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Publication numberUS20020026923 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/810,646
Publication dateMar 7, 2002
Filing dateMar 16, 2001
Priority dateMar 16, 2000
Also published asDE10012969A1, DE10012969B4, US6629519
Publication number09810646, 810646, US 2002/0026923 A1, US 2002/026923 A1, US 20020026923 A1, US 20020026923A1, US 2002026923 A1, US 2002026923A1, US-A1-20020026923, US-A1-2002026923, US2002/0026923A1, US2002/026923A1, US20020026923 A1, US20020026923A1, US2002026923 A1, US2002026923A1
InventorsDietmar Bertsch, Martin Bezner, Uwe Schaupp, Helmut Schorn, Jorg Sievert
Original AssigneeDietmar Bertsch, Martin Bezner, Uwe Schaupp, Helmut Schorn, Jorg Sievert
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Injection nozzle and a method for forming a fuel-air mixture
US 20020026923 A1
Abstract
The present invention relates to a cylinder head for an internal combustion engine having a spark plug 3, provided in combustion chamber 2, and an injection nozzle 1 that has a housing end face 27 and a closure element 6 which is movable by an actuator and has a closure member 10, the housing end face 17 of the injection nozzle 1 forming a common, planar surface with the closure member 10 in the closed state of the injection nozzle 1.
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Claims(15)
1. A cylinder head for an internal combustion engine comprising a spark plug (3) provided in a combustion chamber (2), and comprising an injection nozzle (1) having a housing end face (27) and a closure element (6) that is movable by an actuator and has a closure member (10),
wherein the housing end face (27) of the injection nozzle (1) forms a common, planar surface with the closure member (10) in the closed state of the injection nozzle (1).
2. An injection nozzle as recited in claim 1,
wherein the planar surface of the closure member (10) and the housing end face (27) of the injection nozzle (1) form a cone-shaped lateral surface (26) directed toward the combustion chamber (2).
3. The injection nozzle as recited in claim 1 or 2,
wherein the closure member (10) has a conical sealing surface (24) sealing a nozzle opening (4), and the cone-shaped lateral surface (26) directed toward the combustion chamber (2).
4. The injection nozzle as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the injection nozzle (1) has a housing wall (17) whose inner side is curve-shaped or conical and/or is formed as a diffuser in the region of the nozzle opening (4).
5. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the generatrix of the conical sealing surface (24) of the closure element (6) runs tangentially with respect to a curve-shaped part (25) of the housing wall (17).
6. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the generatrix of a fuel cone (7) runs in parallel with respect to the sealing surface (24) or tangentially with respect to the curve-shaped part (25) of the housing wall (17), and forms a right angle with the outer conical surfaces (26, 27).
7. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the fuel jet (7) emerging from the injection nozzle (1) is more or less conical, and exhibits a constant jet angle α regardless of the position or setting of the closure element (6).
8. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein a nozzle opening (4) of the injection nozzle (1) has a distance (A) of 1 mm to 8 mm to a combustion-chamber top (8), and a distance (B) of 10 mm to 15 mm to the spark plug (3), the injection pressure of the injection nozzle (1) varying between 100 bar and 300 bar or between 150 bar and 250 bar.
9. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the combustion chamber top (8) exhibits an angle β, the jet angle α being 10% to 50% or 20% to 30% smaller than the angle β of the combustion chamber top (8).
10. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the fuel jet (7) has at least one, or one inner and one outer toroidal swirl (11, 11′) at the end of its cone envelope in the region of a piston (9).
11. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the closure element (6) is mounted in a coaxially rotational manner and is movable at any time via the actuator between 0 μm and 80 μm or between 10 μm and 50 μm axially into the combustion chamber (2).
12. The injection nozzle (1) as recited in one of the foregoing claims,
wherein the closure member (10) has the conical sealing surface (24) at an angle β between 70 and 90 or between 70 and 85, and the housing (17) of the injection nozzle (1) has a curve-shaped or conical outlet cross-section (25), which together form a sealing seat (14) or the sealing surface (24) of the injection nozzle (1).
13. A method for forming an ignitable fuel-air mixture in the combustion chamber (2) of a direct-injection internal combustion engine having the injection nozzle (1) which has the closure member (10) and via which fuel is introduced in at least two partial quantities into the combustion chamber (2), wherein the closure member (10) of the injection nozzle (1) is able to be brought into its closed position after the injection of each partial quantity.
14. The method as recited in claim 13,
wherein 70% to 99% or 80% to 99% of the entire fuel quantity is first introduced, and after 0.05 ms to 0.4 ms or 1 to 5 arc of crankshaft rotation the remaining partial quantity is introduced, the injection cycle being completed between 50 and 5 arc of crankshaft rotation before top dead center.
15. The method as recited in claim 13 or 14,
wherein the fuel is introduced as fuel cone (7), and at least one toroidal swirl (11) is produced at the end of its cone-shaped lateral surface (7) in the region of the piston (9).
Description

