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Publication numberUS20020098790 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/051,236
Publication dateJul 25, 2002
Filing dateJan 18, 2002
Priority dateJan 19, 2001
Publication number051236, 10051236, US 2002/0098790 A1, US 2002/098790 A1, US 20020098790 A1, US 20020098790A1, US 2002098790 A1, US 2002098790A1, US-A1-20020098790, US-A1-2002098790, US2002/0098790A1, US2002/098790A1, US20020098790 A1, US20020098790A1, US2002098790 A1, US2002098790A1
InventorsPeter Burke
Original AssigneeBurke Peter A.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Open structure polishing pad and methods for limiting pore depth
US 20020098790 A1
Abstract
An improved polishing pad, starting from a traditional sintered pad core or similar, is designed with a feature that controls the pore depth of the polishing pad. The pad interstitials are impregnated with a chosen material. This material is then liberated from the surface of the pad, by a variety of methods, leaving the remaining void space to form the desired surface texture for polishing. The invention allows for the bulk properties of the pad to remain more solid-like with a higher modules for improved planarization. At the same time a surface porosity depth is limited to both create an ideal surface texture and to allow for the polishing pad surface to remain clean and free of polishing by products and debris that tend to build-up with in the depths of a traditional sintered pad. This invention yields a polishing pad that is better suited for applications such as semiconductor wafer polishing, and the like.
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Claims(20)
1. A polishing pad comprising a mixture of at least two material types where,
a) a first material participates of a contiguous collection of polymeric like particles to form the body of polymeric like structure, and
b) a second material acts to fill some portion of the void spaces between the polymeric like particles.
2. A polishing pad comprising a mixture of at least two material types where,
a. a first material participates of a contiguous collection of polymeric like particles to form the body of polymeric like structure, and
b. a second material acts to fill some portion of the void spaces created, and
c. some portion of the second material type is liberated from the surface of the said polishing pad resulting in the creation of surface texture.
3. A polishing pad in accordance with claims 1 or 2 wherein said methods of material liberation include: contacting the said polishing pads with a fluid, which acts to dissolve the said portion of the said second material, either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any number of other means of surface material liberation.
4. A polishing pad in accordance to claim 3 where the said fluid is water in either an acidic, neutral or basic pH range and said second material is comprised of a host of soluble materials which includes but is not limited to,
a. polymeric materials including Polyacrylic acid, Polyethylene oxide,
b. inorganic materials including CaO, CaCO3, Ca(NO3)3, KCO3, Zr(SO4)2,
c. salts or crystals including sugars and dried acids and,
d. physical and molecular level combinations of the above either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any number of other means of surface material liberation.
5. A polishing pad in accordance with claim 1 or 2 wherein said methods of material liberation include, contracting the said polishing pad with a substance which chemically reacts with the said second material and forms reaction byproducts which become liberated from the surface of the said polishing pad, either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any number of other means of surface material liberation.
6. A polishing pad in accordance with claim 1 or 2 wherein said methods of material liberation include, exposing the said polishing pad with a environment which lends the second material to undergo a phase transformation which results in a volatile or otherwise mobile condition which facilitates the liberation of the said second material, either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any number of other means of surface material liberation.
7. A polishing pad in accordance with claims 1 or 2 wherein said methods of material liberation include: exposing the said polishing pad with a environment which lends the second material to substantially higher rate of physical wear when compared to the said polymer like particle material 11, either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any number of other means of surface material liberation.
8. A polishing pad in accordance with claim 1 wherein said methods of material liberation include: exposing the said polishing pad with a environment which lends he said second material to undergo a phase transformation which results in a volatile or otherwise mobile condition which facilitates the liberation of the said second material, either as the sole method of material operation or combined with any other number of means of surface material liberation.
9. A polishing pad in accordance with claims 1 or 2 wherein said methods of material liberation includes but is not limited to exposing the said polishing pad to an environment which induces the said second material to physically wear at a substantially higher rate when compared to the remainder of the polishing pad, creating surface topography, either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any other number of means of surface material liberation.
10. A polishing pad in accordance with claims 1 or 2 wherein said methods of material liberation includes but is not limited to exposing the said polishing pad to temperatures, pressures, shear rates, abrasion or surfaced agitation where the said second phase undergoes a deformation, decomposition, reaction, or increased mobility of said second material when compared to he remainder of the polishing pad material, creating surface topography, either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any other number of means of surface material liberation.
11. A polishing pad in accordance with claims 1 or 2 wherein said methods of material liberation includes but is not limited to exposing the said polishing pad to an applied surface energy flux including but not limited to light, acoustic or sonic energy, vibrations or thermal energy resulting in either surface degradation, decomposition, reaction, dissolution, increase mobility, combination or other means of surface liberation of said second material when compared to the remainder of the polishing pad, creating surface topography, either as the sole method of material liberation or combined with any other number of means of surface material liberation.
12. A polishing pad in accordance to claims 1 or 2 where the recess 13 of the said second material is greater than 1 microns and less than 10,000 microns.
13. A polishing pad in accordance to claims 1 or 2 where the recess 13 of the said second material is greater than 50 microns and less than 500 microns.
14. A polishing pad in accordance to claims 1 or 2 where the said pore depth or said surface texture of the said polishing pad is controlled by the depth that the said second material has been liberated from the said polishing pad surface.
15. A polishing pad in accordance to claim 1 or 2 where the said polymeric like particle material 11 has a hydrophilic surface, at least after pad conditioning or creation of surface texture and is composed of a density of greater than 0.5 g/cm3, a critical surface tension of greater than 33.5 milliNewtons/m, a tensile modulus of 0.02 to 5 gigapascals, a ratio of tensile modulus at 30 C. to tensile modulus at 60 C. of 1.0 to 2.5, a shore-D hardness of 25 to 90, a yield stress of 300-600 psi, a tensile strength of 1000 to 15000 psi, an elongation to break less than or equal to 500%.
16. A polishing pad in accordance with claims 1 or 2 where the liberated material either provides: gas bubbles for wafer release and cleaning, lubricants for reduced friction, active polishing ingredients, self cleaning or pores, secondary reactions to eliminate undesired polishing by-products, or buffering properties.
17. A polishing pad where multiple layers of the polishing pad materials are positioned one or the other and assembled together with a connecting material used to fill spaces between these pad layers.
18. A polishing pad in accordance with claims 1 or 2 and claim 17 where the polishing pad materials are the said first material and the said connecting materials are the said second material.
19. A polishing pad in accordance with claim 17 or 18 where the said multiple layers can be exposed with the use of an extensive liberation process, by any of a number of means, to allow for the expose of an underlying layer below the surface layer, with the benefit of removing this top layer to expose the lower layer in a manner where fresh pad surfaces can be exposed for polishing use in a repeating fashion, dictated by the number of remaining pad layers and the polishing application.
20. A polishing pad in accordance with claim 19 where the said pad contact polishing surface can be removed to expose a lower level as a fresh polishing surface without removing the pad from the polisher to facilitate application needs typically addresses by changing the polishing pad, including but not limited to raised defects levels due to paid degradation and contamination, process changes between incompatible processes, and undesired thickness profiles induced into the top surface pad wear.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is entitled to the benefit of Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/262947, dated Jan. 19, 2001.

