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Publication numberUS20020107114 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/039,915
Publication dateAug 8, 2002
Filing dateOct 29, 2001
Priority dateNov 1, 2000
Also published asWO2002036210A2, WO2002036210A3, WO2002036210A9
Publication number039915, 10039915, US 2002/0107114 A1, US 2002/107114 A1, US 20020107114 A1, US 20020107114A1, US 2002107114 A1, US 2002107114A1, US-A1-20020107114, US-A1-2002107114, US2002/0107114A1, US2002/107114A1, US20020107114 A1, US20020107114A1, US2002107114 A1, US2002107114A1
InventorsRichard Byrd
Original AssigneeByrd Richard H.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Rotational exercise system, device and method
US 20020107114 A1
Abstract
An exercise device is described. In an implementation, the exercise device includes a frame, a cranking assembly mounted to the frame and an extended user fixture. A user utilizes the extended user fixture to perform exercises.
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Claims(30)
What is claimed is:
1. An exercise device, comprising:
a frame;
a cranking assembly mounted to the frame having a first
cranking arm;
a flywheel mounted to the frame;
a continuous drive loop rotatably linking the cranking assembly and the flywheel; and
an extended user fixture having a first end rotatably attachable to a distal end of the first cranking arm.
2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein the extended user fixture has a second end that includes a handle.
3. The apparatus of claim 1, further comprising a plurality of supplemental weights attachable to the flywheel.
4. The apparatus of claim 3, the supplemental weights being attachable to respective radially-arrayed posts extending from the flywheel.
5. The apparatus of claim 1, wherein the cranking assembly further comprises a second cranking arm.
6. The apparatus of claim 5 further comprising a weight attached to a distal end of the second cranking arm.
7. An exercise device, comprising:
a frame;
a cranking assembly mounted to the frame having a first cranking arm with a first post position at a distal end of the first cranking arm; and
an extended user fixture rotatably attachable to the first post position of the first cranking arm.
8. The apparatus of claim 7, further comprising a resistance-offering element mounted to the frame that resists rotation of the cranking assembly.
9. The apparatus of claim 8, wherein a continuous drive loop engages the resistance-offering element and the cranking assembly.
10. The apparatus of claim 7, further comprising a flat guard plate mounted adjacent to the first post position of the first cranking arm.
11. The apparatus of claim 7, wherein the frame is adapted to selectably elevate the cranking assembly.
12. The apparatus of claim 7, wherein the extended user fixture is rigid.
13. The apparatus of claim 12, wherein the rotatable attachment between the rigid extended user fixture and the first cranking arm is a rotatable attachment between the extension and the first post position.
14. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the rigid extended user fixture includes a pivot joint adjacent the rotatable attachment.
15. The apparatus of claim 7, wherein the rotatable attachment between the extended user fixture and the first post position includes a first post fixed to the first cranking arm at the first post position, a first pedal rotatably attached to the first post, and a connection between the extended user fixture and the first pedal.
16. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the extended user fixture is laterally flexible, and the exercise device further comprises a roller attachment mounted to the frame distal the first pedal, supporting and guiding a portion of the laterally-flexible extended user fixture adjacent a distal handle end thereof.
17. The apparatus of claim 15, wherein the extended user fixture is rigid, and the connection between the rigid extended user fixture and the pedal includes a pivot joint.
18. The apparatus of claim 15, further comprising a flat guard plate mounted adjacent to the first post position.
19. The apparatus of claim 15, the attachment between the extended user fixture and the pedal including a pedal adapter having a first side attached to the extended user fixture and a second side attached to the pedal.
20. The apparatus of claim 7, further comprising horizontally-extending and substantially parallel extended support members mounted to the frame below the cranking assembly.
21. The apparatus of claim 20 further comprising a user seat, facing the cranking assembly and slidably mounted on the support members such that a symmetric plane of a user seated on the seat is aligned with a force transmission plane of the cranking assembly.
