|Publication number||US20020077524 A1|
|Application number||US 10/073,968|
|Publication date||Jun 20, 2002|
|Filing date||Feb 14, 2002|
|Priority date||Jan 2, 1997|
|Also published as||CA2275766A1, CA2275766C, DE69737955T2, EP1011461A1, EP1011461A4, EP1011461B1, US6050936, US6059715, US6162168, US6165119, US6165120, US6332863, US6332864, US6514194, US6589160, US6755777, US6793618, US7695425, US20020058855, US20020068849, US20030166992, US20030171641, US20040167374, US20090137863, WO1998029041A1|
|Publication number||073968, 10073968, US 2002/0077524 A1, US 2002/077524 A1, US 20020077524 A1, US 20020077524A1, US 2002077524 A1, US 2002077524A1, US-A1-20020077524, US-A1-2002077524, US2002/0077524A1, US2002/077524A1, US20020077524 A1, US20020077524A1, US2002077524 A1, US2002077524A1|
|Inventors||Cyril Schweich, Todd Mortier|
|Original Assignee||Myocor, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (98), Referenced by (87), Classifications (25), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
 The present invention pertains to the field of apparatus for treatment of a failing heart. In particular, the apparatus of the present invention is directed toward reducing the wall stress in the failing heart.
 The syndrome of heart failure is a common course for the progression of many forms of heart disease. Heart failure may be considered to be the condition in which an abnormality of cardiac function is responsible for the inability of the heart to pump blood at a rate commensurate with the requirements of the metabolizing tissues, or can do so only at an abnormally elevated filling pressure. There are many specific disease processes that can lead to heart failure with a resulting difference in pathophysiology of the failing heart, such as the dilatation of the left ventricular chamber. Etiologies that can lead to this form of failure include idiopathic cardiomyopathy, viral cardiomyopathy, and ischemic cardiomyopathy.
 The process of ventricular dilatation is generally the result of chronic volume overload or specific damage to the myocardium. In a normal heart that is exposed to long term increased cardiac output requirements, for example, that of an athlete, there is an adaptive process of slight ventricular dilation and muscle myocyte hypertrophy. In this way, the heart fully compensates for the increased cardiac output requirements. With damage to the myocardium or chronic volume overload, however, there are increased requirements put on the contracting myocardium to such a level that this compensated state is never achieved and the heart continues to dilate.
 The basic problem with a large dilated left ventricle is that there is a significant increase in wall tension and/or stress both during diastolic filling and during systolic contraction. In a normal heart, the adaptation of muscle hypertrophy (thickening) and ventricular dilatation maintain a fairly constant wall tension for systolic contraction. However, in a failing heart, the ongoing dilatation is greater than the hypertrophy and the result is a rising wall tension requirement for systolic contraction. This is felt to be an ongoing insult to the muscle myocyte resulting in further muscle damage. The increase in wall stress is' also true for diastolic filling. Additionally, because of the lack of cardiac output, there is generally a rise in ventricular filling pressure from several physiologic mechanisms. Moreover, in diastole there is both a diameter increase and a pressure increase over normal, both contributing to higher wall stress levels. The increase in diastolic wall stress is felt to be the primary contributor to ongoing dilatation of the chamber.
 Prior art treatments for heart failure fall into three generally categories. The first being pharmacological, for example, diuretics. The second being assist systems, for example, pumps. Finally, surgical treatments have been experimented with, which are described in more detail below.
 With respect to pharmacological treatments, diuretics have been used to reduce the workload of the heart by reducing blood volume and preload. Clinically, preload is defined in several ways including left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), or left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV). Physiologically, the preferred definition is the length of stretch of the sarcomere at end diastole. Diuretics reduce extra cellular fluid which builds in congestive heart failure patients increasing preload conditions. Nitrates, arteriolar vasodilators, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been used to treat heart failure through the reduction of cardiac workload through the reduction of afterload. Afterload may be defined as the tension or stress required in the wall of the ventricle during ejection. Inotropes like digoxin are cardiac glycosides and function to increase cardiac output by increasing the force and speed of cardiac muscle contraction. These drug therapies offer some beneficial effects but do not stop the progression of the disease.
 Assist devices include mechanical pumps and electrical stimulators. Mechanical pumps reduce the load on the heart by performing all or part of the pumping function normally done by the heart. Currently, mechanical pumps are used to sustain the patient while a donor heart for transplantation becomes available for the patient. Electrical stimulation such as bi-ventricular pacing have been investigated for the treatment of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.
 There are at least three surgical procedures for treatment of heart failure: 1) heart transplant; 2) dynamic cardiomyoplasty; and 3) the Batista partial left ventriculectomy. Heart transplantation has serious limitations including restricted availability of organs and adverse effects of immunosuppressive therapies required following heart transplantation. Cardiomyoplasty includes wrapping the heart with skeletal muscle and electrically stimulating the muscle to contract synchronously with the heart in order to help the pumping function of the heart. The Batista partial left ventriculectomy includes surgically remodeling the left ventricle by removing a segment of the muscular wall. This procedure reduces the diameter of the dilated heart, which in turn reduces the loading of the heart. However, this extremely invasive procedure reduces muscle mass of the heart.
