Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20020072493 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/893,348
Publication dateJun 13, 2002
Filing dateJun 28, 2001
Priority dateMay 19, 1998
Also published asUS7560102, US20040253218, WO2003002602A2, WO2003002602A3
Publication number09893348, 893348, US 2002/0072493 A1, US 2002/072493 A1, US 20020072493 A1, US 20020072493A1, US 2002072493 A1, US 2002072493A1, US-A1-20020072493, US-A1-2002072493, US2002/0072493A1, US2002/072493A1, US20020072493 A1, US20020072493A1, US2002072493 A1, US2002072493A1
InventorsMichal Eisenbach-Schwartz, Ehud Hauben, Irun Cohen, Pierre Beserman, Alon Mosonego, Gila Moalem
Original AssigneeYeda Research And Development Co. Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Activated T cells, nervous system-specific antigens and their uses
US 20020072493 A1
Abstract
Compositions and methods to promote nerve regeneration or to confer neuroprotection and prevent or inhibit neuronal degeneration within the nervous system, eiteher the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system, are provided. Treatment involves administering NS-specific activated T cells, or an NS-specific antigen or analog thereof, a peptide derived therefrom or an analog or derivative of said peptide, or a nucleotide sequence encoding said antigen or peptide, or any combination thereof.
Images(30)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(44)
What is claimed is:
1. A method for promoting nerve regeneration or for conferring neuroprotection and preventing or inhibiting neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system for ameliorating the effects of injury or disease, comprising administering to an individual in need thereof at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of:
(a) NS-specific activated T cells;
(b) a NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;
(c) a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog or derivative of said peptide;
(d) a nucleotide sequence encoding an NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;
(e) a nucleotide sequence encoding a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog of said peptide; or
(f) any combination of (a)-(e).
2. The method according to claim 1 wherein the injury is selected from the group consisting of spinal cord injury, blunt trauma, penetrating trauma, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke or damages caused by surgery such as tumor excision.
3. The method according to claim 1 wherein the disease is not an autoimmune disease or a neoplasm.
4. The method according to claim 1 wherein the disease results in a degenerative process occurring in either gray or white matter or both.
5. The method according to claim 4 wherein said disease is selected from the group consisting of diabetic neuropathy, senile dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, facial nerve (Bell's) palsy, glaucoma, Huntington's chorea, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, non-arteritic optic neuropathy, and vitamin deficiency.
6. The method according to claim 4 wherein said disease is selected from the group consisting of intervertebral disc herniation, prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral neuropathies associated with various diseases, including but not limited to, uremia, porphyria, hypoglycemia, Sjorgren Larsson syndrome, acute sensory neuropathy, chronic ataxic neuropathy, biliary cirrhosis, primary amyloidosis, obstructive lung diseases, acromegaly, malabsorption syndromes, polycythemia vera, IgA- and IgG gamma-pathies, complications of various drugs (e.g., metronidazole) and toxins (e.g., alcohol or organophosphates), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, ataxia telangectasia, Friedreich's ataxia, amyloid polyneuropathies, adrenomyeloneuropathy, Giant axonal neuropathy, Refsum's disease, Fabry's disease, and lipoproteinemia.
7. The method according to claim 1 which comprises administering to the individual in need NS-specific activated T cells.
8. The method according to claim 7 wherein said NS-specific activated T cells are selected from the group consisting of autologous T cells, semi-allogeneic T cells or allogeneic T cells from related donors, or from donors who are HLA-matched or HLA-partially matched, or from unrelated donors.
9. The method according to claim 8 wherein said T cells are autologous T cells.
10. The method according to claim 8 wherein said T cells are semi-allogeneic T cells.
11. The method according to claim 9 or 10 wherein said autologous or semi-allogeneic T cells have been sensitized to an NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof.
12. The method according to claim 11 wherein the NS-specific antigen is selected from the group consisting of myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), S-100, β-amyloid, Thy-1, P0, P2, and a neurotransmitter receptor.
13. The method according to claim 12 wherein the NS-specific antigen is MBP.
14. The method according to claim 11 wherein the NS-specific antigen is selected from the group consisting of Nogo-A, Nogo-B, Nogo-C, and Nogo receptor.
15. The method according to claim 9 or 10 wherein said autologous or semi-allogeneic T cells have been sensitized to a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or to an analog or derivative of said peptide.
16. The method according to claim 15 wherein said peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope of said antigen.
17. The method according to claim 16 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from MBP.
18. The method according to claim 17 wherein said peptide corresponds to a peptide selected from the sequences consisting of the sequences p11-30, p51-70, p87-99, p91-110, p131-150, and p151-170 of MBP.
19. The method according to claim 18 wherein said peptide corresponds to the sequence p51-70 of MBP.
20. The method according to claim 16 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from MOG.
21. The method according to claim 20 wherein said @ peptide corresponds to the sequence p35-55 of MOG.
22. The method according to claim 16 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from Nogo.
23. The method according to claim 22 wherein said peptide is the Nogo-A p472 peptide (SEQ ID NO:19).
24. The method according to claim 16 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from Nogo receptor.
25. The method according to claim 9 or 10 wherein said autologous or semi-allogeneic T cells have been stored for future use.
26. The method according to claim 1 which comprises administering to the individual in need a NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof.
27. The method according to claim 26 wherein the NS-specific antigen is selected from the group consisting of myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), S-100, β-amyloid, Thy-1, P0, P2, and a neurotransmitter receptor.
28. The method according to claim 27 wherein the NS-specific antigen is MBP.
29. The method according to claim 28 wherein the MBP is administered orally.
30. The method according to claim 23 wherein the NS-specific antigen is selected from the group consisting of Nogo-A, Nogo-B, Nogo-C, and Nogo receptor.
31. The method according to claim 1 which comprises administering to the individual in need a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog or derivative of said peptide.
32. The method according to claim 31 wherein said peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope of said antigen.
33. The method according to claim 32 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from MBP.
34. The method according to claim 33 wherein said peptide corresponds to a peptide selected from the sequences consisting of the sequences p11-30, p51-70, p87-99, p91-110, p131-150, and p151-170 of MBP.
35. The method according to claim 34 wherein said peptide corresponds to the sequence p51-70 of NBP.
36. The method according to claim 32 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from MOG.
37. The method according to claim 36 wherein said peptide corresponds to the sequence p35-55 of MOG.
38. The method according to claim 32 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from Nogo.
39. The method according to claim 38 wherein said peptide is the Nogo-A p472 peptide (SEQ ID NO:19).
40. The method according to claim 32 wherein said peptide is an immunogenic epitope or a cryptic epitope derived from Nogo receptor.
41. The method according to claim 1 wherein said NS-specific antigen or a peptide derived therefrom is administered intravenously, intrathecally, intramuscularly, intradermally, topically, subcutaneously, or mucosally.
42. The method according to claim 41 wherein said mucosal administration is selected from the group consisting of oral, intranasal, buccal, vaginal and rectal administration.
43. The method according to claim 42 wherein said NS-specific antigen or peptide derived therefrom is administered orally and the individual is actively immunized to build up a critical T cell response.
44. A method for preventing or inhibiting neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system comprising administering to an individual in need thereof an effective amount of a composition for up-regulating B7.2 co-stimulatory molecule or genetically manipulating B7.2 co-stimulatory molecule in said individual.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] The present application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/314,161, filed May 19, 1999, which is a continuation-in-part of application No. PCT/US98/14715, filed Jul. 21, 1998, and is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 09/218,277, filed Dec. 22, 1998, the entire contents of each of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the promotion of nerve regeneration or prevention or inhibition of neuronal degeneration to ameliorate the effects of injury or disease of the nervous system (NS). In the certain embodiments, activated T cells, an NS-specific antigen or peptide derived therefrom or a nucleotide sequence encoding an NS-specific antigen can be used to promote nerve regeneration or to confer neuroprotection and prevent or inhibit neuronal degeneration caused by injury or disease of nerves within the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system of a human subject. The compositions of the present invention may be administered alone or may be optionally administered in any desired combination.

[0003] Abbreviations: APC: antigen-presenting cell; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CAP: compound action potential; CFA: complete Freund's adjuvant; CNS: central nervous system; 4-Di-10-Asp: 4-(4-didecylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide; EAE: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis; FCS: fetal calf serum; IFA: incomplete Freund's adjuvant MAG: myelin-associated glycoprotein; MBP: myelin basic protein; MOG: myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; NS: nervous system; OVA: ovalbumin; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PLP: proteolipid it protein; PNS: peripheral nervous system; RGC: retinal ganglion cells; TCR: T-cell receptor.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0004] The nervous system comprises the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system. The CNS is composed of the brain, the spinal cord and the visual system; the PNS consists of all of the other neural elements, namely the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.

[0005] Damage to the nervous system may result from a traumatic injury, such as penetrating trauma or blunt trauma, or a disease or disorder including, but not limited to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), diabetic neuropathy, senile dementia, stroke and ischemia.

[0006] Maintenance of CNS integrity is a complex balancing act in which compromises are struck with the immune system. In most tissues, the immune system plays an essential part in protection, repair, and healing. In the CNS, because of its unique immune privilege, immunological reactions are relatively limited (Streilein, 1993). A growing body of evidence indicates that the failure of the mammalian CNS to achieve functional recovery after injury is a reflection of an ineffective dialog between the damaged tissue and the immune system. For example, the restricted communication between the CNS and blood-borne macrophages affects the capacity of axotomized axons to regrow; transplants of activated macrophages can promote CNS regrowth (Lazarov-Spiegler et al, 1996; Rapalino et al, 1998).

[0007] Activated T cells have been shown to enter the CNS parenchyma, irrespective of their antigen specificity, but only T cells capable of reacting with a CNS antigen seem to persist there (Hickey et al, 1991; Werkele, 1993; Kramer et al, 1995). T cells reactive to antigens of CNS white matter, such as myelin basic protein (MBP), can induce the paralytic disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) within several days of their inoculation into naive recipient rats (Ben-Nun et al, 1981a). Anti-MPB T cells may also be involved in the human disease multiple sclerosis (Ota et al, 1990; Martin, 1997). However, despite their pathogenic potential, anti-MBP T cell clones are present in the immune systems of healthy subjects (Burns et al, 1983; Pette et al, 1990; Martin et al, 1990; Schluesener et al, 1985). Activated T cells, which normally patrol the intact CNS, transiently accumulate at sites of CNS white matter lesions (Hirschberg et al, 1998).

[0008] A catastrophic consequence of CNS injury is that the primary damage is often compounded by the gradual secondary loss of adjacent neurons that apparently were undamaged, or only marginally damaged, by the initial injury (Faden et al, 1992; Faden, 1993; McIntosh, 1993). The primary lesion causes changes in extracellular ion concentrations, elevation of amounts of free radicals, release of neurotransmitters, depletion of growth factors, and local inflammation These changes trigger a cascade of destructive events in the adjacent neurons that initially escaped the primary injury (Lynch et al, 1994; Bazan et al, 1995; Wu et al, 1994). This secondary damage is mediated by activation of voltage-dependent or agonist-gated channels, ion leaks, activation of calcium-dependent enzymes such as proteases, lipases and nucleases, mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion, culminating in neuronal cell death (Yoshina et al, 1991; Hovda et al, 1991; Zivin et al, 1991; Yoles et al, 1992). The widespread loss of neurons beyond the loss caused directly by the primary injury has been called “secondary degeneration.”

[0009] Another tragic consequence of CNS injury is that neurons in the mammalian CNS do not undergo spontaneous regeneration following an injury. Thus, a CNS injury causes permanent impairment of motor and sensory functions.

[0010] Spinal cord lesions, regardless of the severity of the injury, initially result in a complete functional paralysis known as spinal shock. Some spontaneous recovery from spinal shock may be observed, starting a few days after the injury and tapering off within three to four weeks. The less severe the insult, the better the functional outcome. The extent of recovery is a function of the amount of undamaged tissue minus the loss due to secondary degeneration. Recovery from injury would be improved by neuroprotective treatment that could reduce secondary degeneration.

[0011] The parent applications, application Ser. Nos. 09/218,277 and 09/314,161 and PCT Publication WO 99/60021, describe the discovery made in the laboratory of the present inventors that activated T cells that recognize an antigen of the NS of the patient confer neuroprotection. More specifically, T cells reactive to MBP were shown to be neuroprotective in rat models of partially crushed optic nerve (see also Moalem et al, 1999a, the entire contents of which being hereby incorporated herein by reference) and of spinal cord injury (see also Hauben et al, 2000, the entire contents of which being hereby incorporated herein by reference). Until recently, it had been thought that immune cells do not participate in NS repair. Furthermore, any immune activity in the context of CNS damage was traditionally considered detrimental for recovery. It was quite surprising to discover that NS-specific activated T cells could be used to protect nervous system tissue from secondary degeneration which may follow damage caused by injury or disease of the CNS or PNS. The mechanism of action of such NS-specific T cells has yet to be discovered, but the massive accumulation of exogenously administered T cells at the site of CNS injury suggests that the presence of T cells at the site of injury plays a prominent role in neuroprotection. It appears, however, that the accumulation, though a necessary condition, is not sufficient for the purpose, as T cells specific to the non-self antigen ovalbumin also accumulate at the site, but have no neuroprotective effect (Hirschberg et al, 1998).

[0012] In addition to the NS-specific activated T cells, the above-referenced U.S. applications and PCT publication WO 99/60021 disclose that therapy for amelioration of effects of injury or disease of NS can be carried out also with a natural or synthetic NS-specific antigen such as MAG, S-100, β-amyloid, Thy-1, P0, P2, a neurotransmitter receptor, and preferably human MBP, human proteolipid protein (PLP), and human oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), or with a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen such as a peptide comprising amino acids 51-70 of MBP or amino acids 35-55 of MOG.

[0013] Citation or identification of any reference in this section or any other part of this application shall not be construed as an admission that such reference is available as if prior art to the invention.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0014] The present invention is directed to methods and compositions for promotion of nerve regeneration or for neuroprotection and prevention or inhibition of neuronal degeneration to ameliorate the effects of injury to, or disease of, the nervous system (NS).

[0015] The present invention is based in part on the inventors' unexpected discovery that activated T cells that recognize an antigen of the NS of the patient promote nerve regeneration or confer neuroprotection. As used herein, “neuroprotection” refers to the prevention or inhibition of degenerative effects of injury or disease in the NS. Since it was thought until recently that immune cells do not participate in nervous system repair, it was quite surprising to discover that NS-specific activated T cells and also the NS-specific antigens themselves and peptides derived therefrom can be used to promote nerve regeneration or to protect nervous system tissue from secondary degeneration which may follow damage caused by injury or disease of the CNS or PNS.

[0016] Thus, in one aspect, the invention relates to a method for promoting nerve regeneration or for conferring neuroprotection and preventing or inhibiting neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system or peripheral nervous system for ameliorating the effects of injury or disease, comprising administering to an individual in need thereof at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of:

[0017] (a) NS-specific activated T cells;

[0018] (b) a NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;

[0019] (c) a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog or derivative of said peptide;

[0020] (d) a nucleotide sequence encoding an NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;

[0021] (e) a nucleotide sequence encoding a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog of said peptide; or

[0022] (f) any combination of (a)-(e).

[0023] In another aspect, the invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for promoting nerve regeneration or for neuroprotection and prevention or inhibition of neuronal degeneration in the CNS or PNS for ameliorating the effects of injury or disease in the NS, comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of (a) to (e) above or any combination of (a)-(e).

[0024] The term “NS-specific antigen” as used herein refers to an antigen of the NS that specifically activates T cells such that following activation the activated T cells accumulate at a site of injury or disease in the NS of the patient. Examples of NS-specific antigens according to the invention include, but are not limited to, myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), S-100, β-amyloid, Thy-1, P0, P2, neurotransmitter receptors, the protein Nogo (Nogo-A, Nogo-B and Nogo-C) and the Nogo receptor (NgR). This definition also includes analogs of said NS-specific antigens as described in the section on NS-specific antigens, analogs thereof, peptides derived therefrom and analogs and derivatives thereof of said peptides hereinafter.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

[0025]FIG. 1 is a bar graph showing the presence of T cells in uninjured optic nerve or in injured optic nerve one week after injury. Adult Lewis rats were injected with activated T cells of the anti-MBP (TMBP), anti-OVA (TOVA), anti-p277 (a peptide of the human hsp60) (Tp277) lines, or with PBS, immediately after unilateral crush injury of the optic nerve. Seven days later, both the injured and uninjured optic nerves were removed, cryosectioned and analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of immunolabeled T cells. T cells were counted at the site of injury and at randomly selected areas in the uninjured optic nerves. The histogram shows the mean number of T cells per mm2±s.e.m., counted in two to three sections of each nerve. Each group contained three to four rats. The number of T cells was considerably higher in injured nerves of rats injected with anti-MBP, anti-OVA or anti-p277 T cells; statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed significant differences between T cell numbers in injured optic nerves of rats injected with anti-MBP, anti-OVA, or anti-p277 T cells and the T cell numbers in injured optic nerves of rats injected with PBS (P<0.001); and between injured optic nerves and uninjured optic nerves of rats injected with anti-MBP, anti-OVA, or anti-p277 T cells (P<0.001).

[0026]FIG. 2 is a bar graph illustrating that T cells specific to MBP, but not to OVA or p277, protect neurons from secondary degeneration. Immediately after optic nerve injury, rats were injected with anti-MBP, anti-OVA or anti-p277 T cells, or with PBS. The neurotracer dye 4-Di-10-Asp was applied to optic nerves distal to the site of the injury, immediately after injury (for assessment of primary damage) or two weeks later (for assessment of secondary degeneration). Five days after dye application, the retinas were excised and flat-mounted. Labeled retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from three to five randomly selected fields in each retina (all located at approximately the same distance from the optic disk) were counted by fluorescence microscopy. RGC survival in each group of injured nerves was expressed as the percentage of the total number of neurons spared after the primary injury (42% of neurons remained undamaged after the primary injury). The neuroprotective effect of anti-MBP T cells compared with that of PBS was significant (P<0.001, one-way ANOVA). Anti-OVA T cells or anti-p277 T cells did not differ significantly from PBS in their effects on the protection of neurons that had escaped primary injury (P>0.05, one-way ANOVA). The results are a summary of five experiments. Each group contained five to ten rats.

[0027] FIGS. 3(A-C) present photomicrographs of retrogradely labeled retinas of injured optic nerves of rats. Immediately after unilateral crush injury of their optic nerves, rats were injected with PBS (FIG. 3A) or with activated anti-p277 T cells (FIG. 3B) or activated anti-MBP T cells (FIG. 3C). Two weeks later, the neurotracer dye 4-Di-10-Asp was applied to the optic nerves, distal to the site of injury. After 5 days, the retinas were excised and flat-mounted. Labeled (surviving) RGCs, located at approximately the same distance from the optic disk in each retina, were photographed.

[0028] FIGS. 4(A-B) are graphs showing that clinical severity of EAE is not influenced by an optic nerve crush injury. For the results presented in FIG. 4A, Lewis rats, either uninjured (dash line) or immediately after optic nerve crush injury (solid line), were injected with activated anti-MBP T cells. EAE was evaluated according to a neurological paralysis scale. [Data points represent±s.e.m.] These results represent a summary of three experiments. Each group contained five to nine rats. FIG. 4B shows that the number of RGCs in the uninjured optic nerve is not influenced by injection of anti-MBP T cells. Two weeks after the injection of anti-MBP T cells or PBS, 4-Di-10-Asp was applied to the optic nerves. After 5 days the retinas were excised and-flat-mounted. Labeled RGCs from five fields (located at approximately the same distance from the optic disk) in each retina were counted and the average number per mm2 was calculated. There was no difference between the numbers of labeled RGCs in rats injected with anti-MBP T cells (TMBP) and in PBS-injected control rats.

[0029]FIG. 5 is a bar graph showing that T cells specific to p51-70 of MBP protect neurons from secondary degeneration. Immediately after optic nerve injury, rats were injected with anti-MBP T cells, anti-p51-70 T cells, or PBS. 4-Di-10-Asp was applied to optic nerves distal to the site of the injury, immediately after injury (for assessment of primary damage) or two weeks later (for assessment of secondary degeneration). Five days after dye application, the retinas were excised and flat-mounted. Labeled RGCs from three to five randomly selected fields in each retina (all located at approximately the same distance from the optic disk) were counted by fluorescence microscopy. RGC survival in each group of injured nerves was expressed as the percentage of the total number of neurons spared after primary injury. Compared with that of PBS treatment, the neuroprotective effects of anti-MBP and of anti-p51-70 T cells were significant (P<0.001, one-way ANOVA).

[0030] FIGS. 6(A-B) are graphs showing that anti-MBP T cells increase the compound action potential (CAP) amplitudes of injured optic nerves. Immediately after optic nerve injury, rats were injected with either PBS or activated anti-MBP T cells (TMBP) . Two weeks later, the CAPs of injured (FIG. 6A) and uninjured (FIG. 6B) nerves were recorded. There were no significant differences in mean CAP amplitudes between uninjured nerves obtained from PBS-injected and anti-MBP T cell-injected rats (n-8; p=0.8, Student's t-test). The neuroprotective effect of anti-MBP T cells (relative to PBS) on the injured nerve on day 14 after injury was significant (n=8, p=0.009, Student's t-test).

[0031] FIGS. 7(A-B) are graphs showing recovery of voluntary motor activity as a function of time after contusion, with and without injection of autoimmune anti-MBP T cells. (FIG. 7A) Twelve rats were deeply anesthetized and laminectomized, and then subjected to a contusion insult produced by a 10 gram weight dropped from a height of 50 mm. Six of the rats, selected at random, were then inoculated i.p. with 107 anti-MBP T cells and the other six were inoculated with PBS. At the indicated time points, locomotor behavior in an open field was scored by observers blinded to the treatment received by the rats. Results are expressed as the mean values for each group. The vertical bars indicate SEM. Differences tested by repeated ANOVA, including all time points, were significant (p<0.05). (FIG. 7B) A similar experiment using five PBS-treated animals and six animals treated with anti-MBP T cells were all subjected to a more severe contusion. At the indicated time points, locomotor behavior in an open field was scored. The results are expressed as the mean values for each group. The vertical bars indicate SEM. Rats in the treated group are represented by open circles and rats in the control group are represented by black circles. Horizontal bars show the median values. The inset shows the median plateau values of the two groups.

[0032] FIGS. 8(A-C) show retrograde labeling of cell bodies at the red nucleus in rats treated with autoimmune anti-MBP T cells (8A) and in control injured (8B) rats. Three months after contusion and treatment with anti-MBP T cells, some rats from both the treated and the control groups were re-anesthetized and a dye was applied below the site of the contusion. After five to seven days, the rats were again deeply anesthetized and their brains were excised, processed, and cryosectioned. Sections taken through the red nucleus were inspected and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively under fluorescent and confocal microscopes. Significantly, more labeled nuclei were seen in the red nuclei of rats treated with anti-MBP T cells (8A) than in the red nuclei of PBS-treated rats (8B). The quantitative differences are shown in the bar graph (8C) and were obtained from animals with scores of 10 and 11 in the T-cell-treated group and scores of 6 in the control group. The bar graph shows mean±SD.

[0033]FIG. 9 is a series of photographs showing diffusion-weighted imaging of contused spinal cord treated with anti-MBP T cells. Spinal cords of MBP-T cell-treated and PBS-treated animals (with locomotion scores of 10 and 8, respectively) were excised under deep anesthesia, immediately fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde solution, and placed into 5 mm NMR tubes. Diffusion anisotropy was measured in a Bruker DMX 400 widebore spectrometer using a microscopy probe with a 5-mm Helmholtz coil and actively shielded magnetic field gradients. A multislice pulsed gradient spin echo experiment was performed with 9 axial slices, with the central slice positioned at the center of the spinal injury. Images were acquired with TE of 31 ms, TR of 2000 ms, a diffusion time of 15 ms, a diffusion gradient duration of 3 ms, field of view 0.6 mm, matrix size 128×128, slice thickness 0.5 mm, and slice separation of 1.18 mm. Four diffusion gradient values of 0, 28, 49, and 71 g/cm were applied along the read direction (transverse diffusion) or along the slice direction (longitudinal diffusion). Diffusion anisotropy is manifested by increased signal intensity in the images with the highest transverse diffusion gradient relative to the longitudinal diffusion gradient. The excised spinal cords of a PBS-treated rat and in the rat treated with MBP-T cells were subjected to diffusion-weighted MRI analysis. In the PBS-treated injured control, diffusion anisotropy was seen mainly in sections near the proximal and distal stumps of the cord, with low anisotropy in sections taken through the site of injury. In contrast, in the treated rat, higher levels of diffusion anisotropy can be seen in sections taken through the site of injury.

[0034]FIG. 10 is a graph illustrating inhibition of secondary degeneration after optic nerve crush injury in adult rats. See text, Example 3, for experimental details. Rats were injected intradermally through the footpads with a 21-mer peptide based on MOG amino acid residues 35-55 (MOG p35-55) ((50 μ/animal, chemically synthesized at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel) or PBS ten days prior to optic nerve crush injury or MOG p35-55 in the absence of crush injury. MOG p35-55 was administered with IFA. Surviving optic nerve fibers were monitored by retrograde labeling of RGCs. The number of RGCs in rats injected with PBS or MOG p35-55 was expressed as a percentage of the total number of neurons in rats injected with MOG p35-55 in the absence of crush injury.

[0035]FIG. 11 is a graph illustrating inhibition in adult rats of secondary degeneration after optic nerve crush injury by MBP. See text, Example 4, for experimental details. MBP (Sigma, Israel) (1 mg in 0.5 ml saline) was administered orally to adult rats by gavage using a blunt needle. MBP was administered 5 times, i.e., every third day beginning two weeks prior to optic nerve crush injury. Surviving optic nerve fibers were monitored by retrograde labeling of RGCs. The number of RGCs in treated rats was expressed as a percentage of the total number of neurons in untreated rats following the injury.

[0036] FIGS. 12 (A-F) show expression of B7 co-stimulatory molecules in intact and injured rat optic nerve. Optic nerves were excised from adult Lewis rats before (12A, 12B) and three days after injury (12C, 12D, 12E) and analyzed immunohistochemically for expression of the B7 co-stimulatory molecule. The site of injury was delineated by GFAP staining. Using calibrated cross-action forceps, the right optic nerve was subjected to a mild crush injury 1-2 mm from the eye. The uninjured cointralateral nerve was left undisturbed. Immunohistochemical analysis of optic nerve antigens was performed as follows. Briefly, longitudinal cryosections of the excised nerves (20 μm thick) were picked up onto gelatin-coated glass and fixed with ethanol for ten minutes at room temperature. The sections were washed and incubated for one hour at room temperature with mouse monoclonal antibody to rat GFAP (BioMakor, Israel), diluted 1:100, and with antibodies to B7.2 co-stimulatory molecule and the B7.1 co-stimulatory molecule (Pharmingen, San Diego, Calif.), diluted 1:25. The sections were washed again and incubated with rhodamine isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (with minimal cross-reaction to rat, human, bovine and horse serum protein) go (Jackson ImmunoResearch, West Grove, Pa.), for one hour at room is temperature. All washing solutions contained PBS and 0.05% Tween-20. All diluting solutions contained PBS containing 3% fetal calf serum and 2% bovine serum albumin. The sections were treated with glycerol containing 1,4-diazobicyclo-(2,2,2)-octane and were then viewed with a Zeiss microscope. Note the morphological changes of the B7.2 positive cells after injury, from a rounded (12A, 12B) to a star-like shape (12C, 12D). The B7.2 positive cells were present at a higher density closer to the injury site (12E). Expression of B7.1 was detectable only from day seven and only at the injured site (12F).

[0037] FIGS. 13A-C show immunohistochemical analysis of T cells, macrophages or microglia, and B7.2 co-stimulatory molecules in the injured optic nerves of rats fed MBP. Lewis rats aged 6-8 weeks were fed 1 mg of bovine MBP (Sigma, Israel) (2 mg MBP/ml PBS) or 0.5 ml PBS only every other day by gastric intubation using a stainless steel feeding needle (Thomas Scientific, Swedesboro, N.J.) (Chen et al, 1994). Ten days after starting MBP, the right optic nerves were subjected to calibrated crush injury, as described for FIG. 12. Three days later, the nerves were excised and prepared for immunohistochemical analysis of T cells using mouse monoclonal antibodies to T cell receptor 11, diluted 1:25, macrophages or microglia using anti-ED1 antibodies (Serotek, Oxford, U.K) diluted 1:250, astrocytes using anti-GFAP antibodies and B7.2 co-stimulatory molecules as described for FIG. 12. There were no significant quantitative differences in T cells or in ED-1 positive cells between injured optic nerves of PBS-fed (13A) and MBP-fed (13B) rats. The number of B7.2 positive cells at the site of injury of MBP-fed rats (13C) should be noted, as compared with injured controls (see FIG. 12E above).

[0038]FIG. 14 is a graph showing the slowing of neuronal degeneration in rats with orally induced tolerance to MBP. Lewis rats were fed 1 mg MBP daily, or every other day, or 4 times a day at two-hour intervals for five consecutive days. Control animals were given PBS or the non-self antigen OVA Sigma, Israel). Ten days after the start of MBP ingestion, the right optic nerves were subjected to a calibrated mild crush injury. Two weeks later the RGCs were retrogradely labelled by application of the fluorescent lipophilic dye 4-Di-10-Asp(Molecular Probes Europe BV, Netherlands), distally to the site of injury, as described. Briefly, complete axotomy was performed 1-2 mm from the distal border to the injury site, and solid crystals (0.2-0.4 mm in diameter) of 4-Di-10-Asp were immediately deposited at the site of the lesion. Retrograde labeling of RGCs by the dye gives a reliable indication of the number of still-functioning neurons, as only intact axons can transport the dye to their cell bodies in the retina. Six days after dye application, the retina was detached from the eye, prepared as a flattened whole mount in 4% paraformaldehyde solution, and examined for labeled RGCs by fluorescence microscopy. RGCs were counted from three different regions in the retina. The results are expressed as normalized percentage of each retina to untreated injured animal mean of the same experiment. The median of each group is shown as a bar (Control vs. MBP OTx4 ** P<0.01; Control vs. MBP OT ** P, 0.01; Control vs. OVA OT ns P>0.05.

[0039]FIG. 15 shows the nucleotide sequence of rat MBP gene, SEQ ID NO:1, Genbank accession number M25889 (Schaich et al, 1986).

[0040]FIG. 16 shows the nucleotide sequence of human MBP gene, SEQ ID NO:2, Genbank accession number M13577 (Kamholz et al, 1986).

[0041] FIGS. 17(A-F) show the nucleotide sequences of human PLP gene exons 1-7, SEQ ID NOs:3-8, respectively, Genbank accession numbers M15026-M15032, respectively (Diehl et al, 1986).

[0042]FIG. 18 shows the nucleotide sequence of human MOG gene, SEQ ID NO:9, Genbank accession number Z48051 (Roth et al, submitted (Jan. 17, 1995) Roth, CNRS UPR 8291, CIGH, CHU Purpan, Toulouse, France, 31300; Gonzalez et al, 1996).

[0043]FIG. 19 shows the nucleotide sequence of rat PLP gene and variant, SEQ ID NO:10, Genbank accession number M16471 (Nave et al, 1987).

[0044]FIG. 20 shows the nucleotide sequence of rat MAG gene, SEQ ID NO:11, Genbank accession number M14871 (Arquint et al, 1987).

[0045]FIG. 21 shows the amino acid sequence of human MBP, SEQ ID NO:12, Genbank accession number 307160 (Kamholz et al, 1986).

[0046]FIG. 22 shows the amino acid sequence of human PLP, SEQ ID NO:13, Genbank accession number 387028.

[0047]FIG. 23 shows the amino acid sequence of human MOG, SEQ ID NO:14, Genbank accession number 793839 (Roth et al, 1995; Roth Submitted (JAN. 17, 1995) Roth CNRS UPR 8291, CIGH, CHU Purpan, Toulouse, France, 31300; Gonzalez et al, 1996).

[0048] FIGS. 24(A-B) show that post-traumatic immunization with Nogo peptide p472 emulsified in CFA promotes functional recovery from spinal cord contusion in comparison to PBS+CFA-treated rats. Spinal cords of male SPD rats were laminectomized at the level of T9 and a 10-g rod was dropped onto the laminectomized cord from a height of 50 mm (FIG. 24A) or of 25 mm (FIG. 24B). See text, Example 5, for experimental details.