BACKGROUND—FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This patent relates to the art of polishing pads, including but not limited to the polishing of silicon wafers, semiconductor wafers, patterned packaging and circuit boards, compound semiconductors, gem stones and the like.

BACKGROUND: PRIOR ART

[0003] Prior art teaches that polishing pads need surface texture (or topography) to effectively polish semiconductor wafers and the like. Several methods have been used to create such texture as cited in U.S. Pat. No. 5,489,233 including:

[0004] 1. Urethane Impregnated polyester felts (examples in U.S. Pat. No. 4,927,432) possess a micro texture derived from the ends of projecting fibers within the bulk composite, together with associated voids.

[0005] 2. Micro-porous urethane pads of the type sold as Politex by Rodel, Inc. of Newark Del. have a surface texture derived from the ends of columnar void structures within the bulk of a urethane film which is grown on a urethane felt base.

[0006] 3. Filled and/or blown composite urethanes such as IC-series, Mh-series and LP-series polishing pads manufactured by Rodel, Inc. of Newark Del. have a surface structure made up of semicircular depressions derived from the cross-section of exposed hallow spherical elements or incorporated gas bubbles.

[0007] 4. Abrasive-filled polymeric pads such as those of U.S. Pat. No. 5,209,760 possess a characteristic surface texture consisting of projections and recesses where filler grains are present or absent.

[0008] In addition to these referenced methods, other methods of providing surface texture have been cited and patented.

[0009] 5. Sintering polymeric particles (U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,265), where the micro-texture is derived from the pre-sintered particles, gaps between particles and fused polymeric-particle-sections.

[0010] 6. Mechanically creating micro-texture via such methods as diamond pad conditioning (U.S. Pat. No. 5,489,233).

[0011] Upon review, in all of these cases, successful pads for polishing semiconductor wafer and the like utilize at least 2 of 3 key levels of pad texturing:

[0012] I. Macro texturing, such as pad grooving, which is on the scale of millimeters. This texture is usually formed by mechanical means, such as using a metallic cutting tools or some form of patterned molding.

[0013] II. Intermediate scale—on the size scale of 5 to 250 microns (micro-meters=μm), usually in the form of a closed or an open pore structure.

[0014] III. Micro-texture—on the scale of less than 5 microns, usually 2-3 microns. Micro-texture often is created with diamond conditioning methods.

[0015] The six above mentioned pad types create the necessary texturing for polishing all by different and distinct methods. Of these six pad types, only methods 3, 4, 5 and 6 have been used effectively for the planarization of semiconductor wafers and the like. Method 4 is unconventional in that abrasive in the pad is used to polish the work-piece, and will not be considered as a “standard” polishing pad for this background discussion.