 The present invention pertains to a non-pharmacological, passive apparatus for the treatment of a failing heart. The device is configured to reduce the tension in the heart wall. It is believed to reverse, stop or slow the disease process of a failing heart as it reduces the energy consumption of the failing heart, decrease in isovolumetric contraction, increases sarcomere shortening during contraction and an increase in isotonic shortening in turn increases stroke volume. The device reduces wall tension during diastole (preload) and systole.
 In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a tension member for drawing at least two walls of the heart chamber toward each other to reduce the radius or area of the heart chamber in at least one cross sectional plane. The tension member has anchoring member disposed at opposite ends for engagement with the heart or chamber wall.
 In another embodiment, the apparatus includes a compression member for drawing at least two walls of a heart chamber toward each other. In one embodiment, the compression member includes a balloon. In another embodiment of the apparatus, a frame is provided for supporting. the compression member.
 Yet another embodiment of the invention includes a clamp having two ends biased toward one another for drawing at least two walls of a heart chamber toward each other. The clamp includes at least two ends having atraumatic anchoring member disposed thereon for engagement with the heart or chamber wall.
FIG. 1 is a transverse cross-section of the left and right ventricles of a human heart showing the placement of a splint in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a transverse cross-section of the left and right ventricles of a human heart showing the placement of a balloon device in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a transverse cross-section of the left and right ventricles of a human heart showing the placement of an external compression frame structure in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a transverse cross-section of the left and right ventricles of a human heart showing a clamp in accordance with the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a transverse cross-section of the left and right ventricles of a human heart showing a three tension member version of the splint of FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 is a transverse cross-section of the left and right ventricles of a human heart showing a four tension member version of the splint shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 7 is a vertical cross-section of the left ventricle and atrium, the left ventricle having scar tissue;
FIG. 8 is a vertical cross-section of the heart of FIG. 7 showing the splint of FIG. 1 drawing the scar tissue toward the opposite wall of the left ventricle;
FIG. 9 is a vertical cross-section of the left ventricle and atrium of a human heart showing a version of the splint of FIG. 1 having an elongate anchor bar;
FIG. 10 is a side view of an undeployed hinged anchor member;
FIG. 11 is a side view of a deployed hinged anchor member of FIG. 10;
FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of an captured ball anchor member;
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a cross bar anchor member;
FIG. 14 is a idealized cylindrical model of a left ventricle of a human heart;
FIG. 15 is a splinted model of the left ventricle of FIG. 14;
FIG. 16 is a transverse cross-sectional view of FIG. 15 showing various modeling parameters;
FIG. 17 is a transverse cross-section of the splinted left ventricle of FIG. 15 showing a hypothetical force distribution; and
FIG. 18 is a second transverse cross-sectional view of the model left ventricle of FIG. 15 showing a hypothetical force distribution.
 Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference numerals refer to like elements throughout the several views, FIG. 1 shows a transverse cross-section of a left ventricle 10 and a right ventricle 12 of a human heart 14. Extending through the left ventricle is a splint 16 including a tension member 18 and oppositely disposed anchors 20. Splint 16 as shown in FIG. 1 has been positioned to draw opposite walls of left ventricle 10 toward each other to reduce the “radius” of the left ventricular cross-section or the cross-sectional area thereof to reduce left ventricular wall stresses. It should be understood that although the splint 16 and the alternative devices disclosed herein are described in relation to the left ventricle of a human heart, these devices could also be used to reduce the radius or cross-sectional area of the other chambers of a human heart in transverse or vertical directions, or at an angle between the transverse and vertical.
FIG. 2 discloses an alternate embodiment of the present invention, wherein a balloon 200 is deployed adjacent the left ventricle. The size and degree of inflation of the balloon can be varied to reduce the radius or cross-sectional area of left ventricle 10 of heart 14.
FIG. 3 shows yet another alternative embodiment of the present invention deployed with respect to left ventricle 10 of human heart 14. Here a compression frame structure 300 is engaged with heart 14 at atraumatic anchor pads 310. A compression member 312 having an atraumatic surface 314 presses against a wall of left ventricle 10 to reduce the radius or cross-sectional area thereof.
FIG. 4 is a transverse cross-sectional view of human heart 14 showing yet another embodiment of the present invention. In this case a clamp 400 having atraumatic anchor pads 410 biased toward each other is shown disposed on a wall of left ventricle 10. Here the radius or cross-sectional area of left ventricle 10 is reduced by clamping off the portion of the wall between pads 410. Pads 410 can be biased toward each other and/or can be held together by a locking device.
 Each of the various embodiments of the present invention disclosed in FIGS. 1-4 can be made from materials which can remain implanted in the human body indefinitely. Such biocompatible materials are well-known to those skilled in the art of clinical medical devices.