[0049]FIG. 25 show that post-traumatic immunization with Nogo peptide p472 emulsified in CFA promotes functional recovery from spinal cord contusion in comparison to PBS-treated or PBS+CFA-treated rats. Spinal cords of female SPD rats were laminectomized at the level of T9 and a 10-g rod was dropped onto the laminectomized cord from a height of 50 mm. See text, Example 5, for experimental details.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0050] As exposed above, the present invention relates to compositions and methods for promoting nerve regeneration or for conferring neuroprotection and preventing or inhibiting neuronal degeneration in the CNS or PNS for ameliorating the effects of injury or disease, comprising administering to an individual in need thereof at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of:

[0051] (a) NS-specific activated T cells;

[0052] (b) a NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;

[0053] (c) a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog or derivative of said peptide;

[0054] (d) a nucleotide sequence encoding an NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;

[0055] (e) a nucleotide sequence encoding a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog of said peptide; or

[0056] (f) any combination of (a)-(e).

[0057] Merely for ease of explanation, the detailed description of the present invention is divided into the following sections: NS-specific activated T cells and T-cell banks; NS-specific antigens, analogs thereof, peptides derived therefrom and analogs and derivatives thereof of said peptides; nucleotide sequences encoding NS-specific antigens, analogs thereof, peptides derived therefrom and analogs thereof; therapeutic uses; and formulations and modes of administration.

[0058] NS-Specific Activated T Cells and T-Cell Banks

[0059] In one embodiment of the invention, NS-specific activated T cells can be used in an amount which is effective to confer neuroprotection for ameliorating or inhibiting the effects of injury or disease of the CNS or PNS that result in NS degeneration or for promoting regeneration in the NS, in particular the CNS, as described in the section on therapeutic uses hereinafter.

[0060] In the practice of the invention, administration of NS-specific activated T cells may optionally be in combination with an NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof or a peptide derived therefrom or an analog or derivative of said peptide. Additionally, oral administration of NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof or a peptide derived therefrom or an analog or derivative thereof, can be combined with active immunization to build up a critical T-cell response immediately after injury.

[0061] Activation of T cells is initiated by interaction of a TCR complex with a processed antigenic peptide bound to a MHC molecule on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell (APC). As used herein, the term “activated T cells” includes both (i) T cells that have been activated by exposure to a cognate antigen or peptide derived therefrom or derivative thereof; and (ii) progeny of such activated T cells. As used herein, a “cognate antigen” is an antigen that is specifically recognized by the TCR of a T cell that has been previously exposed to the antigen. Alternatively, the T cell which has been previously exposed to the antigen may be activated by a mitogen, such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin A (Con A).

[0062] The term “NS-specific activated T cell” as used herein refers to an activated T cell having specificity for an antigen of the NS, said NS-specific antigen being an antigen of the NS that specifically activates T cells such that these activated T cells will accumulate at a site of injury or disease in the NS of the patient. The NS-specific antigen used to confer the specificity to the T cells may be a self NS-antigen of the patient or a non-self NS-antigen of another individual or even of another species, or an analog of said NS-antigen, or a peptide derived from said NS-antigen or from said analog thereof, or an analog or derivative of said peptide, all as described in the section on NS-specific antigens, analogs thereof, peptides derived therefrom and analogs and derivatives thereof of said peptides hereinafter, as long as the activated T cell recognizes an antigen in the NS of the patient.

[0063] If the disease being treated by the NS-specific activated T cells of the invention is an autoimmune disease, in which the autoimmune antigen is an NS antigen, the T cells which are used in accordance with the present invention for the treatment of neural damage or degeneration caused by such disease are preferably not activated against the same autoimmune antigen involved in the disease. While the prior art has described methods of treating autoimmune diseases by administering activated T cells to create a tolerance to the autoimmune antigen, the T cells of the present invention are not administered in such a way as to create tolerance, but are administered in such a way as to create accumulation of the T cells at the site of injury or disease so as to facilitate neural regeneration or to inhibit neural degeneration.

[0064] The prior art also discloses uses of immunotherapy against tumors, including brain tumors, by administering T cells specific to an NS antigen in the tumor so that such T cells may induce an immune system attack against the tumors. The present invention is not intended to comprehend such prior art techniques. However, the present invention is intended to comprehend the inhibition of neural degeneration or the enhancement of neural regeneration in patients with brain tumors by means other than the prior art immunotherapy of brain tumors. Thus, for example, NS-specific activated T cells, which are activated to an NS-antigen of the patient other than an antigen which is involved in the tumor, would be expected to be useful for the purpose of the present invention and would not have been suggested by known immunotherapy techniques.

[0065] The NS-specific activated T cells are preferably autologous, most preferably of the CD4 and/or CD8 phenotypes, but they may also be semi-allogeneic T cells or allogeneic T cells from related donors, e.g., siblings, parents, children, or from donors with the same HLA type (HLA-matched) or a very similar HLA type (HLA-partially matched), or even from unrelated donors.

[0066] Thus, in addition to the use of autologous T cells isolated from the subject, the present invention also comprehends the use of semi-allogeneic T cells for neuroprotection. The T cells may be prepared as short- or long-term lines and stored by conventional cryopreservation methods for thawing and administration, either immediately or after culturing for 1-3 days, to a subject suffering from injury to the CNS and in need of T-cell neuroprotection.

[0067] The use of semi-allogeneic T cells is based on the fact that T cells can recognize a specific antigen epitope presented by foreign APC, provided that the APC expresses the MHC molecule, class I or class II, to which the specific responding T-cell population is restricted, along with the antigen epitope recognized by the T cells. Thus, a semi-allogeneic population of T cells that can recognize at least one allelic product of the subject's MHC molecules, preferably a class II HLA-DR or HLA-DQ or other HLA molecule, and that is specific for a NS-associated antigen epitope, will be able to recognize the NS antigen in the subject's area of NS damage and produce the needed neuro-protective effect. There is little or no polymorphism in the adhesion molecules, leukocyte migration molecules, and accessory molecules needed for the T cells to migrate to the area of damage, accumulate there, and undergo activation. Thus, the semi-allogeneic T cells will be able to migrate and accumulate at the CNS site in need of neuroprotection and will be activated to produce the desired effect.

[0068] It is known that semi-allogeneic T cells will be rejected by the subject's immune system, but that rejection requires about two weeks to develop. Hence, the semi-allogeneic T cells will have the two-week window of opportunity needed to exert neuroprotection. After two weeks, the semi-allogeneic T cells will be rejected from the body of the subject, but that rejection is advantageous to the subject because it will rid the subject of the foreign T cells and prevent any untoward consequences of the activated T cells. The semi-allogeneic T cells thus provide an important safety factor and are a preferred embodiment.

[0069] It is known that a relatively small number of HLA class II molecules are shared by most individuals in a population. For example, about 50% of the Jewish population express the HLA-DR5 gene. Thus, a bank of specific T cells reactive to NS-antigen epitopes that are restricted to HLA-DR5 would be useful in 50% of that population. The entire population can be covered essentially by a small number of additional T cell lines restricted to a few other prevalent HLA molecules, such as DR1, DR4, DR2, etc. Thus, a functional bank of uniform T cell lines can be prepared and stored for immediate use in almost any individual in a given population. Such a bank of T cells would overcome any technical problems in obtaining a sufficient number of specific T cells from the subject in need of neuroprotection during the open window of treatment opportunity. The semi-allogeneic T cells will be safely rejected after accomplishing their role of neuroprotection. This aspect of the invention does not contradict, and is in addition to the use of autologous T cells as described herein.

[0070] The NS-specific activated T cells are preferably non-attenuated, although attenuated NS-specific activated T cells may be used. T cells may be attenuated using methods well-known in the art including, but not limited to, by gamma-irradiation, e.g.,, 1.5-10.0 Rads (Ben-Nun et al, 1981; Ben-Nun and Cohen, 1982); and/or by pressure treatment, for example as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,996,194 (Cohen et al); and/or by chemical cross-linking with an agent such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and the like, for example as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,996,194 (Cohen et al); and/or by cross-linking and photoactivation with light with a photoactivatable psoralen compound, for example as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,114,721 (Cohen et al); and/or by a cytoskeletal disrupting agent such as cytochalsin and colchicine, for example as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,996,194 (Cohen et al). In a preferred embodiment the NS-specific activated T cells are isolated as described below. T cells can be isolated and purified according to methods known in the art (Mor and Cohen, 1995). For an illustrative example, see Example 1, Materials and Methods.

[0071] Circulating T cells of a subject which recognize an NS-antigen are isolated and expanded using known procedures (Burns et al, 1983; Pette et al, 1990; Martin et al, 1990; Schluesener et al, 1985; Suruhan-Dires Keneli et al, 1993, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety). In order to obtain NS-specific activated T cells, T cells are isolated and the NS-specific activated T cells are then expanded.

[0072] The isolated T cells may be activated by exposure of the cells to one or more of a variety of natural or synthetic NS-specific antigens or epitopes as described in section on NS-specific antigens, analogs thereof, peptides derived therefrom and analogs and derivatives thereof of said peptides hereinafter. During ex vivo activation of the T cells, the T cells may be activated by culturing in medium to which at least one suitable growth promoting factor has been added, such as cytokines, e.g., TNF-α, IL-2 and/or IL-4.

[0073] In one embodiment, the NS-specific activated T cells endogenously produce a substance that ameliorates the effects of injury or disease in the NS.

[0074] In another embodiment, the NS-specific activated T cells endogenously produce a substance that stimulates other cells, including, but not limited to, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophic factor 3(NT 3), neurotrophic factor 4/5 (NT-4/5), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); IFN-γ and IL-6, wherein the other cells, directly or indirectly, ameliorate the effects of injury or disease.

[0075] Following their proliferation in vitro, the T cells are administered to a mammalian, preferably a human, subject. T cell expansion is preferably performed using peptides corresponding to sequences in a non-pathogenic, NS-specific, self-protein.

[0076] A subject can initially be immunized with an NS-specific antigen using a non-pathogenic peptide of the self-protein. A T-cell preparation can be prepared from the blood of such immunized subjects, preferably from T cells selected for their specificity towards the NS-specific antigen. The selected T cells can then be stimulated to produce a T cell line specific to the self-antigen (Ben-Nun and Cohen, 1982).

[0077] NS-specific antigen activated T cells, obtained as described above, can be used immediately or may be preserved for later use, e.g., by cryopreservation as described below. NS-specific activated T cells may also be obtained using previously cryopreserved T cells, i.e., after thawing the cells, the T cells may be incubated with NS-specific antigen, optimally together with thymocytes, to obtain a preparation of NS-specific activated T cells.

[0078] As will be evident to those skilled in the art, the T cells can be preserved, e.g., by cryopreservation, either before or after culture.

[0079] Cryopreservation agents which can be used include, but are not limited to, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) (Lovelock and Bishop, 1959; Ashwood-Smith, 1961), polyvinylpyrrolidone (Rinfret, 1960), glycerol, polyethylene glycol (Sloviter and Ravdin, 1962), albumin, dextran, sucrose, ethylene glycol, i-erythritol, D-ribitol, D-mannitol (Rowe et al, 1962), D-sorbitol, i-inositol, D-lactose, choline chloride (Bender et al, 1960), amino acids (Phan The Tran and Bender, 1960), methanol, acetamide, glycerol monoacetate (Lovelock, 1954), inorganic salts (Phan The Tran and Bender, 1960 and 1961) and DMSO combined with hydroxyethyl starch and human serum albumin (Zaroulis and Leiderman, 1980).

[0080] A controlled cooling rate is critical. Different cryoprotective agents (Rapatz et al, 1968) and different cell types have different optimal cooling rates. See, e.g., Rowe and Rinfret, 1962; Rowe, 1966; Lewis et al, 1967; Mazur, 1970) for effects of cooling velocity on survival of cells and on their transplantation potential. The heat of fusion phase where water turns to ice should be minimal. The cooling procedure can be carried out by use of, e.g., a programmable freezing device or a methanol bath procedure.

[0081] Programmable freezing apparatuses allow determination of optimal cooling rates and facilitate standard reproducible cooling. Programmable controlled-rate freezers such as Cryomed or Planar permit tuning of the freezing regimen to the desired cooling rate curve.

[0082] After thorough freezing, cells can be rapidly transferred to a long-term cryogenic storage vessel. In one embodiment, samples can be cryogenically stored in mechanical freezers, such as freezers that maintain a temperature of about −80° C. or about −20° C. In a preferred embodiment, samples can be cryogenically stored in liquid nitrogen (−196° C.) or its vapor. Such storage is greatly facilitated by the availability of highly efficient liquid nitrogen refrigerators, which resemble large Thermos containers with an extremely low vacuum and internal super insulation, such that heat leakage and nitrogen losses are kept to an absolute minimum.

[0083] Considerations and procedures for the manipulation, cryopreservation, and long term storage of T cells can be found, for example, in the following references, incorporated by reference herein: Gorin, 1986; Bone-Marrow Conservation, it Culture and Transplantation, 1968.

[0084] Other methods of cryopreservation of viable cells, or modifications thereof, are available and envisioned for use, e.g., cold metal-mirror techniques. See Livesey and Linner, 1987; Linner et al, 1986; see also U.S. Pat. No. 4,199,022 by Senken et al, U.S. Pat. No. 3,753,357 by Schwartz, U.S. Pat. No. 4,559,298 by Fahy.

[0085] Frozen cells are preferably thawed quickly (e.g., in a water bath maintained at 37-47° C.) and chilled immediately upon thawing. It may be desirable to treat the cells in order to prevent cellular clumping upon thawing. To prevent clumping, various procedures can be used, including but not limited to the addition before or after freezing of DNAse (Spitzer et al, 1980), low molecular weight dextran and citrate, citrate, hydroxyethyl starch (Stiff et al, 1983), or acid citrate dextrose (Zaroulis and Leiderman, 1980), etc.

[0086] The cryoprotective agent, if toxic in humans, should be removed prior to therapeutic use of the thawed T cells. One way in which to remove the cryoprotective agent is by dilution to an insignificant concentration.

[0087] Once frozen T cells have been thawed and recovered, they are used to promote neuroprotection as described herein with respect to non-frozen T cells. Once thawed, the T cells may be used immediately, assuming that they were activated prior to freezing. Preferably, however, the thawed cells are cultured before injection to the patient in order to eliminate non-viable cells. Furthermore, in the course of this culturing over a period of about one to three days, an appropriate activating agent can be added so as to activate the cells, if the frozen cells were resting T cells, or to help the cells achieve a higher rate of activation if they were activated prior to freezing. Usually, time is available to allow such a culturing step prior to administration as the T cells may be administered as long as a week after injury, and possibly longer, and still maintain their neuro-regenerative and neuroprotective effect.

[0088] To minimize secondary damage after nerve injury, patients can be treated by administering autologous or semi-allogeneic T lymphocytes sensitized to at least one appropriate NS-antigen. As the window of opportunity has not yet been precisely defined, therapy should be administered as soon as possible after the primary injury to maximize the chances of success, preferably within about one week.

[0089] To bridge the gap between the time required for activation and the time needed for treatment, a bank with autologous, semi-allogeneic or allogeneic T cells can be established for future use.

[0090] Thus, in another embodiment, the invention provides cell banks that can be established to store NS-sensitized T cells for neuroprotective treatment of individuals at a later time, as needed.

[0091] In one embodiment, autologous T cells may be obtained from an individual and the cell bank will contain personal vaults of autologous T lymphocytes prepared for future use for neuroprotective therapy against secondary degeneration in case of NS injury. T lymphocytes are isolated from the blood, sensitized to a NS-antigen, and the cells are then frozen and suitably stored under the person's name, identity number, and blood group, in a cell bank until needed.

[0092] Additionally, autologous stem cells of the CNS can be processed and stored for potential use by an individual patient in the event of traumatic disorders of the NS such as ischemia or mechanical injury, as well as for treating neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease.

[0093] Alternatively, allogeneic or semi-allogeneic T cells may be stored such that a bank of T cells of each of the most common MHC-class II types are present. The semi-allogeneic or allogeneic T cells are stored frozen for use by any individual who shares one MHC type II molecule with the source of the T cells.

[0094] In case an individual is to be treated for an injury, preferably autologous stored T cells are used, but, if autologous T cells are not available, then cells should be used which share an MHC type II molecule with the patient, and these would be expected to be operable in that individual.

[0095] The cells are preferably stored in an activated state after exposure to an NS-antigen or peptide derived therefrom. However, the cells may also be stored in a resting state and activated once they are thawed and prepared for use. The cell lines of the bank are preferably cryopreserved. The cell lines are prepared in any way which is well known in the art. Once the cells are thawed, they are preferably cultured prior to injection in order to eliminate non-viable cells. During this culturing, the cells can be activated or reactivated using the same NS-antigen or peptide as used in the original activation. Alternatively, activation may be achieved by culturing in the presence of a mitogen, such as phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin A (preferably the former). This will place the cells into an even higher state of activation. The few days that it takes to culture the cells should not be detrimental to the patient as the treatment in accordance with the present invention may occuo still be effective. Alternatively, if time is of the essencer any time up to a week or more after the injury in order t, the stored cells may be administered immediately after thawing.

[0096] NS-Specific Antigens, Analogs thereof, Peptides Derived Therefrom, and Analogs and Derivatives Thereof

[0097] The term “NS-specific antigen” as used herein refers to an antigen of the NS that specifically activates T cells such that following activation the activated T cells accumulate at a site of injury or disease in the NS of the patient.

[0098] The NS-specific antigen used according to the present invention may be an antigen obtained from NS tissue, preferably from tissue at a site of CNS injury or disease. It may be a crude NS-tissue preparation, e.g., derived from NS tissue obtained from mammalian NS that may include cells, both living or dead cells, membrane fractions of such cells or tissue, etc., and may be obtained by an NS biopsy or necropsy from a mammal, preferably human, tissue including, but not limited to, from a site of CNS injury; from cadavers; and from cell lines grown in culture.

[0099] In one embodiment, the NS-specific antigen is an isolated or purified antigen. The NS-specific antigen may be isolated and purified by standard methods including chromatography (e.g., ion exchange, affinity, and sizing column chromatography), centrifugation, differential solubility, or by any other standard technique for the purification of antigens. The functional properties may be evaluated using any suitable assay. Additionally, an NS-specific antigen may be a protein obtained by genetic engineering, chemically synthesized, etc.

[0100] In the practice of the invention, natural or synthetic NS-specific antigens are preferred and include, without being limited to, myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), S-100, β-amyloid, Thy-1, P0, P2, neurotransmitter receptors, Nogo and Nogo receptor (NgR).

[0101] Specific illustrative examples of useful NS-specific antigens include but are not limited to, human MBP, depicted in FIG. 21 (SEQ ID NO:12); human PLP, depicted in FIG. 22 (SEQ ID NO:13); human MOG, depicted in FIG. 23 (SEQ ID NO:14), rat Nogo A, B and C (Chen et al, 2000; WO 00/31235) (SEQ ID NOs:18, 20 and 21), peptide p472 (SEQ ID NO:19), human Nogo A, B and C (Prinjha et al, 2000) (SEQ ID NOs:23-25), and human or mouse Nogo receptor (NgR) (Fournier et al, 2001) (SEQ ID NOs:26 and 27, respectively).

[0102] Also encompassed by the present invention are analogs of NS-specific antigens including, but not being limited to, those molecules comprising regions that are substantially homologous to the full-length NS-specific antigen, or fragments thereof. In various embodiments, these analogs will have at least 60% or 70% or 80% or 90% or 95% identity over an amino acid sequence of identical size or when compared to an aligned sequence in which the alignment is done by a computer homology program known in the art or whose encoding nucleic acid is capable of hybridizing to a coding nucleotide sequence of the full-length NS-specific antigen, under high stringency, moderate stringency, or low stringency conditions. Computer programs for determining homology may include, but are not limited to, TBLASTN, BLASTP, FASTA, TFASTA, and CLUSTALW (Pearson and Lipman, 1988; Altschul et al, 1990; Thompson, et al, 1994; Higgins, et al, 1996).

[0103] The NS-specific antigen analogs of the invention can be produced by various methods known in the art. The manipulations which result in their production can occur at the gene or protein level. For example, a cloned gene sequence can be modified by any of numerous strategies known in the art (Maniatis, 1990). The sequence can be cleaved at appropriate sites with restriction endonuclease(s), followed by further enzymatic modification if desired, isolated, and ligated in vitro.

[0104] Additionally, the coding nucleic acid sequence can be mutated in vitro or in vivo, to create and/or destroy translation, initiation, and/or termination sequences, or to create variations in coding regions and/or form new restriction endonuclease sites or destroy preexisting ones, to facilitate further in vitro modification. Any technique for mutagenesis known in the art can be used, including but not limited to, chemical mutagenesis, in vitro site-directed mutagenesis (Hutchinson, et al, 1978), etc.

[0105] Manipulations may also be made at the protein level. Included within the scope of the invention are NS-specific antigen derivatives which are differentially modified during or after translation, e.g., by glycosylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to an antibody molecule or other cellular ligand, etc. Any of numerous chemical modifications may be carried out by known techniques, including but not limited to specific chemical cleavage by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, V8 protease, NaBH4; acetylation, formylation, oxidation, reduction; metabolic synthesis in the presence of tunicamycin; etc.

[0106] In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to peptides derived from NS-specific antigens or from analogs thereof and to analogs or derivatives of said peptides, which are functionally active, i.e., they are capable of displaying one or more known functional activities associated with a full-length NS-specific antigen. Such functional activities include, but are not limited to, antigenicity (ability to bind, or compete with an NS-antigen for binding, to an anti-NS-specific antibody), immunogenicity (ability to generate antibody which binds to an NS-specific protein), and ability to interact with T cells, resulting in activation comparable to that obtained using the corresponding full-length NS-specific antigen. The crucial test is that the antigen which is used for activating the T cells causes the T cells to be capable of recognizing an antigen in the NS of the mammal (patient) being treated.

[0107] The NS-antigen derived peptide may be either: (1) an immunogenic peptide, i.e., a peptide that can elicit a human T-cell response detected by a T-cell proliferation assay or by cytokine, e.g., IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 or IL-10, production, or (2) a “cryptic epitope” (also designated herein as “immunosilent” or “non-immunodominant” epitope), i.e., a peptide that by itself can induce a T-cell immune response that is not induced by the whole antigen protein (see Moalem et al, 1999).

[0108] A peptide derived from a NS-specific antigen preferably has a sequence comprised within the NS-specific antigen sequence and has at least 10, 13, 15, 18, 20 or 50 contiguous amino acids of the NS-specific antigen sequence. In one embodiment, the peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen is a “cryptic epitope” of the antigen. A cryptic epitope activates specific T cells after an animal is immunized with the particular peptide, but not with the whole antigen. Cryptic epitopes for use in the present invention include, but are not limited to, peptides of the MBP sequence: peptides p11-30, p51-70, p87-99, p91-110, p131-150, and p151-170. Such cryptic epitopes are particularly preferred as T cells activated thereby will accumulate at the injury site, but are particularly weak in autoimmunity. Thus, they would be expected to have fewer side effects.

[0109] In another embodiment, the peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen is an immunogenic epitope of the antigen.

[0110] Examples of further peptides according to the invention are immunogenic peptides derived from the Nogo protein sequence such as, but not being limited to, the 18-mer p472 Nogo peptide (SEQ ID NO:18) and peptides derived from the Nogo receptor (Fournier et al, 2001) such as the 15-mer peptides of the sequences:

[0111] S G V P S N L P Q R L A G R D (SEQ ID NO:28)

[0112] T R S H C R L G Q A G S G S S (SEQ ID NO:29)

[0113] In still another embodiment of the invention, the peptide is an analog of a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen that is immunogenic but not encephalitogenic. The most suitable peptides for this purpose are those in which an encephalitogenic self-peptide is modified at the T-cell receptor (TCR) binding site and not at the MHC binding site(s), so that the immune response is activated but not anergized (Karin et al, 1998; Vergelli et al, 1996).

[0114] These analogs, also referred herein as modified peptides or altered peptides, may be produced by replacement of one or more amino acid residues of the peptide by other amino acid residues, preferably in their TCR binding site. Suitable replacements are those in which charged amino residues like lysine, proline or arginine are replaced by glycine or alanine residues. For example, altered peptides can be produced from peptides p11-30, p51-70, p87-99, p91-110, p131-150, and p151-170 of human MBP, for example from the p87-99 peptide in which the lysine 91 is replaced by glycine and/or the proline 96 is replaced by an alanine residue, thus converting an encephalitogenic peptide in immunogenic but non-encephalitogenic peptide that still recognizes the TCR. In the same way, altered peptides can be produced from the encephalitogenic p472 Nogo peptide (Nogo p623-640) by replacement of the lys 628 residue and from the Nogo receptor peptides above by replacement of the arg (R) residue by Val or Ala or another similar residue.

[0115] In addition, the analogs also comprise replacement of one or more amino acid residues of the peptide or addition to the peptide of non-natural amino acids including, but not limited to, the D-isomers of the common amino acids, α-aminoisobutyric acid; 4-aminobutyric acid (Abu); 2-Abu (γ-Abu); 6-amino hexanoic acid (ε-Ahx); 2-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib); 3-aminopropionic acid; ornithine; norleucine (Nle); norvaline (Nva); hydroxyproline; sarcosine; citrulline; cysteic acid; t-butylglycine; t-butylalanine; phenylgylcine; cyclohexylalanine; β-alanine; fluoro-amino acids; designer amino acids such as β-methyl amino acids, Cα-methyl amino acids, Nα-methyl amino acids, and amino acid analogs in general. Furthermore, the amino acid can be D (dextrorotary) or L (levorotary).

[0116] Furthermore, the invention also comprises chemical derivatives of the peptides of the invention including, but not being limited to, esters of both carboxylic and hydroxy groups, amides, and the like.

[0117] The NS-specific antigen peptides of the invention can be chemically synthesized- For example, a peptide corresponding to a portion of an antigen which comprises the desired domain or which mediates the desired activity can be synthesized by use of a peptide synthesizer.

[0118] The functional activity of NS-specific antigens and peptides derived therefrom and analogs and derivatives thereof can be assayed by various methods known in the art, including, but not limited to, T-cell proliferation assays (Mor and Cohen, 1995) and cytokine production assays.

[0119] An NS-specific antigen or peptide derived therefrom or derivative thereof may be kept in solution or may be provided in a dry form, e.g., as a powder or lyophilizate, to be mixed with appropriate solution prior to use. They may be used both as ingredients of pharmaceutical compositions for neuroprotection and preventing or inhibiting the effects of injury or disease that result in NS degeneration or for promoting nerve regeneration in the NS, particularly in the CNS as well as for in vivo or in vitro activation of T cells.

[0120] Nucleotide Sequences Encoding NS-Antigens and Peptides Derived Therefrom

[0121] The present invention further provides pharmaceutical compositions comprising a therapeutically effective amount of a nucleotide sequence encoding an NS-specific antigen or a peptide derived therefrom or an analog thereof and methods of use of such compositions to promote nerve regeneration or for neuroprotection and prevention or inhibition of neuronal degeneration in the CNS or PNS in which the amount is effective to ameliorate the effects of an injury or disease of the NS.

[0122] Specific illustrative examples of useful nucleotide sequences encoding NS-specific antigens or peptides derived from an NS-specific antigen include, but are not limited to, nucleotide sequences encoding rat MBP, depicted in FIG. 15 (SEQ ID NO:1); human MBP, depicted in FIG. 16 (SEQ ID NO:2); human PLP, depicted in FIGS. 17(A-F) (SEQ ID NOs:3-8); human MOG, depicted in FIG. 18 (SEQ ID NO:9); rat PLP and variant, depicted in FIG. 19 (SEQ ID NO:10); rat MAG, depicted in FIG. 20 (SEQ ID NO:11); rat Nogo (SEQ ID NO:17); and human Nogo (SEQ ID NO:22). Other illustrative examples are the nucleotide sequences disclosed in Chen et al (2000), Prinjha et al (2000) and Fournier et al (2001) (the contents of each of which being hereby incorporated herein by reference) encoding rat and human Noga A, B and C and mouse and human NgR.

[0123] Therapeutic Uses

[0124] The T cells, NS-specific antigens, analogs thereof, peptides derived therefrom and analogs and derivatives thereof, and nucleotide sequences described in the previous sections and compositions comprising them may be used to promote nerve regeneration or to confer neuroprotection and prevent or inhibit secondary degeneration which may otherwise follow primary NS injury, e.g., spinal cord injury, blunt trauma, penetrating trauma, hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke or damages caused by surgery such as tumor excision.

[0125] In addition, such compositions may be used to ameliorate the effects of disease that result in a degenerative process, e.g., degeneration occurring in either gray or white matter (or both) as a result of various diseases or disorders, including, without limitation: diabetic neuropathy, senile dementias, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, facial nerve (Bell's) palsy, glaucoma, Huntington's chorea, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), non-arteritic optic neuropathy, intervertebral disc herniation, vitamin deficiency, prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral neuropathies associated with various diseases, including but not limited to, uremia, porphyria, hypoglycemia, Sjorgren Larsson syndrome, acute sensory neuropathy, chronic ataxic neuropathy, biliary cirrhosis, primary amyloidosis, obstructive lung diseases, acromegaly, malabsorption syndromes, polycythemia vera, IgA- and IgG gamma-pathies, complications of various drugs (e.g., metronidazole) and toxins (e.g., alcohol or organophosphates), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, ataxia telangectasia, Friedreich's ataxia, amyloid polyneuropathies, adrenomyeloneuropathy, Giant axonal neuropathy, Refsum's disease, Fabry's disease, lipoproteinemia, etc.

[0126] In a preferred embodiment, the NS-specific activated T cells, the NS-specific antigens, peptides derived therefrom, analogs and derivatives thereof or the nucleotides encoding said antigens, or peptides or any combination thereof of the present invention are used to treat diseases or disorders where promotion of nerve regeneration or prevention or inhibition of secondary neural degeneration is indicated, which are not autoimmune diseases or neoplasias. In a preferred embodiment, the compositions of the present invention are administered to a human subject.

[0127] While activated NS-specific T cells may have been used in the prior art in the course of treatment to develop tolerance to autoimmune antigens in the treatment of autoimmune diseases, or in the course of immunotherapy in the treatment of NS neoplasms, the present invention can also be used to ameliorate the degenerative process caused by autoimmune diseases or neoplasms as long as it is used in a manner not suggested by such prior art methods. Thus, for example, T cells activated by an autoimmune antigen have been suggested for use to create tolerance to the autoimmune antigen and, thus, ameliorate the autoimmune disease. Such treatment, however, would not have suggested the use of T cells directed to other NS antigens or NS antigens which will not induce tolerance to the autoimmune antigen or T cells which are administered in such a way as to avoid creation of tolerance. Similarly, for neoplasms, the effects of the present invention can be obtained without using immunotherapy processes suggested in the prior art by, for example, using an NS antigen which does not appear in the neoplasm. T cells activated with such an antigen will still accumulate at the site of neural degeneration and facilitate inhibition of this degeneration, even though it will not serve as immunotherapy for the tumor per se.

[0128] Nogo protein or a fragment thereof which are active in inhibiting cell proliferation have been disclosed as useful for treatment of a neoplastic disease of the CNS such as glioma, glioblastoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependyoma, neuroblastoma and retinoblastoma. The present invention does not encompass the use of Nogo or a peptide derived therefrom for treatment of neoplasias in general, and for treatment of a neoplastic disease of the CNS, in particular.

[0129] Formulations and Administration

[0130] The present invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions useful in methods to promote nerve regeneration or to confer neuroprotection and prevent or inhibit neuronal degeneration in the CNS or PNS, comprising a therapeutically effective amount of at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of:

[0131] (a) NS-specific activated T cells;

[0132] (b) a NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;

[0133] (c) a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog or derivative of said peptide;

[0134] (d) a nucleotide sequence encoding an NS-specific antigen or an analog thereof;

[0135] (e) a nucleotide sequence encoding a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or from an analog thereof, or an analog of said peptide; or

[0136] (f) any combination of (a)-(e).

[0137] The compositions comprising ingredients (b) and/or (c) above are also effective to activate T cells in vitro, wherein the activated T cells inhibit or ameliorate the effects of an injury or disease of the NS.