22. A recumbent exercise device, comprising:
a support structure;
a cranking assembly mounted to the support structure having
a cranking arm and a first mounting position on a distal end of the cranking arm adapted to accept an extended user fixture; and
a user seat mounted to the support having an adjustable backrest, the location and orientation of the seat being such that a symmetric plane of a user seated on the seat is substantially aligned with a force transmission plane of the cranking assembly.
23. The apparatus of claim 22, further comprising a rigid extended user fixture rotatably attachable to the cranking arm at the first mounting position thereon, having a handle end distal the cranking arm.
24. A method of exercising, comprising:
engaging a handle end of an extended user fixture; and
rotating a cranking assembly by applying force through the extended user fixture to a cranking arm of the cranking assembly.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein engaging the handle end includes at least one of grasping the handle end of the extended user fixture with both hands, grasping the handle end of the extended user fixture with the hand of a first arm, fastening the lower portions of both legs of an exercising user to the handle end of the extended user fixture, and fastening the lower portion of a first leg of an exercising user to the handle end of the extended user fixture.
26. The method of claim 24, further comprising aligning a symmetric plane of the exercising user with a force transmission plane of the cranking assembly prior to rotating the cranking assembly.
27. The method of claim 26, further comprising reorienting the symmetric plane of the exercising user, after the cranking assembly has begun rotating but before it stops rotating, so that the symmetric plane of the exercising user is aligned with a vertical plane containing the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly, then continuing to rotate the cranking assembly in the same direction by again applying force through the extended user fixture.
28. A method of exercising, comprising:
binding the foot of only one leg of an exercising user to a first pedal of a first cranking arm of a cranking assembly; and
rotating the cranking assembly with the bound foot.
29. The method of claim 28, further comprising aligning the leg of the bound foot with a force transmission plane of the cranking assembly prior to rotating the cranking assembly.
30. The method of claim 28, further comprising aligning the upper leg of the bound foot with a vertical plane containing the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly.
Description
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority from copending U.S. provisional application no. 60/245,303 filed on Nov. 1, 2000.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0002]
    This invention relates to the field of exercise systems. More particularly, this invention relates to exercise systems that utilize (a) cranking assemblies in general, and (b) cranking assemblies which rotate flywheels.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    Those who engage in traditional cycling are known to develop relatively leaner, and proportionately stronger muscles (i.e., they have a higher power to weight ratio) than do those who engage in certain other types of exercise, such as weightlifting with freeweights. They become more aerobically and anaerobically fit. However, cycling does more than trim waistlines and tone muscles. It has been proven to aid in the relief of simple ailments, such as cold and influenza, as well as to protect against major conditions such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes. It helps prevent heart attacks, strokes, and high blood pressure. It speeds the passage of food through the body, so potential carcinogens spend less time interacting with the body. It has been shown to increase life expectancy. And it can arguably make one smarter, by increasing blood flow to the brain.
  • [0004]
    Cycling speeds the healing process after injuries or sickness. Like any aerobic exercise, cycling increases body functions, which then speeds up the immune system. The several natural defenses that naturally circulate through the body are thus encouraged in their function. Cycling also increases the level of such immunity-boosting substances as interferon and interleukine 2.
  • [0005]
    Aerobically fit people flush injuries with more nourishment and nutrients than sedentary people simply because their heart's stroke volume is greater. The effect can be more dramatic if a person can ride during the healing process. For example, if an aerobically-trained cyclist breaks a collarbone or wrist and is put on a stationary trainer where she can maintain a high heart rate, she will direct a tremendous amount of what is essentially healing fluid right through the injury.
  • [0006]
    Cycling causes the heart to grow. Bike makers strengthen frames by enlarging the diameter of the tubes while thinning the walls. A cyclist's heart undergoes a similar process. The cavity in the left pumping chamber (the ventricle) increases in size as the wall thickness diminishes, thus becoming stronger and more efficient. Cycling also adds lean muscle mass and strengthens connective tissue. It has been said that doctors can tell whether they are operating on a cyclist or on another type of athlete just by looking at internal tissues. All of these conditions are conducive to healing or preventing injury or illness in the first place.