FIG. 5 shows an alternate embodiment of the splint of FIG. 1 referred to in FIG. 5 by the numeral 116. The embodiment 116 shown in FIG. 5 includes three tension members 119 as opposed to a single tension member 18 as shown in FIG. 1. FIG. 6 shows yet another embodiment of the splint 216 having four tension members 218. It is anticipated that in some patients, the disease process of the failing heart may be so advanced that three, four or more tension members may be desirable to reduce the heart wall stresses more substantially than possible with a single tension member as shown in FIG. 1.
FIG. 7 is a partial vertical cross-section of human heart 14 showing left ventricle 10 and left atrium 22. As shown in FIG. 7, heart 14 includes a region of scar tissue 24 associated with an aneurysm or ischemia. As shown in FIG. 7, the scar tissue 24 increases the radius or cross-sectional area of left ventricle 10 in the region affected by the scar tissue. Such an increase in the radius or cross-sectional area of the left ventricle will result in greater wall stresses on the walls of the left ventricle.
FIG. 8 is a vertical cross-sectional view of the heart 14 as shown in FIG. 7, wherein a splint 16 has been placed to draw the scar tissue 24 toward an opposite wall of left ventricle 10. As a consequence of placing splint 16, the radius or cross-sectional area of the left ventricle affected by the scar tissue 24 is reduced. The reduction of this radius or cross-sectional area results in reduction in the wall stress in the left ventricular wall and thus improves heart pumping efficiency.
FIG. 9 is a vertical cross-sectional view of left ventricle 10 and left atrium 22 of heart 14 in which a splint 16 has been placed. As shown in FIG. 9, splint 16 includes an alternative anchor 26. The anchor 26 is preferably an elongate member having a length as shown in FIG. 9 substantially greater than its width (not shown). Anchor bar 26 might be used to reduce the radius or cross-sectional area of the left ventricle in an instance where there is generalized enlargement of left ventricle 10 such as in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. In such an instance, bar anchor 26 can distribute forces more widely than anchor 20.
FIGS. 10 and 11 are side views of a hinged anchor 28 which could be substituted for anchors 20 in undeployed and deployed positions respectively. Anchor 28 as shown in FIG. 10 includes two legs similar to bar anchor 26. Hinged anchor 28 could include additional legs and the length of those legs could be varied to distribute the force over the surface of the heart wall. In addition there could be webbing between each of the legs to give anchor 28 an umbrella-like appearance. Preferably the webbing would be disposed on the surface of the legs which would be in contact with the heart wall.
FIG. 12 is a cross-sectional view of a capture ball anchor 30. Capture ball anchor 30 can be used in place of anchor 20. Capture ball anchor 30 includes a disk portion 32 to distribute the force of the anchor on the heart wall, and a recess 34 for receiving a ball 36 affixed to an end of tension member 18. Disk 32 and recess 34 include a side groove which allows tension member 38 to be passed from an outside edge of disk 32 into recess 34. Ball 36 can then be advanced into recess 34 by drawing tension member 18 through an opening 38 in recess 34 opposite disk 32.
FIG. 13 is a perspective view of a cross bar anchor 40. The cross bar anchor 40 can be used in place of anchors 20. The anchor 40 preferably includes a disk or pad portion 42 having a cross bar 44 extending over an opening 46 in pad 42. Tension member 18 can be extended through opening 46 and tied to cross bar 42 as shown.
 In use, the various embodiments of the present invention are placed in or adjacent the human heart to reduce the radius or cross-section area of at least one chamber of the heart. This is done to reduce wall stress or tension in the heart or chamber wall to slow, stop or reverse failure of the heart. In the case of the splint 16 shown in FIG. 1, a canula can be used to pierce both walls of the heart and one end of the splint can be advanced through the canula from one side of the heart to the opposite side where an anchor can be affixed or deployed. Likewise, an anchor is affixed or deployed at the opposite end of splint 16.
FIG. 14 is a view of a cylinder or idealized heart chamber 48 which is used to illustrate the reduction of wall stress in a heart chamber as a result of deployment of the splint in accordance with the present invention. The model used herein and the calculations related to this model are intended merely to illustrate the mechanism by which wall stress is reduced in the heart chamber. No effort is made herein to quantify the actual reduction which would be realized in any particular in vivo application.
FIG. 15 is a view of the idealized heart chamber 48 of FIG. 14 wherein the chamber has been splinted along its length L such that a “figure eight” cross-section has been formed along the length thereof. It should be noted that the perimeter of the circular transverse cross-section of the chamber in FIG. 14 is equal to the perimeter of the figure eight transverse cross-section of FIG. 15. For purposes of this model, opposite lobes of the figure in cross-section are assumed to be mirror images.
FIG. 16 shows various parameters of the FIG. 8 cross-section of the splinted idealized heart chamber of FIG. 15. Where l is the length of the splint between opposite walls of the chamber, R2 is the radius of each lobe, θ is the angle between the two radii of one lobe which extends to opposite ends of the portion of the splint within chamber 48 and h is the height of the triangle formed by the two radii and the portion of the splint within the chamber 48 (R1 is the radius of the cylinder of FIG. 14). These various parameters are related as follows:
 h<R2 COS (θ/2)
 l=R2 SIN (θ/2)
 From these relationships, the area of the figure eight cross-section can be calculated by:
A 2−2π(R 2)2(1−θ/2π)+hl
 Where chamber 48 is unsplinted as shown in FIG. 14 A1, the original cross-sectional area of the cylinder is equal to A2 where θ=180°, h=0 and l=2R2. Volume equals A2 times length L and circumferential wall tension equals pressure within the chamber times R2 times the length L of the chamber.