[0138] Pharmaceutical compositions for use in accordance with the present invention may be formulated in conventional manner using one or more physiologically acceptable carriers or excipients. The carrier(s) must be “acceptable” in the sense of being compatible with the other ingredients of the composition and not deleterious to the recipient thereof.

[0139] The term “carrier” refers to a diluent, adjuvant, excipient, or vehicle with which the therapeutic is administered. The carriers in the pharmaceutical composition may comprise a binder, such as microcrystalline cellulose, polyvinylpyrrolidone (polyvidone or povidone), gum tragacanth, gelatin, starch, lactose or lactose monochydrate; a disintegrating agent, such as alginic acid, maize starch and the like; a lubricant or surfactant, such as magnesium stearate or sodium lauryl sulphate; a glidant, such as colloidal silicon dioxide; a sweetening agent, such as sucrose or saccharin; and/or a flavoring agent, such as peppermint, methyl salicylate, or orange flavoring.

[0140] Methods of administration include, but are not limited to, parenteral, e.g., intravenous, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, subcutaneous, mucosal (e.g., oral, intranasal, buccal, vaginal, rectal, intraocular), intrathecal, topical and intradermal routes. Administration can be systemic or local.

[0141] For oral administration, the pharmaceutical preparation may be in liquid form, for example, solutions, syrups or suspensions, or may be presented as a drug product for reconstitution with water or other suitable vehicle before use. Such liquid preparations may be prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable additives such as suspending agents (e.g., sorbitol syrup, cellulose derivatives or hydrogenated edible fats); emulsifying agents (e.g., lecithin or acacia); non-aqueous vehicles (e.g., almond oil, oily esters, or fractionated vegetable oils); and preservatives (e.g., methyl or propyl-p-hydroxybenzoates or sorbic acid). The pharmaceutical compositions may take the form of, for example, tablets, lozenges or capsules prepared by conventional means with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients such as binding agents (e.g., pregelatinized maize starch, polyvinyl pyrrolidone or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose); fillers (e.g., lactose, microcrystalline cellulose or calcium hydrogen phosphate); lubricants (e.g., magnesium stearate, talc or silica); disintegrants (e.g., potato starch or sodium starch glycolate); or wetting agents (e.g., sodium lauryl sulphate). The tablets may be coated by methods well-known in the art.

[0142] Preparations for oral administration may be also suitably formulated to give controlled release of the active compound.

[0143] The compositions may be formulated for parenteral administration by injection, e.g., by bolus injection or continuous infusion. Formulations for injection may be presented in unit dosage form, e.g., in ampoules or in multidose containers, with an added preservative. The compositions may take such forms as suspensions, solutions or emulsions in oily or aqueous vehicles, and may contain formulatory agents such as suspending, stabilizing and/or dispersing agents. Alternatively, the active ingredient may be in powder form for constitution with a suitable vehicle, e.g., sterile pyrogen-free water, before use.

[0144] The compositions may also be formulated as rectal compositions such as suppositories or retention enemas, e.g., containing conventional suppository bases such as cocoa butter or other glycerides.

[0145] For administration by inhalation, the compositions for use according to the present invention are conveniently delivered in the form of an aerosol spray presentation from pressurized packs or a nebulizer, with the use of a suitable propellant, e.g., dichlorodifluoromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorotetrafluoroethane, carbon dioxide or other suitable gas. In the case of a pressurized aerosol the dosage unit may be determined by providing a valve to deliver a metered amount. Capsules and cartridges of, e.g., gelatin, for use in an inhaler or insufflator may be formulated containing a powder mix of the compound and a suitable powder base such as lactose or starch.

[0146] In one embodiment, compositions comprising NS-specific activated T cells, an NS-specific antigen or peptide derived therefrom, or derivative thereof, or a nucleotide sequence encoding such antigen or peptide, are formulated in accordance with routine procedures as pharmaceutical compositions adapted for intravenous or intraperitoneal administration to human beings. Typically, compositions for intravenous administration are solutions in sterile isotonic aqueous buffer. Where necessary, the composition may also include a solubilizing agent and a local anesthetic such as lignocaine to ease pain at the site of the injection. Generally, the ingredients are supplied either separately or mixed together. Where the composition is to be administered by infusion, it can be dispensed with an infusion bottle containing sterile pharmaceutical grade water or saline. Where the composition is administered by injection, an ampoule of sterile water or saline for injection can be provided so that the ingredients may be mixed prior to administration.

[0147] Pharmaceutical compositions comprising NS-specific antigen or peptide derived therefrom or derivative thereof may optionally be administered with an adjuvant.

[0148] The invention also provides a pharmaceutical pack or kit comprising one or more containers filled with one or more of the ingredients of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention.

[0149] In a preferred embodiment, the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are administered to a mammal, preferably a human, shortly after injury or detection of a degenerative lesion in the NS. The therapeutic methods of the invention may comprise administration of an NS-specific activated T cell or an NS-specific antigen or peptide derived therefrom or derivative thereof, or a nucleotide sequence encoding such antigen or peptide, or any combination thereof. When using combination therapy, the NS-specific antigen may be administered before, concurrently or after administration of NS-specific activated T cells, a peptide derived from an NS-specific antigen or derivative thereof or a nucleotide sequence encoding such antigen or peptide.

[0150] In one embodiment, the compositions of the invention are administered in combination with one or more of the following: (a) mononuclear phagocytes, preferably cultured monocytes (as described in PCT publication No. WO 97/09985, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety), that have been stimulated to enhance their capacity to promote neuronal regeneration; (b) a neurotrophic factor such as acidic fibroblast growth factor; and (c) an anti-inflammatory therapeutic substance, e.g., an anti-inflammatory steroid, such as dexamethasone or methyl-prednisolone, or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory peptide, such as Thr-Lys-Pro (TKP)).

[0151] In another embodiment, mononuclear phagocyte cells according to PCT Publication No. WO 97/09985 and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/041,280, filed Mar. 11, 1998, are injected into the site of injury or lesion within the CNS, either concurrently, prior to, or following parenteral administration of NS-specific activated T cells, an NS-specific antigen or peptide derived therefrom or derivative thereof, or a nucleotide sequence encoding such antigen or peptide

[0152] In another embodiment, administration of NS-specific activated T cells, NS-specific antigen or peptide sequence encoding such antigen or peptide, may be administered as a single dose or may be repeated, preferably at 2-week intervals and then at successively longer intervals once a month, once a quarter, once every six months, etc. The course of treatment may last several months, several years or occasionally also through the life-time of the individual, depending on the condition or disease which is being treated. In the case of a CNS injury, the treatment may range between several days to months or even years, until the condition has stabilized and there is no or only a limited risk of development of secondary degeneration. In chronic human disease or Parkinson's disease, the therapeutic treatment in accordance with the invention may be for life.

[0153] As will be evident to those skilled in the art, the therapeutic effect depends at times on the condition or disease to be treated, on the individual's age and health condition, on other physical parameters (e.g., gender, weight, etc.) of the individual, as well as on various other factors, e.g., whether the individual is taking other drugs, etc.

[0154] The optimal dose of the therapeutic compositions comprising NS-specific activated T cells of the invention is proportional to the number of nerve fibers affected by NS injury or disease at the site being treated. In a preferred embodiment, the dose ranges from about 5×106 to about 107 for treating a lesion affecting about 10 nerve fibers, such as a complete transection of a rat optic nerve, and ranges from about 107 to about 108 for treating a lesion affecting about 106-107 nerve fibers, such as a complete transection of a human optic nerve. As will be evident to those skilled in the art, the dose of T cells can be scaled up or down in proportion to the number of nerve fibers thought to be affected at the lesion or site of injury being treated.

[0155] The following examples illustrate certain features of the present invention but are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.

EXAMPLE 1

[0156] Accumulation of Activated T Cells in Injured Optic Nerve

Materials and Methods

[0157] Animals

[0158] Female Lewis rats were supplied by the Animal Breeding Center of the Weizmann Institute of Science (Rehovot, Israel), matched for age (8-12 weeks) and housed four to a cage in a light and temperature-controlled room.

[0159] Media

[0160] The T-cell proliferation medium contained the following: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, Biological Industries, Israel) supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine (L-Glu, Sigma, USA), 5×10−5 M 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME, Sigma), penicillin (100 IU/ml; Biological Industries), streptomycin (100 μ/ml; Biological Industries), sodium pyruvate (1 mM; Biological Industries), non-essential amino acids (1 ml/100 ml; Biological Industries) and autologous rat serum 1% (vol/vol) (Mor et al, 1990). Propagation medium contained: DMEM, 2-ME, L-Glu, sodium pyruvate, non-essential amino acids and antibiotics in the same concentration as above with the addition of 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), and 10% T cell growth factor (TCGF) obtained from the supernatant of concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells (Mor et al, 1990).

[0161] Antigens

[0162] MBP from the spinal cords of guinea pigs was prepared as described (Hirshfeld, et al, 1970). OVA was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, Mo.). The p51-70 of the rat 18.5 kDa isoform of MBP (sequence: APKRGSGKDSHTRTTHYG) (SEQ ID NO:15) and the p277 peptide of the human hsp60 (sequence: VLGGGCALLRCPALDSLTPANED) (SEQ ID NO:16) (Elias et al, 1991) were synthesized using the 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) technique with an automatic multiple peptide synthesizer (AMS 422, ABIMED, Langenfeld, Germany). The purity of the peptides was analyzed by HPLC and amino acid composition.

[0163] T Cell Lines

[0164] T-cell lines were generated from draining lymph node cells obtained from Lewis rats immunized with an antigen (described above in Antigens). The antigen was dissolved in PBS (1 mg/ml) and emulsified with an equal volume of IFA (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with 4 mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Difco 15 Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). The emulsion (0.1 ml) was injected into hind foot pads of the rats. Ten days after the antigen was injected, the rats were killed and draining lymph nodes were surgically removed and dissociated. The cells were washed and activated with the antigen (10 μg/ml) in proliferation medium (described above in Media). After incubation for 72 h at 37° C., 90% relative humidity and 7% CO2, the cells were transferred to propagation medium (described above in Media). Cells were grown in propagation medium for 4-10 days before being re-exposed to antigen (10 μg/ml) in the presence of irradiated (2000 rad) thymus cells (107 cells/ml) in proliferation medium. The T cell lines were expanded by repeated re-exposure and propagation.

[0165] Crush Injury of Rat Optic Nerve

[0166] Crush injury of the optic nerve was performed as previously described (Duvdevani et al, 1990). Briefly, rats were deeply anesthetized by i.p. injection of Rompum (xylazine, 10 mg/kg; Vitamed, Israel) and Vetaler (ketamine, 50 mg/kg; Fort Dodge Laboratories, Fort Dodge, Iowa). Using a binocular operating microscope, a lateral canthotomy was performed in the right eye and the conjunctiva was incised lateral to the cornea. After separation of the retractor bulbi muscles, the optic nerve was exposed intraorbitally by blunt dissection. Using calibrated cross-action forceps, a moderate crush injury was inflicted on the optic nerve, 2 mm form the eye (Duvdevani et al, 1990). The contralateral nerve was left undisturbed and was used as a control.

[0167] Immunocytochemistry of T Cells

[0168] Longitudinal cryostat nerve sections (20 μm thick) were picked up onto gelatin glass slides and frozen until preparation for fluorescent staining. Sections were thawed and fixed in ethanol for 10 minutes at room temperature, washed twice with double-distilled water (ddH2O), and incubated for 3 minutes in PBS containing 0.05% polyoxyethylene-sorbitan monolaurate (Tween-20; Sigma, USA). Sections were then incubated for 1 hr at room temperature with a mouse monoclonal antibody directed against rat T cell receptor (TCR) (1:100, Hunig et al, 1989), in PBS containing 3% FCS and 2% BSA. After three washes with PBS containing 0.05% Tween-20, the sections were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (with minimal cross-section to rat, human, bovine and horse serum proteins) (Jackson ImmunoResearcch, West Grove, Pa.) for one hour at room temperature. The sections were then washed with PBS containing Tween-20 and treated with glycerol containing 1,4-diazobicyclo-(2,2,2) octane (Sigma), to inhibit quenching of fluorescence. The sections were viewed with a Zeis microscope and cells were counted. Staining in the absence of first antibody was negative.

Results

[0169]FIG. 1 shows accumulation of T cells measured immunohistochemically. The number of T cells was considerably higher in injured nerves rats injected with anti-MBP, anti-OVA or anti-p277 cells; statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA) showed significant differences between T cell numbers in injured optic nerves of rats injected with anti-MBP, anti-OVA, or anti-p277 T cells and in injured optic nerves of rats injected with PBS (P<0.001); and between injured optic nerves and uninjured optic nerves of rats injected with anti-MBP, anti-OVA, or anti-p277 T cells (P<0.001).

EXAMPLE 2

[0170] Neuroprotection by Autoimmune Anti-MBP T Cells Material and Methods

[0171] Animals, media, antigens, crush injury of rat optic nerve, sectioning of nerves, T cell lines, and immunolabeling of nerve sections are described in Example 1, supra.

[0172] Retrograde Labeling and Measurement of Primary Damage and Secondary Degeneration

[0173] Primary damage of the optic nerve axons and their attached RGCs were measured after the immediate post-injury application of the fluorescent lipophilic dye 4-Di-10-Asp) (Molecular Probes Europe BV, Netherlands) distal to the site of injury. Only axons that are intact are capable of transporting the dye back to their cell bodies; therefore, the number of labeled cell bodies is a measure of the number of axons that survived the primary damage. Secondary degeneration was also measured by application of the dye distal to the injury site, but two weeks after the primary lesion was inflicted. Application of the neurotracer dye distal to the site of the primary crush after two weeks ensures that only axons that survived both the primary damage and the secondary degeneration will be counted. This approach makes it possible to differentiate between neurons that are still functionally intact and neurons in which the axons are injured but the cell bodies are still viable, as only those neurons whose fibers are morphologically intact can take up dye applied distally to the site of injury and transport it to their cell bodies. Using this method, the number of labeled RGCs reliably reflects the number of still functioning neurons. Labeling and measurement were done by exposing the right optic nerve for a second time, again without damaging the retinal blood supply. Complete axotomy was done 1-2 mm from the distal border of the injury site and solid crystals (0.2-0.4 mm in diameter) of 4-Di-10-Asp were deposited at the site of the newly formed axotomy. Uninjured optic nerves were similarly labeled at approximately the same distance from the globe. Five days after dye application, the rats were killed. The retina was detached from the eye, prepared as a flattened whole mount in 4% paraformaldehyde solution and examined for labeled RGCs by fluorescence microscopy. The percentage of RGCs surviving secondary degeneration was calculated using the following formula:

(Number of spared neurons after secondary degeneration)/(Number of spared neurons after primary damage)×100.

[0174] Electrophysiological Recordings

[0175] Nerves were excised and their compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded in vitro using a suction electrode experimental set-up (Yoles et al, 1996). At different times after injury and injection of T cells or PBS, rats were killed by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbitone (170 mg/kg) (CTS Chemical Industries, Israel). Both optic nerves were removed while still attached to the optic chiasma, and were immediately transferred to a vial containing a fresh salt solution consisting of 126 mM NaCl, 3 mM KCl, 1.25 mM NaH2PO2 26 mM NaHCO3 2 mM MgSO4, 2 mM CaCl2 and 10 mM D-glucose, aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 at room temperature. After 1 hour, electrophysiological recordings were made. In the injured nerve, recordings were made in a segment distal to the injury site. This segment contains axons of viable RGCs that have escaped both primary and secondary damage, as well as the distal stumps of non-viable RGCs that have not yet undergone Wallerian degeneration. The nerve ends were connected to two suction Ag—AgCl electrodes immersed in the bathing solution at 37° C. A stimulating pulse was applied through the electrode, and the CAP was recorded by the distal electrode. A stimulator (SD9; Grass Medical Instruments, Quincy, Mass.) was used for supramaximal electrical stimulation at a rate of 1 pps to ensure stimulation of all propagating axons in the nerve. The measured signal was transmitted to a microelectrode AC amplifier (model 1800; A-M Systems, Everett, Wash.). The data were processed using the LabView 2.1.1 data acquisition and management system (National Instruments, Austin, Tex.). For each nerve, the difference between the peak amplitude and the mean plateau of eight CAPs was computed and was considered as proportional to the number of propagating axons in the optic nerve. The experiments were done by experimenters “blinded”, to sample identity. In each experiment the data were normalized relative to the mean CAP of the uninjured nerves from PBS-injected rats.

[0176] Clinical Evaluation of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)

[0177] Clinical disease was scored every 1 to 2 days according to the following neurological scale: 0, no abnormality; 1, tail atony; 2, hind limb paralysis; 3, paralysis extending to thoracic spine; 4, front limb paralysis; 5, moribund state.

Results

[0178] Neuroprotection by Autoimmune Anti-MBP T Cells

[0179] Morphological analyses were done to assess the effect of the T cells on the response of the nerve to injury, and specifically on secondary degeneration. Rats were injected intraperitoneally immediately after optic nerve injury with PBS or with 1×107 activated T cells of the various cell lines. The degree of primary damage to the optic nerve axons and their attached RGCs was measured by injecting the dye 4-Di-10-Asp distal to the site of the lesion immediately after the injury. A time lapse of 2 weeks between a moderate crush injury and dye application is optimal for demonstrating the number of still viable labeled neurons as a measure of secondary degeneration, and as the response of secondary degeneration to treatment. Therefore, secondary degeneration was quantified by injecting the dye immediately or 2 weeks after the primary injury, and calculating the additional loss of RGCs between the first and the second injections of the dye. The percentage of RGCs that had survived secondary degeneration was then calculated. The percentage of labeled RGCs (reflecting still-viable neurons) was significantly greater in the retinas of the rats injected with anti-MBP T cells than in the retinas of the PBS-injected control rats (FIG. 2). In contrast, the percentage of labeled 30 RGCs in the retinas of the rats injected with anti-OVA or anti-p277 T cells was not significantly greater than that in the control retinas. Thus, although the three T cell lines accumulated at the site of injury, only the MBP-specific autoimmune T cells had a substantial effect in limiting the extend of secondary degeneration. Labeled RGCs of injured optic nerves of rats injected with PBS (FIG. 3A), with anti-p277 T cells (FIG. 3B) or with anti-MBP T cells (FIG. 3C) were compared morphologically using micrographs.

[0180] Clinical Severity of EAE

[0181] Animals were injected i.p. with 107 TMBP cells with or without concurrent optic nerve crush injury. The clinical course of the rats injected with the TMBP cells was evaluated according to the neurological paralysis scale. Each group contained 5-9 rats. The functional autoimmunity of the injected anti-MBP T cells was demonstrated by the development of transient EAE in the recipients of these cells. As can be seen in FIG. 4A, the course and severity of the EAE was not affected by the presence of the optic nerve crush injury.

[0182] Survival of RGCS in Non-Injured Nerves

[0183] Animals were injected i.p. with 107 TMBP cells or PBS. Two weeks later, 4-Di-10-Asp was applied to the optic nerves. After five days the retinas were excised and flat mounted. Labeled RGCs from five fields (located at approximately the same distance from the optic disk), in each retina were counted and their average number per are (mm2) was calculated.

[0184] As can be seen in FIG. 4B, there is no difference in the number of surviving RGCs per area (mm2) in non-injured optic nerves of rats injected with anti-MBP T cells compared to in rats injected with PBS.

[0185] Neuroprotection by T Cells Reactive to a Cryptic Epitope—(p51-70)MBP

[0186] To determine whether the neuroprotective effect of the anti-MBP T cells is correlated with their virulence, the effect of T cells reactive to a “cryptic” epitope of MBP, the peptide 51-70 (p51-70) was examined. “Cryptic” epitopes activate specific T cells after an animal is immunized with the particular peptide, but not with the whole antigen (Mor et al, 1995). The T cell line reactive to the whole MBP and the T cell line reactive to the cryptic epitope p51-70 were compared for the severity of the EAE they induced, and for their effects on secondary degeneration. In rats injected with the T cell line reactive to the cryptic epitope, disease severity (as manifested by the maximal EAE score) was significantly lower than that in rats injected with the T cell line reactive to the whole protein (Table 1). Whereas anti-MBP T cells caused clinical paralysis of the limbs, rats injected with the anti-p51-70 T cells developed only tail atony, not hind limb paralysis, and almost none showed weakness of the hind limbs. Despite this difference in EAE severity, the neuroprotective effect of the less virulent (anti-p51-70) T cells was similar to that of the more virulent (anti-MBP) T cells (FIG. 5). The percentage of RGCs surviving secondary degeneration in the retinas of rats injected with either of the lines was significantly higher than in the retinas of the PBS-injected rats. Thus, there was no correlation between the neuroprotective effect of the autoimmune T cells and their virulence. It is possible that the anti-p51-70 T cells encounter little antigen in the intact CNS, and therefore cause only mild EAE. Their target antigen may however become more available after injury, enabling these T cells to exert a neuroprotective effect.

TABLE 1
Anti-MBP and Anti-p501-70 T Cells Vary in Pathogenicity
T Cell Line Clinical EAE Mean Max. Score
Whole MBP Moderate to Severe 2.00 + 0.2
p51-70 of MBP Mild 0.70 + 0.2
# the mean maximal score of rats injected with anti-MBP T cells and that of rats injected with anti-p51-70 T cells (P = 0.039, Student's t-test).

[0187] Electrophysiological Activity

[0188] To confirm the neuroprotective effect of the anti-MBP T cells, electrophysiological studies were done. Immediately after optic nerve injury, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with PBS or with 1×107 activated anti-MBP or anti-OVA T cells. The optic nerves were excised 7, 11 or 14 days later and the CAPs, a measure of nerve conduction, were recorded from the injured nerves. On day 14, the mean CAP amplitudes of the distal segments recorded from the injured nerves obtained from the PBS-injected control rats were 33% to 50% of those recorded from the rats injected with the anti-MBP T cells (FIG. 6A, Table 2). As the distal segment of the injured nerve contains both neurons that escaped the primary insult and injured neurons that have not yet degenerated, the observed neuroprotective effect could reflect the rescue of spared neurons, or a delay of Wallerian degeneration of the injured neurons (which normally occurs in the distal stump), or both. No effect of the injection of anti-MBP T cells on the mean CAP amplitudes of uninjured nerves was observed (FIG. 6B, Table 2). It is unlikely that the neuroprotective effect observed on day 14 could have been due to the regrowth of nerve fibers, as the time period was too short for this.

[0189] The strong neuroprotective effect of the anti-MBP T cells seen on day 14 was associated with a significantly decreased CAP amplitude recorded on day 7 (Table 2). The anti-MBP T cells manifested no substantial effect on the uninjured nerve on day 7, indicating that the reduction in electrophysiological activity observed in the injured nerve on day 7 might reflect the larger number of T cells present at the injury site relative to the uninjured nerve (FIG. 1). The observed reduction in CAP amplitude in the injured nerve on day 7 reflected a transient resting state in the injured nerve. This transient effect has not only disappeared, but was even reversed by day 14 (Table 2). Early signs of the neuroprotective effect could already be detected on day 11 in the rats injected with anti-OVA T cells, no reduction in CAP amplitude on day 7 could be detected in either the injured or the uninjured nerves, and no neuroprotective effect was observed on day 14 (Table 2). Thus, it seems that the early reduction in CAP and the late neuroprotection shown specifically by the anti-MBP T cells are related.

TABLE 2
Transient Reduction in Electrophysiological Activity of the
Injured Optic Nerve Induced by Anti-MBP T Cells, Followed by a
Neuroprotective Effect
Uninjured Optic Nerve Injured Optic Nerve
Day 7 Day 14 Day 7 Day 14
Ratio (%)  89.9 ± 9.4 101.2 ± 22.7 63.8* ± 14.9 243.1** ± 70.8
TMPB/PBS (n = 22) (n = 10) (n = 17) (n = 8)
Ratio (%) 109.7 ± 13.  92.5 ± 12.6 125.5 ± 24.4  107.3 ± 38.9
TOVA/PBS (n = 11) (n = 3) (n = 11) (n = 4)
# injected rats/mean CAP of injured nerves from PBS-injected rats) × 100. The P value was calculated by comparing the logarithms of the normalized CAP amplitudes of nerves from PBS-injected rats and rats injected with T cells, using the unpaired Student's test, *P <0.05; **P <0.001 n = sample size.

[0190] Neuroprotection in Spinal Cord Injury by Anti-MBP T Cells

[0191] Materials and Methods

[0192] Animals, antigens (MBP, OVA) and T cell lines were as described hereinbefore in Example 6 animals, antigens and T cell lines, respectively.

[0193] Contusion. Adult rats (300 to 350 g) were anesthetized and the spinal cord was exposed by laminectomy at the level of T7-T8. One hour after induction of anesthesia, a 10-gram rod was dropped onto the laminectomized cord from a height of 50 mm. The impactor device (designed by Prof. Wise Young) allowed, for each animal, measurement of the trajectory of the rod and its contact with the spinal cord to allow uniform lesion. Within an hour of the contusion, rats were injected i.p., on a random basis, with either 107 cells (specific to either MBP or OVA, depending on the experimental design) or with PBS. Bladder expression was done at least twice a day (particularly during the first 48 h after injury, when it was done 3 times a day) until the end of the second week, by which time the rats had developed autonomous bladder voidance. Approximately twice a week, locomotor activity (of the trunk, tail and hind limbs) in an open field was evaluated by placing the rat for 4 min in the middle of a circular enclosure made of molded plastic with a smooth, non-slip floor (90 cm diameter, 7 cm wall height).

[0194] Results

[0195] The present study of spinal cord neuroprotection was prompted by the previous example that partial injury to an optic nerve can be ameliorated administering T cells directed to a CNS self-antigen. The question was whether autoimmune T cells could have a beneficial effect on recovery from traumatic spinal cord injury with its greater mass of injured CNS tissue and the attendant spinal shock.

[0196] Adult Lewis rats were subjected to a calibrated spinal cord contusion produced by dropping a 10-gram weight from a height of 50 mm onto the laminectomized cord at the level of T7-T8 (see Basso et al, 1996). The rats were then injected intraperitoneally with autoimmune T cells specific to MBP. Control rats were similarly injured but received either no T cells or T cells specific to the non-self antigen ovalbumin (OVA). Recovery of the rats was assessed every 3 to 4 days in terms of their behavior in an open-field locomotion test, in which scores range from 0 (complete paraplegia) to 21 (normal mobility). The locomotor performance of the rats was judged by observers blinded to the identity of the treatment received by the rats. Included in the study was a group of uninjured, sham-operated (laminectomized but not contused) rats that were injected with anti-MBP T cells to verify the activity of the T cells. In all the sham-operated rats, the anti-MBP T cells induced clinical EAE, which developed by day 4, reached a peak at day 7 and resolved spontaneously by day 11. Note, therefore, that at the early post-traumatic stage, any effect of the autoimmune T cells on the injured spinal cord, whether positive or negative, would be transiently masked both by spinal shock and by the paralysis of EAE.

[0197] Indeed, none of the rats with contused spinal cords showed any locomotor activity in the first few days after the contusion (FIG.7A). Interestingly, however, the rats treated with anti-MBP T cells recovered earlier from spinal shock; on day 11, for example, when no recovery could be detected in any of the untreated control rats, significant improvement was noted in the T cell-treated rats (FIG. 7A). At all time points thereafter, the rats that had received the autoimmune T cells showed better locomotor recovery than did the untreated injured rats (FIG. 7A). Thus the autoimmune T cells, in spite of being encephalitogenic, did confer significant neuroprotection. Moreover, the phase of neuroprotective activity coincided with the phase of immune paralysis, supporting our suggestion that neuroprotection might be related to transient paralysis.

[0198] By one month after trauma the rats in both groups had reached a maximal behavioral score, which then remained at plateau for at least 3 months of follow-up. In the untreated rats, maximal recovery of locomotor behavior, as noted in previous reports of similarly severe contusion (Basso et al, 1996), was marked by some ineffectual movement of hind-limb joints, but the rats showed no ability to support their body weight and walk, and obtained a score of 7.3±0.8 (mean±SEM). In contrast, the average score of the rats that had been treated with the anti-MBP T cells was 10.2±0.8, and in some rats the value was as high as 13. All the rats in the treated group could support their body weight and some could frequently walk in a coordinated fashion. The difference between the two groups, based on 2-factor repeated ANOVA, was statistically significant (p<0.05). The recovery curve based on locomotor activity is nonlinear. The above-described increase in motor activity seen after treatment with the anti-MBP T cells could result from much higher percentage of spared tissue based on a linear regression curve on which the behavioral score is correlated with the amount of neural spinal cord tissue (for example, a difference between 11 and 7 on the locomotion score would be read as a difference between 30% and less than 10% of spared tissue).

[0199] In another set of experiments the rats were subjected to a more severe insult, resulting in a functional score of 1.9±0.8 (mean±SEM) in the untreated group and 7.7±1.4 in the treated group (FIG. 7B). This difference of more than 3 fold in behavioral scores was manifested by the almost total lack of motor activity in the control rats as compared with the ability of the autoimmune T cell-treated rats to move all their joints. The beneficial effect was specific to treatment with anti-MBP T cells; no effect was observed after treatment with T cells specific to the non-self antigen OVA (data not shown). The positive effect of the autoimmune T cells seems to be expressed in the preservation of CNS tissue that escaped the initial lesion, i.e., in neuroprotection. Therefore, the magnitude of the effect would be inherently limited by the severity of the insult; the more severe the lesion, the less the amount of spared tissue amenable to neuroprotection.

[0200] To determine whether clinical recovery could be explained in terms of preservation of spinal axons, we performed retrograde labeling of the descending spinal tracts by applying the dye rhodamine dextran amine (Brandt et al, 1992) at T12, below the site of damage. The number of dye-stained cells that could be counted in the red nucleus of the brain constituted a quantitative measure of the number of intact axons traversing the area of contusion. Sections of red nuclei from injured rats treated with anti-MBP T cells (FIG. 8) contained 5-fold more labeled cells than sections taken from the untreated injured rats. Photomicrographs of red nuclei taken from rats treated with anti-MBP T cells (with an open field score of 10) and from PBS-treated rats (with a score of 6) are shown in FIG. 8. These findings indicate that the reduction in injury-induced functional deficit observed in the T cell-treated rats can be attributed to the sparing of spinal tracts, resulting in a higher degree of neuron viability.

[0201] After a follow-up of more than 3 months, when the locomotor activity scores had reached a plateau, the site of injury of three of PBS-treated animals and three animals treated with anti-MBP T cells were analyzed by diffusion-weighted MRI. The cords were excised in one piece from top to bottom and were immediately placed in fixative (4% paraformaldehyde). Axial sections along the excised contused cord were analyzed. FIG. 9 shows the diffusion anisotropy in axial sections along the contused cord of a rat treated with autoimmune T cells, as compared with that of PBS-treated control rat. The images show anisotropy in the white matter surrounding the gray matter in the center of the cord. Sections taken from the lesion sites of PBS-treated control rats show limited areas of anisotropy, which were significantly smaller than those seen at comparable sites in the cords of the rats treated with the anti-MBP T cells. Quantitative analysis of the anisotropy, reflecting the number of spared fibers, is shown in FIG. 9. The imaging results show unequivocally that, as a result of the treatment with the autoimmune anti-MBP T cells, some spinal cord tracts had escaped the degeneration that would otherwise have occurred.

[0202] Discussion of Results

[0203] No cure has yet been found for spinal cord lesions, one of the most common yet devastating traumatic injuries in industrial societies. It has been known for more that 40 years that CNS neurons, unlike neurons of the PNS, possess only a limited ability to regenerate after injury. During the last two decades, attempts to promote regeneration have yielded approaches that lead to partial recovery. In the last few years it has become apparent that, although most of the traumatic injuries sustained by the human spinal cord are partial, the resulting functional loss is nevertheless far worse than could be accounted for by the severity of the initial insult; the self-propagating process of secondary degeneration appears to be decisive.

[0204] A substantial research effort has recently been directed to arresting injury-induced secondary degeneration. All attempts up to now have been pharmacologically based, and some have resulted in improved recovery from spinal shock. The present study, in contrast, describes a cell therapy that augments what seems to be a natural mechanism of self-maintenance and leads, after a single treatment, to long-lasting recovery. The extent of this recovery appears to exceed that reported using pharmacological methods.

