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Publication numberUS20020047940 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/978,739
Publication dateApr 25, 2002
Filing dateOct 16, 2001
Priority dateOct 19, 2000
Also published asUS6970052
Publication number09978739, 978739, US 2002/0047940 A1, US 2002/047940 A1, US 20020047940 A1, US 20020047940A1, US 2002047940 A1, US 2002047940A1, US-A1-20020047940, US-A1-2002047940, US2002/0047940A1, US2002/047940A1, US20020047940 A1, US20020047940A1, US2002047940 A1, US2002047940A1
InventorsYasuharu Kudo, Etsuya Shibata
Original AssigneeAlps Electric Co., Ltd
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Modulator immune from temperature variation-induced change in modulation factor
US 20020047940 A1
Abstract
A modulation factor is kept immune from the influence of temperature variations. A modulator is provided with an operational amplifier to one of whose input ends are inputted video signals and to the other is applied a reference voltage and a video mixer into which are entered carrier wave signals and video signals amplified by the operational amplifier, wherein the reference voltage is raised or lowered as the gain of the video mixer increases or decreases, respectively, with a variation in temperature.
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Claims(2)
What is claimed is:
1. A modulator provided with an operational amplifier to one of whose input ends are inputted video signals and to the other is applied a reference voltage and a video mixer into which are entered carrier wave signals and video signals amplified by the operational amplifier, wherein the reference voltage is raised or lowered as the gain of the video mixer increases or decreases, respectively, with a variation in temperature.
2. The modulator, according to claim, wherein the video mixer is configured of a double-balance mixer consisting of a first differential amplifier and a second differential amplifier each having two transistors, wherein the video signals amplified by the operational amplifier are entered into emitters of the transistors of the first differential amplifier, wherein the carrier wave signals are entered between bases of the two transistors of the first differential amplifier and between bases of the two transistors of the second differential amplifier, and wherein voltages of the emitters of the transistors of the second differential amplifier are superposed over the reference voltage.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0001] 1. Field of the Invention

[0002] The present invention relates to a modulator for use in television signal transmitters and the like.

[0003] 2. Description of the Prior Art

[0004] A television signal transmitter for use in CATV systems and the like uses a modulator for modulating a carrier wave with video signals to obtain intermediate frequency signals of the PAL specification (European specification) in the 30 MHz band or the NTSC specification (U.S. specification) in the 40 MHz band.

[0005]FIG. 4 illustrates the configuration of such a modulator according to the prior art. Video signals Vd serving as modulation signals are inputted to the inverted input end (−) of an operational amplifier 31, and to its non-inverted input end (+) is applied a reference voltage Er.

[0006] As a video mixer 32 consists of a double-balance mixer having a first differential amplifier 32 a and a second differential amplifier 32 b each having two transistors, emitters of a first transistor TR1 and a second transistor TR2 in the first differential amplifier 32 a are connected to each other, and those of a third transistor TR3 and a fourth transistor TR4 in the second differential amplifier 32 b are also connected to each other. An output end of the operational amplifier 31 is connected to the emitters of the first and second transistors TR1 and TR2.

[0007] Bases of the first transistor TR1 and the fourth transistor TR4 are connected to each other, and those of the second transistor TR2 and the third transistor TR3 are also connected to each other. Further, collectors of the first transistor TR1 and the third transistor TR3 are connected to each other, and those of the second transistor TR2 and the fourth transistor TR4 are also connected to each other.

[0008] The emitters of the first and second transistors TR1 and TR2 are grounded via a resistor 33, and those of the third and fourth transistors TR3 and TR4 are grounded via a resistor 34.

[0009] Further, the collectors of the first and third transistors TR1 and TR3 and those of the second and fourth transistors TR2 and TR4 are connected to a terminal on one side of a balanced-to-unbalanced transformer 35, whose terminal on the other side is connected to a power supply terminal 37 via a choke inductor 36, and the other terminal on the other side is grounded on a high frequency basis by a capacitor 38.

[0010] Between the connection point of the balanced-to-unbalanced transformer 35 and the choke inductor 36 and an output end 39 is connected a resistance attenuator 40 in a π pattern.