 Thus, for example, with an original cylindrical radius of four centimeters and a pressure within the chamber of 140 mm of mercury, the wall tension T in the walls of the cylinder is 104.4 newtons. When a 3.84 cm splint is placed as shown in FIGS. 15 and 16 such that l=3.84 cm, the wall tension T is 77.33 newtons.
FIGS. 17 and 18 show a hypothetical distribution of wall tension T and pressure P for the figure eight cross-section. As θ goes from 180° to 0°, tension Ts in the splint goes from 0 to a 2T load where the chamber walls carry a T load.
 It will be understood that this disclosure, in many respects, is only illustrative. Changes may be made in details, particularly in matters of shape, size, material, and arrangement of parts without exceeding the scope of the invention. Accordingly, the scope of the invention is as defined in the language of the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US963899 *||Nov 6, 1909||Jul 12, 1910||Samuel L. Kistler||Surgical clamp.|
|US3019790 *||Jul 15, 1960||Feb 6, 1962||Militana Robert J||Combination hemostat and intravenous needle|
|US3656185 *||Feb 4, 1970||Apr 18, 1972||Rhone Poulenc Sa||Cardiac valvular support prosthesis|
|US3980086 *||Jul 18, 1975||Sep 14, 1976||Bio-Medicus, Inc.||Fluid conveying surgical instrument|
|US4035849 *||Jun 25, 1976||Jul 19, 1977||William W. Angell||Heart valve stent and process for preparing a stented heart valve prosthesis|
|US4055861 *||Apr 9, 1976||Nov 1, 1977||Rhone-Poulenc Industries||Support for a natural human heart valve|
|US4217665 *||Jun 22, 1976||Aug 19, 1980||Societe D'utilisation Scientifique Et Industrielle Du Froid - Usifroid||Prosthesis for use in valvuloplasty|
|US4300564 *||Nov 1, 1979||Nov 17, 1981||Olympus Optical Co., Ltd.||Forceps for extracting stones in the pelvis of a kidney|
|US4306319 *||Jun 16, 1980||Dec 22, 1981||Robert L. Kaster||Heart valve with non-circular body|
|US4343048 *||Aug 4, 1980||Aug 10, 1982||Ross Donald N||Stent for a cardiac valve|
|US4579120 *||Jan 29, 1985||Apr 1, 1986||Cordis Corporation||Strain relief for percutaneous lead|
|US4592342 *||Jan 3, 1984||Jun 3, 1986||Salmasian Samuel S||Method for appetite suppression and weight loss maintenance and device|
|US4629459 *||Dec 28, 1983||Dec 16, 1986||Shiley Inc.||Alternate stent covering for tissue valves|
|US4632101 *||Jan 31, 1985||Dec 30, 1986||Yosef Freedland||Orthopedic fastener|
|US5061277 *||Sep 2, 1988||Oct 29, 1991||Baxter International Inc.||Flexible cardiac valvular support prosthesis|
|US5156621 *||Mar 15, 1991||Oct 20, 1992||Navia Jose A||Stentless bioprosthetic cardiac valve|
|US5256132 *||Aug 17, 1992||Oct 26, 1993||Snyders Robert V||Cardiac assist envelope for endoscopic application|
|US5258015 *||May 3, 1991||Nov 2, 1993||American Cyanamid Company||Locking filament caps|
|US5300087 *||Jan 26, 1993||Apr 5, 1994||Knoepfler Dennis J||Multiple purpose forceps|
|US5312642 *||Mar 5, 1993||May 17, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Method and apparatus for calendering and coating/filling sutures|
|US5360444 *||Dec 9, 1993||Nov 1, 1994||Kenji Kusuhara||Occluder supporter and a method of attachment thereof|
|US5376112 *||Mar 19, 1993||Dec 27, 1994||Duran; Carlos G.||Valveless conduit with sigmoid valve annuloplasty ring|
|US5383840 *||Jul 28, 1992||Jan 24, 1995||Vascor, Inc.||Biocompatible ventricular assist and arrhythmia control device including cardiac compression band-stay-pad assembly|
|US5389096 *||Feb 25, 1993||Feb 14, 1995||Advanced Cardiovascular Systems||System and method for percutaneous myocardial revascularization|
|US5397331 *||Nov 25, 1992||Mar 14, 1995||Cook Incorporated||Supporting device and apparatus for inserting the device|
|US5417709 *||Apr 12, 1994||May 23, 1995||Symbiosis Corporation||Endoscopic instrument with end effectors forming suction and/or irrigation lumens|
|US5445600 *||Apr 29, 1994||Aug 29, 1995||Abdulla; Ra-Id||Flow control systemic to pulmonary arterial shunt|
|US5450860 *||Aug 31, 1993||Sep 19, 1995||W. L. Gore & Associates, Inc.||Device for tissue repair and method for employing same|
|US5522884 *||Feb 19, 1993||Jun 4, 1996||Medtronic, Inc.||Holder for adjustable mitral & tricuspid annuloplasty rings|
|US5571215 *||Dec 6, 1993||Nov 5, 1996||Heartport, Inc.||Devices and methods for intracardiac procedures|
|US5607471 *||Aug 21, 1995||Mar 4, 1997||Jacques Seguin||Prosthetic ring for heart surgery|
|US5655548 *||Sep 16, 1996||Aug 12, 1997||Circulation, Inc.||Method for treatment of ischemic heart disease by providing transvenous myocardial perfusion|
|US5665092 *||Dec 1, 1995||Sep 9, 1997||Mangiardi; John R.||Marker for surgical procedures|
|US5674279 *||Jun 29, 1995||Oct 7, 1997||Medtronic, Inc.||Annuloplasty and suture rings|
|US5713954 *||Jun 13, 1995||Feb 3, 1998||Abiomed R&D, Inc.||Extra cardiac ventricular assist device|