[0016] Of the remaining methods, 3, 4, 5 and 6, method 3 is used predominantly in the market place, in the form of the IC-1000 product line from Rodel Incorporated of Delaware. Shortcomings in the pads produced by methods 5 and 6 have thus far limited their utility in the market place.

[0017] Pads made by method 5 show some improvements for certain applications over the IC-1000 pad made by method 3. As referenced in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,017,265, 6,062,968 and, 6,126,532, more stable rates can be achieved under certain polishing conditions. Pads made by method 5 can be very effective for applications where a polishing-fluid rich environment is desirable, as often found in more “chemical polishes” such as copper and tungsten polishing with some peroxide based commercially available slurries. In referring to the overall pad structures shown in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,017,265, 6,062,968 and 6,126,532 (also shown schematically in FIG. 5), continuous void spaces can be formed by the design of this pad. This network of attached void spaces (item 14 in FIG. 4) can act to float the polishing work-piece on a reservoir of polishing fluid. In some polishing applications, a generous fluid reservoir is desirable, as compared to the IC-1000 pad. In practice however, the benefits of this reservoir are soon out weighed by disadvantages. This continuous network of pores becomes filled with more than the desired polishing fluid: polishing by-products, spent polishing fluid, rinse water, and pad conditioning by-products, as examples. In some instances, the cycling of particle containing slurries and work-piece rinsing fluids, can lead to agglomerated slurry particles stuck in the deep network of pad pores. The formation of a very thin polishing pad is impractical because the pad will not be thick enough to provide the needed rigidity for polishing planarization and thick enough to have a suitable life-time when coupled with standard diamond pad condition methods and the typical pad wear encountered in most polishing applications.

[0018] This invention teaches new methods of forming and using polishing pads made by a method similar to those of method 5 above, but that form a controllable pore network depth into the polishing pad. In doing so, the polishing pads take full advantages of the performance potential seen in method 5 pads, with out the undesirable characteristics encountered with this deep and continuous pore network, as discussed above. In addition to these advantages, this invention teaches that the new pad design formed with achieve superior planarization and in some cases a longer polishing pad lifetime for applications such as semiconductor wafer polishing and the like.

SUMMARY

[0019] A polishing pad is formed consisting of a mixture of at least two distinct material phases. The first phase is the network of polymer particles, that may or may not be coalesced or sintered into a polishing pad matrix. The second phase consist of materials that occupy the void spaces or gaps with in the first phase. This said second phase is liberated from the pad when in contact with the pad surface, by a variety of methods. The void spaces, once occupied by the second phase of material, forms the said connected network of pores that forms the needed surface texture for polishing. This invention offers a unique way of forming a solid polishing pad and simultaneously forming a controllable and reproducible surface-pore-depth.

DRAWINGS

[0020]FIG. 1 is a schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to the present invention, after manufacture.

[0021]FIG. 2 is a higher magnification schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to the present invention, as shown in FIG. 1.

[0022]FIG. 3 is a schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to the present invention, after a surface pore or surface texture has been formed from the structure shown initially in FIG. 1.

[0023]FIG. 4 is a higher magnification schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to the present invention, as shown in FIG. 3.

[0024]FIG. 5 is a schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to he current art.

[0025]FIG. 6 is a schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to an embodiment of the present invention, as manufactured.

[0026]FIG. 7 is a high magnification schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to the invention embodiment shown in FIG. 6, after the surface pore or surface texture has been formed from the structure shown initially in FIG. 6.

[0027]FIG. 8 is a still higher magnification schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of the near surface region of the article (polishing pad), in accordance to the invention embodiment shown in FIG. 7.

[0028]FIG. 9 is a high magnification schematic microscopic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to an additional embodiment of the present invention, after the creation of surface pores or surface texture.

[0029]FIG. 10 is a schematic cross sectional and surface view of an article (polishing pad), during a diamond pad-conditioning treatment.

[0030]FIG. 11 is two schematic microscopic top surface views of the two polishing pad material phases (as shown in FIG. 7), in accord with this invention, after current-art diamond pad conditioning on (a) solid material phase 1 and (b) on the fill material (for some embodiments of the present invention), showing the conceptual design of the surface micro-texture.

[0031]FIG. 12 is a schematic cross sectional surface view of an article (polishing pad), in accordance to the present invention, with the addition of macro-texturing groove cuts (the view does not include the detail shown in earlier figures).

[0032]FIG. 13 is a schematic top surface view of an article (entire polishing pad), in accordance to the present invention, showing the conceptual design of concentric circular grooving which is used to create surface macro-texturing of a polishing pad.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

[0033] Referring to the drawings, wherein like numerals indicate like elements throughout, there is shown in FIGS. 1-4, 6-13 embodiments of an article of manufacture, generally designated 100, 200, 400, 500, 600, and 800 in accordance with the present invention.