  • [0007]
    Scientists have known that aerobic exercise increases the amount of HDL, so-called “good” cholesterol. (LDL, or so-called “bad” cholesterol, contributes to heart disease.) Aerobic exercises such as cycling seems to dilute the amount of CETP, an enzyme, which is normally the bloodstream-destroying HDL molecules. Some physiologists say that similar changes in other key chemical relationships could account for the regenerative power of aerobic exercise.
  • [0008]
    The beneficial exercise associated with operating bicycles, generally an outdoor endeavor, can be obtained indoors by the use of stationary bicycle exercise machines, also known as stationary bikes. Typically, stationary bikes include the following basic components (in addition to a seat and a support for the upper body of the user, such as handlebars): a frame to securely hold components and keep them properly (and sometimes adjustably) separated; a cranking assembly mounted to the frame in a location where the user can manipulate same with her feet; an element, also mounted to the frame, designed to offer indirect resistance to rotation of the cranking assembly; and a continuous drive loop, which links the cranking assembly and the resistance-offering element, and normally takes the form of a belt or chain.
  • [0009]
    The cranking assembly and continuous drive loop of a stationary bike typically move in unison. The resistance-offering element indirectly acts to retard the rotation of the cranking assembly in the following way. First, the resistance-offering element engages with a first portion of the length of the loop, and pulls it. Second, the first portion pulls at a second portion of the loop, which is directly adjacent to the first portion and which at that instant spans the distance from the resistance-offering element to the cranking assembly. Third, the second portion of the loop pulls at a third portion of the loop which at that instant is engaged with the cranking assembly. Fourth, and finally, the third portion of the loop pulls at the cranking assembly in the direction opposite to the direction of spin of the cranking assembly, opposing the forces, generated by the user, which rotate the cranking assembly in that direction.
  • [0010]
    The cranking assembly, familiar to bicyclists, usually includes the following components: a central hub; a sprocket surmounting the hub such that the hub is aligned with the center of rotation of the sprocket and a portion of the length of the hub extends from either side of the sprocket, the sprocket having radially arrayed teeth or some other means to engage a continuous drive loop; angled cranking arms extending from the hub on either side of the sprocket in opposite radial directions; and posts fixed to the ends of the cranking arms and extending away from the cranking arms in opposite directions parallel to the rotational axis of the sprocket. Pedals, mounted to the posts so that they spin freely about the posts, can optionally be included as part of a cranking assembly.
  • [0011]
    The resistance-offering element of common stationary bikes can take many different forms. One resistance-offering element, for example, includes a simple bicycle wheel that is mounted to the basic frame of the machine, and an arrangement of one or more rollers positioned adjacent to the tread of the wheel. When the wheel spins, so must the rollers. The arrangement of cylindrical rollers can be free-spinning, but is generally designed to provide some built-in resistance to their own rotation. Another form of a resistance-offering element for a stationary bike is a frame-mounted wheel equipped with fan vanes, normally radially arrayed around a central hub. When the frame-mounted wheel spins, the fan vanes interact with the surrounding air, creating wind-type resistance that opposes wheel rotation. Typically the amount of resistance offered by the fan vanes is in proportion to the speed at which the frame-mounted wheel spins. Still another example of a resistance-offering element for a stationary bike involves the use of a flywheel system, in which a flywheel is typically mounted to a hub on the frame, and a braking element is optionally provided which is designed to apply a drag or braking force of an appropriate magnitude directly to the flywheel. The magnitude of the braking force is commonly user-adjustable.
  • [0012]
    A user of an exercise bike typically rotates the cranking assembly by sitting on the seat and driving the pedals with his feet. This causes the continuous drive loop to interact with the resistance-offering element. If the user provides sufficient minimum cranking force, the opposition of the resistance-offering element will be overcome, and positive rotation of the cranking assembly will result. And if the user provides a still higher degree of cranking force, the rate of rotation of the cranking assembly will increase.