[0205] In most tissues, injury-induced damage triggers a cellular immune response that acts to protect the tissue and preserve its homeostasis. This response has been attributed to macrophages and other cells comprising the innate arm of the immune system. Lymphocytes, which are responsible for adaptive immunity, have not been thought to participate in tissue maintenance. Adaptive immunity, according to traditional teaching, is directed against foreign dangers. Our studies now show, however, that the adaptive T cell immune response can be protective even when there is no invasion by foreign pathogens. In the case of tissue maintenance, the specificity of the T cells is to tissue self-antigens.

[0206] Our observation of post-traumatic CNS maintenance by autoimmune T cells suggests that we might do well to reevaluate some basic concepts of autoimmunity. T cells that are specific to CNS self antigens in general, and to MBP in particular, have long been considered to be only detrimental to health. In the present study, however, the same T cell preparation that can produce EAE in the undamaged CNS was found to be neuroprotective in the damaged spinal cord, suggesting that the context of the tissue plays an important part in determining the outcome of its interaction with T cells. It would seem that the tissue deploys specific signals to elicit particular T cell behaviors. Among such signals are co-stimulatory molecules, particularly members of the B7 family (Lenchow et al, 1996). As shown hereinafter, the injured rat optic nerve transiently expresses elevated levels of the co-stimulatory molecule B7.2, which is constitutively expressed at low levels in the rat CNS white matter and which is thought to be associated with regulation of the cytokine profile of the responding T cells (Weiner, 1997). The early post-injury availability of the exogenous anti-MBP T cells, coinciding with the observed early post-injury increase in B7.2, would support the idea that signals expressed by the tissue might modulate the T cell response. It is thus conceivable that anti-MBP T cells which cause a monophasic autoimmune disease upon interacting with a healthy CNS nerve, might implement a maintenance program when they interact with damaged CNS tissue expressing increased amounts of B7.2 and probably other co-stimulatory molecules. The neuroprotective effects of the T cells may be mediated, at least in part, by antigen-dependent regulation of specific cytokines or neurotrophic factors (Kerschensteiner et al, 1999) produced locally at the site of injury.

[0207] Thus, the present invention is also directed to manipulating B7.2 co-stimulatory molecule to prevent or inhibit neuronal degeneration and ameliorate the effects of injury to or disease of the nervous system. B7.2 molecule can be up-regulated for this purpose, using drugs or by genetic manipulation, without undue experimentation.

[0208] In a recent study, it was reported that injury to the spinal cord triggers a transient autoimmune response to MBP (Popovich et al, 1996). However, whether that response is detrimental or beneficial remained an open question (Popovich et al, 1997). From our present data, it would appear that the activation of anti-MBP T cells could indeed be beneficial. However, a supplement of exogenous autoimmune T cells may be required to overcome the restrictions on immune reactivity imposed by the immune-privilege of the CNS (Streilein, 1995). The finding that autoimmune response can be advantageous suggests that natural autoimmune T cells may have undergone positive selection during ontogeny, as proposed by the theory of the immunological homunculus (Cohen, 1992), and are not merely a default resulting from the escape from negative selection of T cells that recognize self antigens (Janeway, 1992). Such a response could then be considered as a mechanism of potential physiological CNS self-maintenance, which is, however, not sufficient for the purpose because of the immune-privileged character of the CNS.

[0209] A single injection of autoimmune T cells lasted for at least 100 days. Thus, this procedure offers a form of self-maintenance. This specific autoimmune response, when properly controlled, is useful as part of a self-derived remedy for spinal cord injury.

EXAMPLE 3

[0210] Neuroprotective Effects of a NS-Specific Antigen Peptide—MOG p35-55

Materials and Methods

[0211] Animals, crush injury of rat optic nerve, and retrograde labeling are described above in Examples 3 and 4. A peptide based on amino acids 35-55 of MOG (MOG p35-55) was chemically synthesized at the Weizmann Institute, Israel.

[0212] Inhibition of Secondary Degeneration

[0213] Rats were injected intradermally in the footpads with MOG p35-55 (50 μg/animal) and IFA, or PBS, ten days prior to optic nerve crush injury. RGCs were assessed two weeks after injury using retrograde labeling as described above. The number of RGCs in rats injected with PBS or MOG p35-55 was expressed as a percentage of the total number of neurons in rats injected with MOG p35-55 in the absence of crush injury.

[0214] Results

[0215] As shown in FIG. 10, the number of labeled RGCs (indicating viable axons) was about 12.5 fold greater in animals injected with MOG p35-55 compared to animals receiving PBS.

EXAMPLE 4

[0216] Neuroprotective Effects of MBP Administered Orally

Materials and Methods

[0217] Animals, crush injury of rat optic nerve, and retrograde labeling of RGCs are described above in Examples 3 and 4.

[0218] Inhibition of Secondary Degeneration

[0219] Bovine MBP (Sigma, Israel) (1 mg/dose) was administered to rats by gavage using a blunt needle. MBP was administered 5 times, every third day, beginning 2 weeks prior to optic nerve crush injury. The number of RGCs in treated animals was expressed as a percentage of the total number of neurons in animals subjected to optic nerve crush injury but which did not receive MBP.

Results

[0220] As shown in FIG. 11, the number of labeled RGCs was about 1.3 fold greater in animals treated with MBP compared to untreated animals.

[0221] The B7.2 Co-Stimulatory Molecule is Associated with Post-Traumatic Maintenance of the Optic Nerve by Oral Administration of MBP

[0222] Introduction

[0223] Autoimmune T cells can under certain conditions be beneficial to traumatized CNS axons. The effect of such T cells on the damaged tissue might be influenced by the nature and amount of the co-stimulatory molecules it expresses. We show that the B7.2 co-stimulatory molecule is constitutively expressed in the intact rat optic nerve, and after injury is up-regulated at the margins of the injury site. Pre-injury induction of oral tolerance to MBP resulted in a further post-injury increase in B7.2 at the margins and at the injury site itself, as well as a better preservation of the traumatized nerve. Thus, B7.2 expression in the brain and its up-regulated after trauma seem to be directly related to post-traumatic maintenance displayed by autoimmune T cells.

[0224] Neuronal injury in the CNS causes degeneration of directly damaged fibers as well as of fibers that escaped the primary insult. It also triggers a systemic response of autoimmune T cells to MBP that might affect the course of degeneration of the injured nerve. Whether the effect of these T cells on the nerve is detrimental or beneficial may depend, in part, on the nature and level of the co-stimulatory molecules expressed by the damaged tissue.

[0225] Several co-stimulatory molecules have recently been identified, including the B7 and CD40 molecules (Caux et al, 1994; Lenschow et al, 1996). CD40 appears to be dominant during cell differentiation in the lymph nodes and B7 during activation of T cells in the target organ (Grewal et al, 1996).

[0226] The B7 co-stimulatory molecule is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that interacts with CD28 and CTLA-4 on TH cells. There are two related forms of B7 (B7.1 and B7.2). Both molecules have a similar organization of extracellular domains but markedly different cytosolic domains. Both B7 molecules are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells, activated macrophages and activated B cells as B7.1 or B7.2., which might preferentially support activation of the Th1 or the Th2 type of immune response, respectively (Kuchroo et al, 1995; Karandikar et al, 1998). We were therefore interested in determining the identity of B7 molecule subtype expressed in intact and injured CNS white matter, and its possible influence on the course of the response to the injury.

Results

[0227] The co-stimulatory molecule expressed constitutively in the intact optic nerves of adult Lewis rats was identified as B7.2. (FIGS. 12A, 12B). To examine the effects of neurotrauma on the expression of B7 co-stimulatory molecules, we inflicted a mild crush injury on the optic nerves of Lewis rats and assessed the neural expression of B7 by immunohistochemical analysis. The most striking effect of the injury was seen on B7.2 expression manifested on post-injury day 3 by its elevation at the margins of the injury site (FIGS. 12C, D, E). In contrast, expression of B7.1 was not detected in the optic nerve either before or 3 days after injury. On day 7, however, B7.1 was detectable at the site of injury, having pattern reminiscent of that seen for macrophages or microglia (FIG. 12F).

[0228] Next, we attempted to determine whether the degenerative response to optic nerve injury could be modified by peripheral manipulation of the immune system. The manipulation chosen was induction of oral tolerance, known to cause a “bystander” T cell immunosuppressive effect (Weiner et al, 1997b). Ingestion of low doses of MBP results in the activation of T cells which, based on antigen recognition, secrete TGF as the dominant cytokine and thus favor an immune response of Th2/3 type (Chen et al, 1994).

[0229] Lewis rats were fed with food to which 1 mg of bovine MBP had been added five times daily every other day. Ten days after first receiving the supplement, the rats were subjected to mild unilateral optic nerve crush injury. This time, interval between initiation of oral tolerance and injury was chosen to allow adequate build-up of the systemic T cell response. As shown in FIGS. 13A and 13B, the numbers of macrophages or active microglia (indicated by ED-1 labeling) and T cells (indicated by immunolabeling for T cell receptor), assessed 3 days after injury, did not differ from those observed in control injured rats which did receive any treatment or were fed with PBS. In the rats with induced oral tolerance to MBP, however, the amounts of B7.2 were further increased at the margins of the site of injury (FIG. 13C) as compared with controls (FIG. 12E). In addition, in the rats with induced oral tolerance to MBP, B7.2 was also elevated at the site of injury relative to the control nerves (FIG. 13C). It seems reasonable to assume that the T cells exposed to MBP via intestinal absorption, upon invading the injured CNS, contributed to the increase in expression of B7.2 by the injured nerve.

[0230] We then attempted to determine whether the observed changes in B7.2 expression in the injured rats was correlated with the extent of neuronal degeneration. Acute injury of the rat optic nerve is followed by a process of nerve degeneration, which can be quantified by retrograde labeling of the surviving neurons and counting of the corresponding cell bodies. Two weeks after optic nerve injury, the number of surviving RGCs, representing still-viable neurons, in the group of MBP-fed rats, was significantly higher than that in the control group, or that in the group of rats with injured nerves that were fed with ovalbumin (OVA). Interestingly, the benefit of the induced oral tolerance to MBP was increased by feeding the rats with more intensive schedule (FIG. 14).

EXAMPLE 5

[0231] Posttraumatic Immunization with Nogo P472 Peptide Promoted Functional Recovery from Spinal Cord Contusion

Material and Methods

[0232] Animals. Female and male SPD rats were supplied by the Animal Breeding Center of the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, matched for age (8-12 weeks) and housed in light- and temperature-controlled rooms.

[0233] Antigen. The Nogo p472 peptide (SEQ ID NO:19) was synthesized at the Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

[0234] Immunization. Rats were immunized with 100-150 μg of Nogo p472 peptide emulsified in CFA containing 1 mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The emulsion was injected subcutaneously at one site in the upper back in the rats. The p472-immunized rats were boosted one week after injury with p472 (100 μg/rat) in IFA. Control rats were injected either with PBS or with PBS emulsified in CFA (Difco, Detroit, Mich., USA).

[0235] Contusion. Adult rats were anesthetized and their spinal cords were exposed by laminectomy at the level of T9. One hour after induction of anesthesia, a 10-g rod was dropped onto the laminectomized cord from a height of 25 mm or 50 mm, using the NYU impactor (Basso et al, 1995 and 1996).

[0236] Introduction

[0237] Regeneration of axons after injury in the CNS of higher vertebrates is extremely limited and almost absent. Growth inhibitors associated with CNS myelin play an important role in this aspect. A potent neurite growth inhibitory activity associated with adult CNS oligodendrocytes and myelin was reported by Caroni and Schwab, 1988, and found to be neutralized by a monoclonal antibody, IN-1, which was shown to promote axonal regeneration and to enhance compensatory plasticity following spinal cord or brain lesions in adult rats.

[0238] This activity was later related to a high molecular weight membrane protein, designated NI-250, with a smaller component, NI-35, in rat. The bovine homologue of rat NI-250, bNI-220, was recently purified (Chen et al, 2000; PCT Publication WO 00/31235). The cloning of nogo A, the rat cDNA encoding NI-220/250, was recently reported (see FIG. 1a of Chen et al, 2000; and PCT Publication WO 00/31235, the entire contents of both of which being hereby incorporated herein by reference). The rat nogo gene (SEQ ID NO: 17) encodes at least three major protein products: Nogo-A (SEQ ID NO:18) (1,163 amino acids; database accession number AJ242961), Nogo-B (SEQ ID NO:20) (360 amino acids; AJ242962) and Nogo-C (SEQ ID NO:21) (199 amino acids; AJ242963). The sequence of the amino acid p472 (SEQ ID NO:19) containing the residues 623-640 of rat Nogo-A, is shown in the box in FIG. 1a of Chen et al, 2000. The cloning of the corresponding human cDNA and protein is reported in Prinjha et al, 2000. See also WO 00/60083 and WO 01/36631.

[0239] PCT Publication WO 00/31235 describes methods for the production of recombinant Nogo proteins, fragments, derivatives and analogs thereof, and DNA molecules coding therefor. This publication further describes the use of a Nogo protein or fragment thereof for the treatment of neoplastic diseases of the CNS such as glioma, glioblastoma, retinoblastoma, and the like; and further describes the use of a ribozyme or an antisense Nogo nucleic acid for treatment of a subject with damage to the CNS and/or for inducing regeneration of neurons, wherein said ribozyme or antisense Nogo nucleic acid acts by inhibiting the production of Nogo in the subject. It is thus unexpected that immunization with Nogo or fragments thereof and/or administration of T cells activated therewith can promote nerve regeneration or prevent or inhibit neuronal degeneration in the NS, as shown according to the present invention.

[0240] PCT publication WO 00/31235, WO 00/60083 and WO 01/36631 are all hereby incorporated herein by reference. All CNS protein polypeptides and nucleotides disclosed herein can be used in the process of the present invention.

Results

[0241] SPD male rats (n=5 per group) were subjected to severe spinal cord contusion as described in the Materials and Methods section of this example and a 10-g rod was dropped onto the laminectomized cord from a height of 50 mm (FIG. 24A) or 25 mm (FIG. 24B) using the NYU impactor. Soon thereafter the rats were immunized subcutaneoulsy with Nogo p472 peptide (100 μg/rat) emulsified in CFA containing 1 mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Control male rats (n=5 per group) were injected with PBS emulsified in CFA.

[0242] In another experiment, 5 female rats were subjected to severe spinal cord contusion as described in the Materials and Methods section of this example and a 10-g rod was dropped onto the laminectomized cord from a height of 50 mm (FIG. 25) using the NYU impactor. Soon thereafter the rats were immunized subcutaneoulsy with Nogo p472 peptide (100 μg/rat) emulsified in CFA containing 1 mg/ml Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Control female rats (n=5 per group) were injected with PBS emulsified in CFA or with PBS alone. P472-immunized rats were boosted one week after injury and immunization with p472 (100 μg/rat) in IFA.

[0243] Acute incomplete spinal cord injury at the low thoracic levels causes an immediate loss of hindlimb motor activity that spontaneously recovers within the first 12 days post-injury and stabilizes on deficient movement abilities. The amount of motor function restoration is the sum up effect of the positive recovery from spinal shock and the negative effect of longitudinal and ventral spread of damage. A therapeutic approach aiming at reducing the spread of damage through neuroprotection will result in a better recovery in terms of hindlimb motor activity. The hind limb motor skills of the animals were scored using the BBB scoring method developed by Basso et al, 1996, following the kinetics and amount of hindlimb motor activity in the two experimental groups.

[0244] The results of the experiments above, depicted in FIGS. 24(A-B) and 25, show that both female (squares, FIG. 25) and male (triangles, FIGS. 24A-B) p472-immunized rats showed significantly improved overall functional recovery compared to the control rats injected with PBS in CFA (squares, FIGS. 24A-B and circles, FIG. 25) or PBS only (triangles, FIG. 25) (P<0.01, one way repeated measurements ANOVA). Males (FIGS. 24A-B) showed significantly better locomotor performance than PBS+CFA-treated controls from day 11 after the injury and at all times points measured thereafter. Females (FIG. 25) showed significantly better hind limb locomotion than PBS-treated controls from day 25 and on ((P≦0.05, **P≦0.01, ***P≦0.001, two-tail Student T-test).

[0245] Discussion of Experimental Results

[0246] The results of the experiments described in Examples 1 and 2 show that activated T cells accumulate at a site of injury in the CNS. Furthermore, the results also demonstrate that the accumulation of T cells at the site of injury is a non-specific process, i.e., T cells which accumulated at the site of injury included both T cells which are activated by exposure to an antigen present at the site of injury as well as T cells which are activated by an antigen not normally present in the individual.

[0247] The results of experiments described in Example 3 demonstrate that the beneficial effects of T cells in ameliorating damage due to injury in the CNS are associated with an NS-specific self-antigen as illustrated by MBP. More specifically, the administration of non-recombinant T cells which were activated by exposure to an antigen which can cause autoimmune disease (TMBP), rather than aggravating the injury, led to a significant degree of protection from secondary degeneration. Thus, activating T cells by exposure to a fragment of an NS-specific antigen was beneficial in limiting the spread of injury in the CNS. The present findings show that secondary degeneration can be inhibited by the transfer into the individual on non-recombinant T cells which recognize an NS-specific self antigen which is present at a site of injury. The T cells may recognize cryptic or non-pathogenic epitopes of NS-self antigens.

[0248] In addition, the experiments described in Examples 3, 4 and 5 show that activation of T cells by administering an immunogenic antigen (e.g., MBP) or immunogenic epitope of an antigen (e.g., MOG p35-55 or Nogo p472), may be used for preventing or inhibiting secondary CNS degeneration following injury.

[0249] The foregoing description of the specific embodiments will so fully reveal the general nature of the invention that others can, by applying current knowledge, readily modify and/or adapt for various applications such specific embodiments without undue experimentation and without departing from the generic concept, and, therefore, such adaptations and modifications should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalents of the disclosed embodiments. It is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein is for the purpose of description and not of limitation, and that other means or steps for carrying out the same function can be used; and it is intended that such expressions be given their broadest interpretation.

[0250] All publications cited herein are incorporated by reference in their entirety.

REFERENCES

[0251] Altschul, et al, 1990, J. Mol. Biol. 215(3):403-410.

[0252] Arquint et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:600-604, 1987.

[0253] Ashwood-Smith, 1961, Nature 190:1204-1205.

[0254] Basso, D M, Beattie, M S and Bresnahan, J C, 1995, “A sensitive and reliable locomotor rating scale for open field testing in rats, J. Neurotrauma 12(1):1-21.

[0255] Basso D M, Beattie, M S and Bresnahan, J C, 1996, “Graded histological and locomotor outcomes after spinal cord contusion using the NYU weight-drop device versus transection, Exp. Neurol. 139(2): 244-256.

[0256] Bazan, N. G., Rodriguez de Turco, E. B., Allan, G., 1995, “Mediators of injury in neurotrauma: intracellular signal transduction and gene expression”, J. Neurotrauma 12:791-814.

[0257] Bender et al, 1960, J. Appl. Physiol. 15:520.

[0258] Ben-Nun, A., et al, 1981a, “The rapid isolation of clonable antigen-specific T-lymphocyte lines capable of mediating autoimmune encephalomyelitis Eur. J. Immunol. 11:195-199.

[0259] Ben-Nun, A., Wekerle, H. and Cohen, I. R., 1981, “Vaccination against autoimmune encephalomyelitis with T-lymphocyte line cells reactive against myelin basic protein”, Nature 292:60-61.

[0260] Ben-Nun, A. and Cohen, I. R., 1982, “Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mediated by T-cell lines: process of selection of lines and characterization of the cells”, J. Immunol. 129:303-308.

[0261] Bone-Marrow Conservation, Culture and Transplantation, Proceedings of a Panel, Moscow, Jul. 22-26, 1968, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 107-186.

[0262] Brandt et al, 1992, J. Neurosci. Methods 45:35-40.

[0263] Burns, J., Rosenzweig, A., Zweiman, B., Lisak, R. P., 1983, Isolation of myelin basic protein-reactive T-cell lines from normal human blood”, Cell Immunol. 81:435-440.

[0264] Caroni, P. and Schwab, M. E., 1988, “Two membrane protein fractions from rat central myelin with inhibitory properties for neurite growth and fibroblast spreading” J. Cell Biol. 106: 1281-1288.

[0265] Caux et al, 1994, “Activation of Human Dendritic Cells through CD40 Cross-Linking”, J. Exp. Med. 180:1263-1272.

[0266] Chen, Y., Kuchroo, V. K.,. Inobe, J. Hafler, D. A. & Weiner, H. L., 1994, “Regulatory T cell clones induced by oral tolerance: suppression of autoimmune encephalomyelitis” Science 265:1237-1240.

[0267] Chen, M. S., Huber, A. B., van der Haar, M. E., Schwab, M. E., 2000, “Nogo-A is a myelin-associated neurite outgrowth inhibitor and an antigen for monoclonal antibody IN-1”, Nature 403:434-439.

[0268] Cohen, I. R., 1992, Immunol. Today 13, 490-494.

[0269] Diehl et al, Proc. Natl. Acad Sci. U.S.A. 83(24):9807-9811, 1986 (published erratum appears in Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 86(6):617-8, 1991).

[0270] Duvdevani et al, 1990, Neurol. Neurosci. 2:31-38.

[0271] Elias et al, 1991, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:3088-3091.

[0272] Faden, A. I., et al, 1992, Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 13:29-35.

[0273] Faden, A. I., 1993, “Experimental neurobiology of central nervous system trauma”, Crit. Rev. Neurobiol. 7:175-186.

[0274] Fournier, A. E., GrandPre, T., Strittmatter, S. M., 2001, “Identification of a receptor mediating Nogo-66 inhibition of axonal regeneration”, Nature 409:341.

[0275] Gonzalez et al, Mol. Phylogent. Evol. 6:63-71, 1996.

[0276] Gorin, Clinics in Haematology, 1986, 15(1):19-48.

[0277] Grewal et al, 1996, “Requirement for CD40 Ligand in Co-stimulation Induction, T Cell Activation, and Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis”, Science 273:1864-1867.

[0278] Hauben, E. et al, 2000, “Passive or active immunization with myelin basic protein promotes recovery from spinal cord contusion”, J. Neurosci. 20:6421-6430.

[0279] Hickey, W. F. et al, 1991, “T-lymphocyte entry into the central nervous system”, J. Neurosci. Res. 28:254-260.

[0280] Higgins, et al, 1996, Methods Enzymol 266:383-402.

[0281] Hirschberg, D. L., et al, 1998, “Accumulation of passively transferred primed T cells independently of their antigen specificity following central nervous system trauma”, J. Neuroimmunol. 89:88-96.

[0282] Hirshfeld, et al, 1970, FEBS Lett. 7:317.

[0283] Hovda, D. A. et al, 1991, Brain Res. 567:1-10.

[0284] Hunig et al, 1989, “A monoclonal antibody to a constant determinant of the rat T cell antigen receptor that induces T cell activation. Differential reactivity with subsets of immature and mature T lymphocytes”, J. Exp. Med., 169:73-86.

[0285] Hutchinson, C., et al, 1978, J. Biol. Chem 253:6551.

[0286] Janeway, C. A. Jr., 1992, “The immune system evolved to discriminate infectious nonself from noninfectious self”, Immunol. Today 13:11-16.

[0287] Karnholz et al, 1986, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83(13):4962-4966.

[0288] Karandikar et al, 1998, “Targeting the B7/CD28:CTLA-4 co-stimulatory system in CNS autoimmune disease”, J. Neuroimmunol. 89:10-18.

[0289] Kerschensteiner, M. et al, 1999, J. Exp. Med. 189:865-870.

[0290] Kramer, R. et al, 1995, Nature Med. 1(11):1162-1166.

[0291] Kuchroo et al, 1995, “B7-1 and B7-2 co-stimulatory molecules activate differentially the Th1/Th2 developmental pathways: application to autoimmune disease therapy”, Cell 80:707-718.

[0292] Lazarov Spiegler, O., et al, 1996, FASEB J. 19:1296-1302.

[0293] Lenschow et al, 1996, “CD28/B7 System of T Cell co-stimulation”, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:233-258.

[0294] Lewis et al, 1967, Transfusion 7(1):17-32.

[0295] Linner et al, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 1986, 34(9):1123-1135.

[0296] Livesey and Linner, Nature, 1987, 327:255.

[0297] Lovelock, Biochem. J. 56:265, 1954.

[0298] Lovelock and Bishop, Nature 183:1394-1395, 1959.

[0299] Lynch, D. R. et al, 1994, “Secondary mechanisms in neuronal trauma”, Curr. Opin. Neurol. 7:510-516.

[0300] Maniatis, T., 1990, Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual, 2d ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.

[0301] Martin, R. et al, 1990, J. Immunol. 145:540-548.

[0302] Martin, R. 1997, J. Neural Transm. Suppl. 49:53-67.

[0303] Mazur, Science, 1970, 168:939-949.

[0304] McIntosh, T. K., 1993, :Novel pharmacologic therapies in the treatment of experimental traumatic brain injury: a review”, J. Neurotrauma 10:215-261.

[0305] Moalem, G. et al, 1999, “Autoimmune T cells protect neurons from secondary degeneration after central nervous system axotomy”, Nature Med. 5: 49-55.

[0306] Mor et al, 1990, “Clinical modeling of T cell vaccination against autoimmune diseases in rats. Selection of antigen-specific T cells using a mitogen”, Clin. Invest. 85:1594-1598.

[0307] Mor et al, 1995, “Pathogenicity of T cells responsive to diverse cryptic epitopes of myelin basic protein in the Lewis rat”, J. Immunol. 155:3693-3699.

[0308] Nave et al, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 84:600-604, 1987.

[0309] Ota, K. et al, 1990, “T-cell recognition of an immunodominant myelin basic protein epitope in multiple sclerosis”, Nature 346:183-187.

[0310] Pearson and Lipman, 1988, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:2444-8.

[0311] Pette, M. et al, 1990, “Myelin basic protein-specific T lymphocytes lines from MS patients and healthy individuals”, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87:7968-7972.

[0312] Phan The Tran and Bender, 1960, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 104:388.

[0313] Phan The Tran and Bender, Exp. Cell Res. 20:651, 1960.

[0314] Phan The Tran and Bender, 1961, in Radiobiology, Proceedings of the Third Australian Conference on Radiobiology, Ilbery, P. L. T., ed., Butterworth, London, p. 59.

[0315] Popovich, P. G., Stokes, B. T., Whitacre, D. C., 1996, “Concept of autoimmunity following spinal cord injury: possible roles for T lymphocytes in the traumatized central nervous system”, J. Neurosci. Res. 45:349-63.

[0316] Popovich et al, 1997, J. Comp. Neurol. 377:443-464.

[0317] Prinja et al, “Inhibitor of neurite outgrowth in humans”, Nature 403(6768):383-384 (2000)

[0318] Rapalino, O., Lazarov-Spiegler, O., Agranov, E., Schwartz, M., 1998, “Implantation of stimulated homologous macrophages results in partial recovery of paraplegic rats”, Nature Med. 4:814-821.

[0319] Rapatz et al, Cryobiology, 1968, 5(1):18-25.

[0320] Rinfret, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 85:576, 1960.

[0321] Roth et al, Genomics 28(2):241-250, 1995.

[0322] Rowe, Cryobiology, 1966, 3(1):12-18.

[0323] Rowe and Rinfret, 1962, Blood, 20:636.

[0324] Rowe et al, Fed. Proc., 1962, 21:157.

[0325] Schaich et al, 1986, Biol. Chem. 367:825-834.

[0326] Schluesener, H. J. and Wekerle, H., 1985, “Autoaggressive T lymphocyte lines recognizing the encephatoligenic region of myelin basic protein: in vitro selection from unprimed rat T lymphocyte populations”, J. Immunol. 135:3128-3133.

[0327] Sloviter and Ravdin, Nature 196:548, 1962.

[0328] Spitzer et al, Cancer, 1980, 45:3075-3085.

[0329] Stiff et al, Cryobiology, 1983, 20:17-24.

[0330] Streilein, J. W., 1993, Curr. Opin. Immunol. 5:428-423.

[0331] Streilein, J. W., 1995, Science 270:1158-1159.

[0332] Suruhan-Dires Keneli et al, 1993 Euro. J. Immunol. 23:530.

[0333] Thompson, et al, 1994, Nucleic Acids Res. 22(22):4673-80.

[0334] Vergelli, M. et al, 1996, “Differential activation of human autoreactive T cell clones by altered peptide ligands derived from myelin basic protein peptide (87-99)”, Eur. J. Immunol. 26: 2624-2634.

[0335] Weiner et al, 1997a, Annu. Rev. Med. 48:341-51.

[0336] Weiner et al, 1997b, “Tolerance Immune Mechanisms and Treatment of Autoimmune Diseases”, Immunol. Today 18:335-343. Werkele, H., 1993, In The Blood-Brain Barrier, Pardridge, Ed., Raven Press, Ltd. New York, 67-85.

[0337] Wu, D. et al, 1994, J.Neurochem. 62:37-44.

[0338] Yoles, E. et al, 1992, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33:3586-3591).

[0339] Yoles et al, 1996, J. Neurotrauma 13:49-57.

[0340] Yoshina, A. et al, 1991 Brain Res. 561:106-119.

[0341] Zaroulis and Leiderman, Cryobiology 17:311-317, 1980.

[0342] Zivin, J. A., et al, 1991 Sci. Am. 265:56-63.