[0011] A carrier wave signal Cw is entered into a balanced amplifier 43 via a resistance attenuator 41 and a balanced-to-unbalanced transformer 42 configured in a π pattern, amplified and entered in a balanced way between the bases of the first and fourth transistors TR1 and TR4 and those of the second and third transistors TR2 and TR3.

[0012] In the configuration described above, the video mixer 32 operates in an unbalanced input pattern with respect to video signals and in a balanced input pattern with respect to carrier wave signals. From the output end 39, a signal whose waveform is modulated as shown in FIG. 5A, i.e. a compound picture signal is supplied, whose modulation factor (M/C) is set by the reference voltage Er of the operational amplifier 31.

[0013] However, as the currents of the transistors in the double-balance mixer 32 vary with the ambient temperature, their gains also vary, and eventually the modulation factor varies, too.

[0014] If, for instance, a variation in temperature increases the transistor currents and their gains also rise, the amplitude of the compound video signal expands from M to M′ as its waveform shown in FIG. 5B indicates. On the other hand, as the reference voltage Er is constant at the minimum level E of the picture signal, the modulation factor M′/C′ varies in an increasing direction from before the temperature variation.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0015] An object of the present invention, therefore, is to provide a modulator whose modulation factor is kept immune by the influence of temperature variations.

[0016] To achieve this object, a modulator according to the invention is provided with an operational amplifier to one of whose input ends are inputted video signals and to the other is applied a reference voltage and a video mixer into which are entered carrier wave signals and video signals amplified by the operational amplifier, wherein the reference voltage is raised or lowered as the gain of the video mixer increases or decreases, respectively, with a variation in temperature.

[0017] The video mixer may be configured of a double-balance mixer consisting of a first differential amplifier and a second differential amplifier each having two transistors, wherein the video signals amplified by the operational amplifier are entered into emitters of the transistors of the first differential amplifier, wherein the carrier wave signals are entered between bases of the two transistors of the first differential amplifier and between bases of the two transistors of the second differential amplifier, and wherein voltages of the emitters of the transistors of the second differential amplifier are superposed over the reference voltage.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0018]FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram showing the configuration of the modulator according to the present invention.

[0019]FIG. 2 is an output waveform diagram of the operational amplifier in the modulator according to the invention.

[0020]FIG. 3 is a waveform diagram to aid the description of the modulation factor of the modulator according to the invention.

[0021]FIG. 4 is a circuit diagram showing the configuration of a modulator according to the prior art.

[0022]FIG. 5 is a waveform diagram to aid the description of the modulation factor of the modulator according to the prior art.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS OF THE INVENTION

[0023]FIG. 1 illustrates the configuration of a modulator according to the present invention. A video signal Vd as a modulation signal is inputted to the inverted input end (−) of the operational amplifier 1 and a reference voltage Er is applied to its non-inverted input end (+). This reference voltage Er is obtained by dividing a source voltage +B with a variable resistor 2.

[0024] As a video mixer 3 into which video signals are entered is configured of a double-balance mixer consisting of a first differential amplifier 3 a and a second differential amplifier 3 b each having two transistors, emitters of the first transistor TR1 and the second transistor TR2 in the first differential amplifier 3 a are connected to each other, and emitters of the first transistor TR1 and the second transistor TR2 in the third transistor TR3 and the fourth transistor TR4 are also connected to each other. The emitters of the first and second transistors TR1 and TR2 are grounded via a resistor 4, and the emitters of the third and fourth transistors TR3 and TR4 are grounded via a resistor 5.

[0025] To extract compound picture signals containing the carrier wave from the video mixer 3, video signals amplified by the operational amplifier 1 are entered only into the emitters of the first and second transistors TR1 and TR2 of the first differential amplifier 3 a. Voltages emerging at the emitters of the third and fourth transistors TR3 and TR4 of the second differential amplifier 3 b are superposed over the reference voltage Er obtained by voltage division by the variable resistor 2.

[0026] Bases of the first transistor TR1 and the fourth transistor TR4 are connected to each other, and those of the second transistor TR2 and the third transistor TR3 are also connected to each other. Further, collectors of the first transistor TR1 and the third transistor TR3 are connected to each other, and those of the second transistor TR2 and the fourth transistor TR4 are also connected to each other.