  • [0013]
    Of the resistance-offering elements described above, the flywheel system is unique in that the flywheel has a high degree of rotational inertia, e.g., when compared with a bicycle wheel or a fan wheel. This means a higher degree of exertion is required of the user in order to cause the flywheel either to begin spinning from rest, or to cause the flywheel to increase its rate of spin once it has begun spinning. Also, once the flywheel has begun spinning, it will uniquely display a high degree of rotational momentum. This is observable especially when the user ceases exertion after the flywheel has begun spinning, and thus allows the rate of spin of the cranking assembly and flywheel to gradually decrease. When this happens, the residual rotational momentum of the flywheel will characteristically tend to cause the cranking assembly, and thus the attached limbs of the user, to continue to spin for an extended period of time until the rotational momentum of the flywheel has dissipated to zero. The other resistance-offering elements mentioned above do not develop significant rotational momentum, so the cranking assembly in such exercise machines typically comes to rest quite quickly after the user ceases exertion.
  • [0014]
    To a user exercising on a flywheel-equipped stationary bike, the experience is analogous to that of riding a fixed-gear racing bike (i.e., no “coasting” element). In the stationary bike equipped with a flywheel, the rotational momentum and inertia of the flywheel substitutes for the forward momentum and translational inertia characteristic of the racer/racing bike system, and an appropriate degree of mechanical resistance to continued rotation of the flywheel (typically adjustable by the user as to magnitude) substitutes for the proportional resistance imposed by the surrounding air and wind upon the racer/racing bike system. Both exercises require the user to engage in the same beneficial low-impact rhythmic rotational motion in order to maintain or increase the momentum of the overall mechanical system.
  • [0015]
    Cycling, whether on a normal bicycle or on a stationary bike, provides health benefits for the entire body. Nevertheless, the primary and direct focus of cycling workouts is on the lower body. Thus cyclists who seek an upper body workout usually supplement their cycling workouts with non-cycling upper-body workouts. It should be noted, however, that the above-mentioned basic components of the typical stationary bike have been incorporated within exercise devices that permit cycling-type upper-body workouts.
  • [0016]
    In some exercise devices of this sort, the cranking assemblies typically have handles instead of pedals, which handles spin on the posts of the cranking arms, for the user's hands to grasp. When the user exercises with such a device, her exertion is opposed by a flywheel, or some other resistance-offering element. She turns the cranking assembly by hand, typically with two hands in an overturning rotational motion, thereby exercising arm, shoulder, and other upper body muscles. Some such machines have cranking assemblies but no continuous drive loops (the resistance-offering element acts directly on a mechanical extension of the cranking assembly). And in other devices, a flywheel is inherent in the cranking assembly. These types of exercise equipment, however, generally restrict the user to exercises which require two-handed overturning rotational motion. Their use depends on the user's hands being located adjacent to the post positions of the cranking assembly, restricting the possibility of reaping the benefits of cycling-type exercise across a wide variety of exercises and exercise positions, upper body and otherwise.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0017]
    The exercise system described herein is low-cost, and is easy to use. It is dedicated to targeting the most common failure points within the cardiovascular/circulatory system, improving the efficiency of the biological/cardiovascular systems, and preventing the most common forms of heart disease.
  • [0018]
    Those who utilize the exercise system and methods of exercise described herein will be able to achieve balanced muscular development: The variable rotational concept affords multiple directional development that allows users to exercise muscle groups on a forward/reverse and lateral direction. It incorporates all four limbs, usually separately, which allows for equal distribution of fatigue and development to all these areas.
  • [0019]
    Variable rotational technology allows for the ability to imprint neurological patterns on biological architecture (sometimes called “mapping”) to increase comfort, elasticity, endurance, recovery, symmetry, and efficiency. It leverages and incorporates the key benefits of cycling, described above. The system has a preventative, not symptomatic orientation. It is non-invasive, low-cost, easy to use, and high repetition/low impact. It accommodates a broad age and fitness range from young to old and frail to fit. It supports and augments general fitness programs to rehabilitation needs. More benefits include: increased comfort, increased elasticity/flexibility, increased endurance, increased recovery, increased symmetry, and increased efficiency.