[0001] The present invention relates to a cylinder head for an internal combustion engine, having a spark plug, provided in the combustion chamber, and an injection nozzle that has a housing end face and a closure element that is movable by an actuator and has a closure member. The invention also relates to a method for forming an ignitable fuel-air mixture.

[0002] A method for forming an ignitable fuel-air mixture is already known from the German Patent 196 42 653 C1. In that case, an ignitable fuel-air mixture can be formed in the cylinders of direct-injection internal combustion engines, in that after a valve element has lifted off from a valve seat surrounding a nozzle opening, thus releasing the nozzle opening, fuel is injected by an injector into each combustion chamber bounded by a piston. The opening stroke of the valve element and the injection time are variably adjustable in order to permit an internal mixture formation, optimized with respect to consumption and emissions, in each operating point of the entire characteristics map under all operating conditions of the internal combustion engine, particularly in stratified operation. In this case, a change in the jet geometry due to combustion residues at the nozzle opening of the injection nozzle, and thus an increased soot output as a result of poor mixture formation in stratified lean operation, as well as the reduction in ignition reliability due to changing mixture quality at the spark plug are possible. Moreover, increased components of unburned fuel result due to thinning of mixture regions in stratified lean operation. Added to this are a wetting of the spark plug and consequently its failure due to carbon fouling, increased emissions because of incomplete combustion of the mixture state at the spark plug owing to statistical scattering of the injection jet, and a collapse of the injection jet caused by the combustion residues at the nozzle opening.

[0003] The object of the present invention is to ensure ignition reliability in every operating point, and to avoid a change in the fuel-jet geometry due to combustion residues at the nozzle opening of the injection nozzle.

[0004] The objective is achieved according to the present invention in that a housing end face of the injection nozzle forms a common, planar surface with the closure member in the closed state of the injection nozzle. Achieved by this is that the combustion residues, which accumulate in the region of the nozzle outlet, are broken up by the outwardly opening valve member during the next injection process and are detached by the emergent fuel jet. A growth in combustion residues in the region of the outlet opening or nozzle opening is prevented in this manner.

[0005] To this end, it is advantageous that the planar surface of the closure member and the housing end face of the injection nozzle form a cone-shaped lateral surface directed toward the combustion chamber, and that the closure member has a conical sealing surface sealing the nozzle opening, and a cone-shaped lateral surface directed toward the combustion chamber.

[0006] According to a further development, an additional possibility is for the injection nozzle to have a housing wall whose inner side is curve-shaped or conical and/or is constructed as a diffuser in the region of the nozzle opening, and for the generatrix of the conical sealing surface of the closure element to run tangentially or in parallel with respect to the curve-shaped or conical part of the housing wall, the generatrix of the fuel cone running in parallel with respect to the sealing surface or tangentially with respect to the curve-shaped part of the housing wall and forming a right angle with the outer conical surfaces. Thus, the tangentially arranged sealing surfaces form no outward corners or edges on which combustion residues could accumulate. The fuel jet, continuously accelerated because of the nozzle shape, therefore emerges at right angles from the nozzle opening and cannot be influenced by existing combustion residues in the further region of the outlet opening.