|US5738649 *||Apr 16, 1996||Apr 14, 1998||Cardeon Corporation||Peripheral entry biventricular catheter system for providing access to the heart for cardiopulmonary surgery or for prolonged circulatory support of the heart|
|US5766234 *||Apr 16, 1996||Jun 16, 1998||Light Sciences Limited Partnership||Implanting and fixing a flexible probe for administering a medical therapy at a treatment site within a patient'body|
|US5807384 *||Dec 20, 1996||Sep 15, 1998||Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Inc.||Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR) enhanced treatment for coronary artery disease|
|US5824066 *||May 21, 1997||Oct 20, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Annuloplasty prosthesis|
|US5824069 *||Oct 27, 1997||Oct 20, 1998||Medtronic, Inc.||Prosthetic heart valve with suturing member having non-uniform radial width|
|US5840059 *||Jun 7, 1995||Nov 24, 1998||Cardiogenesis Corporation||Therapeutic and diagnostic agent delivery|
|US5876436 *||Feb 13, 1997||Mar 2, 1999||St. Jude Medical, Inc.||Rotatable cuff assembly for a heart valve prosthesis|
|US5888240 *||Dec 3, 1996||Mar 30, 1999||Baxter International Inc.||Distensible annuloplasty ring for surgical remodelling of an atrioventricular valve and nonsurgical method for post-implantation distension thereof to accomodate patient growth|
|US5957977 *||Jan 2, 1996||Sep 28, 1999||University Of Cincinnati||Activation device for the natural heart including internal and external support structures|
|US5984917 *||Oct 1, 1997||Nov 16, 1999||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Device and method for remote insertion of a closed loop|
|US5999678 *||Dec 27, 1996||Dec 7, 1999||Eclipse Surgical Technologies, Inc.||Laser delivery means adapted for drug delivery|
|US6050936 *||Jan 2, 1997||Apr 18, 2000||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus|
|US6129758 *||Oct 3, 1996||Oct 10, 2000||Cardiomend Llc||Products and methods for circulatory system valve repair|
|US6132438 *||Jun 7, 1995||Oct 17, 2000||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Devices for installing stasis reducing means in body tissue|
|US6162168 *||Jan 28, 2000||Dec 19, 2000||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus|
|US6206004 *||Dec 6, 1996||Mar 27, 2001||Comedicus Incorporated||Treatment method via the pericardial space|
|US6332863 *||Oct 27, 2000||Dec 25, 2001||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction kit|
|US6379366 *||Mar 13, 2000||Apr 30, 2002||Ep Technologies, Inc.||Devices for installing stasis reducing means in body tissue|
|US6406420 *||Oct 21, 1999||Jun 18, 2002||Myocor, Inc.||Methods and devices for improving cardiac function in hearts|
|US6508756 *||Dec 30, 1998||Jan 21, 2003||Abiomed, Inc.||Passive cardiac assistance device|
|US6514194 *||Nov 2, 2001||Feb 4, 2003||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus and method|
|US6520904 *||Jun 4, 1999||Feb 18, 2003||The University Of Cincinnati||Device and method for restructuring heart chamber geometry|
|US6544180 *||Nov 30, 1999||Apr 8, 2003||Data Sciences International, Inc.||Blood flow meter apparatus and method of use|
|US6572529 *||Jul 6, 2001||Jun 3, 2003||Wilk Patent Development Corporation||Intrapericardial assist method|
|US6589160 *||Nov 2, 2001||Jul 8, 2003||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus|
|US6645139 *||May 7, 2002||Nov 11, 2003||Acorn Cardiovascular Inc.||Bag for at least partially enveloping a heart|
|US6651671 *||Oct 12, 1999||Nov 25, 2003||Heartport, Inc.||Lens-invasive devices and methods for cardiac valve surgery|
|US6755777 *||Dec 20, 2002||Jun 29, 2004||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus and method|
|US6814700 *||Mar 16, 2000||Nov 9, 2004||Heartport, Inc.||Soft tissue retractor and method for providing surgical access|
|US6893392 *||Feb 13, 2003||May 17, 2005||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US7163507 *||Sep 23, 2003||Jan 16, 2007||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US7166071 *||Sep 23, 2003||Jan 23, 2007||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US7189199 *||May 2, 2002||Mar 13, 2007||Myocor, Inc.||Methods and devices for improving cardiac function in hearts|
|US7255674 *||Sep 26, 2003||Aug 14, 2007||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US7261684 *||Sep 26, 2003||Aug 28, 2007||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US7278964 *||Mar 5, 2004||Oct 9, 2007||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20010021874 *||Feb 16, 2001||Sep 13, 2001||Alexandre Carpentier||Expandable annuloplasty ring|
|US20020007216 *||May 7, 2001||Jan 17, 2002||Melvin David Boyd||Heart wall actuation device for the natural heart|
|US20020022880 *||Apr 13, 2001||Feb 21, 2002||Melvin David B.||Device and method for restructuring heart chamber geometry|