  • [0020]
    Variable rotational technology leverages the ubiquity of the stationary fitness bike found in millions of homes worldwide. The product can be made available in many models ranging from micro-portable home models, to heavy-duty gym models, to professional and medical/rehabilitative models. An embodiment of the system may be fabricated using standard bike equipment. There are virtually hundreds of exercises that can be done with the device and associated fixtures, some of which are depicted herein. All muscle groups are addressed.
  • [0021]
    The variable rotational concept emphasizes continuous alternation of points of fatigue that evens out the lactic acid production. Lactic acid is produced at a point when the body is switching from the fat-burning zone to the glycogen-burning zone. This is counterproductive to converting fat into muscle. The program incorporates balanced development and equal distribution of fatigue. By using the program, one trains ones body to increase its efficiency for releasing and burning free fatty acids over long distances, as enzymatic and hormonal changes in the muscle cells make it easier for fat to be utilized as fuel during long-duration exercise. This will prove valuable for long events. Also, one improves the body's circulatory characteristics in the peripheral muscles-those that do the work in races to help move waste products away from the muscle tissue and bring new blood, oxygen, and fuel to the muscle for more work. The mitochondria, the powerhouses of the muscle cells, will increase in number and efficiency.
  • [0022]
    In an embodiment of the invention, an exercise device includes a frame, a cranking assembly mounted to the frame having a cranking arm, a flywheel mounted to the frame, a continuous drive loop rotatably linking the flywheel and the cranking assembly, and an extended user fixture rotatably attachable to the end of the cranking arm. Another end of the extended user fixture may optionally include a handle. A plurality of supplemental weights can optionally be attached to the flywheel. As well, the cranking assembly can have a second cranking arm, and a weight can be attached to the end of the second cranking arm.
  • [0023]
    In another embodiment of the invention, an exercise device includes a frame, a cranking assembly mounted to the frame having a cranking arm with a post position at the end of the cranking arm, and an extended user fixture rotatably attachable to the post position of the cranking arm. The exercise device can also have a resistance-offering element mounted to the frame that resists rotation of the cranking assembly, and, the foregoing being so, a continuous drive loop can optionally engage the resistance offering element and the cranking assembly. A flat guard plate can optionally be mounted to the exercise device adjacent to the post position of the cranking arm. Furthermore, the frame can optionally be adapted to selectably elevate the cranking assembly. As well, the extended user fixture of the exercise device can optionally be rigid. The extended user fixture being rigid, an optional extension of the rigid extended user fixture can interact with the post position of the cranking assembly to form the rotatable attachment between the rigid extended user fixture and the cranking arm. And in addition to the interaction between the extension and the post position, the rigid extended user fixture can optionally include a pivot joint adjacent to the rotatable attachment.
  • [0024]
    The exercise device having a frame, a cranking assembly with a cranking arm having a post position, and an extended user fixture rotatably attachable to the post position can optionally include a pedal post attached to the post position, and a pedal rotatably attached to the post at one point, and attached to the extended user fixture at a second point. The extended user fixture of such a device (i.e., with a post and a pedal) can optionally be laterally flexible, and have a handle at its end, with the frame including a roller attachment such as a pulley to support and guide a portion of the laterally-flexible extended user fixture near the handle end. Furthermore, the extended user fixture of such a device can be rigid, with the connection between the rigid extended user fixture and the pedal including a pivot joint. Also, such a device can include a flat guard plate mounted to the cranking arm at the post position. As well, an adapter can be positioned between the extended user fixture and the pedal, forming a part of the attachment between the pedal and the extended user fixture.
  • [0025]
    The exercise device having a frame, a cranking assembly with a cranking arm having a post position, and an extended user fixture rotatably attachable to the post position can optionally include horizontally-extending and substantially parallel extended support members mounted to the frame below the cranking assembly. Such a device (with the support members) can optionally include a seat, facing the cranking assembly, and mounted on the support members such that it can slide, and such that if a user were to sit on the seat, her symmetric plane would be aligned with the force transmission plane of the cranking assembly.