[0034] Preferably, the articles 100, 200, 400, 500, 600, and 800 are generally circular sheets or polishing pads, as best shown in FIG. 13 (600). One of ordinary skill in the art would understand that the pad 600, may for example be square, rectangular, in long sheets or belts or any desired suitable shape.

[0035] The article 200 et seq. of the present invention may be used as a polishing pad either by itself or as a substrate in a polishing operation in which a polishing fluid is used to provide a desired surface finish for semiconductor devices, silicon devices, crystals, gases, ceramic, polymeric plastic material, metal stone or the like. Polishing pads 600 made with the article 200 et seq. of the present invention may be used with lubricants, coolants, and various abrasive and non-abrasive polishing slurries, all well known to those skilled in the art and readily available commercially.

[0036] In reference to FIG. 1 and FIG. 2, the said invention-polishing pad, article 100, is formed with a mixture of at least two distinct material phases. The first phase is a collection of polymer particles 11, that may or may not be coalesced or sintered into a polishing pad matrix. Henceforth, this phase may be referred to as the PPP, for polymer particle phase. When these said particles are coalesced or sintered together, this said collection forms a single networked structure. Henceforth, network will be referred to as the PPM phase, for polymer particle matrix phase. In FIG. 1, the said polymers particle (PPP) 11 are sintered to form such a network 11 (PPM). The second phase 12 consist of materials that occupy the void spaces or gaps with the first phase. This occupancy of space need not be 100%. In FIG. 1, the more darkly shaded areas that fill the gaps between the coalesced particles 11 represent this second phase continuous phase 12. Hence forth, this fill material will be referred to as the pore-depth-limiting phase or PDL. In FIG. 1 and all figures in their application, the upper portion of each drawing is intended to represent the topside or surface of the article (polishing pad). The remaining 3 sides of the as drawn articles are assumed to run continuously and repeated in to the bulk of the said invented article, taking the macroscopic shape of the polishing pad as described above. As an exception, FIG. 13 represents a full polishing pad 600.

[0037] In reference to FIG. 3 and FIG. 4, the said second phase 12 has become recessed below the initial polishing pad surface, as an operating feature of this invention. In accord with this invention, the said second phase 12 (PDL) is liberated from the pad when in contact with the pad surface, by a variety of methods. These methods will be discussed later in the invention description. The area once occupied by PDL material 12 has become the newly created surface port layer 13. As the PDL material 12 are liberated, the newly created surface void spaces 14 forms an interconnected network of pores that forms the needed surface texture for polishing. The rate at which the PDL phase 12 is liberated from the surface is controlled by method of liberation, the materials chosen, the method of manufacture of the polishing pad and the operation of the polishing pad. In the preferred embodiment illustrated by FIG. 2, the said second phase material 12 is liberated by the surface by slowly chemically dissolving into the pad conditioning, rinsing or polishing fluids. The desired dissolution rate is first characterized by the material choice for the said PDL phase 12. In the preferred embodiment, the PDL phase 12 is a water-soluble polymer, such as from the Polyoxy series from Union Carbide of Danbury Conn. In this case the rate of dissolution is controlled by the molecular weight of the Polyoxy chosen, as described in the company literature. The material is chosen, in the preferred case, so that the dissolution rate is approximately equal to the net wear of the pad by both polishing and pad conditioning operation. An initial pad rinsing pre-treatment can be used to set the pore depth 13 by this design (See FIGS. 3 and 4).

[0038]FIG. 5 shows the current art, which uses a single-phase 81 polishing pad and calls for the surface and interstitial voids spaces 14 to remain empty. These void spaces 14 become traps for unwanted polishing pad conditioning and reaction by-products. In FIGS. 1-4, the second phase material acts to block this migration of by-products into the pad interior, by limiting the depth that the void spaces 14 penetrate into the bulk of the polishing pad 200. As a result, these by-products remain on the surface and are easily rinsed away if so desired. In addition, the liberation of the PDL phase 12, acts to undercut and release the by-products that deposit on the surface of PDL phase 12.

[0039] In reference to FIG. 6 and FIG. 7, as another embodiment of this invention, a different family of second phase materials (PDL-2) is used. Henceforth, these materials will be referred to as PDL-2 for pore-depth-limiting, version-2. This PDL-2 is not entirely liberated from the pad surface. As shown in FIG. 6 and FIG. 7, the second phase is partially liberated from the surface, leaving a series of interconnected or distinct pores with in the interstitials of the particle phase 11. In this embodiment, the remaining material 23, may either wear at the same rate as the particle phase 11, leaving a nearly co-planar surface or the said remaining material 23 may also be liberated from the surface of the pad by any variety of methods, including a still slower rate of dissolution relative to pore creating material in 22 (creating the pores 26 shown in FIG. 8) or from a faster rate of mechanical wear than that of the polymer particle phase 11.