[0007] It is also advantageous that the fuel jet emerging from the injection nozzle is more or less conical, and exhibits a constant jet angle α regardless of the position or setting of the closure element. Thus, the jet angle becomes independent of the fuel quantity introduced. The optimal mixture formation can therefore be ensured in every operating point.

[0008] Finally, according to a preferred specific embodiment of the design approach according to the present invention, a nozzle opening of the injection nozzle has a distance (A) of 1 mm to 8 mm to a combustion-chamber top, and a distance (B) of 10 mm to 15 mm to the spark plug, the injection pressure of the injection nozzle varying between 100 bar and 300 bar or between 150 bar and 250 bar. The fuel-jet formation in the form of a toroidal swirl, necessary for an optimal mixture formation, is thereby achieved. In this context, the position of the spark plug and that of the fuel jet are decisive parameters.

[0009] Of particular importance for the present invention is that the combustion-chamber top exhibits an angle β, the jet angle α being 10% to 50% smaller than angle β of the combustion-chamber top. Wetting of the combustion-chamber top, i.e. striking of the toroidal swirl on the combustion-chamber top can thus be prevented.

[0010] In connection with the design and arrangement according to the present invention, it is advantageous that the fuel jet exhibits at least one, or one inner and one outer toroidal swirl at the end of its cone envelope in the region of the piston. Optimal mixture formation is consequently achieved in the entire combustion chamber.

[0011] It is also advantageous that the closure element is mounted in a coaxially rotational manner, and is movable at any time by the actuator between 10 μm and 80 μm axially into the combustion chamber. Therefore, the rotatable closure member carries a speed component in the circumferential direction into the fuel jet or fuel cone, thus improving the mixture formation and the fuel feed.

[0012] In addition, it is advantageous that the closure member has a conical sealing surface with an angle β between 70 and 90 or between 70 and 85, and a housing of the injection nozzle has a curve-shaped, parabolic or conical outlet cross-section, which together form the sealing seat or the sealing surface of the injection nozzle. Achieved by this is that the nozzle opening continuously tapers toward the outlet, and the fuel jet is therefore continuously accelerated up to its emergence. In this context, the fuel jet has a jet angle α regardless of the position of the closure element.

[0013] From the standpoint of process engineering, it is advantageous that after the injection of each partial quantity, the closure member of the injection nozzle is able to be brought into its closed position. The fuel feed, i.e. the two fuel pulses are thereby fed in a defined manner at the respective instant, and therefore make a perceptible contribution to the optimal mixture formation. Closing of the nozzle opening without a reduction in the fuel pressure at hand markedly improves the respective fuel pulse.

[0014] In this connection, it is also advantageous that 70% to 99% or 80% to 99% of the entire fuel quantity is first introduced, and after 0.05 ms to 0.4 ms or 1 to 5 arc of crankshaft rotation, the remaining partial quantity is introduced, the injection cycle being completed between 50 and 5 arc of crankshaft rotation before top dead center. The main fuel quantity introduced first is optimally prepared by the second pulse, resulting in an unthinned, ignitable fuel-air mixture.

[0015] It is also advantageous that the fuel is introduced as a fuel cone, and at least one toroidal swirl is produced at the end of its cone-shaped lateral surface in the region of a piston. The toroidal swirl carries the introduced fuel inside and outside of the fuel cone into the further regions of the combustion chamber, and above all into the region of the spark plug.

[0016] Further advantages and particulars of the present invention are clarified in the patent claims and in the description, and are depicted in the Figures, in which:

[0017]FIG. 1: shows a sectional view of the injection nozzle of the injector;

[0018]FIG. 2: shows a sectional view of one cylinder with piston, injection nozzle and spark plug;

[0019]FIG. 3: shows a sectional view of one cylinder with piston, injection nozzle spark plug and toroidal swirl.