|US20020029783 *||Sep 12, 2001||Mar 14, 2002||Stevens John H.||Minimally-invasive devices and methods for treatment of congestive heart failure|
|US20020058855 *||Nov 2, 2001||May 16, 2002||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus and method|
|US20020091296 *||Feb 25, 2002||Jul 11, 2002||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20020111533 *||Jan 22, 2002||Aug 15, 2002||Melvin David Boyd||Device and method for restructuring heart chamber geometry|
|US20020111636 *||Mar 15, 2002||Aug 15, 2002||Fleischman Sidney D.||Devices for installing stasis reducing means in body tissue|
|US20020169359 *||May 2, 2002||Nov 14, 2002||Myocor, Inc.||Methods and devices for improving cardiac function in hearts|
|US20030149333 *||Feb 13, 2003||Aug 7, 2003||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20030166992 *||Dec 20, 2002||Sep 4, 2003||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus|
|US20030171641 *||Dec 20, 2002||Sep 11, 2003||Myocor, Inc||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus and method|
|US20040024286 *||Jul 14, 2003||Feb 5, 2004||The University Of Cincinnati||Heart wall actuation device for the natural heart|
|US20040059181 *||Sep 23, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20040059182 *||Sep 23, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20040059187 *||Sep 23, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20040059188 *||Sep 26, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Acorn Cardiovascula, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20040059189 *||Sep 26, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20040133063 *||Dec 12, 2003||Jul 8, 2004||Myocor||Methods and devices for improving cardiac function in hearts|
|US20040167374 *||Feb 17, 2004||Aug 26, 2004||Myocor, Inc.||Heart wall tension reduction apparatus and method|
|US20040171909 *||Mar 5, 2004||Sep 2, 2004||Acron Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20040181124 *||Mar 26, 2004||Sep 16, 2004||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac reinforcement device|
|US20040267083 *||Dec 17, 2003||Dec 30, 2004||Myocor||Methods and devices for improving cardiac function in hearts|
|US20060161040 *||Dec 23, 2005||Jul 20, 2006||Myocor, Inc.||Methods and devices for improving cardiac function in hearts|
|US20070004962 *||Aug 31, 2006||Jan 4, 2007||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Cardiac support device with differential compliance|
|US20070112244 *||Apr 14, 2006||May 17, 2007||Myocor, Inc.||Methods and devices for improving cardiac function in hearts|
|US20070225547 *||May 18, 2007||Sep 27, 2007||Acorn Cardiovascular, Inc.||Collapsible delivery tool for cardiac support device|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6595912||Sep 14, 2001||Jul 22, 2003||Paracor Surgical, Inc.||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US6602184||Sep 10, 2001||Aug 5, 2003||Paracor Surgical, Inc.||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US6612978||Sep 10, 2001||Sep 2, 2003||Paracor Surgical, Inc.||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US6612979||Sep 14, 2001||Sep 2, 2003||Paracor Surgical, Inc.||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US6663558||Sep 10, 2001||Dec 16, 2003||Paracor Surgical, Inc.||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US6682474||Sep 10, 2001||Jan 27, 2004||Paracor Surgical, Inc.||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US6702732||Aug 8, 2000||Mar 9, 2004||Paracor Surgical, Inc.||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US7316706||Jun 14, 2004||Jan 8, 2008||Medtronic Vascular, Inc.||Tensioning device, system, and method for treating mitral valve regurgitation|
|US7374530||Feb 17, 2005||May 20, 2008||Benvenue Medical Inc.||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US7452325||Feb 17, 2005||Nov 18, 2008||Benvenue Medical Inc.||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US7678135||Apr 14, 2006||Mar 16, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Compressible tissue anchor assemblies|
|US7695493||Jun 9, 2004||Apr 13, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||System for optimizing anchoring force|
|US7703459||Sep 29, 2004||Apr 27, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for mapping out endoluminal gastrointestinal surgery|
|US7704264||Nov 17, 2004||Apr 27, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds|
|US7736299||Jul 21, 2005||Jun 15, 2010||Paracor Medical, Inc.||Introducer for a cardiac harness delivery|
|US7736374||Mar 1, 2005||Jun 15, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Tissue manipulation and securement system|
|US7736378||May 7, 2004||Jun 15, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for positioning and securing anchors|