[0040]FIG. 8 provides and exploded view of the said PDL-2 phase shown in FIG. 7. Shown are the void spaces 26 which are created when material was liberated from the polishing pad surface (from material 22) as well as the remaining second phase material 23. The said pore 26 sizes, volume and shape are controlled by the method of manufacture, materials chosen, and operation of this invention embodiment, as will be discussed later in the description of this invention.

[0041] As yet another separate embodiment of this invention, as illustrated in FIG. 9, the particle phase 11 of the polishing pad need not be sintered or coalesced into a single network of material to be effective. In this embodiment, the cohesive force of the polishing pad may also be provided by the second phase material, indicated here as phase 35. Henceforth, this third family of second phase materials will be referred to as the PDL-3 for pore-depth-limiting phase, version 3. As in the previous embodiments, this PDL-3 35 can be liberated from the said polishing pad material by a variety of methods, either in whole or in part. The preferred method for this embodiment is for the PDL-3 material 35 to partially liberate from the surface by dissolution. The remaining material 36 is then worn from the surface at the same rate to a slightly higher rate than the particle phase 11. In this version of this embodiment, the particle phase 11 is held with sufficient cohesive force to allow for the PPP particles to wear from the surface of the pad rather than becoming torn or chipped out the pad surface. The cohesive force with in the PDL-3 and between the PDL-3 and the PPP can be altered, by one skilled in the art, to control the release of said PPP particles 11 from the surface during either the polishing, pad conditioning or similar operation, if so desired.

[0042] For all embodiments of this invention, the creation of surface micro-texture is desirable. One method of creating this said micro-texture is by diamond pad conditioning. In some embodiments the particle phase has no intrinsic surface texture. Diamond pad conditioning can be used to create surface topography as illustrated in FIG. 10. FIG. 11 shows the surface structures formed by the current diamond pad conditioning art (FIG. 11a) on the particle phase 11. FIG. 11b shows the said intrinsic surface texture of this invention in the PDL-2 23 and some embodiments of PDL-3 36. Diamond particle scratches 45 and wakes 47, criss-cross the polymer particle surface 11, in a random fashion. As these scratches 45 pass over one and another, micro texture topography is created. In some cases the intrinsic surface porosity of PDL-2 (and sometimes PDL-3) yields a closed cell pore. This closed cell surface structure acts to hold the polishing fluid without escape, during the polishing operation, forming and maintaining a good fluid-pad-work-piece contact. Recessed surface micro texture structures or surface voids 23, as described in this said invention, act to hold the polishing fluid at the surface of the pad.

[0043] The shape and texture of the said micro-pore-structure 26 will vary with the method of manufacture from spherical to channels of pores.

[0044] Macro texturing is often desirable for a polishing pad to increase the flow of material across he pad and to the surface of the work-piece. FIG. 12 shows and example of macro grooving showing grooved 32 and un-grooved areas 31. These grooves can be linear or circular or any shape. FIG. 13 gives a conceptual example of a circular polishing pad with circular grooves 31. In reality, there would be many more grooves than that shown in FIG. 13.

[0045] Methods for material-liberation for the said PDL, PDL-2 and PDL-3 phases include but are not limited to:

[0046] a) Chemical dissolution into the usually aqueous media of the polishing solution, pad or work-piece cleaning or rinsing solution or pad conditioning solution. This action may be enhanced or controlled by the addition or subtraction of acids, bases, or dilute solvents into or from the said above solutions.

[0047] b) Pretreated chemical dissolution processes into a solvent type bath, including but not limited to a pretreatment operations during the manufacturer of the polishing pad at a set amount of pore depth creation.

[0048] c) Chemical reactions with a contacting liquid or gas, which results in by-products which are liberated from the pad. This method may be enhanced by placing reactive species in either the polishing, pad conditioning, work-piece rinsing or pad rinsing fluids.

[0049] d) Phase changes due to exposure to atmospheric pressure, increased temperatures, induced shear, or induced strain due polishing, pad conditioning processes, or similar shear and strain inducing processes.

[0050] e) Significantly higher physical wear rates between PDL 12, PDL-2 22 and PDL-3 35 and PPP material 11, during polishing or pad conditioning type processes.

[0051] f) Surface degradation, decomposition, reaction, dissolution, increase mobility or other means of surface liberation due to an applied surface energy flux, including but not limited to light, acoustic or sonic energy, vibrations or thermal energy.

[0052] g) Deformation and increased mobility due to increases in the surrounding temperature or by means of induced pressures and shear rates.

[0053] h) Swelling or partial dissolution of material in concert with means of surface abrasion or agitation.

[0054] i) Combinations of the above.