[0027] The collectors of the first and third transistors TR1 and TR3 and those of the second and fourth transistors TR2 and TR4 are connected to two terminals on one side of a balanced-to-unbalanced transformer 6. One of the terminals on the other side is connected to a power supply terminal 8 via a choke inductor 7. To the power supply terminal 8 is applied a source voltage +B. The other terminal on the other side is grounded on a high frequency basis by a grounding capacitor 9.

[0028] Between the connection point between the balanced-to-unbalanced transformer 6 and the choke inductor 7 and an output end 10 is connected a resistance attenuator 11 connected in a π pattern.

[0029] The carrier wave signal Cw is entered into a balanced amplifier 14 via a resistance attenuator 12 and a balanced-to-unbalanced transformer 13 configured in a π pattern, and the amplified carrier wave signal is entered between the bases of the first and fourth transistors TR1 and TR4 and those of the second and third transistors TR2 and TR3 in a balanced pattern.

[0030] In the configuration described above, a video signal amplified by the operational amplifier 1 takes on the waveform shown in FIG. 2, and its level rises or drops as the reference voltage Er is varied. When a carrier wave signal is modulated with the video signal, a modulated signal having the waveform shown in FIG. 3A, i.e. a compound picture signal, emerges at the output end 10, and its modulation factor (M/C) is set to a prescribed level by the reference voltage Er of the operational amplifier 1.

[0031] Now, if the currents of the transistors TR1 through TR4 in the video mixer 3 are increased by a temperature variation, resulting in increased gains for instance, the amplitude of the video signal in the waveform of the modulated signal expands from M to M′ as shown in FIG. 3B.

[0032] However, as the temperature variation raises the currents of the transistors, the emitter voltages of the third and fourth transistors TR3 and TR4 in the second differential amplifier 3 b rise, and the raised voltages are superposed over the reference voltage Er, with the result that the actual reference voltage Er′ applied to the non-inverted input end (+) of the operational amplifier 3 becomes higher than Er by ΔEr. By setting this augmented reference voltage Er′ in advance to be M′/M times Er, the modulation factor M′/C″ will remain unchanged.

[0033] This setting can be readily accomplished by setting the resistance of a resistor 15 for superposing the emitter voltages of the third and fourth transistors TR3 and TR4 or that of a voltage divider (the variable resistor 2 or the like) for obtaining the reference voltage Er.

[0034] As hitherto described, since the modulator according to the present invention is provided with an operational amplifier to one of whose input ends are inputted video signals and to the other is applied a reference voltage and a video mixer into which are entered carrier wave signals and video signals amplified by the operational amplifier, wherein the reference voltage is raised or lowered as the gain of the video mixer increases or decreases, respectively, with a variation in temperature, it can keep the modulation factor immune from the influence of temperature variations.

[0035] Also, the video mixer may be configured of a double-balance mixer consisting of a first differential amplifier and a second differential amplifier each having two transistors, wherein the video signals amplified by the operational amplifier are entered into the emitters of the transistors of the first differential amplifier, wherein the carrier wave signals are entered between the bases of the two transistors of the first differential amplifier and between the bases of the two transistors of the second differential amplifier, and wherein the voltages of the emitters of the transistors of the second differential amplifier are superposed over the reference voltage. Accordingly, even if the currents of the transistors are varied by a temperature change, the emitter voltages at the time are automatically superposed over the reference voltage to keep the modulation factor from varying.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7519335Oct 11, 2005Apr 14, 2009Stmicroelectronics SaDigital modulation signal mixer
EP1648084A1 *Oct 11, 2005Apr 19, 2006Stmicroelectronics SAMixer Circuit
Classifications
U.S. Classification348/724, 348/E05.094, 348/723
International ClassificationH04N5/40, H03D7/14
Cooperative ClassificationH03D7/1458, H03D2200/0023, H03D2200/0047, H04N5/40, H03D7/1433
European ClassificationH03D7/14C1, H04N5/40
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jan 21, 2014FPExpired due to failure to pay maintenance fee
Effective date: 20131129
Nov 29, 2013LAPSLapse for failure to pay maintenance fees
Jul 12, 2013REMIMaintenance fee reminder mailed
Mar 26, 2009FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Oct 16, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: ALPS ELECTRIC CO., LTD., JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KUDO, YASUHARU;SHIBATA, ETSUYA;REEL/FRAME:012270/0160
Effective date: 20010921