1 29 1 612 DNA Homo sapiens 1 ccaagaagat cccacagcag cttccgaagg cctggatgtg atggcatcac agaagagacc 60 ctcacagcga cacggatcca agtacttggc cacagcaagt accatggacc atgcccggca 120 tggcttcctc ccaaggcaca gagacacggg catccttgac tccatcgggc gcttctttag 180 cggtgacagg ggtgcgccca agcggggctc tggcaaggac tcacacacaa gaactaccca 240 ctacggctcc ctgccccaga agtcgcagag gacccaagat gaaaacccag tagtccactt 300 cttcaagaac attgtgacac ctcgtacacc ccctccatcc caaggaaagg ggagaggcct 360 gtccctcagc agatttagct ggggaggaag agacagccgc tctggatctc ccatggcaag 420 acgctgagag cctccctgct cagccttccc gaatcctgcc ctcggcttct taatataact 480 gccttaaacg tttaattcta cttgcaccaa atagctagtt agagcagacc ctctcttaat 540 cccgtggggc tgtgaacgcg gcgggccagc ccacggcacc ctgactggct aaaactgttt 600 gtcccttttt at 612 2 2139 DNA Homo sapiens 2 gaaaacagtg cagccacctc cgagagcctg gatgtgatgg cgtcacagaa gagaccctcc 60 cagaggcacg gatccaagta cctggccaca gcaagtacca tggaccatgc caggcatggc 120 ttcctcccaa ggcacagaga cacgggcatc cttgactcca tcgggcgctt ctttggcggt 180 gacaggggtg cgccaaagcg gggctctggc aaggactcac accacccggc aagaactgct 240 cactatggct ccctgcccca gaagtcacac ggccggaccc aagatgaaaa ccccgtagtc 300 cacttcttca agaacattgt gacgcctcgc acaccacccc cgtcgcaggg aaaggggaga 360 ggactgtccc tgagcagatt tagctggggg gccgaaggcc agagaccagg atttggctac 420 ggaggcagag cgtccgacta taaatcggct cacaagggat tcaagggagt cgatgcccag 480 ggcacgcttt ccaaaatttt taagctggga ggaagagata gtcgctctgg atcacccatg 540 gctagacgct gaaaacccac ctggttccgg aatcctgtcc tcagcttctt aatataactg 600 ccttaaaact ttaatcccac ttgcccctgt tacctaatta gagcagatga cccctcccct 660 aatgcctgcg gagttgtgca cgtagtaggg tcaggccacg gcagcctacc ggcaatttcc 720 ggccaacagt taaatgagaa catgaaaaca gaaaacggtt aaaactgtcc ctttctgtgt 780 gaagatcacg ttccttcccc cgcaatgtgc ccccagacgc acgtgggtct tcagggggcc 840 aggtgcacag acgtccctcc acgttcaccc ctccaccctt ggactttctt ttcgccgtgg 900 ctcggcaccc ttgcgctttt gctggtcact gccatggagg cacacagctg cagagacaga 960 gaggacgtgg gcggcagaga ggactgttga catccaagct tcctttgttt ttttttcctg 1020 tccttctctc acctcctaaa gtagacttca tttttcctaa caggattaga cagtcaagga 1080 gtggcttact acatgtggga gctttttggt atgtgacatg cgggctgggc agctgttaga 1140 gtccaacgtg gggcagcaca gagagggggc cacctcccca ggccgtggct gcccacacac 1200 cccaattagc tgaattcgcg tgtggcagag ggaggaaaag gaggcaaacg tgggctgggc 1260 aatggcctca cataggaaac agggtcttcc tggagatttg gtgatggaga tgtcaagcag 1320 gtggcctctg gacgtcaccg ttgccctgca tggtggcccc agagcagcct ctatgaacaa 1380 cctcgtttcc aaaccacagc ccacagccgg agagtccagg aagacttgcg cactcagagc 1440 agaagggtag gagtcctcta gacagcctcg cagccgcgcc agtcgcccat agacactggc 1500 tgtgaccggg cgtgctggca gcggcagtgc acagtggcca gcactaaccc tccctgagaa 1560 gataaccggc tcattcactt cctcccagaa gacgcgtggt agcgagtagg cacaggcgtg 1620 cacctgctcc cgaattactc accgagacac acgggctgag cagacggccc ctgtgatgga 1680 gacaaagagc tcttctgacc atatccttct taacacccgc tggcatctcc tttcgcgcct 1740 ccctccctaa cctactgacc caccttttga ttttagcgca cctgtgattg ataggccttc 1800 caaagagtcc cacgctggca tcaccctccc cgaggacgga gatgaggagt agtcagcgtg 1860 atgccaaaac gcgtcttctt aatccaattc taattctgaa tgtttcgtgt gggcttaata 1920 ccatgtctat taatatatag cctcgatgat gagagagtta caaagaacaa aactccagac 1980 acaaacctcc aaatttttca gcagaagcac tctgcgtcgc tgagctgagg tcggctctgc 2040 gatccatacg tggccgcacc cacacagcac gtgctgtgac gatggctgaa cggaaagtgt 2100 acactgttcc tgaatattga aataaaacaa taaactttt 2139 3 581 DNA Homo sapiens 3 taatatctag ggktttgact ctgacccgtg ttggggctct cacttcatgg cttctcacgc 60 ttgtgctgca tatcccacac caattagacc caaggatcag ttggaagttt ccaggacatc 120 ttcattttat ttccaccctc aatccacatt tccagatgtc tctgcagcaa agcgaaattc 180 caggcaagcc ttagggaaaa aaggaaaaac aaagaaaatg aaacaattgg cagtgaaagg 240 cagaaagaga agatggagcc cttagagaag ggagtatccc tgagtaggtg gggaaaaggg 300 gaggagaagg ggaggaggag aggaggagga aagcaggcct gtccctttaa gggggttggc 360 tgtcaatcag aaagcccttt tcattgcagg agaagaggac aaagatactc agagagaaaa 420 agtaaaagac cgaagaagga ggctggagag accaggatcc ttccagctga acaaagtcag 480 ccacaaagca gactagccag ccggctacaa ttggagtcag agtcccaaag acatgggtaa 540 gtttcaaaaa ctttagcatt gaagattcaa gaggacacag g 581 4 1762 DNA Homo sapiens 4 ctgctttcag agcctgtgac ttcttgtgtg cctctcctgt ttctcagcaa catggcatag 60 ggcctgggat accaggtctg gggatctcag ggactcttag cactttaaga cacatgtgtt 120 cccaggccct ggtgtgttcc tctagtgcca gaaagatgtt tcatgctttg ctgactttgt 180 ataaagtctg tttgtagctg ttttgacaga atctcagcgt ataactgagg gtggggacat 240 tagccaagct gcattatagg aggacaaaac tgccatacaa agtgtccaaa atcattaagc 300 ctgcattttt attattggga gtaatatcaa acctcctatt ttccaatttt catttcttgt 360 cctgtgctag ctccatcctg tttggactgc tcctcccata tgtaaactaa gaagaatcaa 420 gcattctttg caacaaatac acacgatgct caaaaatgtc caggagcatc caatttccaa 480 agtttcctcc acctggaatg ctcttcatgc taaaatcctg tctgacaata ccagcatctc 540 tggcctgcac tcatcccttc ctggaactcc aagtgcattt accctctgtt accacttact 600 tggctgcctg aattgttagt tgaaaatatt aggtctactt agctaattct tcctcaggaa 660 attaaagact cccatatggc agagtctgtg tcttttctct cttcatatcc cgtataacac 720 ccagcataat gctgggcata tagtgagtat tccataaata gttgatgaat gactaaaata 780 agcaagcaaa caaacagact agaacaataa gaaagaaggg actggatttc ataatctctc 840 tggcttgcta tttgaattgc tgaattatta ttatttatta aatatttttt aaattctggc 900 aataaaaggt aaggatttat tttctttctt tctttttttt tttcttgaga cagagtctcg 960 ctcttactgc ccaggctgga gtacaatggc gcaatcttgg ctcacggcaa cctccgcctc 1020 ctcctgggtt taacagattc tcctgtctca gcctcctgag tagctgggat tacaggcata 1080 cgcccatgcc cggctaattt ttgtattttt agtagagacg gggttttgcc atgttggcca 1140 ggctggtctt gaactcctga cctcatgtga tccacctgcc tcagcctccc aaagtgctgg 1200 gattacaggc atgcgccacc gtgcccggcc aaagatttat tttcaagaat gaaacaaagt 1260 aaggattctg ggtcaatctc acatgctgaa agccaaaacc tctagccgct cctgcttttt 1320 gacttcggag tgcccactat ctccgagcct gtgagcacag ggcctggcag aggggtttga 1380 gtggcatgag ctacctactg gatgtgcctg actgtttccc cttcttcttc cccaggcttg 1440 ttagagtgct gtgcaagatg tctggtaggg gccccctttg cttccctggt ggccactgga 1500 ttgtgtttct ttggggtggc actgttctgt ggctgtggac atgaagccct cactggcaca 1560 gaaaagctaa ttgagaccta tttctccaaa aactaccaag actatgagta tctcatcaat 1620 gtgtaagtac ctgccctccc acacagaccc atcttttttt tccctctctc catcctggag 1680 atagagaact cttcagtacc ttagtaacta gcaggggact ggggtggagc cagaccggat 1740 tcccgagtct tccctctgtg ca 1762 5 828 DNA Homo sapiens 5 ctagaaaatc cctagccttg ttaaggtgct cgctctggtg tatacctcac ttatgtcggg 60 aaagaagcca ggtcttcaat taataagatt ccctggtctc gtttgtctac ctgttaatgc 120 aggatccatg ccttccagta tgtcatctat ggaactgcct ctttcttctt cctttatggg 180 gccctcctgc tggctgaggg cttctacacc accggcgcag tcaggcagat ctttggcgac 240 tacaagacca ccatctgcgg caagggcctg agcgcaacgg taacaggggg ccagaagggg 300 aggggttcca gaggccaaca tcaagctcat tctttggagc gggtgtgtca ttgtttggga 360 aaatggctag gacatcccga caaggtgatc atcctcagga ttttgtggca ataacaaggg 420 gtgggggaaa attgggcgcg agtctgtggc ctcgtcccca cccaaggctg ggtcctctct 480 aggggcctgg catttgagtg aggaagcgat ggctgcagcc gaacgagaag gtcaggaaga 540 acgtggtgcc cagctggctt agcctcacct ttcaaaggtt ccctaagcaa atttcttctc 600 aaaacagaaa gcatgagttt tgtgggatgc tttgtacaat cagaccattt ctaagccatc 660 tgttggtatc cctttgttcc cttcctagta ggtaccacaa gagtggatct aactggacaa 720 gagtctaaaa tgctgctcat gtgattgaga cttgggcacc tgagctraga gggaggatgg 780 ataataaaaa ttaaataata actccaaggt aaatttacaa tgttctgg 828 6 1140 DNA Homo sapiens 6 gatcctcctc attcttcccc tacccattcc ccccaccctc cgttatactg gggccagtta 60 tctagtagat actgccaatt acccttggca gaggtgccct gctcactaat tttatttggg 120 ggagmgccct ggaacctggt tttaatgtct ggcacacgcc acttccagga tctcccagtt 180 tgtgtttcta catctgcagg ctgatgctga tttctaacca acccatgtca atcattttag 240 tttgtgggca tcacctatgc cctgaccgtt gtgtggctcc tggtgtttgc ctgctctgct 300 gtgcctgtgt acatttactt caacacctgg accacctgcc agtctattgc cttccccagc 360 aagacctctg ccagtatagg cagtctctgt gctgatgcca gaatgtatgg tgagttaggg 420 tacgggtgct ttggctctcc tacccactat ggaagcacta tatatttggt tattttctta 480 gtgtaaggag ggtggtgatt atgagaaaaa tataagatga tgaatgattg ggtcttagtt 540 tattaatcct tccctactga aaccagagag gtttcttccc ccggaaggga acttggaagt 600 ggtgggagtt ttcttggcca ttcacattgg cctactctag ttgactgctg ttcacaaccc 660 caaagcagca catttcaata acaaacacaa ggttdsacca ctgttcaata ccaccttctc 720 ttttttgtaa acctgtagaa aagaggatcc taattgttgg tagmatccaa mtttacagcc 780 aggataatta gagatggaag aagggctctg ggggaaagtc tccatgtggc cccgtaactc 840 cataaagctt accctgcttg ctttttgtgt cttacttagg tgttctccca tggaatgctt 900 tccctggcaa ggtttgtggc tccaaccttc tgtccatctg caaaacagct gaggtgagtg 960 ggttatttgg gttattttac aagggagtag ctaataccat acaaattaca cccatggcct 1020 tcaattttaa ggactgaaag tttccctttg ctggattttg aattagccga ttgccttcta 1080 caacatgttg gctaagtgtg cctgagccaa tgagcataga aggtaaaaca cctcttttct 1140 7 295 DNA Homo sapiens misc_feature (42)..(43) n at positions 42 and 43 is unknown 7 aattagcaca cagaaaggat atccaacaca tacaaagctg tnntcatgga ctacactgga 60 gcatattact gctgttgcaa gaaacatttc ttcttcctct tttcattttc ctgcagttcc 120 aaatgacctt ccacctgttt attgctgcat ttgtgggggc tgcagctaca ctggtttccc 180 tggtgagttg actttgaatg atcttggcaa gtaaataggc ctgagatagt tgtgggtaca 240 gctattctga aaggcaagaa ggtagactgc ttccatcctt gaaatgctgg aggga 295 8 2940 DNA Homo sapiens 8 aattctatat actatcacta tggctccact ttggatactc tccagtggat ttagttactc 60 atatggaaat acctgggagg acctcctaac attattagaa ttgttatgat tataatacaa 120 ygctatgtcc caggtcttgc tgatagtgct acagtgccct gtgaatgtag tgtgctcatt 180 gtgcagatta aaaacctaag gcactgaagg gtgaagtgat ttatctgaag ttattttata 240 aagcagtgat cagacaasct gagctcacag aactccctgg cccctactgc tgaggtttcc 300 atacagagtc aagtaatttc tcaccttgta aaacgaattg attcattaac caggggagag 360 ctctactgca tgatgtggct gtgtgtctac agcaagcacc ctatgactct aagtcactcg 420 gacatattga tgtggcaaag cccaaatatt gttcacttcc ctgaggaaaa ctcagtgcta 480 gatcaaacag aggtgtggaa taaatcttta tgatttgatt ctctgggcct gggccatgag 540 acccatgatg cctcagagac atcggacttc cagtcaagtg tatatggaga aagccaagcc 600 tgggatgtac tgctttttgc agagcatggg tttttccctt atttagttat gattttattt 660 ctacccttcc tcattcccaa agggatttga ggagggagtg ctttcttttc tactctcatt 720 cacattctct cttctgttcc ctacagctca ccttcatgat tgctgccact tacaactttg 780 ccgtccttaa actcatgggc cgaggcacca agttctgatc ccccgtagaa atcccccttt 840 ctctaatagc gaggctctaa ccacacagcc tacaatgctg cgtctcccat cttaactctt 900 tgcctttgcc accaactggc cctcttctta cttgatgagt gtaacaagaa aggagagtct 960 tgcagtgatt aaggtctctc tttggactct cccctcttat gtacctcttt tagtcatttt 1020 gcttcatagc tggttcctgc tagaaatggg aaatgcctaa taatatgact tcccaactgc 1080 aagtcacaaa ggaatggagg ctctaattga attttcaagc atctcctgag gatcagaaag 1140 taatttcttc tcaaagggta cttccactga tggaaacaaa gtggaaggaa agatgctcag 1200 gtacagagaa ggaatgtctt tggtcctctt gccatctata ggggccaaat atattctctt 1260 tggtgtacaa aatggaattc attctgcgtc tctctattac actgaagata gaagaaaaaa 1320 gaatgtcaga aaaacaataa gagcgtttgc ccaaatctgc ctattgcagc tgggagaagg 1380 gggtcaaagc aaggatcttt cacccacaga aagagagcac tgaccccgat ggcgatggac 1440 tactgaagcc ctaactcagc caaccttact tacagcataa gggagcgtag aatctgtgta 1500 gacgaagggg gcatctggcc ttacacctcg ttagggaaga gaaacagggt cttgtcagca 1560 tcttctcact cccttctcct tgataacagc taccatgaca accctgtggt ttccaaggag 1620 ctgagaatag aaggaaacta gcttacatga gaacagactg gcctgaggag cagcagttgc 1680 tggtggctaa tggtgtaacc tgagatggcc ctctggtaga cacaggatag ataactcttt 1740 ggatagcatg tctttttttc tgttaattag ttgtgtactc tggcctctgt catatcttca 1800 caatggtgct catttcatgg ggtattatcc attcagtcat cgtaggtgat ttgaaggtct 1860 tgatttgttt tagaatgatg cacatttcat gtattccagt ttgtttatta cttatttggg 1920 gttgcatcag aaatgtctgg agaataattc tttgattatg actgtttttt aaactaggaa 1980 aattggacat taagcatcac aaatgatatt aaaaattggc tagttgaatc tattgggatt 2040 ttctacaagt attctgcctt tgcagaaaca gatttggtga atttgaatct caatttgagt 2100 aatctgatcg ttctttctag ctaatggaaa atgattttac ttagcaatgt tatcttggtg 2160 tgttaagagt taggtttaac ataaaggtta ttttctcctg atatagatca cataacagaa 2220 tgcaccagtc atcagctatt cagttggtaa gcttccagtc atcagctatt cagttggtaa 2280 gcttcccagg aaaaaggaca ggcagaaaga gtttgagacc tgaatagctc ccagatttca 2340 gtcttttaat gtttttgtta actttgggtt aaaaaaaaaa aaagtctgat tggttttaat 2400 tgaaggaaag atttgtacta cagttctttt gttgtaaaga gttgtgttgt tcttttcccc 2460 caaagtggtt tcagcaatat ttaaggagat gtaagagctt tacaaaaaga cacttgatac 2520 ttgttttcaa accagtatac aagataagct tccaggctgc atagaaggag gagagggaaa 2580 atgttttgta agaaaccaat caagataaag gacagtgaag taatccgtac cttgtgtttt 2640 gttttgattt aataacataa caaataacca acccttccct gaaaacctca catgcataca 2700 tacacatata tacacacaca aagagagtta atcaactgaa agtgttcctt catttctgat 2760 atagaattgc aattttaaca cacataaagg ataaactttt agaaacttat cttacaaagt 2820 gtattttata aaattaaaga aaataaaatt aagaatgttc tcaatcaaac atcgtgtcct 2880 ttgagtgaat tgttctattt gacttcacaa tagaaactta ataatcgtac cttctcaaga 2940 9 17538 DNA Homo sapiens 9 atggaaatgt tctgtatttg tgttgtctga tgagataacc actaactgta gtgctattga 60 gcatttgaaa catggctagt gtaatcaatg aaccaaattt ttaattttat ttaattgtaa 120 ttaattttaa gtggccacat gcagggagtg actgctgcat tggacagcac ggctctaaat 180 tgagcctttt ttccttattt ggtgaggcat acttgcctta agattgggaa gtctattttt 240 ggaacctgct accaatgctg gtctcacact tgcaattctc agctgagcca agaggtgaga 300 gaaaggtcat tttccattcc aagatctcac tctcccctgt gacactgagg aaactggcaa 360 gtgatgtgaa ggctggagag cgtgtcctgt atgctggctc tgtcccttct gcctgtgttg 420 actgacatag ttagttgctg cccttgctgg tctcccttcc tccaaccttg cctctctgag 480 cacacctgac attcatctca tgacttccct aaaaacattc tttgggaaca agaaactaac 540 aaatcccaag tgacctatca catatacaaa catacagggc agagtttgga ttcgcggtag 600 aagaaaggga ggttagacat taagaagaat ggtctggtga tgacagttgt gagataatag 660 aaacaggaaa aagaaatcta agttttcttt ctttttttaa gaaccaataa taatttctct 720 cttttgacta gtcagtaggg ctggggtgga ttggaggaag cttacatatt ccatgaacaa 780 gcctcttcct aaggtcctgt aagtgatcct gccccactga ttagccccta gaagaccctt 840 caaaggttgg atctccagga gggagtgggg gaggaaagcc ctgtaccagg cagcctctgc 900 tccattgctc tgggggggtg gggaagacaa accctggtca tcccctcagt ctgtagccct 960 tttgtgtgag tgcctggcaa gggtgacgtg gggctgtttc tgcgggcaca gctgcagcaa 1020 ttaccggagt ggaggcaggg cccaggcagc actgccctcc aagatcttcc cttgggcttt 1080 tcagcagtaa ggggacatgc accccaaggg cctccacttg gcctgacctt gctgcggggg 1140 ctctctgtcc ccaggaacag tagagatggc aagcttatcg agaccctctc tgcccagctg 1200 cctctgctcc ttcctcctcc tcctcctcct ccaagtgtct tccagctatg caggtaagac 1260 atgttttttt tcctgccctg gggagaccct gaaaacagaa aggctagttt cctgggggtt 1320 agctccttca aacatcctca agttggtata ttatctttct aaaacataga cctactgaca 1380 tgcctccctt cctcagaaac cttccgtggg tggttcttac agccttcaag atggagtcca 1440 gactcttttt tttttttggg acagagtctc cctctgttgc tcaggctgga gtgcagtggc 1500 atgatctcgg ctcactgcaa cctcagcctc cctggttcaa gcgattctcc tgacttggcc 1560 tcccaagtag cggagactac aggcgcctgc caccacaccc agctaaattt gttcttttct 1620 ttcttttttt ttttttttgg gattttagga cagacggggt ttcacatgtt ggccaggatg 1680 gtctcgatct cttgacctgc tgatccgccc gcctcagctt cccaaagtac tgggattatg 1740 ggcgtgagcc actgcactag gcctaatttt tttattttta gtagagatgg ggtttcacca 1800 tgttggccag gctggtctgg aacccctgac ctcaagtggt ctgccctcct cagcctccca 1860 aagttctgag attacaggca tgagccattg cgtctgaccc agactcctta atgtgactaa 1920 ctccaggctt tccttggact acttcttact tgtctttcca gctttgtctt ttcacctctc 1980 caattgagat aaaataataa caacctcttg gagttctcat caggattaca tgaaatgaga 2040 tatgtaacat gcttagcagt gcctgtccat agtaaatctc aataaatgtt tgtggaatta 2100 taatatcttg tcatgtttga gactttgctc tgcataatca ggcaccagta ggtttttata 2160 aaggaacccg tctgtcacgt gcagaggaga aataaacaga aagtttccca tcctcaggga 2220 gccacctgac tgacagaggc acagtgcatc cactctccag gtctagggga gaaagcagcc 2280 ttatttctta gtagctcaga atctgacttg agaaacacat ccacatagaa aaaaacaagg 2340 aactttttcg ggtcagggtc cgggacccac agtgaggtgg aagatacagg ggaaggaaga 2400 gggaaataga gccatcccca gggtggaaga tctcagaaga gaatttggga aacaaggtat 2460 gaacaaggac tgaatagtga gaagtgatgg agagacagct aaagtagatg gagtgtcaaa 2520 accaaaacct ctaagggtag aataggcagc aatttggcca agtcctaaca gggaggccca 2580 taggaggatt caacctcaag atgctgtgcc acattccaag agggaaccta aaggctgggc 2640 tgaagagtca gagatggcta cagctggcaa aaagatgggc agatgctgag aggagatgat 2700 tgctaaaatg ttctgtccag gacattcaca gtatctctat aaccagagtc ttttttgtcg 2760 ttgttgttct caagaaggaa acttgaggcc gggtgtggtg gtttatgccc ataatcccag 2820 cgctttgggg ccaaggcagg cggatcacct gaggtcagga gttcgagacc agcctggcca 2880 acagtgtgaa acctcatctt tactaaaaat acaaaaatta gctggatgcg gcggtaggtg 2940 cctgtaatgc cagctactcg ggaggctgag gcaggagaat cacttgaacc tgggaggcgg 3000 aggttgcagg gaggcggagg ttgcagtgag ccaagattgc accactgcac tccagcctgg 3060 gcgacagaga gtaagactgt ctcaaaaaat aaatgaataa ataaaaagga agaagaagaa 3120 gaagaacaat tgcaatcctc cctggctcta gaatgtcatt taaaagtcga gtgtcttctt 3180 ccttccctgt tttgaagcag cccttctcat gacaggcttg cttgccaagg ttccctctga 3240 ccttaaatct cttccttttg gtgtcttgga cagggcagtt cagagtgata ggaccaagac 3300 accctatccg ggctctggtc ggggatgaag tggaattgcc atgtcgcata tctcctggga 3360 agaacgctac aggcatggag gtggggtggt accgcccccc cttctctagg gtggttcatc 3420 tctacagaaa tggcaaggac caagatggag accaggcacc tgaatatcgg ggccggacag 3480 agctgctgaa agatgctatt ggtgagggaa aggtgactct caggatccgg aatgtaaggt 3540 tctcagatga aggaggtttc acctgcttct tccgagatca ttcttaccaa gaggaggcag 3600 caatggaatt gaaagtagaa ggtgagtagt gccatataat attaggtatt aactgttggg 3660 tggccaagaa caattattct ctcaactgag atgagatccc tcaacccaaa catctcagtc 3720 ctgggaatga tttccataaa aatgtacaca tcaataaaca gaaactcatg cttagggatg 3780 tctgttgcat cattattcag agtagcaagg aaattgggat caaaatcaat gcctttgagt 3840 aggtaagtga cagaatgaac aatggtagcc atactgtgaa tattatgcag ggattaaaaa 3900 gattatttta gcactaggcc agatggtttg gggggctcct ctaaggtatt attgagtgat 3960 aagagcaagc tgctgtagga tacaaaaaca aaaacaaaac cctagggcat ggtggtttgc 4020 ctcgcagcta ctcaggaggc tgagacggga ggctggcttg agcccagggg tttgcagtta 4080 cagtgagcta tgattgcacc actgcactcc aacccgggtg acagagcaaa gaccttcacc 4140 cccactccct acccgtctct aaaaaaaaca aaaacaaaaa caaaaaaacc cttgggccca 4200 gcgccgtggc tcacgcctgt aatcccagca ctgtgggagg ccgaggtggg cagatcacaa 4260 ggtcaggaga tcgagaccat cctggctaaa acggtgaaac cccgtctcta ctaaaaatac 4320 aaaaaaaaaa aaaaaattta gccaggcatg gtagcaggcg cctgtagtcc cagctactcg 4380 ggaggctgag gcaggagaat ggcgtgaacc cggaagcgga ggttgcagtg agccaaaatc 4440 cttccactgc actccagcat gggggacaca gcgagactcc gtctcaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa 4500 accctgtatt tgtgagcgca cacacacaca cacacacaca cacacctgtg cttggtccta 4560 gtgaataagc aagtaaatca aatgtctaaa tataattata gaaaggagat gtcacctttt 4620 ggctgtacct ccactatttc attctgcaga attgcagaat ttcttttttt tttcctttct 4680 ttcttttctt tttttttttg acacagagtc tcgctctgta acccaggctg gagtgcaatg 4740 gcgccctccg cctcctgggt tcaagtgatt ctcctgcctc agcctcccga gtagctggga 4800 ttacaggtgc ccaccaccac acccagctaa tttttgtatt tttagtagag acagggtttc 4860 accaggttgt caaggttggt ctcaaactcc tgacctcagg tgatccactc gcctcagact 4920 cccaaagtgc tgggattaca ggcatgagcc atggtgcccg gcctcagaat ttcattttca 4980 acatgttttg catgatgggt gattttggag aatatttttt gctctatcgc aggatgatta 5040 agatgtggac aaggtgaagc cgatggaggg ggagctttga aagttacttg ctatttaatt 5100 gaggaactaa actgctttga gagcctgggg gtcagatcct ctgccttttc ctcctcccca 5160 cctgcagtgc aaacatcaga caattgatca ctattgtatc ttggaggtgg gagtgaccat 5220 tgcagtgctg ggaccagaag atggcattgt atgtggaaca acaaagcact atttctagag 5280 actgcctgca gggatatgga aatagcttta tgtgtctcag aatgttcttc atacagctgt 5340 ttttattggg gaaattctac ttgccgaaaa gtttgatagt gagaccctct ccagtttgca 5400 gatttttctc cttcctgctc aacaacttcc tagctcagta actgcctctc ccaacaaact 5460 ccctcagttt caccacacca aaaaaggaag acaagccggt tgcggtggct cacacctata 5520 atcccaaaac tttgggaggc cgaggcgggt ggatccacct gaggtcggga gttcgagact 5580 agcctgacca acatggagaa accctgtctc tactaaaaac acaaaattag cctggcgtgg 5640 tggcgcattc ctgtaatccc agctgggagg ctgaggcagg agaatcgctt gaaccccgga 5700 ggcggaggtt gcagtgagcc aagatcgttc cattacactc cagtctgggc aagaaaagtg 5760 gaactccatc tccaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa aacaaggaag acaaaaagaa aagcagctaa 5820 agactttgcc tcaggggaga aagttctctt ttgggttgct atccacattc caacctcctg 5880 ttcccacctc ttcgtctgca tgcctaagaa actgttttac aagtaaataa gggacgcttt 5940 gtctaggctt tggagccagg aagttgagac aaatttagga atgagatgaa gtaatggtat 6000 tattgcaagt ctcaggtgta actacctctg ctctttctct gaagagtttc taatttctct 6060 tgtttactta tttttttctt gtcatttttg ggattttatt actagttgtc tctaatcctt 6120 tctttaaatt cttcattatg aaacataaaa acaaatgcca ggcgcggcag ctcacgcctg 6180 taatcccagc actttgggag gccgaagcgg gcagatcacc cgggtcagga gttcgagacc 6240 agcctgatca acatggagaa accccgtctc tactaaaaaa tacaaaatta gctaggcgtg 6300 gtggcacatg ccagtaatcc cagctacttg agagactgag gcaggagaat cgcttgaacc 6360 gggaggcaga ggttgcggtg agccaagatc gcgccattgc actccagcct gggcaacaag 6420 agcaaaactc tgtctcaaaa aaaaaaaacc acatacaaac cagagataat attataatga 6480 gcctccaagt gcctaccacc ttgctgcagc acttgtcaat ccagggacca cccacctcac 6540 cggctcccca ctcattacca ccctccccta ctcaattact gaggtaaatc ctaggcagca 6600 tgatcatttc ttttttttct ttttatttat tttgagacag gatctgtctc tgtcacccag 6660 gctggagtgt agtggcatat ctctgctcac tgcagcctct gcctcccggg cagaagccat 6720 cctcccacct cagcctacat agtagctggg accacaggca cacaccacca cacactgcta 6780 atgttttgta ttttttgtag agactgggtt ttaccatgtt gatcaggctg gtctcaaact 6840 cctaggctca agcaatcctc ccacctcggc ctcccaaagt gctagaatta caggcgcgag 6900 ccactgcacc cagcgaagaa cactttttaa aaaataaata ggccgggcgc ggtggctcac 6960 acctgtaatc ccagtacttt gggagcccaa ggagggcgaa tcatgaggtc aagagattga 7020 gaccatccta agtaacatgg tgaaacccca tttctactac aaatacaaaa acaaaattag 7080 cctggcgtgg tggcaggcgc ctgtagtccc agctacttgg gagctgaggc aggagaatgg 7140 agtgaacccg ggaggcggag cttgcagtga gctgagatca tgccactgca ctcccccctg 7200 gggcaacaga gtgagactcc caaaaaaaaa aaaaaaagcc ccccctcccc acacacaata 7260 atataaataa ataaataacc acaatactat tatcacatct tacaaactca acaaaaattt 7320 cttaatatca tcaaataccc agtttgtgtt caaattttcc tgattgtttc ataaatatac 7380 tcttacagtt ggtttctttt agcgagattc aaatgagacc cacctgttga cctttgccct 7440 tagggtttcc cagggtctga attttgttga cgacattccc atgttgctat gtaatacggt 7500 cctccatgcc ctgtgttttt ctgtaaactg atagatgtgg aggtgcaatg acatttgtgt 7560 ttgatttact ttggcaaata tagttcatca gtgatactct atacttcttg ttgctttaca 7620 tccggaggct gataatgtct gcttttctct cttttctaat tatttgtgaa aggaaaaatg 7680 tggggggttg ggagaaaaaa acccttaagt acatactcgc taaatcacat tgctacaggt 7740 aacttccatt aagaacttga aagtaaaggt agctgcattt tcccctaggg aacacaatga 7800 tagacaggag ccttagtcta cagcttgaag gattgtaatt atacctaagc aaccctcctg 7860 gaccagttta atgttattag ctgtgatgta tccctacctt tgatgtcatt atccttactt 7920 agctccctta aagcagagat caagatgaaa agggcttcag ctgcagcatg gcacatggag 7980 attagagtgg ggcttttgga tgctgaggag cagacctaga atgggaaata gatgggagcc 8040 acagaagtga aggtccccct ccctcattgc tcaacctact ccacatctcc aggtctgcac 8100 atctgttcag ttactgaatc ctgtgtaagc taccttcttt ttcttttttc ttttatttat 8160 ttatttattt tttttttgag atggagtttt gctcttgtta cccaggctgg agtgcaatgg 8220 tgcaatctcg gctcactgca ccctccaact cccaggttca tgcaattctc ctccctcagc 8280 cttccaagta gctgggatta caggctgcac caccatgtct ggctaatttt tgaaaaatca 8340 gtagagagag ggtttcacca tgttggccaa gccggtctcg aactcctgac ctcaagtgat 8400 ccacccacct tggcctccca aaatgctggg attacaggtg tgagccacca tgcccgctgt 8460 aaactacctt cttaaaagct ctagaagagg gcttttaacc ttttgttgtg tgtcatgcac 8520 cttccgcaag ctgatgaagt tgatagaccc atctcagaat tttttttttt tttttgagac 8580 agtgtctcac tctgtcaccc aggattggtt gcagtggcac gatcatgggt cattgcagcc 8640 tccacctccc aggctcaagt gatcctcctg actcagcctc ttgaatagct gagaccacag 8700 gcttgtgtca ccatgcccag gtaattttta attttttttc gtagaggcag ggtctcacat 8760 tatgttgccc agtctggcct cgagaactcc tgggctcaag caatcttcct gccttgggct 8820 cccaaagtgg tgggattaca ggggagagcc accacaccta gccaggagga tgttttaaat 8880 acaccaaata aaacatttat acccaaatac agttatccaa atattaaatt aacaagagtt 8940 agggtgaccc tattaattag tgtaatttcc aaatagtaat gaacataagt gatagtttga 9000 gatttctgtg acttttctaa tgtgacgtga aaatatttgt gatttttctt tttctttttt 9060 ttttttgaga tggagtttcg ctcttgttgc ccaggctgga gtgcaatggc aagatctcgg 9120 ctcacctcaa cctccgcctc ctgggttcaa gcgattctcc tgcctcagcc tcttgagtag 9180 ctgggattac aggactgtgc caccacgtcc agctaatttt gtatttttag tagaaacagg 9240 gtttctccat gttggtcagg ctggtcttga actcccaacc tcaggcgatc cgcccgcctc 9300 ggcctcccaa agtgctggga ttacaggtgt gagccaccgc acctggccaa tatttgtgat 9360 ttttattgac gacaaagtca aaggttctct tcatattatt gtggtgtatc gcctacaagc 9420 ataattaaaa taaacactaa atttcagttt aaagtttact gaaaataaat atgtattttt 9480 tattccctat ttaagctttg aatcccctga cttcctatac cattaccact gtcctagttc 9540 aggttcatgt tgttttttac tttaattgtt atcacagtct cttaacattt ctccctatgt 9600 tctccagtcc tgtaggtgct aaatctgacg tggtcacttc tcagcttgga atccttcagt 9660 gcaccaccac agccttgaac tacatatttg aaatacatat ttattttcag taaactttaa 9720 actgaaattt agtgtttatt ttaattatgc ttgtaggcga tacaccacaa taatatgaag 9780 agaacctttg actttgtcgt caataaaaag tcccttgagg ggacttcaga tgtaagtccc 9840 ttagctgctc gttaaaactc ccccaggctg acccaataca caatcttgac tttaaaccac 9900 ttgtcattct aaatcactag catttcctgg aaaaaaaagc catttttcct tcagggctaa 9960 gctcagggac caattctgtg tcaccttctt tgaatcctga tgatattcac ttctttattt 10020 gacctgattt attgggcccc agacaccatg ctgagtgttg gggattcagc tctggacaat 10080 gtcaaatgtc agtcctgcct ttcagatcct ttctactggg tgagccctgg agtgctggtt 10140 ctcctcgcgg tgctgcctgt gctcctcctg cagatcactc ttggcctcgt cttcctctgc 10200 ctgcagtaca gactgagagg tacagggcag agggtgggtg gatcaggatc ctttctttaa 10260 atgagctggc ttcttggagc tacaccactt aacatgtatt tgtgagtgac ttctgggttc 10320 agaagttctt ctcactattg agtgataaag aaaaaaaata actccatgat gaaagagttt 10380 tacatcttac ggaatgcttt catatgaata atcggaccta gcatttccct atgagctaac 10440 tatgccatat agtaacccca ttttacagag gatacaactg aggccaggag tagttcagtg 10500 acttactcaa accgatataa cttataagtg gtagagctga ggcctctgta tcatacctag 10560 cagctccatg caacttggga gagtgtgagc ttcgaagtca gacaggtcta ggctattagg 10620 agttttgaat aaagatactg aagtgaaagt ctctaccaca cagtaggcgt tcgaaaattg 10680 tttcctcttt ctccattcaa cactgaggac tcaggttcag ctgctgatga agctcctctt 10740 ttttgcctag agctttcatt ctgagccttc tcctcctacc aagtgtctcc ccaatgccag 10800 agcaggaaga gtcttcactc ctcccaatgc cccacctccc atttgttact aagaggagag 10860 gagaaagtag caaggagggt atggggaatg ttctggggga atgggtgttg gtgcgatcaa 10920 caacaaagtc ctttctctca ccttgaattc atcccagatg cctgcttgtt tacttcttcc 10980 acacaaaaaa aggccttcag ccctcatggc tgagcagaaa gaatctgaat gttagagtca 11040 ggcagcctgg gtttgaattc catctcaggt actgaactct atagcaaaat tcttagattc 11100 tccaagcttc agttgccttg tctgtcaaat agagaaaaca tccttcgtcc taaattgtag 11160 ggaggattaa agtcatgcaa agtgcctact acaaatccag tcacaaagta gctagctact 11220 cactaaatgt tcagctcctc cctcctcatt cagatgggaa gtggctttag ataaacaaag 11280 tggcaacgca gtgggctgga gcagctctgt gaactgagaa tccaagaaaa ggggcgaaga 11340 gcagctggga tgtattggat gcttgtgctg gcttggagca ttgctcacat tctttattcg 11400 ctattgtatc tagactatag ctagagaaag agccgcaacc attggcttta aatccagtgc 11460 tcttcctact ctcctgaggt tgtttccagg ctgcagagaa atagcctgca caaggggccc 11520 aggcgctggg tgtgggaggg tccccaccga gagccagaac atgcaggaac taaaatgttg 11580 cctttttcta ttttaggaaa acttcgagca gagataggtg agttccagtc atcgtttctc 11640 ccaattcttg ccttttggtt ttttggcata acggaaatgg tcccattctt ggaccgtctc 11700 tccctctcaa taccctgttt tcccctcagt ttccctttct ctacagtggg tgtgtcgtgc 11760 ctagaacaag ttttaagtaa ttaaataaca aagactcagg ataaaaggat cctttttgga 11820 gtgccctact aaatccattt ccatttgttt ctctttcaga gaatctccac cggacttttg 11880 gtaagttccg gcatgtctag gccctcccag gtcaacttgg tatttcactc tagttccagt 11940 cacctggggg aacaaggacc cctggctcct ggttgagtcc cttcctctct tctcttttct 12000 ttctttaaat aagaagtcat ttgcatttag gattggtaaa atcataataa aaatactcat 12060 gtactgtttt tatgtgccag gcactattct aactacttta caaaaacgtt atcttattct 12120 gtttaactcc ttatgcacat gatctctctt ttcaggaatg ccaaaacaga ggtaaataga 12180 tcgtttacac gtaaacctga tgtctggttg gggaggtgaa acaaacagaa acaagacaca 12240 actgtatcac ctgtacttat atttctgctt tacaaactca ggatgtttcc atgagtacag 12300 aacatgacta atcagagaag acctcataga ggaatagaaa agccaccaag ccccactagg 12360 aattgacccc tcaaggacat ggtttctagc ctttttgttc actgcagatt gcccaatgcc 12420 taaagataat ggcaacagaa gagcacccaa atatttgtta gataaatgtt gcagacacta 12480 gaaggtgtca ttagggcaca gatggtacct tctctgagca aacttccttc acagctcctc 12540 ctcccgaggc tgtaggtgac tctactcttg tcacctggca cacagagttc tatcgtacga 12600 tttaggaaat tagaccagtg tgtggaccac acacacacac atctttacac acccaaagag 12660 gaggaatagt atctttgttt tggaggactt gactatgaaa ggtcttaact cctttttgta 12720 ccatgaatct ctctggcact ccagtgaagt ctaaaggacc cctttgcaga atgtttttaa 12780 atatacacat aaaatagaac acataggatt gcaaaaacaa tcattgtact aaaatacagt 12840 tatcaaccga taatcacatt tgtgatatag taacataaat gtttcttttt tttttttttg 12900 gaggcagagt ttggctcttg tcacccaggc tggagtgcaa tggcgcgatc taggctcact 12960 gaaacctctg cctcccgggt tcaagcgatt ctcagcctcc tgagtagctg ggattacagg 13020 tgcccgccac cacacccagc taatttttgt atttttagta gagactaggt ttcaccaggt 13080 tggccaggct ggcctcgaac tcctgacctc aggtgatcca cctgccttgg cctcccaaag 13140 tgctgggatt acgggcatga gccaccgtgc ccggccataa atatttcttt agccaaagta 13200 atacattaag taatgtagca gcaagtctaa taacctgtaa tttctttctt tctttctttc 13260 tttctttttt tttgagatga agtttttttg agatggagtg caatggcaca atctcggctc 13320 actgcaacct ccacctcctg ggttcaagcg attctcctgc ctcagcctcc caagttgctg 13380 gaactacagg cgcatgccac catgcccagc taatttttgt atttttagta gagacggggt 13440 ttcaccatgt tggccaggct ggtcttgaac ccctgacctc aggtgatctg cctgccttgg 13500 ccttccaaag tgctgggatt acaggcatga gccaccaggc ccagcccaat aacctttaat 13560 ttcaacatac taataaacat aaacagtatt tcaagatttc tgcaataact ctaatgggaa 13620 tgaaaacatc tgtggcttcc attggtaatt aagtcacagg tactgctcat attgtggtta 13680 gttgtaaaat gttttggttt gttttgtttt ttccaagact tgggggaatg ggtgttggtg 13740 ggatcaacaa gagtcttgct ctgtggccca ggctggagtg caggggcagg atcttggctc 13800 actgcaacct