[0055] Examples of methods and materials include but are not limited to:

[0056] Method (a) chemical dissolution:

[0057] Using materials and methods for material liberation for all or portions of the said PDL 12, PDL-2 22 or PDL-3 35 phases, which include, but are not limited to, the following systems of materials and fluids:

[0058] i. At least a partial quantity of water soluble polymers such as Polyacrylic acids, hydroxypropylcellulose, or Polyethylene oxide (as sold by Union Carbide of Danbury Conn. as Polyoxy products WSRN-750 and others), and blends of these types of polymers such that the overall mixture of materials is soluble in a desired polishing, rinsing, conditioning or other fluid. For example WSRN-750 PDL 12 dissolves in water, when used with a water rinsing fluid.

[0059] ii. Water-soluble solid salts or crystals such as sugars, soluble solid acid, potassium nitrite or for example solid oxalic or citric acid in water.

[0060] iii. Inorganic particles such as CaCO3 in dilute acid, Ca (NO3)2 in water, CaO in acid, ammonium nitrate in water, K2CO3 in water, Ar(SO4)2 in water or potassium acetate in alkaline conditions, as examples.

[0061] iv. Inorganic-organic complexes such as partially coagulated or reacted silica, ceria or other inorganic particles or molecular level species of inorganic materials (ceria, silica) with polyethylene oxide polymers, as an example.

[0062] In this method, the PDL 12 examples listed above are fashioned into a polishing pad, as part of this invention. The said polishing pad is then contacted with the said example fluids discussed in method (a). Some portion of the PDL 12 is hence dissolved into the said fluids leaving the said desired surface voids 14 forming the desired surface micro-texture.

[0063] Methods (b) chemical reaction: Some portion of PDL 12, PDL-2 22, or PDL-3 36 are made from the following system of materials and fluids, but not limited to:

[0064] i. Lithium metal particle reacting with water.

[0065] ii. Sulfur particles with hydrogen peroxide solutions.

[0066] This method works in a similar manner as discussed in method (a), with the added distinction that rather than some portion of the PDL 12 dissolving, the said PDL chemically reacts with the contacting fluid, hence liberating a reaction by-product from the surface of the said polishing pad forming said desired void 14, for example.

[0067] Methods (c) of phase changes: Using materials and methods for material liberation for all or portions of the said PDL 12, PDL-2 22 or PDL-3 35 phases, which include, but are not limited to, the following systems of materials and fluids:

[0068] i. Low melting temperatures materials, materials sensitive to phase changes caused by pressure changes, increased temperatures, induced shear or strain. For example, elastomeric polymers will act as solids under compression or impact, yet will flow as a liquid, when introduced to some flow conditions.

[0069] Methods (d) of wear rates: Using materials and methods for materials liberation for all or portions of the said PDL 12, PDL-2 22 or PDL-3 35 phases, which have a significantly higher physical wear rate than the PPP material 11, including but not limited to:

[0070] i. Matrix polymers such as Texin 250 Thermoplastic urethane (11) as sold by Bayer Incorporated of Pittsburgh Pa., combined with PDL 22 materials with higher physical wear rates such as polypropylene, for example. The wear is induced by the act of polishing or pad conditions (where friction and mechanical wear are introduced to the pad surface).

[0071] Examples of the polymeric-particle phase (PPP) material 11 include but are not limited to urethane polymer, an acrylated urethane, and acrylated epoxy and ethylenically unsaturated organic compound having a carboxyl, benzyl or amide functionality, an aminoplast derivative having a pendant unsaturated carbonyl group, and isocyanrate derivative having at least one pendant acrylate group, a vinyl ether, a polyacrylamide, an ethylene ester copolymer or an acid derivative thereof, a polyvinyl alcohol, a polymethyl methacrylate, an ABS, a polysulfone, a polyamide, a polycarbonate, a polyvinyl chloride, an epoxy, a copolymer of the above or a combination thereof.

[0072] The PPP material 11 should have the following bulk or surface physical properties:

[0073] Hydrophilic intrinsically or at least after a diamond pad conditioning, or other method, has been used to form surface micro-texture on the scale of 1-5 microns.

[0074] A density of grater than 0.5 g/cm3

[0075] A critical surface tension of greater than 33.5 milliNewtons/m

[0076] A tensile modulus of 0.02 to 5 gigapascals

[0077] A ratio of tensile modulus at 30 C. to tensile modulus at 60 C. of 1.0 to 2.5

[0078] A shore D hardness of 25 to 90.

[0079] A yield stress of 300-6000 psi

[0080] A tensile strength of 1000 to 15000 psi

[0081] An elongation to break less than or equal to 500%

[0082] Methods of Manufacturer

[0083] Example of proposed manufacturing methods are shown below. By no means are the examples limiting the materials nor methods available for making the above described invention.

EXAMPLE 1

[0084] Preferred Embodiment 1, PDL

[0085] Texin 250 Thermal plastic urethane from Bayer Incorporated of Pittsburgh Pa. (PPP 11) is cold milled to an initial the size range less than 250 microns in average diameter. This material can then be made into a sintered polymer particle matrix (PPM) using method know in the art, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,265 example 1.