|US7736379||Jul 11, 2005||Jun 15, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Compressible tissue anchor assemblies|
|US7744613||Dec 12, 2003||Jun 29, 2010||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds|
|US7766816||Aug 3, 2010||Chf Technologies, Inc.||Method and apparatus for closing off a portion of a heart ventricle|
|US7918845||Nov 16, 2004||Apr 5, 2011||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Endoluminal tool deployment system|
|US7918869||May 7, 2004||Apr 5, 2011||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for performing endoluminal gastroplasty|
|US7942884||Jul 1, 2003||May 17, 2011||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Methods for reduction of a gastric lumen|
|US7942898||Jul 1, 2003||May 17, 2011||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Delivery systems and methods for gastric reduction|
|US7955340||Dec 12, 2003||Jun 7, 2011||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds|
|US7976454||Aug 28, 2006||Jul 12, 2011||Paracor Medical, Inc.||Cardiac harness|
|US8057511||May 7, 2004||Nov 15, 2011||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for positioning and securing anchors|
|US8066719||Nov 18, 2004||Nov 29, 2011||Ewers Richard C||Apparatus and methods for forming gastrointestinal tissue approximations|
|US8092363||Sep 5, 2007||Jan 10, 2012||Mardil, Inc.||Heart band with fillable chambers to modify heart valve function|
|US8092367||May 16, 2008||Jan 10, 2012||Mardil, Inc.||Method for external stabilization of the base of the heart|
|US8128553||Dec 12, 2006||Mar 6, 2012||Mardil, Inc.||Method and apparatus for external stabilization of the heart|
|US8192351||Sep 23, 2009||Jun 5, 2012||Paracor Medical, Inc.||Medical device delivery system having integrated introducer|
|US8206417||Jun 9, 2004||Jun 26, 2012||Usgi Medical Inc.||Apparatus and methods for optimizing anchoring force|
|US8216252||Mar 1, 2005||Jul 10, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Tissue manipulation and securement system|
|US8216253||Apr 22, 2008||Jul 10, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus for manipulating and securing tissue|
|US8216260||Aug 25, 2008||Jul 10, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds|
|US8236009||Oct 14, 2009||Aug 7, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Needle assembly for tissue manipulation|
|US8257394||Jan 14, 2005||Sep 4, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for positioning and securing anchors|
|US8262676||Sep 18, 2009||Sep 11, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for forming gastrointestinal tissue approximations|
|US8287557||Aug 20, 2007||Oct 16, 2012||Guided Delivery Systems, Inc.||Methods and devices for termination|
|US8298291||Apr 26, 2006||Oct 30, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for securing and deploying tissue anchors|
|US8308765||May 7, 2004||Nov 13, 2012||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for positioning and securing anchors|
|US8333777||Apr 21, 2006||Dec 18, 2012||Benvenue Medical, Inc.||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US8343173||Jan 1, 2013||Guided Delivery Systems Inc.||Delivery devices and methods for heart valve repair|
|US8343175||Apr 26, 2010||Jan 1, 2013||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds|
|US8382800||Mar 15, 2010||Feb 26, 2013||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Compressible tissue anchor assemblies|
|US8388680||Oct 18, 2006||Mar 5, 2013||Guided Delivery Systems, Inc.||Methods and devices for catheter advancement and delivery of substances therethrough|
|US8391996||Aug 17, 2009||Mar 5, 2013||Benvenue Medical, Inc.||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US8394008||Jul 29, 2010||Mar 12, 2013||Bioventrix, Inc.||Steerable lesion excluding heart implants for congestive heart failure|
|US8425402||Jul 21, 2009||Apr 23, 2013||Bioventrix, Inc.||Cardiac anchor structures, methods, and systems for treatment of congestive heart failure and other conditions|
|US8444657||Apr 28, 2005||May 21, 2013||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for rapid deployment of tissue anchors|
|US8449442||Dec 20, 2007||May 28, 2013||Bioventrix, Inc.||Method and device for percutaneous left ventricular reconstruction|
|US8465500||Jan 19, 2006||Jun 18, 2013||Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research||Thorascopic heart valve repair method and apparatus|
|US8491455||Oct 3, 2008||Jul 23, 2013||Bioventrix, Inc.||Treating dysfunctional cardiac tissue|
|US8506474||Aug 21, 2006||Aug 13, 2013||Bioventrix, Inc.||Method and device for treating dysfunctional cardiac tissue|
|US8574243||Dec 12, 2003||Nov 5, 2013||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for forming and securing gastrointestinal tissue folds|