ccgcctccca ggttcaagcg attctcctgc ctcagcctcc tgagtagctg 13860 gcattacagg catgtgccac cacgcccagc taatttttac atttttagta gagatggggt 13920 ttcaccatgt tggcctggct ggtcttgaac tcttggcctc atgatccacc cgtctcggac 13980 tcccagagtg ttgggattac aggcatgagc caccacacct ggcagttgtt acatttttaa 14040 tgaaagaaaa tgttaaatcc agttattgaa aataaggagg cagtactttt ctcatccaag 14100 ttcatggact ttctgaattt tgtccccaga gtcctttggt gttctaggac cccaggttaa 14160 ggaacccaaa aagacaggtg ggtggggcat gagggggaac acatgttaat ccctgtttgt 14220 tctggtgaac aattcagatc cccactttct gagggtgccc tgctggaaga taaccctgtt 14280 tgtaattgtg ccggttcttg gacccttggt tgccttgatc atctgctaca actggctaca 14340 tcgaagacta gcaggtgcag tggctgggca gcaggcaaga ccaccaaata gtgggggacc 14400 aagtcagctc tgaatgggaa gccaaaagag aatagaacca ggactcaaga ttaggggagc 14460 tgggatttcc ttattcctct gtccccatgc ccaaccccag gctcttctga gaaactgtga 14520 agagaaccac ttactggatc tgtgggatcc cccagtggaa agggcagtgt gggtcactcc 14580 aaatgtccat agggaggatg tggggaaggt gctattcatc ttccactaat cacatatttg 14640 tttctttttg ttttcagggc aattccttga agagctacgt aagttctctt ctctctgtta 14700 taagcagaga ataaaaagcc aggaaaggga gacagaagca acaagaggaa gaggcgggct 14760 attgagggat cacattccca gaggaaagga ggagctggag agcctgggtg gagggaagac 14820 tcctcctggg aggtagaggg caaagaagcc agctgttaga gacacattta caggtggcag 14880 agaagctgga ggcactccta tctgccacct gatccattcc tccttcactg cccctaagca 14940 ggaatccaac cctagctggt ctcattgccc attccacagc aactgcccag tgcctcacct 15000 ctcagatcaa ccattgaggc aggaatggag acaagatgac cccaagggct tttcttctcc 15060 ctagttcaat ggttttatga tacaaactac tgacatacgt ttttcaagtt attttctcct 15120 tcttctagga aatcccttct gagtgatgtc acatcttggc aggggtggag gagagcctgg 15180 ttgcccaggg atttgtcctt ggggacatct catccatcaa gttgcacact cactggcatc 15240 tttgctatgg ggacattcca atttgcactt tcaggaacac tctgaattcc aagtagaatt 15300 gatttccctt cttctgtcat ctaccttttc tcttcatttt cccattttta ttacccttct 15360 ttccatttct ctctccagtc ttccacctgg aagccctctc tggctaagga caggcaggtg 15420 cccctctctc catcagagga cacctgtact ggagagcaac acaggatggt ctctgccatg 15480 aactggaggc caggaatctc ctcactgaaa attacagtat ggtaactttg caaatggtgg 15540 ttgtttcttc caagactcca gccctgattg cgcaaaactg aaaggcatgt gaagggaagg 15600 aagaggaaga gtgcaaaaca ttgaagagag agctgagtga gctgaagagt gaggatatga 15660 gtagccccaa cccaaacctg gagatgggga gaaacctaca gaatactagc cagagctcct 15720 ccttgtcttg gcagcctact agggacctgg ggaagcaaaa acgaaagctg ggcaacatgc 15780 ctgctttaga atgttttcct tctacttaca catcttccac aggtctcaga atctttcctt 15840 cctctcatcc ttttctccta tctacatatc tatcagagta tccactgttt attcaacaac 15900 tactacttga tggtcagaca caaacaaaca agctaggtgc taattaataa agatacgagt 15960 tttggccggg tgcggtggct cacgcctgta atcccagcac tttgggaggc cgaggcgggc 16020 gaatcacgag gtcaggagtt caagaccagc ctggccaaca tggtgaaacc ccatctctac 16080 taaaaataca aacaattaac tgagcatagt ggtgggcacc tataatacca gctactccgg 16140 aggctgaggc aggagaatcg cttgaaccca ggaggcagag gttgcagtga gctgagatcg 16200 cgccactgca ctctagccgg agtgacagag taagactctg tctcaaaaat aaataaataa 16260 ataaataaat aaataaataa ataaataaaa aataataata caagttttca taagcacact 16320 tctaacccct tgtcttttat gtatttcctt ccttatccac gcacctgtct ccctctactc 16380 cagcctcatt accccagagg tcagtcctca ggaaaactaa acacaaagaa agagctcagt 16440 cagaaaggcc atttatttat gtttcaagat gctcactgcc tcctttgttt tgtctccttt 16500 gcaggccttc tctcttaggc ctcttctcct gggggtatgg atcctggggg gagattgatc 16560 acctccatgc ttccattcct ccccagccat agtggggaca tcatgagaga agccaagcca 16620 ctggcccagg atcacccggc atttatggtg gctgctctgg cacaggtcct tgcctttata 16680 gcccctccag tgatccataa ggccctcttt ctccccaaag gagaggtcac agatagggca 16740 aaggtagctc ttctgcttcc agtgggtctg ctggtgtctg accagcctgg aaaatgagct 16800 gaaagacttg ctgcaatgga agcagtagtt gggcggctct gtgaggtggc ccttctggtg 16860 tctggagaga taggatttct tgctaaaagt caaagaacaa tgggggcaac agaagacatt 16920 gagtcttgag ggcttcactg gatgagagtt ggatctggca tcctgacaga gggttccagt 16980 gatgggtgcc tgggtcctgg tcacaggtgc ttggttctta agtacagatg cctggttctg 17040 ggccatagga ccctcagttc taaatatggg ttcctgggac ctggccactg gtgcatggtt 17100 cacatccaaa agcccctgga tggacctctg gcttctggcg atgggtgtct ggaattcagc 17160 ctgggtgcct ggaatcctca aagtacactc ctggtttcca tccactggct cctggttttg 17220 gtgtatcttc tggtggcgtt tgagctcaga ctggtcccgg aagctcttcc cacacacaga 17280 gcatgaatgg ggccggtaac ccagatggac gcggcggtga cgacttagtc cagaagcatc 17340 acagtaggtc ttgtcacaga gcgtgcaaca gaagggcctc tccccaagat gcatgcgtct 17400 gtgatagctg agggacttgg ggctccgaaa caacttccca cactgactgc agctgttagt 17460 cagcttggga ttgtgaacaa actggtggct atagaggtag gagcgcctgc tgaaacattt 17520 ggcacaggtg tagcaaaa 17538 10 327 DNA Rattus norvegicus 10 tttgtatgtc attgcaggat tcatgctttc cagtgtgtca tctatggaac tgcctctttc 60 ttcttccttt atggggccct cctgctggct gagggcttct acaccaccgg cgctgtcagg 120 cagatctttg gcgactacaa gaccaccatc tgcggcaagg gcctgagcgc aacggtaaca 180 gggggccaga aggggagggg ttacagaggc caacatcaag ctcattcttt ggagcgggtg 240 tgtcattgtt tgggaaaatg gctaggacat cccgacaagg tgatcatcct caggattttg 300 tggcaataac aaggggtggg gggacaa 327 11 2013 DNA Rattus norvegicus 11 ctgtatcagt gctcctcgtc gcctcactgt acttcacgga agagacttgg ttgactggcc 60 acttggagcg gaatcaggag acattcccaa ctcagagaga ctgagcccta gctcgcccac 120 ttgctggaca agatgatatt ccttaccacc ctgcctctgt tttggataat gatttcagct 180 tctcgagggg ggcactgggg tgcctggatg ccctcgtcca tctcagcctt cgagggcacg 240 tgtgtctcca tcccctgccg tttcgacttc ccggatgagc tcagaccggc tgtggtacat 300 ggcgtctggt atttcaacag tccctacccc aagaactacc cgccagtggt cttcaagtcc 360 cgcacacaag tggtccacga gagcttccag ggccgtagcc gcctgttggg agacctgggc 420 ctacgaaact gcaccctgct tctcagcacg ctgagccctg agctgggagg gaaatactat 480 ttccgaggtg acctgggcgg ctacaaccag tacaccttct cggagcacag cgtcctggac 540 atcatcaaca cccccaacat cgtggtgccc ccagaagtgg tggcaggaac ggaagtagag 600 gtcagctgca tggtgccgga caactgccca gagctgcgcc ctgagctgag ctggctgggc 660 cacgaggggc taggggagcc cactgttctg ggtcggctgc gggaggatga aggcacctgg 720 gtgcaggtgt cactgctaca cttcgtgcct actagagagg ccaacggcca ccgtctgggc 780 tgtcaggctg ccttccccaa caccaccttg cagttcgagg gttacgccag tctggacgtc 840 aagtaccccc cggtgattgt ggagatgaat tcctctgtgg aggccattga gggctcccac 900 gtcagcctgc tctgtggggc tgacagcaac ccgccaccgc tgctgacttg gatgcgggat 960 gggatggtgt tgagggaggc agttgctgag agcctgtacc tggatctgga ggaggtgacc 1020 ccagcagagg acggcatcta tgcttgcctg gcagagaatg cctatggcca ggacaaccgc 1080 acggtggagc tgagcgtcat gtatgcacct tggaagccca cagtgaatgg gacggtggtg 1140 gcggtagagg gggagacagt ctccatcctg tgttccacac agagcaaccc ggaccctatt 1200 ctcaccatct tcaaggagaa gcagatcctg gccacggtca tctatgagag tcagctgcag 1260 ctggaactcc ctgcagtgac gcccgaggac gatggggagt actggtgtgt agctgagaac 1320 cagtatggcc agagagccac cgccttcaac ctgtctgtgg agtttgctcc cataatcctt 1380 ctggaatcgc actgtgcagc ggccagagac accgtgcagt gcctgtgtgt ggtaaaatcc 1440 aacccggaac cctccgtggc ctttgagctg ccttcccgca acgtgactgt gaacgagaca 1500 gagagggagt ttgtgtactc agagcgcagc ggcctcctgc tcaccagcat cctcacgctc 1560 cggggtcagg cccaagcccc accccgcgtc atttgtacct ccaggaacct ctacggcacc 1620 cagagcctcg agctgccttt ccagggagca caccgactga tgtgggccaa aatcggccct 1680 gtgggtgctg tggtcgcctt tgccatcctg attgccattg tctgctacat cacccagaca 1740 agaagaaaaa agaacgtcac agagagcccc agcttctcag cgggagacaa ccctcatgtc 1800 ctgtacagcc ccgaattccg aatctctgga gcacctgata agtatgagag tgagaagcgc 1860 ctggggtccg agaggaggct gctgggcctt aggggggaac ccccagaact ggacctcagt 1920 tattcccact cagacctggg gaaacgaccc accaaggaca gctacaccct gacagaggag 1980 ctggctgagt acgcagaaat ccgagtcaag tga 2013 12 171 PRT Homo sapiens 12 Met Ala Ser Gln Lys Arg Pro Ser Gln Arg His Gly Ser Lys Tyr Leu 1 5 10 15 Ala Thr Ala Ser Thr Met Asp His Ala Arg His Gly Phe Leu Pro Arg 20 25 30 His Arg Asp Thr Gly Ile Leu Asp Ser Ile Gly Arg Phe Phe Gly Gly 35 40 45 Asp Arg Gly Ala Pro Lys Arg Gly Ser Gly Lys Asp Ser His His Pro 50 55 60 Ala Arg Thr Ala His Tyr Gly Ser Leu Pro Gln Lys Ser His Gly Arg 65 70 75 80 Thr Gln Asp Glu Asn Pro Val Val His Phe Phe Lys Asn Ile Val Thr 85 90 95 Pro Arg Thr Pro Pro Pro Ser Gln Gly Lys Gly Arg Gly Leu Ser Leu 100 105 110 Ser Arg Phe Ser Trp Gly Ala Glu Gly Gln Arg Pro Gly Phe Gly Tyr 115 120 125 Gly Gly Arg Ala Ser Asp Tyr Lys Ser Ala His Lys Gly Phe Lys Gly 130 135 140 Val Asp Ala Gln Gly Thr Leu Ser Lys Ile Phe Lys Leu Gly Gly Arg 145 150 155 160 Asp Ser Arg Ser Gly Ser Pro Met Ala Arg Arg 165 170 13 274 PRT Homo sapiens 13 Met Gly Leu Leu Glu Cys Cys Ala Arg Cys Leu Val Gly Ala Pro Phe 1 5 10 15 Ala Ser Leu Val Ala Thr Gly Leu Cys Phe Phe Gly Val Ala Leu Phe 20 25 30 Cys Gly Cys Gly His Glu Ala Leu Thr Gly Thr Glu Lys Leu Ile Glu 35 40 45 Thr Tyr Phe Ser Lys Asn Tyr Gln Asp Tyr Glu Tyr Leu Ile Asn Val 50 55 60 Ile His Ala Phe Gln Tyr Val Ile Tyr Gly Thr Ala Ser Phe Phe Phe 65 70 75 80 Leu Tyr Gly Ala Leu Leu Leu Ala Glu Gly Phe Tyr Thr Thr Gly Ala 85 90 95 Val Arg Gln Ile Phe Gly Asp Tyr Lys Thr Thr Ile Cys Gly Lys Gly 100 105 110 Leu Ser Ala Thr Val Thr Gly Gly Gln Lys Gly Arg Gly Ser Arg Gly 115 120 125 Gln His Gln Ala His Ser Leu Glu Arg Val Cys His Cys Leu Gly Lys 130 135 140 Trp Leu Gly His Pro Asp Lys Ile Thr Tyr Ala Leu Thr Val Val Trp 145 150 155 160 Leu Leu Val Phe Ala Cys Ser Ala Val Pro Val Tyr Ile Tyr Phe Asn 165 170 175 Thr Trp Thr Thr Cys Gln Ser Ile Ala Phe Pro Ser Lys Thr Ser Ala 180 185 190 Ser Ile Gly Ser Leu Cys Ala Asp Ala Arg Met Tyr Gly Val Leu Pro 195 200 205 Trp Asn Ala Phe Pro Gly Lys Val Cys Gly Ser Asn Leu Leu Ser Ile 210 215 220 Cys Lys Thr Ala Glu Phe Gln Met Thr Phe His Leu Phe Ile Ala Ala 225 230 235 240 Phe Val Gly Ala Ala Ala Thr Leu Val Ser Leu Leu Thr Phe Met Ile 245 250 255 Ala Ala Thr Tyr Asn Phe Ala Val Leu Lys Leu Met Gly Arg Gly Thr 260 265 270 Lys Phe 14 247 PRT Homo sapiens 14 Met Ala Ser Leu Ser Arg Pro Ser Leu Pro Ser Cys Leu Cys Ser Phe 1 5 10 15 Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Leu Gln Val Ser Ser Ser Tyr Ala Gly Gln Phe 20 25 30 Arg Val Ile Gly Pro Arg His Pro Ile Arg Ala Leu Val Gly Asp Glu 35 40 45 Val Glu Leu Pro Cys Arg Ile Ser Pro Gly Lys Asn Ala Thr Gly Met 50 55 60 Glu Val Gly Trp Tyr Arg Pro Pro Phe Ser Arg Val Val His Leu Tyr 65 70 75 80 Arg Asn Gly Lys Asp Gln Asp Gly Asp Gln Ala Pro Glu Tyr Arg Gly 85 90 95 Arg Thr Glu Leu Leu Lys Asp Ala Ile Gly Glu Gly Lys Val Thr Leu 100 105 110 Arg Ile Arg Asn Val Arg Phe Ser Asp Glu Gly Gly Phe Thr Cys Phe 115 120 125 Phe Arg Asp His Ser Tyr Gln Glu Glu Ala Ala Met Glu Leu Lys Val 130 135 140 Glu Asp Pro Phe Tyr Trp Val Ser Pro Gly Val Leu Val Leu Leu Ala 145 150 155 160 Val Leu Pro Val Leu Leu Leu Gln Ile Thr Leu Gly Leu Val Phe Leu 165 170 175 Cys Leu Gln Tyr Arg Leu Arg Gly Lys Leu Arg Ala Glu Ile Glu Asn 180 185 190 Leu His Arg Thr Phe Asp Pro His Phe Leu Arg Val Pro Cys Trp Lys 195 200 205 Ile Thr Leu Phe Val Ile Val Pro Val Leu Gly Pro Leu Val Ala Leu 210 215 220 Ile Ile Cys Tyr Asn Trp Leu His Arg Arg Leu Ala Gly Gln Phe Leu 225 230 235 240 Glu Glu Leu Arg Asn Pro Phe 245 15 18 PRT Rattus norvegicus 15 Ala Pro Lys Arg Gly Ser Gly Lys Asp Ser His Thr Arg Thr Thr His 1 5 10 15 Tyr Gly 16 23 PRT Homo sapiens 16 Val Leu Gly Gly Gly Cys Ala Leu Leu Arg Cys Pro Ala Leu Asp Ser 1 5 10 15 Leu Thr Pro Ala Asn Glu Asp 20 17 4684 DNA Rattus norvegicus CDS (253)..(3744) 17 attgctcgtc tgggcggcgg cggcggctgc agcctgggac agggcgggtg gcacatctcg 60 atcgcgaagg caggagaagc agtctcattg ttccgggagc cgtcgcctct gcaggttctt 120 cggctcggct cggcacgact cggcctgcct ggcccctgcc agtcttgccc aacccccaca 180 accgcccgcg actctgagga gaagcggccc tgcggcggct gtagctgcag catcgtcggc 240 gacccgccag cc atg gaa gac ata gac cag tcg tcg ctg gtc tcc tcg tcc 291 Met Glu Asp Ile Asp Gln Ser Ser Leu Val Ser Ser Ser 1 5 10 acg gac agc ccg ccc cgg cct ccg ccc gcc ttc aag tac cag ttc gtg 339 Thr Asp Ser Pro Pro Arg Pro Pro Pro Ala Phe Lys Tyr Gln Phe Val 15 20 25 acg gag ccc gag gac gag gag gac gag gag gag gag gag gac gag gag 387 Thr Glu Pro Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu 30 35 40 45 gag gac gac gag gac cta gag gaa ctg gag gtg ctg gag agg aag ccc 435 Glu Asp Asp Glu Asp Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Val Leu Glu Arg Lys Pro 50 55 60 gca gcc ggg ctg tcc gca gct gcg gtg ccg ccc gcc gcc gcc gcg ccg 483 Ala Ala Gly Leu Ser Ala Ala Ala Val Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala Ala Pro 65 70 75 ctg ctg gac ttc agc agc gac tcg gtg ccc ccc gcg ccc cgc ggg ccg 531 Leu Leu Asp Phe Ser Ser Asp Ser Val Pro Pro Ala Pro Arg Gly Pro 80 85 90 ctg ccg gcc gcg ccc cct gcc gct cct gag agg cag cca tcc tgg gaa 579 Leu Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Ala Ala Pro Glu Arg Gln Pro Ser Trp Glu 95 100 105 cgc agc ccc gcg gcg ccc gcg cca tcc ctg ccg ccc gct gcc gca gtc 627 Arg Ser Pro Ala Ala Pro Ala Pro Ser Leu Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala Val 110 115 120 125 ctg ccc tcc aag ctc cca gag gac gac gag cct ccg gcg agg ccc ccg 675 Leu Pro Ser Lys Leu Pro Glu Asp Asp Glu Pro Pro Ala Arg Pro Pro 130 135 140 cct ccg ccg cca gcc ggc gcg agc ccc ctg gcg gag ccc gcc gcg ccc 723 Pro Pro Pro Pro Ala Gly Ala Ser Pro Leu Ala Glu Pro Ala Ala Pro 145 150 155 cct tcc acg ccg gcc gcg ccc aag cgc agg ggc tcc ggc tca gtg gat 771 Pro Ser Thr Pro Ala Ala Pro Lys Arg Arg Gly Ser Gly Ser Val Asp 160 165 170 gag acc ctt ttt gct ctt cct gct gca tct gag cct gtg ata ccc tcc 819 Glu Thr Leu Phe Ala Leu Pro Ala Ala Ser Glu Pro Val Ile Pro Ser 175 180 185 tct gca gaa aaa att atg gat ttg atg gag cag cca ggt aac act gtt 867 Ser Ala Glu Lys Ile Met Asp Leu Met Glu Gln Pro Gly Asn Thr Val 190 195 200 205 tcg tct ggt caa gag gat ttc cca tct gtc ctg ctt gaa act gct gcc 915 Ser Ser Gly Gln Glu Asp Phe Pro Ser Val Leu Leu Glu Thr Ala Ala 210 215 220 tct ctt cct tct cta tct cct ctc tca act gtt tct ttt aaa gaa cat 963 Ser Leu Pro Ser Leu Ser Pro Leu Ser Thr Val Ser Phe Lys Glu His 225 230 235 gga tac ctt ggt aac tta tca gca gtg tca tcc tca gaa gga aca att 1011 Gly Tyr Leu Gly Asn Leu Ser Ala Val Ser Ser Ser Glu Gly Thr Ile 240 245 250 gaa gaa act tta aat gaa gct tct aaa gag ttg cca gag agg gca aca 1059 Glu Glu Thr Leu Asn Glu Ala Ser Lys Glu Leu Pro Glu Arg Ala Thr 255 260 265 aat cca ttt gta aat aga gat tta gca gaa ttt tca gaa tta gaa tat 1107 Asn Pro Phe Val Asn Arg Asp Leu Ala Glu Phe Ser Glu Leu Glu Tyr 270 275 280 285 tca gaa atg gga tca tct ttt aaa ggc tcc cca aaa gga gag tca gcc 1155 Ser Glu Met Gly Ser Ser Phe Lys Gly Ser Pro Lys Gly Glu Ser Ala 290 295 300 ata tta gta gaa aac act aag gaa gaa gta att gtg agg agt aaa gac 1203 Ile Leu Val Glu Asn Thr Lys Glu Glu Val Ile Val Arg Ser Lys Asp 305 310 315 aaa gag gat tta gtt tgt agt gca gcc ctt cac agt cca caa gaa tca 1251 Lys Glu Asp Leu Val Cys Ser Ala Ala Leu His Ser Pro Gln Glu Ser 320 325 330 cct gtg ggt aaa gaa gac aga gtt gtg tct cca gaa aag aca atg gac 1299 Pro Val Gly Lys Glu Asp Arg Val Val Ser Pro Glu Lys Thr Met Asp 335 340 345 att ttt aat gaa atg cag atg tca gta gta gca cct gtg agg gaa gag 1347 Ile Phe Asn Glu Met Gln Met Ser Val Val Ala Pro Val Arg Glu Glu 350 355 360 365 tat gca gac ttt aag cca ttt gaa caa gca tgg gaa gtg aaa gat act 1395 Tyr Ala Asp Phe Lys Pro Phe Glu Gln Ala Trp Glu Val Lys Asp Thr 370 375 380 tat gag gga agt agg gat gtg ctg gct gct aga gct aat gtg gaa agt 1443 Tyr Glu Gly Ser Arg Asp Val Leu Ala Ala Arg Ala Asn Val Glu Ser 385 390 395 aaa gtg gac aga aaa tgc ttg gaa gat agc ctg gag caa aaa agt ctt 1491 Lys Val Asp Arg Lys Cys Leu Glu Asp Ser Leu Glu Gln Lys Ser Leu 400 405 410 ggg aag gat agt gaa ggc aga aat gag gat gct tct ttc ccc agt acc 1539 Gly Lys Asp Ser Glu Gly Arg Asn Glu Asp Ala Ser Phe Pro Ser Thr 415 420 425 cca gaa cct gtg aag gac agc tcc aga gca tat att acc tgt gct tcc 1587 Pro Glu Pro Val Lys Asp Ser Ser Arg Ala Tyr Ile Thr Cys Ala Ser 430 435 440 445 ttt acc tca gca acc gaa agc acc aca gca aac act ttc cct ttg tta 1635 Phe Thr Ser Ala Thr Glu Ser Thr Thr Ala Asn Thr Phe Pro Leu Leu 450 455 460 gaa gat cat act tca gaa aat aaa aca gat gaa aaa aaa ata gaa gaa 1683 Glu Asp His Thr Ser Glu Asn Lys Thr Asp Glu Lys Lys Ile Glu Glu 465 470 475 agg aag gcc caa att ata aca gag aag act agc ccc aaa acg tca aat 1731 Arg Lys Ala Gln Ile Ile Thr Glu Lys Thr Ser Pro Lys Thr Ser Asn 480 485 490 cct ttc ctt gta gca gta cag gat tct gag gca gat tat gtt aca aca 1779 Pro Phe Leu Val Ala Val Gln Asp Ser Glu Ala Asp Tyr Val Thr Thr 495 500 505 gat acc tta tca aag gtg act gag gca gca gtg tca aac atg cct gaa 1827 Asp Thr Leu Ser Lys Val Thr Glu Ala Ala Val Ser Asn Met Pro Glu 510 515 520 525 ggt ctg acg cca gat tta gtt cag gaa gca tgt gaa agt gaa ctg aat 1875 Gly Leu Thr Pro Asp Leu Val Gln Glu Ala Cys Glu Ser Glu Leu Asn 530 535 540 gaa gcc aca ggt aca aag att gct tat gaa aca aaa gtg gac ttg gtc 1923 Glu Ala Thr Gly Thr Lys Ile Ala Tyr Glu Thr Lys Val Asp Leu Val 545 550 555 caa aca tca gaa gct ata caa gaa tca ctt tac ccc aca gca cag ctt 1971 Gln Thr Ser Glu Ala Ile Gln Glu Ser Leu Tyr Pro Thr Ala Gln Leu 560 565 570 tgc cca tca ttt gag gaa gct gaa gca act ccg tca cca gtt ttg cct 2019 Cys Pro Ser Phe Glu Glu Ala Glu Ala Thr Pro Ser Pro Val Leu Pro 575 580 585 gat att gtt atg gaa gca cca tta aat tct ctc ctt cca agc gct ggt 2067 Asp Ile Val Met Glu Ala Pro Leu Asn Ser Leu Leu Pro Ser Ala Gly 590 595 600 605 gct tct gta gtg cag ccc agt gta tcc cca ctg gaa gca cct cct cca 2115 Ala Ser Val Val Gln Pro Ser Val Ser Pro Leu Glu Ala Pro Pro Pro 610 615 620 gtt agt tat gac agt ata aag ctt gag cct gaa aac ccc cca cca tat 2163 Val Ser Tyr Asp Ser Ile Lys Leu Glu Pro Glu Asn Pro Pro Pro Tyr 625 630 635 gaa gaa gcc atg aat gta gca cta aaa gct ttg gga aca aag gaa gga 2211 Glu Glu Ala Met Asn Val Ala Leu Lys Ala Leu Gly Thr Lys Glu Gly 640 645 650 ata aaa gag cct gaa agt ttt aat gca gct gtt cag gaa aca gaa gct 2259 Ile Lys Glu Pro Glu Ser Phe Asn Ala Ala Val Gln Glu Thr Glu Ala 655 660 665 cct tat ata tcc att gcg tgt gat tta att aaa gaa aca aag ctc tcc 2307 Pro Tyr Ile Ser Ile Ala Cys Asp Leu Ile Lys Glu Thr Lys Leu Ser 670 675 680 685 act gag cca agt cca gat ttc tct aat tat tca gaa ata gca aaa ttc 2355 Thr Glu Pro Ser Pro Asp Phe Ser Asn Tyr Ser Glu Ile Ala Lys Phe 690 695 700 gag aag tcg gtg ccc gaa cac gct gag cta gtg gag gat tcc tca cct 2403 Glu Lys Ser Val Pro Glu His Ala Glu Leu Val Glu Asp Ser Ser Pro 705 710 715 gaa tct gaa cca gtt gac tta ttt agt gat gat tcg att cct gaa gtc 2451 Glu Ser Glu Pro Val Asp Leu Phe Ser Asp Asp Ser Ile Pro Glu Val 720 725 730 cca caa aca caa gag gag gct gtg atg ctc atg aag gag agt ctc act 2499 Pro Gln Thr Gln Glu Glu Ala Val Met Leu Met Lys Glu Ser Leu Thr 735 740 745 gaa gtg tct gag aca gta gcc cag cac aaa gag gag aga ctt agt gcc 2547 Glu Val Ser Glu Thr Val Ala Gln His Lys Glu Glu Arg Leu Ser Ala 750 755 760 765 tca cct cag gag cta gga aag cca tat tta gag tct ttt cag ccc aat 2595 Ser Pro Gln Glu Leu Gly Lys Pro Tyr Leu Glu Ser Phe Gln Pro Asn 770 775 780 tta cat agt aca aaa gat gct gca tct aat gac att cca aca ttg acc 2643 Leu His Ser Thr Lys Asp Ala Ala Ser Asn Asp Ile Pro Thr Leu Thr 785 790 795 aaa aag gag aaa att tct ttg caa atg gaa gag ttt aat act gca att 2691 Lys Lys Glu Lys Ile Ser Leu Gln Met Glu Glu Phe Asn Thr Ala Ile 800 805 810 tat tca aat gat gac tta ctt tct tct aag gaa gac aaa ata aaa gaa 2739 Tyr Ser Asn Asp Asp Leu Leu Ser Ser Lys Glu Asp Lys Ile Lys Glu 815 820 825 agt gaa aca ttt tca gat tca tct ccg att gag ata ata gat gaa ttt 2787 Ser Glu Thr Phe Ser Asp Ser Ser Pro Ile Glu Ile Ile Asp Glu Phe 830 835 840 845 ccc acg ttt gtc agt gct aaa gat gat tct cct aaa tta gcc aag gag 2835 Pro Thr Phe Val Ser Ala Lys Asp Asp Ser Pro Lys Leu Ala Lys Glu 850 855 860 tac act gat cta gaa gta tcc gac aaa agt gaa att gct aat atc caa 2883 Tyr Thr Asp Leu Glu Val Ser Asp Lys Ser Glu Ile Ala Asn Ile Gln 865 870 875 agc ggg gca gat tca ttg cct tgc tta gaa ttg ccc tgt gac ctt tct 2931 Ser Gly Ala Asp Ser Leu Pro Cys Leu Glu Leu Pro Cys Asp Leu Ser 880 885 890 ttc aag aat ata tat cct aaa gat gaa gta cat gtt tca gat gaa ttc 2979 Phe Lys Asn Ile Tyr Pro Lys Asp Glu Val His Val Ser Asp Glu Phe 895 900 905 tcc gaa aat agg tcc agt gta tct aag gca tcc ata tcg cct tca aat 3027 Ser Glu Asn Arg Ser Ser Val Ser Lys Ala Ser Ile Ser Pro Ser Asn 910 915 920 925 gtc tct gct ttg gaa cct cag aca gaa atg ggc agc ata gtt aaa tcc 3075 Val Ser Ala Leu Glu Pro Gln Thr Glu Met Gly Ser Ile Val Lys Ser 930 935 940 aaa tca ctt acg aaa gaa gca gag aaa aaa ctt cct tct gac aca gag 3123 Lys Ser Leu Thr Lys Glu Ala Glu Lys Lys Leu Pro Ser Asp Thr Glu 945 950 955 aaa gag gac aga tcc ctg tca gct gta ttg tca gca gag ctg agt aaa 3171 Lys Glu Asp Arg Ser Leu Ser Ala Val Leu Ser Ala Glu Leu Ser Lys 960 965 970 act tca gtt gtt gac ctc ctc tac tgg aga gac att aag aag act gga 3219 Thr Ser Val Val Asp Leu Leu Tyr Trp Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly 975 980 985 gtg gtg ttt ggt gcc agc tta ttc ctg ctg ctg tct ctg aca gtg ttc 3267 Val Val Phe Gly Ala Ser Leu Phe Leu Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe 990 995 1000 1005 agc att gtc agt gta acg gcc tac att gcc ttg gcc ctg ctc tcg 3312 Ser Ile Val Ser Val Thr Ala Tyr Ile Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser 1010 1015 1020 gtg act atc agc ttt agg ata tat aag ggc gtg atc cag gct atc 3357 Val Thr Ile Ser Phe Arg Ile Tyr Lys Gly Val Ile Gln Ala Ile 1025 1030 1035 cag aaa tca gat gaa ggc cac cca ttc agg gca tat tta gaa tct 3402 Gln Lys Ser Asp Glu Gly His Pro Phe Arg Ala Tyr Leu Glu Ser 1040 1045 1050 gaa gtt gct ata tca gag gaa ttg gtt cag aaa tac agt aat tct 3447 Glu Val Ala Ile Ser Glu Glu Leu Val Gln Lys Tyr Ser Asn Ser 1055 1060 1065 gct ctt ggt cat gtg aac agc aca ata aaa gaa ctg agg cgg ctt 3492 Ala Leu Gly His Val Asn Ser Thr Ile Lys Glu Leu Arg Arg Leu 1070 1075 1080 ttc tta gtt gat gat tta gtt gat tcc ctg aag ttt gca gtg ttg 3537 Phe Leu Val Asp Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys Phe Ala Val Leu 1085 1090 1095 atg tgg gtg ttt act tat gtt ggt gcc ttg ttc aat ggt ctg aca 3582 Met Trp Val Phe Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn Gly Leu Thr 1100 1105 1110 cta ctg att tta gct ctg atc tca ctc ttc agt att cct gtt att 3627 Leu Leu Ile Leu Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Ile Pro Val Ile 1115 1120 1125 tat gaa cgg cat cag gtg cag ata gat cat tat cta gga ctt gca 3672 Tyr Glu Arg His Gln Val Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu Ala 1130 1135 1140 aac aag agt gtt aag gat gcc atg gcc aaa atc caa gca aaa atc 3717 Asn Lys Ser Val Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile 1145 1150 1155 cct gga ttg aag cgc aaa gca gat tga aaaagcccca aacagaagtt 3764 Pro Gly Leu Lys Arg Lys Ala Asp 1160 catctttaaa ggggacactc acttgattac gggggtggga gggtcagggg tgagcccttg 3824 gtggccgtgc ggtttcagct ctttattttt agcagtgcac tgtttgagga aaaattacct 3884 gtcttgactt cctgtgttta tcatcttaag tattgtaagc tgctgtgtat ggatctcatt 3944 gtagtcacac ttgtcttccc caatgaggcg cctggtgaat aaaggactcg gggaaagctg 4004 tgcattgtat ctgctgcagg gtagtctagc tgtatgcaga gagttgtaaa gaaggcaaat 4064 ctgggggcag ggaaaaccct tttcacagtg tactgtgttt ggtcagtgta aaactgatgc 4124 agatttttct gaaatgaaat gtttagatga gagcatacta ctaaagcaga gtggaaaact 4184 ctgtctttat ggtgtgttct aggtgtattg tgaatttact gttatattgc caatataagt 4244 aaatatagac ctaatctata tatagtgttt cacaaagctt agatctttaa ccttgcagct 4304 gccccacagt gcttgacctc tgagtcattg gttatgcagt gtagtccaag cacataaact 4364 aggaagagaa atgtatttgt aggagtgcta cctaccacct gttttcaaga aaatatagaa 4424 ctccaacaaa aatatagaat gtcatttcaa agacttactg tatgtatagt taattttgtc 4484 acagactctg aaattctatg gactgaattt catgcttcca aatgtttgca gttatcaaac 4544 attgttatgc aagaaatcat aaaatgaaga cttataccat tgtggtttaa gccgtactga 4604 attatctgtg gaatgcattg tgaactgtaa aagcaaagta tcaataaagc ttatagatct 4664 taaaaaaaaa aaaaaaaaaa 4684 18 1163 PRT Rattus norvegicus 18 Met Glu Asp Ile Asp Gln Ser Ser Leu Val Ser Ser Ser Thr Asp Ser 1 5 10 15 Pro Pro Arg Pro Pro Pro Ala Phe Lys Tyr Gln Phe Val Thr Glu Pro 20 25 30 Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Asp 35 40 45 Glu Asp Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Val Leu Glu Arg Lys Pro Ala Ala Gly 50 55 60 Leu Ser Ala Ala Ala Val Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala Ala Pro Leu Leu Asp 65 70 75 80 Phe Ser Ser Asp Ser Val Pro Pro Ala Pro Arg Gly Pro Leu Pro Ala 85 90 95 Ala Pro Pro Ala Ala Pro Glu Arg Gln Pro Ser Trp Glu Arg Ser Pro 100 105 110 Ala Ala Pro Ala Pro Ser Leu Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala Val Leu Pro Ser 115 120 125 Lys Leu Pro Glu Asp Asp Glu Pro Pro Ala Arg Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro 130 135 140 Pro Ala Gly Ala Ser Pro Leu Ala Glu Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Ser Thr 145 150 155 160 Pro Ala Ala Pro Lys Arg Arg Gly Ser Gly Ser Val Asp Glu Thr Leu 165 170 175 Phe Ala Leu Pro Ala Ala Ser Glu Pro Val Ile Pro Ser Ser Ala Glu 180 185 190 Lys Ile Met Asp Leu Met Glu Gln Pro Gly Asn Thr Val Ser Ser Gly 195 200 205 Gln Glu Asp Phe Pro Ser Val Leu Leu Glu Thr Ala Ala Ser Leu Pro 210 215 220 Ser Leu Ser Pro Leu Ser Thr Val Ser Phe Lys Glu His Gly Tyr Leu 225 230 235 240 Gly Asn Leu Ser Ala Val Ser Ser Ser Glu Gly Thr Ile Glu Glu Thr 245 250 255 Leu Asn Glu Ala Ser Lys Glu Leu Pro Glu Arg Ala Thr Asn Pro Phe 260 265 270 Val Asn Arg Asp Leu Ala Glu Phe Ser Glu Leu Glu Tyr Ser Glu Met 275 280 285 Gly Ser Ser Phe Lys Gly Ser Pro Lys Gly Glu Ser Ala Ile Leu Val 290 295 300 Glu Asn Thr Lys Glu Glu Val Ile Val Arg Ser Lys Asp Lys Glu Asp 305 310 315 320 Leu Val Cys Ser Ala Ala Leu His Ser Pro Gln Glu Ser Pro Val Gly 325 330 335 Lys Glu Asp Arg Val Val Ser Pro Glu Lys Thr Met Asp Ile Phe Asn 340 345 350 Glu Met Gln Met Ser Val Val Ala Pro Val Arg Glu Glu Tyr Ala Asp 355 360 365 Phe Lys Pro Phe Glu Gln Ala Trp Glu Val Lys Asp Thr Tyr Glu Gly 370 375 380 Ser Arg Asp Val Leu Ala Ala Arg Ala Asn Val Glu Ser Lys Val Asp 385 390 395 400 Arg Lys Cys Leu Glu Asp Ser Leu Glu Gln Lys Ser Leu Gly Lys Asp 405 410 415 Ser Glu Gly Arg Asn Glu Asp Ala Ser Phe Pro Ser Thr Pro Glu Pro 420 425 430 Val Lys Asp Ser Ser Arg Ala Tyr Ile Thr Cys Ala Ser Phe Thr Ser 435 440 445 Ala Thr Glu Ser Thr Thr Ala Asn Thr Phe Pro Leu Leu Glu Asp His 450 455 460 Thr Ser Glu Asn Lys Thr Asp Glu Lys Lys Ile Glu Glu Arg Lys Ala 465 470 475 480 Gln Ile Ile Thr Glu Lys Thr Ser Pro Lys Thr Ser Asn Pro Phe Leu 485 490 495 Val Ala Val Gln Asp Ser Glu Ala Asp Tyr Val Thr Thr Asp Thr Leu 500 505 510 Ser Lys Val Thr Glu Ala Ala Val Ser Asn Met Pro Glu Gly Leu Thr 515 520 525 Pro Asp Leu Val Gln Glu Ala Cys Glu Ser Glu Leu Asn Glu Ala Thr 530 535 540 Gly Thr Lys Ile Ala Tyr Glu Thr Lys Val Asp Leu Val Gln Thr Ser 545 550 555 560 Glu Ala Ile Gln Glu Ser Leu Tyr Pro Thr Ala Gln Leu Cys Pro Ser 565 570 575 Phe Glu Glu Ala Glu Ala Thr Pro Ser Pro Val Leu Pro Asp Ile Val 580 585 590 Met Glu Ala Pro Leu Asn Ser Leu Leu Pro Ser Ala Gly Ala Ser Val 595 600 605 Val Gln Pro Ser Val Ser Pro Leu Glu Ala Pro Pro Pro Val Ser Tyr 610 615 620 Asp Ser Ile Lys Leu Glu Pro Glu Asn Pro Pro Pro Tyr Glu Glu Ala 625 630 635 640 Met Asn Val Ala Leu Lys Ala Leu Gly Thr Lys Glu Gly Ile Lys Glu 645 650 655 Pro Glu Ser Phe Asn Ala Ala Val Gln Glu Thr Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ile 660 665 670 Ser Ile Ala Cys Asp Leu Ile Lys Glu Thr Lys Leu Ser Thr Glu Pro 675 680 685 Ser Pro Asp Phe Ser Asn Tyr Ser Glu Ile Ala Lys Phe Glu Lys Ser 690 695 700 Val Pro Glu His Ala Glu Leu Val Glu Asp Ser Ser Pro Glu Ser Glu 705 710 715 720 Pro Val Asp Leu Phe Ser Asp Asp Ser Ile Pro Glu Val Pro Gln Thr 725 730 735 Gln Glu Glu Ala Val Met Leu Met Lys Glu Ser Leu Thr Glu Val Ser 740 745 750 Glu Thr Val Ala Gln His Lys Glu Glu Arg Leu Ser Ala Ser Pro Gln 755 760 765 Glu Leu Gly Lys Pro Tyr Leu Glu Ser Phe Gln Pro Asn Leu His Ser 770 775 780 Thr Lys Asp Ala Ala Ser Asn Asp Ile Pro Thr Leu Thr Lys Lys Glu 785 790 795 800 Lys Ile Ser Leu Gln Met Glu Glu Phe Asn Thr Ala Ile Tyr Ser Asn 805 810 815 Asp Asp Leu Leu Ser Ser Lys Glu Asp Lys Ile Lys Glu Ser Glu Thr 820 825 830 Phe Ser Asp Ser Ser Pro Ile Glu Ile Ile Asp Glu Phe Pro Thr Phe 835 840 845 Val Ser Ala Lys Asp Asp Ser Pro Lys Leu Ala Lys Glu Tyr Thr Asp 850 855 860 Leu Glu Val Ser Asp Lys Ser Glu Ile Ala Asn Ile Gln Ser Gly Ala 865 870 875 880 Asp Ser Leu Pro Cys Leu Glu Leu Pro Cys Asp Leu Ser Phe Lys Asn 885 890 895 Ile Tyr Pro Lys Asp Glu Val His Val Ser Asp Glu Phe Ser Glu Asn 900 905 910 Arg Ser Ser Val Ser Lys Ala Ser Ile Ser Pro Ser Asn Val Ser Ala 915 920 925 Leu Glu Pro Gln Thr Glu Met Gly Ser Ile Val Lys Ser Lys Ser Leu 930 935 940 Thr Lys Glu Ala Glu Lys Lys Leu Pro Ser Asp Thr Glu Lys Glu Asp 945 950 955 960 Arg Ser Leu Ser Ala Val Leu Ser Ala Glu Leu Ser Lys Thr Ser Val 965 970 975 Val Asp Leu Leu Tyr Trp Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly Val Val Phe 980 985 990 Gly Ala Ser Leu Phe Leu Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe Ser Ile Val 995 1000 1005 Ser Val Thr Ala Tyr Ile Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser Val Thr Ile 1010 1015 1020 Ser Phe Arg Ile Tyr Lys Gly Val Ile Gln Ala Ile Gln Lys Ser 1025 1030 1035 Asp Glu Gly His Pro Phe Arg Ala Tyr Leu Glu Ser Glu Val Ala 1040 1045 1050 Ile Ser Glu Glu Leu Val Gln Lys Tyr Ser Asn Ser Ala Leu Gly 1055 1060 1065 His Val Asn Ser Thr Ile Lys Glu Leu Arg Arg Leu Phe Leu Val 1070 1075 1080 Asp Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys Phe Ala Val Leu Met Trp Val 1085 1090 1095 Phe Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn Gly Leu Thr Leu Leu Ile 1100 1105 1110 Leu Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Ile Pro Val Ile Tyr Glu Arg 1115 1120 1125 His Gln Val Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu Ala Asn Lys Ser 1130 1135 1140 Val Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile Pro Gly Leu 1145 1150 1155 Lys Arg Lys Ala Asp 1160 19 18 PRT Rattus norvegicus 19 Ser Tyr Asp Ser Ile Lys Leu Glu Pro Glu Asn Pro Pro Pro Tyr Glu 1 5 10 15 Glu Ala 20 360 PRT Rattus norvegicus 20 Met Glu Asp Ile Asp Gln Ser Ser Leu Val Ser Ser Ser Thr Asp Ser 1 5 10 15 Pro Pro Arg Pro Pro Pro Ala Phe Lys Tyr Gln Phe Val Thr Glu Pro 20 25 30 Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Asp 35 40 45 Glu Asp Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Val Leu Glu Arg Lys Pro Ala Ala Gly 50 55 60 Leu Ser Ala Ala Ala Val Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala Ala Pro Leu Leu Asp 65 70 75 80 Phe Ser Ser Asp Ser Val Pro Pro Ala Pro Arg Gly Pro Leu Pro Ala 85 90 95 Ala Pro Pro Ala Ala Pro Glu Arg Gln Pro Ser Trp Glu Arg Ser Pro 100 105 110 Ala Ala Pro Ala Pro Ser Leu Pro Pro Ala Ala Ala Val Leu Pro Ser 115 120 125 Lys Leu Pro Glu Asp Asp Glu Pro Pro Ala Arg Pro Pro Pro Pro Pro 130 135 140 Pro Ala Gly Ala Ser Pro Leu Ala Glu Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Ser Thr 145 150 155 160 Pro Ala Ala Pro Lys Arg Arg Gly Ser Gly Ser Val Val Val Asp Leu 165 170 175 Leu Tyr Trp Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly Val Val Phe Gly Ala Ser 180 185 190 Leu Phe Leu Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe Ser Ile Val Ser Val Thr 195 200 205 Ala Tyr Ile Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser Val Thr Ile Ser Phe Arg Ile 210 215 220 Tyr Lys Gly Val Ile Gln Ala Ile Gln Lys Ser Asp Glu Gly His Pro 225 230 235 240 Phe Arg Ala Tyr Leu Glu Ser Glu Val Ala Ile Ser Glu Glu Leu Val 245 250 255 Gln Lys Tyr Ser Asn Ser Ala Leu Gly His Val Asn Ser Thr Ile Lys 260 265 270 Glu Leu Arg Arg Leu Phe Leu Val Asp Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys 275 280 285 Phe Ala Val Leu Met Trp Val Phe Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn 290 295 300 Gly Leu Thr Leu Leu Ile Leu Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Ile Pro 305 310 315 320 Val Ile Tyr Glu Arg His Gln Val Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu 325 330 335 Ala Asn Lys Ser Val Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile 340 345 350 Pro Gly Leu Lys Arg Lys Ala Asp 355 360 21 199 PRT Rattus norvegicus 21 Met Asp Gly Gln Lys Lys His Trp Lys Asp Lys Val Val Asp Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Tyr Trp Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly Val Val Phe Gly Ala Ser Leu 20 25 30 Phe Leu Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe Ser Ile Val Ser Val Thr Ala 35 40 45 Tyr Ile Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser Val Thr Ile Ser Phe Arg Ile Tyr 50 55 60 Lys Gly Val Ile Gln Ala Ile Gln Lys Ser Asp Glu Gly His Pro Phe 65 70 75 80 Arg Ala Tyr Leu Glu Ser Glu Val Ala Ile Ser Glu Glu Leu Val Gln 85 90 95 Lys Tyr Ser Asn Ser Ala Leu Gly His Val Asn Ser Thr Ile Lys Glu 100 105 110 Leu Arg Arg Leu Phe Leu Val Asp Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys Phe 115 120 125 Ala Val Leu Met Trp Val Phe Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn Gly 130 135 140 Leu Thr Leu Leu Ile Leu Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Ile Pro Val 145 150 155 160 Ile Tyr Glu Arg His Gln Val Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu Ala 165 170 175 Asn Lys Ser Val Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile Pro 180 185 190 Gly Leu Lys Arg Lys Ala Asp 195 22 3579 DNA Homo sapiens CDS (1)..