric vehicles
CN102655351A *Mar 2, 2011Sep 5, 2012江苏嘉钰新能源技术有限公司Direct-current high-pressure two-way DC/DC (direct current) convertor energy storage device
CN103444066A *Nov 4, 2011Dec 11, 2013柯蒂斯-赖特机电公司M2LC system coupled to a rectifier system
CN103765747A *Jun 20, 2012Apr 30, 2014罗伯特博世有限公司Converter circuit and method for transferring electrical energy
WO2012068409A2 *Nov 17, 2011May 24, 2012Andy TurudicUltra high efficiency transmission with grid-tied energy storage capability for a wind turbine or a fuel cell or a battery powered electric vehicle
WO2012068409A3 *Nov 17, 2011Apr 17, 2014Andy TurudicUltra high efficiency transmission with grid-tied energy storage capability for a wind turbine or a fuel cell or a battery powered electric vehicle
Classifications
U.S. Classification318/106
International ClassificationH02M7/5381, B60L11/18, B60L11/00, B60K1/04, H02J15/00, H02M7/538
Cooperative ClassificationY02T10/7066, B60L2210/10, B60L11/005, Y02T10/7022, Y02T10/7216, H02J15/00, H02M7/5381, Y02T10/7005, B60L11/1868
European ClassificationB60L11/00B2, B60L11/18M32, H02J15/00, H02M7/5381
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 2, 2000ASAssignment
Owner name: DAIMLERCHRYSLER AG, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BADER, CHRISTIAN;REEL/FRAME:011160/0968
Effective date: 20000518
Dec 28, 2005REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Jun 12, 2006LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Aug 8, 2006FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20060611