[0086] This urethane material has now formed a PPM. This matrix pad is now impregnated with Polyoxy® WSRN-750 from Union Carbide of Danbury Conn. Impregnation to fill the voids in the interstitials and other locations in the PPM can take place by several methods. In this example, the WSRN-750 is completed dissolved in water at elevated temperatures until such a concentration to form a past like material. This material is then pressed into the pores of the PPM using a Teflon squeegee. The paste is added until paste material begins to evolve from the backside of the polishing pad. The pad is then dried in an oven for 10 hours at 90 C. The pad is then cooled to room temperature for 2-10 hours. After cooling, paste is re-applied to the pad. Excess paste is removed with the squeegee. The pad is baked again for 10 hours at 90 C. and then cooled for 2 hours before being fashioned into a polishing pad.

[0087] The resulting pad is then cut into the desired shape. Macro-grooving 32 is done using metallic cutting tools such as lathes or cutting saws. The pad is then laminated with adhesive.

EXAMPLE 2

[0088] Second embodiment, PDL-2

[0089] Using a high melt temperature thermoplastic from the list compiled for the PPP material 11, a sintered pad matrix is formed, where the material chosen has a melting and softening temperature in excess of 220 C. The formed PPM, by methods discussing the in current art, is made flat by a variety of methods including molding and hot rolling.

[0090] Texin 250 Thermal plastic urethane from Bayer Incorporated of Pittsburgh Pa. (polymeric matrix phase 11), is mixed with 25% Polyoxy® WSRN-10 and 25% WSRN-750 by volume, both from Union Carbide of Danbury Conn. (PDL-2 22). The said PDL 22 is initially the size range less than 250 microns in diameter. These materials are combined in a commercially available heated mixer at a temperature of 190 C. The said Texin 250 and WSRN-10 are introduced into the mixer in a manner known by those skilled in the art to achieve a substantially melted and well-mixed material, to the scale of less than 10 microns.

[0091] The above-mentioned PPM material is then fed trough a flat extruder die of dimensions not more than 50 microns wider than the width of the PPM. The melt formed above is held in the extruder die at a pressure sufficient enough to force the melt material into the interstitial pore structure of the said PPM (in excess of 10 PSIG). As the PPM roll is pulled from the extruder, the said melt is forced into the pore structure of the PPM as described earlier in this invention.

[0092] The extruded pad can then be ed right onto a desired substrate such as Mylar (from Dupont), Suba-4 (from Rodel Inc.) or commercially available rubber or foam sheets. The extruded sheets can be macro-grooved 32 using metallic cutting tools, such as lathes with cutting die or saw cutting tools. The pad is then cut into the desired shape and laminated with adhesive.

EXAMPLE 3

[0093] PDL-3

[0094] Texin 250 Thermal plastic urethane from Bayer Incorporated of Pittsburgh Pa. (polymeric matrix phase 11), is mixed with 25% Polyoxy® WSRN-10 and 15% WSRN-750 by volume, both from Union Carbide of Danbury Conn. (PDL-3 35). The said PDL-3 35 is initially the size range less than 250 microns in diameter. These materials are combined in a commercially available heated mixer at a temperature of 190 C. The said Texin 250, WSRN-10, and WSRN-750 are introduced into the mixer in a manner known by those skilled in the art to achieve a substantially melted and well-mixed material, to the scale of less than 10 microns.

[0095] Using a high melt temperature thermoplastic from the list compiled for the PPP material, PPP-material of diameter of less than 250 microns are added to the above melt, slowly so as to fully dispense these particles. The PPP-material particles are added until a volume percentage of 40% is reached. This melt-suspension is then added to a commercial extruder at a temperature around 190 C. This melt-suspension is then extruded out through a flat grading (approximately 30 inches wide, 80 mils high and with a groove-making grating 25 mils deep, with 80 mil top areas 31 and 30 mil down areas 32.

[0096] The extruded film can fed right onto a desired substrate such as Mylar (from Dupont), Suba-4 (from Rodel Inc.) or commercially available rubber or foam sheets. The extruded sheets can be case with continuous grooves by use of a grooved die. The final pads can then be heat-pressed, mechanically cut and grooved into the desired macro-shape and size by suing metallic molds with the desired pad structure cut into the mold. In this example a concentric groove design is pressed into the pad by heating the mold to an effective temperature. The pad is then cut into the desired shape and laminated with adhesive.

[0097] Operation

[0098] Use of a polishing pad is a well-documented method for a variety of polisher types, and is easily conducted by one skilled in the art. Briefly, the operation of this polish pad is reviewed. The starting pad referenced in this section is that shown in FIG. 1 100 and made by example 1.