(3579) 22 atg gaa gac ctg gac cag tct cct ctg gtc tcg tcc tcg gac agc cca 48 Met Glu Asp Leu Asp Gln Ser Pro Leu Val Ser Ser Ser Asp Ser Pro 1 5 10 15 ccc cgg ccg cag ccc gcg ttc aag tac cag ttc gtg agg gag ccc gag 96 Pro Arg Pro Gln Pro Ala Phe Lys Tyr Gln Phe Val Arg Glu Pro Glu 20 25 30 gac gag gag gaa gaa gag gag gag gaa gag gag gac gag gac gaa gac 144 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu Asp 35 40 45 ctg gag gag ctg gag gtg ctg gag agg aag ccc gcc gcc ggg ctg tcc 192 Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Val Leu Glu Arg Lys Pro Ala Ala Gly Leu Ser 50 55 60 gcg gcc cca gtg ccc acc gcc cct gcc gcc ggc gcg ccc ctg atg gac 240 Ala Ala Pro Val Pro Thr Ala Pro Ala Ala Gly Ala Pro Leu Met Asp 65 70 75 80 ttc gga aat gac ttc gtg ccg ccg gcg ccc cgg gga ccc ctg ccg gcc 288 Phe Gly Asn Asp Phe Val Pro Pro Ala Pro Arg Gly Pro Leu Pro Ala 85 90 95 gct ccc ccc gtc gcc ccg gag cgg cag ccg tct tgg gac ccg agc ccg 336 Ala Pro Pro Val Ala Pro Glu Arg Gln Pro Ser Trp Asp Pro Ser Pro 100 105 110 gtg tcg tcg acc gtg ccc gcg cca tcc ccg ctg tct gct gcc gca gtc 384 Val Ser Ser Thr Val Pro Ala Pro Ser Pro Leu Ser Ala Ala Ala Val 115 120 125 tcg ccc tcc aag ctc cct gag gac gac gag cct ccg gcc cgg cct ccc 432 Ser Pro Ser Lys Leu Pro Glu Asp Asp Glu Pro Pro Ala Arg Pro Pro 130 135 140 cct cct ccc ccg gcc agc gtg agc ccc cag gca gag ccc gtg tgg acc 480 Pro Pro Pro Pro Ala Ser Val Ser Pro Gln Ala Glu Pro Val Trp Thr 145 150 155 160 ccg cca gcc ccg gct ccc gcc gcg ccc ccc tcc acc ccg gcc gcg ccc 528 Pro Pro Ala Pro Ala Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Ser Thr Pro Ala Ala Pro 165 170 175 aag cgc agg ggc tcc tcg ggc tca gtg gat gag acc ctt ttt gct ctt 576 Lys Arg Arg Gly Ser Ser Gly Ser Val Asp Glu Thr Leu Phe Ala Leu 180 185 190 cct gct gca tct gag cct gtg ata cgc tcc tct gca gaa aat atg gac 624 Pro Ala Ala Ser Glu Pro Val Ile Arg Ser Ser Ala Glu Asn Met Asp 195 200 205 ttg aag gag cag cca ggt aac act att tcg gct ggt caa gag gat ttc 672 Leu Lys Glu Gln Pro Gly Asn Thr Ile Ser Ala Gly Gln Glu Asp Phe 210 215 220 cca tct gtc ctg ctt gaa act gct gct tct ctt cct tct ctg tct cct 720 Pro Ser Val Leu Leu Glu Thr Ala Ala Ser Leu Pro Ser Leu Ser Pro 225 230 235 240 ctc tca gcc gct tct ttc aaa gaa cat gaa tac ctt ggt aat ttg tca 768 Leu Ser Ala Ala Ser Phe Lys Glu His Glu Tyr Leu Gly Asn Leu Ser 245 250 255 aca gta tta ccc act gaa gga aca ctt caa gaa aat gtc agt gaa gct 816 Thr Val Leu Pro Thr Glu Gly Thr Leu Gln Glu Asn Val Ser Glu Ala 260 265 270 tct aaa gag gtc tca gag aag gca aaa act cta ctc ata gat aga gat 864 Ser Lys Glu Val Ser Glu Lys Ala Lys Thr Leu Leu Ile Asp Arg Asp 275 280 285 tta aca gag ttt tca gaa tta gaa tac tca gaa atg gga tca tcg ttc 912 Leu Thr Glu Phe Ser Glu Leu Glu Tyr Ser Glu Met Gly Ser Ser Phe 290 295 300 agt gtc tct cca aaa gca gaa tct gcc gta ata gta gca aat cct agg 960 Ser Val Ser Pro Lys Ala Glu Ser Ala Val Ile Val Ala Asn Pro Arg 305 310 315 320 gaa gaa ata atc gtg aaa aat aaa gat gaa gaa gag aag tta gtt agt 1008 Glu Glu Ile Ile Val Lys Asn Lys Asp Glu Glu Glu Lys Leu Val Ser 325 330 335 aat aac atc ctt cat aat caa caa gag tta cct aca gct ctt act aaa 1056 Asn Asn Ile Leu His Asn Gln Gln Glu Leu Pro Thr Ala Leu Thr Lys 340 345 350 ttg gtt aaa gag gat gaa gtt gtg tct tca gaa aaa gca aaa gac agt 1104 Leu Val Lys Glu Asp Glu Val Val Ser Ser Glu Lys Ala Lys Asp Ser 355 360 365 ttt aat gaa aag aga gtt gca gtg gaa gct cct atg agg gag gaa tat 1152 Phe Asn Glu Lys Arg Val Ala Val Glu Ala Pro Met Arg Glu Glu Tyr 370 375 380 gca gac ttc aaa cca ttt gag cga gta tgg gaa gtg aaa gat agt aag 1200 Ala Asp Phe Lys Pro Phe Glu Arg Val Trp Glu Val Lys Asp Ser Lys 385 390 395 400 gaa gat agt gat atg ttg gct gct gga ggt aaa atc gag agc aac ttg 1248 Glu Asp Ser Asp Met Leu Ala Ala Gly Gly Lys Ile Glu Ser Asn Leu 405 410 415 gaa agt aaa gtg gat aaa aaa tgt ttt gca gat agc ctt gag caa act 1296 Glu Ser Lys Val Asp Lys Lys Cys Phe Ala Asp Ser Leu Glu Gln Thr 420 425 430 aat cac gaa aaa gat agt gag agt agt aat gat gat act tct ttc ccc 1344 Asn His Glu Lys Asp Ser Glu Ser Ser Asn Asp Asp Thr Ser Phe Pro 435 440 445 agt acg cca gaa ggt ata aag gat cgt cca gga gca tat atc aca tgt 1392 Ser Thr Pro Glu Gly Ile Lys Asp Arg Pro Gly Ala Tyr Ile Thr Cys 450 455 460 gct ccc ttt aac cca gca gca act gag agc att gca aca aac att ttt 1440 Ala Pro Phe Asn Pro Ala Ala Thr Glu Ser Ile Ala Thr Asn Ile Phe 465 470 475 480 cct ttg tta gga gat cct act tca gaa aat aag acc gat gaa aaa aaa 1488 Pro Leu Leu Gly Asp Pro Thr Ser Glu Asn Lys Thr Asp Glu Lys Lys 485 490 495 ata gaa gaa aag aag gcc caa ata gta aca gag aag aat act agc acc 1536 Ile Glu Glu Lys Lys Ala Gln Ile Val Thr Glu Lys Asn Thr Ser Thr 500 505 510 aaa aca tca aac cct ttt ctt gta gca gca cag gat tct gag aca gat 1584 Lys Thr Ser Asn Pro Phe Leu Val Ala Ala Gln Asp Ser Glu Thr Asp 515 520 525 tat gtc aca aca gat aat tta aca aag gtg act gag gaa gtc gtg gca 1632 Tyr Val Thr Thr Asp Asn Leu Thr Lys Val Thr Glu Glu Val Val Ala 530 535 540 aac atg cct gaa ggc ctg act cca gat tta gta cag gaa gca tgt gaa 1680 Asn Met Pro Glu Gly Leu Thr Pro Asp Leu Val Gln Glu Ala Cys Glu 545 550 555 560 agt gaa ttg aat gaa gtt act ggt aca aag att gct tat gaa aca aaa 1728 Ser Glu Leu Asn Glu Val Thr Gly Thr Lys Ile Ala Tyr Glu Thr Lys 565 570 575 atg gac ttg gtt caa aca tca gaa gtt atg caa gag tca ctc tat cct 1776 Met Asp Leu Val Gln Thr Ser Glu Val Met Gln Glu Ser Leu Tyr Pro 580 585 590 gca gca cag ctt tgc cca tca ttt gaa gag tca gaa gct act cct tca 1824 Ala Ala Gln Leu Cys Pro Ser Phe Glu Glu Ser Glu Ala Thr Pro Ser 595 600 605 cca gtt ttg cct gac att gtt atg gaa gca cca ttg aat tct gca gtt 1872 Pro Val Leu Pro Asp Ile Val Met Glu Ala Pro Leu Asn Ser Ala Val 610 615 620 cct agt gct ggt gct tcc gtg ata cag ccc agc tca tca cca tta gaa 1920 Pro Ser Ala Gly Ala Ser Val Ile Gln Pro Ser Ser Ser Pro Leu Glu 625 630 635 640 gct tct tca gtt aat tat gaa agc ata aaa cat gag cct gaa aac ccc 1968 Ala Ser Ser Val Asn Tyr Glu Ser Ile Lys His Glu Pro Glu Asn Pro 645 650 655 cca cca tat gaa gag gcc atg agt gta tca cta aaa aaa gta tca gga 2016 Pro Pro Tyr Glu Glu Ala Met Ser Val Ser Leu Lys Lys Val Ser Gly 660 665 670 ata aag gaa gaa att aaa gag cct gaa aat att aat gca gct ctt caa 2064 Ile Lys Glu Glu Ile Lys Glu Pro Glu Asn Ile Asn Ala Ala Leu Gln 675 680 685 gaa aca gaa gct cct tat ata tct att gca tgt gat tta att aaa gaa 2112 Glu Thr Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ile Ser Ile Ala Cys Asp Leu Ile Lys Glu 690 695 700 aca aag ctt tct gct gaa cca gct ccg gat ttc tct gat tat tca gaa 2160 Thr Lys Leu Ser Ala Glu Pro Ala Pro Asp Phe Ser Asp Tyr Ser Glu 705 710 715 720 atg gca aaa gtt gaa cag cca gtg cct gat cat tct gag cta gtt gaa 2208 Met Ala Lys Val Glu Gln Pro Val Pro Asp His Ser Glu Leu Val Glu 725 730 735 gat tcc tca cct gat tct gaa cca gtt gac tta ttt agt gat gat tca 2256 Asp Ser Ser Pro Asp Ser Glu Pro Val Asp Leu Phe Ser Asp Asp Ser 740 745 750 ata cct gac gtt cca caa aaa caa gat gaa act gtg atg ctt gtg aaa 2304 Ile Pro Asp Val Pro Gln Lys Gln Asp Glu Thr Val Met Leu Val Lys 755 760 765 gaa agt ctc act gag act tca ttt gag tca atg ata gaa tat gaa aat 2352 Glu Ser Leu Thr Glu Thr Ser Phe Glu Ser Met Ile Glu Tyr Glu Asn 770 775 780 aag gaa aaa ctc agt gct ttg cca cct gag gga gga aag cca tat ttg 2400 Lys Glu Lys Leu Ser Ala Leu Pro Pro Glu Gly Gly Lys Pro Tyr Leu 785 790 795 800 gaa tct ttt aag ctc agt tta gat aac aca aaa gat acc ctg tta cct 2448 Glu Ser Phe Lys Leu Ser Leu Asp Asn Thr Lys Asp Thr Leu Leu Pro 805 810 815 gat gaa gtt tca aca ttg agc aaa aag gag aaa att cct ttg cag atg 2496 Asp Glu Val Ser Thr Leu Ser Lys Lys Glu Lys Ile Pro Leu Gln Met 820 825 830 gag gag ctc agt act gca gtt tat tca aat gat gac tta ttt att tct 2544 Glu Glu Leu Ser Thr Ala Val Tyr Ser Asn Asp Asp Leu Phe Ile Ser 835 840 845 aag gaa gca cag ata aga gaa act gaa acg ttt tca gat tca tct cca 2592 Lys Glu Ala Gln Ile Arg Glu Thr Glu Thr Phe Ser Asp Ser Ser Pro 850 855 860 att gaa att ata gat gag ttc cct aca ttg atc agt tct aaa act gat 2640 Ile Glu Ile Ile Asp Glu Phe Pro Thr Leu Ile Ser Ser Lys Thr Asp 865 870 875 880 tca ttt tct aaa tta gcc agg gaa tat act gac cta gaa gta tcc cac 2688 Ser Phe Ser Lys Leu Ala Arg Glu Tyr Thr Asp Leu Glu Val Ser His 885 890 895 aaa agt gaa att gct aat gcc ccg gat gga gct ggg tca ttg cct tgc 2736 Lys Ser Glu Ile Ala Asn Ala Pro Asp Gly Ala Gly Ser Leu Pro Cys 900 905 910 aca gaa ttg ccc cat gac ctt tct ttg aag aac ata caa ccc aaa gtt 2784 Thr Glu Leu Pro His Asp Leu Ser Leu Lys Asn Ile Gln Pro Lys Val 915 920 925 gaa gag aaa atc agt ttc tca gat gac ttt tct aaa aat ggg tct gct 2832 Glu Glu Lys Ile Ser Phe Ser Asp Asp Phe Ser Lys Asn Gly Ser Ala 930 935 940 aca tca aag gtg ctc tta ttg cct cca gat gtt tct gct ttg gcc act 2880 Thr Ser Lys Val Leu Leu Leu Pro Pro Asp Val Ser Ala Leu Ala Thr 945 950 955 960 caa gca gag ata gag agc ata gtt aaa ccc aaa gtt ctt gtg aaa gaa 2928 Gln Ala Glu Ile Glu Ser Ile Val Lys Pro Lys Val Leu Val Lys Glu 965 970 975 gct gag aaa aaa ctt cct tcc gat aca gaa aaa gag gac aga tca cca 2976 Ala Glu Lys Lys Leu Pro Ser Asp Thr Glu Lys Glu Asp Arg Ser Pro 980 985 990 tct gct ata ttt tca gca gag ctg agt aaa act tca gtt gtt gac ctc 3024 Ser Ala Ile Phe Ser Ala Glu Leu Ser Lys Thr Ser Val Val Asp Leu 995 1000 1005 ctg tac tgg aga gac att aag aag act gga gtg gtg ttt ggt gcc 3069 Leu Tyr Trp Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly Val Val Phe Gly Ala 1010 1015 1020 agc cta ttc ctg ctg ctt tca ttg aca gta ttc agc att gtg agc 3114 Ser Leu Phe Leu Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe Ser Ile Val Ser 1025 1030 1035 gta aca gcc tac att gcc ttg gcc ctg ctc tct gtg acc atc agc 3159 Val Thr Ala Tyr Ile Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser Val Thr Ile Ser 1040 1045 1050 ttt agg ata tac aag ggt gtg atc caa gct atc cag aaa tca gat 3204 Phe Arg Ile Tyr Lys Gly Val Ile Gln Ala Ile Gln Lys Ser Asp 1055 1060 1065 gaa ggc cac cca ttc agg gca tat ctg gaa tct gaa gtt gct ata 3249 Glu Gly His Pro Phe Arg Ala Tyr Leu Glu Ser Glu Val Ala Ile 1070 1075 1080 tct gag gag ttg gtt cag aag tac agt aat tct gct ctt ggt cat 3294 Ser Glu Glu Leu Val Gln Lys Tyr Ser Asn Ser Ala Leu Gly His 1085 1090 1095 gtg aac tgc acg ata aag gaa ctc agg cgc ctc ttc tta gtt gat 3339 Val Asn Cys Thr Ile Lys Glu Leu Arg Arg Leu Phe Leu Val Asp 1100 1105 1110 gat tta gtt gat tct ctg aag ttt gca gtg ttg atg tgg gta ttt 3384 Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys Phe Ala Val Leu Met Trp Val Phe 1115 1120 1125 acc tat gtt ggt gcc ttg ttt aat ggt ctg aca cta ctg att ttg 3429 Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn Gly Leu Thr Leu Leu Ile Leu 1130 1135 1140 gct ctc att tca ctc ttc agt gtt cct gtt att tat gaa cgg cat 3474 Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Val Pro Val Ile Tyr Glu Arg His 1145 1150 1155 cag gcg cag ata gat cat tat cta gga ctt gca aat aag aat gtt 3519 Gln Ala Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu Ala Asn Lys Asn Val 1160 1165 1170 aaa gat gct atg gct aaa atc caa gca aaa atc cct gga ttg aag 3564 Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile Pro Gly Leu Lys 1175 1180 1185 cgc aaa gct gaa tga 3579 Arg Lys Ala Glu 1190 23 1192 PRT Homo sapiens 23 Met Glu Asp Leu Asp Gln Ser Pro Leu Val Ser Ser Ser Asp Ser Pro 1 5 10 15 Pro Arg Pro Gln Pro Ala Phe Lys Tyr Gln Phe Val Arg Glu Pro Glu 20 25 30 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu Asp 35 40 45 Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Val Leu Glu Arg Lys Pro Ala Ala Gly Leu Ser 50 55 60 Ala Ala Pro Val Pro Thr Ala Pro Ala Ala Gly Ala Pro Leu Met Asp 65 70 75 80 Phe Gly Asn Asp Phe Val Pro Pro Ala Pro Arg Gly Pro Leu Pro Ala 85 90 95 Ala Pro Pro Val Ala Pro Glu Arg Gln Pro Ser Trp Asp Pro Ser Pro 100 105 110 Val Ser Ser Thr Val Pro Ala Pro Ser Pro Leu Ser Ala Ala Ala Val 115 120 125 Ser Pro Ser Lys Leu Pro Glu Asp Asp Glu Pro Pro Ala Arg Pro Pro 130 135 140 Pro Pro Pro Pro Ala Ser Val Ser Pro Gln Ala Glu Pro Val Trp Thr 145 150 155 160 Pro Pro Ala Pro Ala Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Ser Thr Pro Ala Ala Pro 165 170 175 Lys Arg Arg Gly Ser Ser Gly Ser Val Asp Glu Thr Leu Phe Ala Leu 180 185 190 Pro Ala Ala Ser Glu Pro Val Ile Arg Ser Ser Ala Glu Asn Met Asp 195 200 205 Leu Lys Glu Gln Pro Gly Asn Thr Ile Ser Ala Gly Gln Glu Asp Phe 210 215 220 Pro Ser Val Leu Leu Glu Thr Ala Ala Ser Leu Pro Ser Leu Ser Pro 225 230 235 240 Leu Ser Ala Ala Ser Phe Lys Glu His Glu Tyr Leu Gly Asn Leu Ser 245 250 255 Thr Val Leu Pro Thr Glu Gly Thr Leu Gln Glu Asn Val Ser Glu Ala 260 265 270 Ser Lys Glu Val Ser Glu Lys Ala Lys Thr Leu Leu Ile Asp Arg Asp 275 280 285 Leu Thr Glu Phe Ser Glu Leu Glu Tyr Ser Glu Met Gly Ser Ser Phe 290 295 300 Ser Val Ser Pro Lys Ala Glu Ser Ala Val Ile Val Ala Asn Pro Arg 305 310 315 320 Glu Glu Ile Ile Val Lys Asn Lys Asp Glu Glu Glu Lys Leu Val Ser 325 330 335 Asn Asn Ile Leu His Asn Gln Gln Glu Leu Pro Thr Ala Leu Thr Lys 340 345 350 Leu Val Lys Glu Asp Glu Val Val Ser Ser Glu Lys Ala Lys Asp Ser 355 360 365 Phe Asn Glu Lys Arg Val Ala Val Glu Ala Pro Met Arg Glu Glu Tyr 370 375 380 Ala Asp Phe Lys Pro Phe Glu Arg Val Trp Glu Val Lys Asp Ser Lys 385 390 395 400 Glu Asp Ser Asp Met Leu Ala Ala Gly Gly Lys Ile Glu Ser Asn Leu 405 410 415 Glu Ser Lys Val Asp Lys Lys Cys Phe Ala Asp Ser Leu Glu Gln Thr 420 425 430 Asn His Glu Lys Asp Ser Glu Ser Ser Asn Asp Asp Thr Ser Phe Pro 435 440 445 Ser Thr Pro Glu Gly Ile Lys Asp Arg Pro Gly Ala Tyr Ile Thr Cys 450 455 460 Ala Pro Phe Asn Pro Ala Ala Thr Glu Ser Ile Ala Thr Asn Ile Phe 465 470 475 480 Pro Leu Leu Gly Asp Pro Thr Ser Glu Asn Lys Thr Asp Glu Lys Lys 485 490 495 Ile Glu Glu Lys Lys Ala Gln Ile Val Thr Glu Lys Asn Thr Ser Thr 500 505 510 Lys Thr Ser Asn Pro Phe Leu Val Ala Ala Gln Asp Ser Glu Thr Asp 515 520 525 Tyr Val Thr Thr Asp Asn Leu Thr Lys Val Thr Glu Glu Val Val Ala 530 535 540 Asn Met Pro Glu Gly Leu Thr Pro Asp Leu Val Gln Glu Ala Cys Glu 545 550 555 560 Ser Glu Leu Asn Glu Val Thr Gly Thr Lys Ile Ala Tyr Glu Thr Lys 565 570 575 Met Asp Leu Val Gln Thr Ser Glu Val Met Gln Glu Ser Leu Tyr Pro 580 585 590 Ala Ala Gln Leu Cys Pro Ser Phe Glu Glu Ser Glu Ala Thr Pro Ser 595 600 605 Pro Val Leu Pro Asp Ile Val Met Glu Ala Pro Leu Asn Ser Ala Val 610 615 620 Pro Ser Ala Gly Ala Ser Val Ile Gln Pro Ser Ser Ser Pro Leu Glu 625 630 635 640 Ala Ser Ser Val Asn Tyr Glu Ser Ile Lys His Glu Pro Glu Asn Pro 645 650 655 Pro Pro Tyr Glu Glu Ala Met Ser Val Ser Leu Lys Lys Val Ser Gly 660 665 670 Ile Lys Glu Glu Ile Lys Glu Pro Glu Asn Ile Asn Ala Ala Leu Gln 675 680 685 Glu Thr Glu Ala Pro Tyr Ile Ser Ile Ala Cys Asp Leu Ile Lys Glu 690 695 700 Thr Lys Leu Ser Ala Glu Pro Ala Pro Asp Phe Ser Asp Tyr Ser Glu 705 710 715 720 Met Ala Lys Val Glu Gln Pro Val Pro Asp His Ser Glu Leu Val Glu 725 730 735 Asp Ser Ser Pro Asp Ser Glu Pro Val Asp Leu Phe Ser Asp Asp Ser 740 745 750 Ile Pro Asp Val Pro Gln Lys Gln Asp Glu Thr Val Met Leu Val Lys 755 760 765 Glu Ser Leu Thr Glu Thr Ser Phe Glu Ser Met Ile Glu Tyr Glu Asn 770 775 780 Lys Glu Lys Leu Ser Ala Leu Pro Pro Glu Gly Gly Lys Pro Tyr Leu 785 790 795 800 Glu Ser Phe Lys Leu Ser Leu Asp Asn Thr Lys Asp Thr Leu Leu Pro 805 810 815 Asp Glu Val Ser Thr Leu Ser Lys Lys Glu Lys Ile Pro Leu Gln Met 820 825 830 Glu Glu Leu Ser Thr Ala Val Tyr Ser Asn Asp Asp Leu Phe Ile Ser 835 840 845 Lys Glu Ala Gln Ile Arg Glu Thr Glu Thr Phe Ser Asp Ser Ser Pro 850 855 860 Ile Glu Ile Ile Asp Glu Phe Pro Thr Leu Ile Ser Ser Lys Thr Asp 865 870 875 880 Ser Phe Ser Lys Leu Ala Arg Glu Tyr Thr Asp Leu Glu Val Ser His 885 890 895 Lys Ser Glu Ile Ala Asn Ala Pro Asp Gly Ala Gly Ser Leu Pro Cys 900 905 910 Thr Glu Leu Pro His Asp Leu Ser Leu Lys Asn Ile Gln Pro Lys Val 915 920 925 Glu Glu Lys Ile Ser Phe Ser Asp Asp Phe Ser Lys Asn Gly Ser Ala 930 935 940 Thr Ser Lys Val Leu Leu Leu Pro Pro Asp Val Ser Ala Leu Ala Thr 945 950 955 960 Gln Ala Glu Ile Glu Ser Ile Val Lys Pro Lys Val Leu Val Lys Glu 965 970 975 Ala Glu Lys Lys Leu Pro Ser Asp Thr Glu Lys Glu Asp Arg Ser Pro 980 985 990 Ser Ala Ile Phe Ser Ala Glu Leu Ser Lys Thr Ser Val Val Asp Leu 995 1000 1005 Leu Tyr Trp Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly Val Val Phe Gly Ala 1010 1015 1020 Ser Leu Phe Leu Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe Ser Ile Val Ser 1025 1030 1035 Val Thr Ala Tyr Ile Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser Val Thr Ile Ser 1040 1045 1050 Phe Arg Ile Tyr Lys Gly Val Ile Gln Ala Ile Gln Lys Ser Asp 1055 1060 1065 Glu Gly His Pro Phe Arg Ala Tyr Leu Glu Ser Glu Val Ala Ile 1070 1075 1080 Ser Glu Glu Leu Val Gln Lys Tyr Ser Asn Ser Ala Leu Gly His 1085 1090 1095 Val Asn Cys Thr Ile Lys Glu Leu Arg Arg Leu Phe Leu Val Asp 1100 1105 1110 Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys Phe Ala Val Leu Met Trp Val Phe 1115 1120 1125 Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn Gly Leu Thr Leu Leu Ile Leu 1130 1135 1140 Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Val Pro Val Ile Tyr Glu Arg His 1145 1150 1155 Gln Ala Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu Ala Asn Lys Asn Val 1160 1165 1170 Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile Pro Gly Leu Lys 1175 1180 1185 Arg Lys Ala Glu 1190 24 373 PRT Homo sapiens 24 Met Glu Asp Leu Asp Gln Ser Pro Leu Val Ser Ser Ser Asp Ser Pro 1 5 10 15 Pro Arg Pro Gln Pro Ala Phe Lys Tyr Gln Phe Val Arg Glu Pro Glu 20 25 30 Asp Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Glu Asp Glu Asp Glu Asp 35 40 45 Leu Glu Glu Leu Glu Val Leu Glu Arg Lys Pro Ala Ala Gly Leu Ser 50 55 60 Ala Ala Pro Val Pro Thr Ala Pro Ala Ala Gly Ala Pro Leu Met Asp 65 70 75 80 Phe Gly Asn Asp Phe Val Pro Pro Ala Pro Arg Gly Pro Leu Pro Ala 85 90 95 Ala Pro Pro Val Ala Pro Glu Arg Gln Pro Ser Trp Asp Pro Ser Pro 100 105 110 Val Ser Ser Thr Val Pro Ala Pro Ser Pro Leu Ser Ala Ala Ala Val 115 120 125 Ser Pro Ser Lys Leu Pro Glu Asp Asp Glu Pro Pro Ala Arg Pro Pro 130 135 140 Pro Pro Pro Pro Ala Ser Val Ser Pro Gln Ala Glu Pro Val Trp Thr 145 150 155 160 Pro Pro Ala Pro Ala Pro Ala Ala Pro Pro Ser Thr Pro Ala Ala Pro 165 170 175 Lys Arg Arg Gly Ser Ser Gly Ser Val Val Val Asp Leu Leu Tyr Trp 180 185 190 Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly Val Val Phe Gly Ala Ser Leu Phe Leu 195 200 205 Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe Ser Ile Val Ser Val Thr Ala Tyr Ile 210 215 220 Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser Val Thr Ile Ser Phe Arg Ile Tyr Lys Gly 225 230 235 240 Val Ile Gln Ala Ile Gln Lys Ser Asp Glu Gly His Pro Phe Arg Ala 245 250 255 Tyr Leu Glu Ser Glu Val Ala Ile Ser Glu Glu Leu Val Gln Lys Tyr 260 265 270 Ser Asn Ser Ala Leu Gly His Val Asn Cys Thr Ile Lys Glu Leu Arg 275 280 285 Arg Leu Phe Leu Val Asp Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys Phe Ala Val 290 295 300 Leu Met Trp Val Phe Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn Gly Leu Thr 305 310 315 320 Leu Leu Ile Leu Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Val Pro Val Ile Tyr 325 330 335 Glu Arg His Gln Ala Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu Ala Asn Lys 340 345 350 Asn Val Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile Pro Gly Leu 355 360 365 Lys Arg Lys Ala Glu 370 25 199 PRT Homo sapiens 25 Met Asp Gly Gln Lys Lys Asn Trp Lys Asp Lys Val Val Asp Leu Leu 1 5 10 15 Tyr Trp Arg Asp Ile Lys Lys Thr Gly Val Val Phe Gly Ala Ser Leu 20 25 30 Phe Leu Leu Leu Ser Leu Thr Val Phe Ser Ile Val Ser Val Thr Ala 35 40 45 Tyr Ile Ala Leu Ala Leu Leu Ser Val Thr Ile Ser Phe Arg Ile Tyr 50 55 60 Lys Gly Val Ile Gln Ala Ile Gln Lys Ser Asp Glu Gly His Pro Phe 65 70 75 80 Arg Ala Tyr Leu Glu Ser Glu Val Ala Ile Ser Glu Glu Leu Val Gln 85 90 95 Lys Tyr Ser Asn Ser Ala Leu Gly His Val Asn Cys Thr Ile Lys Glu 100 105 110 Leu Arg Arg Leu Phe Leu Val Asp Asp Leu Val Asp Ser Leu Lys Phe 115 120 125 Ala Val Leu Met Trp Val Phe Thr Tyr Val Gly Ala Leu Phe Asn Gly 130 135 140 Leu Thr Leu Leu Ile Leu Ala Leu Ile Ser Leu Phe Ser Val Pro Val 145 150 155 160 Ile Tyr Glu Arg His Gln Ala Gln Ile Asp His Tyr Leu Gly Leu Ala 165 170 175 Asn Lys Asn Val Lys Asp Ala Met Ala Lys Ile Gln Ala Lys Ile Pro 180 185 190 Gly Leu Lys Arg Lys Ala Glu 195 26 473 PRT Homo sapiens 26 Met Lys Arg Ala Ser Ala Gly Gly Ser Arg Leu Leu Ala Trp Val Leu 1 5 10 15 Trp Leu Gln Ala Trp Gln Val Ala Ala Pro Cys Pro Gly Ala Cys Val 20 25 30 Cys Tyr Asn Glu Pro Lys Val Thr Thr Ser Cys Pro Gln Gln Gly Leu 35 40 45 Gln Ala Val Pro Val Gly Ile Pro Ala Ala Ser Gln Arg Ile Phe Leu 50 55 60 His Gly Asn Arg Ile Ser His Val Pro Ala Ala Ser Phe Arg Ala Cys 65 70 75 80 Arg Asn Leu Thr Ile Leu Trp Leu His Ser Asn Val Leu Ala Arg Ile 85 90 95 Asp Ala Ala Ala Phe Thr Gly Leu Ala Leu Leu Glu Gln Leu Asp Leu 100 105 110 Ser Asp Asn Ala Gln Leu Arg Ser Val Asp Pro Ala Thr Phe His Gly 115 120 125 Leu Gly Arg Leu His Thr Leu His Leu Asp Arg Cys Gly Leu Gln Glu 130 135 140 Leu Gly Pro Gly Leu Phe Arg Gly Leu Ala Ala Leu Gln Tyr Leu Tyr 145 150 155 160 Leu Gln Asp Asn Ala Leu Gln Ala Leu Pro Asp Asp Thr Phe Arg Asp 165 170 175 Leu Gly Asn Leu Thr His Leu Phe Leu His Gly Asn Arg Ile Ser Ser 180 185 190 Val Pro Glu Arg Ala Phe Arg Gly Leu His Ser Leu Asp Arg Leu Leu 195 200 205 Leu His Gln Asn Arg Val Ala His Val His Pro His Ala Phe Arg Asp 210 215 220 Leu Gly Arg Leu Met Thr Leu Tyr Leu Phe Ala Asn Asn Leu Ser Ala 225 230 235 240 Leu Pro Thr Glu Ala Leu Ala Pro Leu Arg Ala Leu Gln Tyr Leu Arg 245 250 255 Leu Asn Asp Asn Pro Trp Val Cys Asp Cys Arg Ala Arg Pro Leu Trp 260 265 270 Ala Trp Leu Gln Lys Phe Arg Gly Ser Ser Ser Glu Val Pro Cys Ser 275 280 285 Leu Pro Gln Arg Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp Leu Lys Arg Leu Ala Ala Asn 290 295 300 Asp Leu Gln Gly Cys Ala Val Ala Thr Gly Pro Tyr His Pro Ile Trp 305 310 315 320 Thr Gly Arg Ala Thr Asp Glu Glu Pro Leu Gly Leu Pro Lys Cys Cys 325 330 335 Gln Pro Asp Ala Ala Asp Lys Ala Ser Val Leu Glu Pro Gly Arg Pro 340 345 350 Ala Ser Ala Gly Asn Ala Leu Lys Gly Arg Val Pro Pro Gly Asp Ser 355 360 365 Pro Pro Gly Asn Gly Ser Gly Pro Arg His Ile Asn Asp Ser Pro Phe 370 375 380 Gly Thr Leu Pro Gly Ser Ala Glu Pro Pro Leu Thr Ala Val Arg Pro 385 390 395 400 Glu Gly Ser Glu Pro Pro Gly Phe Pro Thr Ser Gly Pro Arg Arg Arg 405 410 415 Pro Gly Cys Ser Arg Lys Asn Arg Thr Arg Ser His Cys Arg Leu Gly 420 425 430 Gln Ala Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Gly Thr Gly Asp Ser Glu Gly Ser Gly 435 440 445 Ala Leu Pro Ser Leu Thr Cys Ser Leu Thr Pro Leu Gly Leu Ala Leu 450 455 460 Val Leu Trp Thr Val Leu Gly Pro Cys 465 470 27 473 PRT Mus musculus 27 Met Lys Arg Ala Ser Ser Gly Gly Ser Arg Leu Leu Ala Trp Val Leu 1 5 10 15 Trp Leu Gln Ala Trp Arg Val Ala Thr Pro Cys Pro Gly Ala Cys Val 20 25 30 Cys Tyr Asn Glu Pro Lys Val Thr Thr Ser Cys Pro Gln Gln Gly Leu 35 40 45 Gln Ala Val Pro Thr Gly Ile Pro Ala Ser Ser Gln Arg Ile Phe Leu 50 55 60 His Gly Asn Arg Ile Ser His Val Pro Ala Ala Ser Phe Gln Ser Cys 65 70 75 80 Arg Asn Leu Thr Ile Leu Trp Leu His Ser Asn Ala Leu Ala Arg Ile 85 90 95 Asp Ala Ala Ala Phe Thr Gly Leu Thr Leu Leu Glu Gln Leu Asp Leu 100 105 110 Ser Asp Asn Ala Gln Leu His Val Val Asp Pro Thr Thr Phe His Gly 115 120 125 Leu Gly His Leu His Thr Leu His Leu Asp Arg Cys Gly Leu Arg Glu 130 135 140 Leu Gly Pro Gly Leu Phe Arg Gly Leu Ala Ala Leu Gln Tyr Leu Tyr 145 150 155 160 Leu Gln Asp Asn Asn Leu Gln Ala Leu Pro Asp Asn Thr Phe Arg Asp 165 170 175 Leu Gly Asn Leu Thr His Leu Phe Leu His Gly Asn Arg Ile Pro Ser 180 185 190 Val Pro Glu His Ala Phe Arg Gly Leu His Ser Leu Asp Arg Leu Leu 195 200 205 Leu His Gln Asn His Val Ala Arg Val His Pro His Ala Phe Arg Asp 210 215 220 Leu Gly Arg Leu Met Thr Leu Tyr Leu Phe Ala Asn Asn Leu Ser Met 225 230 235 240 Leu Pro Ala Glu Val Leu Met Pro Leu Arg Ser Leu Gln Tyr Leu Arg 245 250 255 Leu Asn Asp Asn Pro Trp Val Cys Asp Cys Arg Ala Arg Pro Leu Trp 260 265 270 Ala Trp Leu Gln Lys Phe Arg Gly Ser Ser Ser Glu Val Pro Cys Asn 275 280 285 Leu Pro Gln Arg Leu Ala Asp Arg Asp Leu Lys Arg Leu Ala Ala Ser 290 295 300 Asp Leu Glu Gly Cys Ala Val Ala Ser Gly Pro Phe Arg Pro Ile Gln 305 310 315 320 Thr Ser Gln Leu Thr Asp Glu Glu Leu Leu Ser Leu Pro Lys Cys Cys 325 330 335 Gln Pro Asp Ala Ala Asp Lys Ala Ser Val Leu Glu Pro Gly Arg Pro 340 345 350 Ala Ser Ala Gly Asn Ala Leu Lys Gly Arg Val Pro Pro Gly Asp Thr 355 360 365 Pro Pro Gly Asn Gly Ser Gly Pro Arg His Ile Asn Asp Ser Pro Phe 370 375 380 Gly Thr Leu Pro Ser Ser Ala Glu Pro Pro Leu Thr Ala Leu Arg Pro 385 390 395 400 Gly Gly Ser Glu Pro Pro Gly Leu Pro Thr Thr Gly Pro Arg Arg Arg 405 410 415 Pro Gly Cys Ser Arg Lys Asn Arg Thr Arg Ser His Cys Arg Leu Gly 420 425 430 Gln Ala Gly Ser Gly Ala Ser Gly Thr Gly Asp Ala Glu Gly Ser Gly 435 440 445 Ala Leu Pro Ala Leu Ala Cys Ser Leu Ala Pro Leu Gly Leu Ala Leu 450 455 460 Val Leu Trp Thr Val Leu Gly Pro Cys 465 470 28 15 PRT Artificial Sequence synthetic 28 Ser Gly Val Pro Ser Asn Leu Pro Gln Arg Leu Ala Gly Arg Asp 1 5 10 15 29 15 PRT Artificial Sequence synthetic 29 Thr Arg Ser His Cys Arg Leu Gly Gln Ala Gly Ser Gly Ser Ser 1 5 10 15