[0020]FIG. 1 shows an injection nozzle 1 having a closure element 6 and a closure member 10. In addition, it has a cylindrical housing 17 formed about a longitudinal axis, and a fuel chamber 18 situated between housing wall 17 and closure element 6.

[0021] Closure element 6 is mechanically coupled at its upper end to an actuator (not shown) and to a return spring. The actuator is a piezo element which expands under electrical voltage, and thereby ensures the lift of closure element 6. In addition to the spring energy, the pressure prevailing in fuel chamber 18 exerts a restoring force on an upper end face (not shown) of closure element 6. The imperviousness of injection nozzle 1 is therefore ensured at every instant.

[0022] Injection nozzle 1 has a nozzle opening 4, as well as closure member 10. Nozzle opening 4 is first of all formed by a curve-shaped part 25 at the lower end of housing wall 17. Curve-shaped part 25 of housing wall 17 is designed to be curve-shaped or parabolic in cross-section on the inner side, i.e. at the end of fuel chamber 18.

[0023] Closure member 10 is formed as a double cone, that is to say, it has a cone, i.e. a conical outer surface 26, both downward toward the combustion-chamber side, as well as inward toward combustion chamber 2. This inner part represents a conical sealing surface 24 and, together with inner, curve-shaped or parabolic part 25 of housing 17, forms a sealing seat 14 and nozzle opening 4, respectively. In this context, the cone generatrix of cone 24 forms the tangent to inner, curve-shaped part 25 of nozzle opening 4. Toward an outer side, i.e. toward housing end face 27 of injection nozzle 1, both sealing surfaces 24, 25 ultimately run in parallel and form a right angle with outer generatrix 25 of closure member 10. End face 27 of housing wall 17 located in this region is accordingly formed as a partial conical surface and has a planar junction, that is to say, a common conical surface with a cone-shaped lateral surface, i.e. generatrix 26 in the closed state of injection nozzle 1. Consequently, in the closed state, cone-shaped lateral surface 26 is enlarged by the lower part of housing 17, i.e. end face 27. The cross-section of fuel chamber 18 therefore tapers continuously toward sealing seat 14 and is equal to zero there in the closed state.

[0024] In response to an axial shift of closure element 6, closure member 10 with its sealing surface 24 is lifted from curve-shaped part 25 of housing 17 into combustion chamber 2, and therefore frees nozzle opening 4 for the fuel at hand. In this context, the opening stroke of closure element 6 and the duration of time that nozzle opening 4 is released determine the rate of fuel flow through nozzle opening 4, and consequently the total amount or partial amount of fuel fed.

[0025]FIGS. 2 and 3 show one cylinder 12 of a direct-injection internal combustion engine, in which a piston 9, with a cylinder head 13 closing cylinder 12, bounds combustion chamber 2. Injection nozzle 1 for fuel is arranged co-axially in cylinder head 13, with a clearance of 0 mm to 10 mm to a cylinder axis 15. Cylinder head 13, i.e. a combustion-chamber top 8, is cone-shaped or roof-shaped in this region, injection nozzle 1 being disposed in the highest point, i.e. in the region of the actual cone point or roof ridge.

[0026] A control unit (not shown) determines specifically for each operating point of the internal combustion engine, the instant, assigned to the position of a crankshaft, i.e. of a respective piston 9, for the release of a nozzle opening 4 of injection nozzle 1. The fuel enters through it as fuel cone 7 in different partial sections of an injection cycle, into combustion chamber 2.

[0027] An ignitable fuel-air mixture is formed in combustion chamber 2 by the charge air, supplied to cylinder 12 through the intake port (not shown), and the injected fuel.