[0099] The finished pad is first attached to the working surface of a polisher by a desired method of adhesion, usually using a pressure-sensitive-adhesive (PSA) and applied pressure along the top surface of the pad 600 to fasten the pad via the PSA to the working surface of the polisher. After the pad is attached, the pad surface must be treated to enact the appropriate method of creating surface pores 14. Using the preferred embodiment of a the polishing pad (examples 1). a 5 minute conditioning run is employed while flowing a generous amount of room temperature water. The conditioning method uses a standard conditioning disk as the work-piece on the polishers conditioning arm at approximately 12 lbf on a 4-inch conditioner using a sweeping motion with the table rotating at a rate of usually over 10 RPM. This standard conditioning disk is readily commercially available. In standard diamond conditioners, the sharp tip of the diamond projects normal to the plane of the conditioning disk. During this initial break-in, the conditioning disk flattens the pad surface, cuts grooves in the PPP-materials 11 and removes a thin layer of the said pad. This condition operation brings the pad to a condition that can be maintained as steady state during the operation of polishing several substrates. The surface of the polishing pad 100 is now exposed to the flow of water and in doing so starts the dissolution of these materials. After sufficient time, the PDL 12 materials dissolve and are carried away by the wafer flow rate in conjunction with the pad conditioning, creating the desire pore structure 14. Length of this operation can be reduced by any method that enhances solubility of the PDL—the use of pressurized wafer delivery systems and high water temperatures as examples. This break-in procedure can be modified for deeper pore structure 14 by reducing the cut rate of the diamond pad conditioner, increasing the rinsing time and using a more easily soluble PDL material 12. At the end of the initial break-in, the desired surface pore depth 13 and pore 14 structures of the said invention 200 polishing pad have been created.

[0100] After this initial break-in, wafers, or the like, are loaded on the polisher where a polishing arm or other apparatus holds the wafer, or the like, in contact with the polishing pad in the presence of slurry or other polishing fluid. These slurries or fluids usually flow across the surface of the pad and are then moved between the wafer and the pad by virtue of the motion of the pad with respect to the wafer. The desired polishing of the wafer or work-piece usually takes place by virtue of the contact of the slurry or fluid with the wafer or work-piece in the presence of the polishing pad, in motion, at elevated contacting pressures.

[0101] Conclusions, Ramifications and Scope

[0102] The invention teaches a novel structure, means of constructing and operation for a polishing pad. This invention enhances the design and operation of polishing pads that offer an interconnected pore structure, such as that found on sintered-materials polishing pads. The advantages of this invention include:

[0103] 1. The polishing pad can incorporate a slowly dissolving PDL, PDL-2 or PDL-3 phases, which can act as a self cleaning method for the pad, thus lowering the critically of the pad conditioning process, for some applications.

[0104] 2. The top surface polishing ore depth can be substantially controlled by the pad manufacturing method, PDL materials and the pad operation process.

[0105] 3. The methods of pad manufacturing can be substantially simplified over case and skive methods. Less expensive and more manufacturable methods such as extruding or injection molding are difficult to use in pad manufacturing because they operate at extreme conditions and tend to yield smooth polymer surfaces (microscopically). This invention allows for these methods to be employed and still have a viable route for creating surface texture.

[0106] 4. The chemistry with in the PDL, PDL-2, or PDL-3 phases may aid in pad conditioning, wafer cleaning or work-piece polishing performance.

[0107] 5. The formed pad, as compared to the current art shown in FIG. 5, can be considerably stiffer, due to the added stiffness and rigidity of the fill material over that of air or the polishing fluids.

[0108] Although the description above contains many specificities, these should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention but merely providing illustrations of some of the presently preferred embodiments of this invention.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6764574 *Aug 22, 2001Jul 20, 2004PsiloquestPolishing pad composition and method of use
US6992123Nov 5, 2003Jan 31, 2006Jsr CorporationPolishing pad
US7267607Jun 22, 2005Sep 11, 2007Cabot Microelectronics CorporationTransparent microporous materials for CMP
US7311862Nov 2, 2005Dec 25, 2007Cabot Microelectronics CorporationMethod for manufacturing microporous CMP materials having controlled pore size
US7435165Oct 28, 2002Oct 14, 2008Cabot Microelectronics CorporationTransparent microporous materials for CMP
US8075372 *Sep 1, 2004Dec 13, 2011Cabot Microelectronics CorporationPolishing pad with microporous regions
US20110244768 *Jun 16, 2011Oct 6, 2011Rajeev BajajPolishing pad and method of use
US20120040532 *Oct 25, 2011Feb 16, 2012Macronix International Co., Ltd.Pad and method for chemical mechanical polishing
EP1418021A1 *Nov 4, 2003May 12, 2004JSR CorporationPolishing pad
EP2274136A1 *Aug 4, 2008Jan 19, 2011innoPad, Inc.Chemical mechanical planarization pad with void network
WO2004037490A1 *Oct 6, 2003May 6, 2004Cabot Microelectronics CorpTransparent microporous materials for cmp
Classifications
U.S. Classification451/528
International ClassificationB24B37/24, B24D3/20, B24D13/14
Cooperative ClassificationB24B37/24, B24D3/20
European ClassificationB24B37/24, B24D3/20