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7351686Dec 5, 2002Apr 1, 2008Yeda Research And Development Co. Ltd.Method for neuronal protection in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by a vaccine comprising Copolymer-1 or Copolymer-1 related peptides
US7425334Jan 26, 2005Sep 16, 2008The University Of ZurichMethods of making antibodies that bind Nogo
US7658926Sep 14, 2001Feb 9, 2010Opexa Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Autologous T-cell vaccines materials and methods
US7695713Aug 6, 2003Apr 13, 2010Baylor College Of MedicineIsolation and identification of T cells
US7781188 *Nov 5, 1999Aug 24, 2010University Of ZurichNucleotide and protein sequences of Nogo genes and methods based thereon
US7893032Jul 7, 2006Feb 22, 2011Yale UniversityNgR variants and compositions thereof for suppressing axonal growth inhibition
WO2003002602A2 *Jun 27, 2002Jan 9, 2003Yeda Res & DevNogo and nogo receptor derived peptides for t-cell mediated neuroprotection
WO2006119352A2 *May 3, 2006Nov 9, 2006Gary W ArendashMethod of treating cognitive decline and synaptic loss related to alzheimer's disease
WO2007008732A2 *Jul 7, 2006Jan 18, 2007Stephen M StrittmatterCompositions and methods for suppressing axonal growth inhibition
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/185.1, 424/93.7, 514/8.3, 514/17.7, 514/20.9
International ClassificationA61K38/00, C07K14/705, C07K14/47, A61K38/17, A61K48/00, A61K39/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61K38/1709, C07K14/47, A61K39/0007, C07K14/705, A61K39/00, A61K2039/5158, A61K48/00
European ClassificationC07K14/705, C07K14/47, A61K39/00D3, A61K38/17A2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 31, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: YEDA RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CO. LTD., ISRAEL
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:EISENBACH-SCHWARTZ, MICHAL;HAUBEN, EHUD;COHEN, IRUN R.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:012292/0561;SIGNING DATES FROM 20011016 TO 20011029