[0028] In stratified operation, the fuel is injected during the compression stroke. With the injection process, a mixture cloud forms in combustion chamber 2 starting from injected fuel cone 7. Fuel cone 7 forms an angle α between 70 and 90 which is always somewhat smaller than angle β of combustion-chamber top 8. A spark plug 3 is positioned in combustion chamber 2 in such a way that its center axis is oriented more or less normal to, i.e. with a deviation between 0 and 30, to fuel cone envelope 7, which means fuel cone envelope 7 essentially does not moisten a ground electrode 3′ of spark plug 3. In response to an injection pressure between 100 bar and 300 bar, so-called toroidal swirls 11, 11′ develop in the region of piston 9, starting from the fuel-jet generatrix (see FIG. 2). Toroidal swirl 11 develops due to a rolling-up of fuel cone 7 starting from the generatrix of fuel cone 7, before fuel cone 7 strikes piston 9. A toroidal swirl 11 forms on the outer side of the cone over the cone periphery toward combustion-chamber top 8. With the developing toroidal swirl 11, that is to say, in the region of toroidal swirl 11, the fuel is mixed with the combustion-chamber air. Since outer toroidal swirl 11 develops above fuel cone 7, an ignitable, unthinned fuel-air mixture is formed in the region of spark plug 3, that is, at its electrode 3′. A second toroidal swirl 11′ develops within fuel cone 7. In this case, an ignitable, unthinned fuel-air mixture is produced in the region of injection nozzle 1.

Referenced by
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US7025037Apr 2, 2004Apr 11, 2006Peugeot Citroen Automobiles SaInternal-combustion engine with precombustion chamber and controlled ignition
US7387104Mar 19, 2004Jun 17, 2008Peugeot Citroen Automobiles SaInternal combustion engine with direct gasoline injection and controlled ignition
US7585221 *Jul 17, 2008Sep 8, 2009IgtSlot machine game having a plurality of ways for a user to obtain payouts for one or more additional pay lines formed by the appearance of special symbols in a symbol matrix
US8172161Dec 15, 2004May 8, 2012Continental Automitive Italy S.p.A.Valve body, fluid injector and process for manufacturing a valve body
EP1464804A1 *Feb 4, 2004Oct 6, 2004Peugeot Citroen Automobiles SAInternal combustion engine having pre-chamber and spark ignition
EP1559904A1 *Jan 28, 2004Aug 3, 2005Siemens VDO Automotive S.p.A.Valve body, fluid injector and process for manufacturing a valve body
WO2004090301A1 *Mar 19, 2004Oct 21, 2004Peugeot Citroen Automobiles SaSelf-igniting petrol internal combustion engine
WO2005069719A2 *Jan 14, 2005Aug 4, 2005Drobyshevsky Cheslav BronislavThe fuel feed technique in combustion engine combustion chamber and nozzle
WO2005075814A1 *Dec 15, 2004Aug 18, 2005Biagetti FabrizioValve body, fluid injector and process for manufacturing a valve body
Classifications
U.S. Classification123/300, 123/305
International ClassificationF02M61/18, F02M45/02, F02M61/08, F02M45/10, F02B75/12, F02B23/10
Cooperative ClassificationF02M61/08, F02B2075/125, F02M45/10, F02M45/02, F02B23/101, Y02T10/123, F02M61/18
European ClassificationF02M61/08, F02M61/18, F02M45/02, F02M45/10
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 31, 2011FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
May 28, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: DAIMLER AG, GERMANY
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:DAIMLER CHRYSLER AG;REEL/FRAME:021029/0447
Effective date: 20071019
Mar 30, 2007FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Aug 10, 2004CCCertificate of correction
Aug 20, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: DAIMLER CHRYSLER AG, GERMANY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BERTSCH, DIETMAR;BEZNER, MARTIN;SCHAUPP, UWE;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:012094/0105;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010612 TO 20010723
Owner name: DAIMLER CHRYSLER AG EPPLESTRASSE 225D-70567 STUTTG
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BERTSCH, DIETMAR /AR;REEL/FRAME:012094/0105;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010612 TO 20010723