|US8636639||Jan 24, 2012||Jan 28, 2014||Bioventrix, Inc.||Signal transmitting and lesion excluding heart implants for pacing, defibrillating, and/or sensing of heart beat|
|US8715160||Feb 6, 2012||May 6, 2014||Mardil, Inc.||Method and apparatus for external stabilization of the heart|
|US8726909||Jan 27, 2006||May 20, 2014||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for revision of obesity procedures|
|US8740940||Jan 23, 2013||Jun 3, 2014||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Compressible tissue anchor assemblies|
|US8758393||Oct 20, 2008||Jun 24, 2014||Neochord, Inc.||Minimally invasive repair of a valve leaflet in a beating heart|
|US8790367||Feb 5, 2009||Jul 29, 2014||Guided Delivery Systems Inc.||Multi-window guide tunnel|
|US8795298||Oct 9, 2009||Aug 5, 2014||Guided Delivery Systems Inc.||Tether tensioning devices and related methods|
|US8828027||Jun 14, 2010||Sep 9, 2014||U.S.G.I. Medical, Inc.||Tissue manipulation and securement system|
|US8870916||Jul 5, 2007||Oct 28, 2014||USGI Medical, Inc||Low profile tissue anchors, tissue anchor systems, and methods for their delivery and use|
|US8926634||Dec 5, 2007||Jan 6, 2015||Usgi Medical, Inc.||Apparatus and methods for manipulating and securing tissue|
|US8968175||Jul 23, 2013||Mar 3, 2015||Bioventrix, Inc.||Treating dysfunctional cardiac tissue|
|US8968338||Feb 19, 2010||Mar 3, 2015||Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research||Thorascopic heart valve repair method and apparatus|
|US8979750||Sep 30, 2012||Mar 17, 2015||Bioventrix, Inc.||Trans-catheter ventricular reconstruction structures, methods, and systems for treatment of congestive heart failure and other conditions|
|US8986189||Jul 1, 2010||Mar 24, 2015||Bioventrix, Inc.||Method and apparatus for closing off a portion of a heart ventricle|
|US9039594||Jan 28, 2014||May 26, 2015||Bioventrix, Inc.||Signal transmitting and lesion excluding heart implants for pacing, defibrillating, and/or sensing of heart beat|
|US9044221||Dec 29, 2011||Jun 2, 2015||Neochord, Inc.||Exchangeable system for minimally invasive beating heart repair of heart valve leaflets|
|US9044231||Mar 11, 2013||Jun 2, 2015||Bioventrix, Inc.||Steerable lesion excluding heart implants for congestive heart failure|
|US9072513||Aug 6, 2008||Jul 7, 2015||Guided Delivery Systems Inc.||Methods and devices for termination|
|US9095363||Sep 30, 2012||Aug 4, 2015||Bioventrix, Inc.||Remote pericardial hemostasis for ventricular access and reconstruction or other organ therapies|
|US9107658||Dec 12, 2012||Aug 18, 2015||Benvenue Medical, Inc.||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US9119720||May 20, 2013||Sep 1, 2015||Bioventrix, Inc.||Method and device for percutaneous left ventricular reconstruction|
|US9125632||Oct 17, 2008||Sep 8, 2015||Guided Delivery Systems, Inc.||Systems and methods for cardiac remodeling|
|US20020019580 *||Sep 10, 2001||Feb 14, 2002||Lilip Lau||Expandable cardiac harness for treating congestive heart failure|
|US20040260317 *||Jun 14, 2004||Dec 23, 2004||Elliot Bloom||Tensioning device, system, and method for treating mitral valve regurgitation|
|US20040267329 *||Mar 8, 2004||Dec 30, 2004||Mardil, Inc.||Method and apparatus for external heart stabilization|
|US20060089711 *||Sep 22, 2005||Apr 27, 2006||Medtronic Vascular, Inc.||Multifilament anchor for reducing a compass of a lumen or structure in mammalian body|
|US20060106403 *||Feb 17, 2005||May 18, 2006||Laurent Schaller||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US20060135966 *||Feb 17, 2005||Jun 22, 2006||Laurent Schaller||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US20060135968 *||Feb 17, 2005||Jun 22, 2006||Laurent Schaller||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|US20060135970 *||Feb 17, 2005||Jun 22, 2006||Laurent Schaller||Catheter-based tissue remodeling devices and methods|
|USD717954||Oct 14, 2013||Nov 18, 2014||Mardil, Inc.||Heart treatment device|
|International Classification||A61B17/12, A61M31/00, A61B19/00, A61F2/02, A61N1/362, A61F2/00, A61B17/122, A61B17/04, A61B17/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S623/91, A61B2017/048, A61B17/1227, A61B2017/0404, A61B2017/0496, A61B2017/00243, A61B2017/0461, A61F2/2487, A61B2017/0435, A61F2/2481, A61B17/00234, A61B2017/0417, A61B2017/0429|
|European Classification||A61F2/24W4, A61B17/00E|
|Sep 5, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: VENTURE LENDING & LEASING IV, INC.,CALIFORNIA
Free format text: SECURITY AGREEMMENT;ASSIGNOR:MYOCOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:019805/0072
Effective date: 20070820
|Feb 16, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: EDWARDS LIFESCIENCES LLC,CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MYOCOR, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022277/0011
Effective date: 20081029