  • [0026]
    In another embodiment of the invention, a recumbent exercise device includes a support structure, a cranking assembly mounted to the support structure having a cranking arm and a mounting position on the end of the cranking arm to which an extended user fixture can be attached, and a user seat which has an adjustable backrest and is located and oriented in such a way as to allow a seated user to align her symmetric plane with the force transmission plane of the cranking assembly. Such a recumbent exercise device can optionally include a rigid extended user fixture with a handle end, and another end attached to the mounting position of the cranking arm.
  • [0027]
    In another embodiment of the invention, a way of exercising is described in which a user engages a handle end of an extended user fixture and rotates a cranking assembly by applying force through the extended user fixture to a cranking arm of the cranking assembly. The handle-engaging part of such a way of exercising can optionally include one or more of the following methods of engaging the handle: grasping the handle end with both hands, grasping the handle end with one hand, fastening the lower portions of both legs of an exercising user to the handle end, and fastening the lower part of one leg of an exercising user to the handle end. Such a way of exercising (including one of the ways of engaging the handle) can include aligning the symmetric plane of the exercising user with the force transmission plane of the cranking assembly prior to rotating the cranking assembly. Also, such a way of exercising can include aligning the symmetric plane of the exercising user with a vertical plane including the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly.
  • [0028]
    And in a further embodiment of the invention, a way of exercising is described in which a user binds only one foot to a pedal of a cranking assembly, and rotates the cranking assembly with the one bound foot. Such an exercise can include aligning the leg of the bound foot with the force transmission plane of the cranking assembly. Also, such an exercise can include aligning the upper leg of the bound foot with a vertical plane containing the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly.
  • [0029]
    The details of one or more embodiments of the invention are set forth in the accompanying drawings and the description below. Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the description and drawings, and from the claims.
  • DESCRIPTION OF DRAWINGS
  • [0030]
    [0030]FIG. 1 shows an exercise machine in accordance with the present invention.
  • [0031]
    [0031]FIG. 2 shows some basic components of an exercise machine in accordance with the present invention, including a flywheel and a cranking assembly, as well as selectably attachable weights.
  • [0032]
    [0032]FIG. 3 illustrates a user fixture in accordance with the present invention that is attachable to a pedal position on a cranking assembly.
  • [0033]
    [0033]FIG. 4 illustrates a user fixture in accordance with the present invention.
  • [0034]
    [0034]FIG. 5 illustrates a user fixture in accordance with the present invention.
  • [0035]
    [0035]FIG. 6 illustrates a clip pedal in accordance with the present invention that is attachable to a pedal position on a crankshaft, and a user fixture in accordance with the present invention that is selectively attachable to the clip pedal.
  • [0036]
    [0036]FIG. 7 illustrates a clip pedal in accordance with the present invention that is attachable to a pedal position on a crankshaft, an adapter in accordance with the present invention that is selectably attachable to the clip pedal, and a user fixture in accordance with the present invention that is selectively attachable to the adapter.
  • [0037]
    [0037]FIG. 8 illustrates a side view of an implementation of an exercise machine according to the present invention having a telescoping frame.
  • [0038]
    [0038]FIG. 9 illustrates a side view of an implementation of an exercise machine according to the present invention having a recumbent orientation and a crankshaft that is configured to receive a plurality of user fixtures.
  • [0039]
    [0039]FIG. 10A illustrates a side view of an implementation of an exercise machine according to the present invention that includes a flywheel and selectably attachable weights that are attachable to posts on the flywheel.
  • [0040]
    [0040]FIG. 10B illustrates the flywheel of the exercise machine of FIG. 10A.
  • [0041]
    [0041]FIG. 10C illustrates a cross-sectional view of the flywheel of the exercise machine of FIG. 10A.
  • [0042]
    [0042]FIG. 11 shows an exercise machine according to the present invention with a user fixture attached to the cranking assembly and a device attached to the frame of the exercise machine for securing the user fixture in a convenient position and orientation.
  • [0043]
    [0043]FIG. 12 shows a shielding guard according to the present invention, placed on a post to protect the hand or foot of an individual from contacting the portion of the cranking assembly near the continuous drive loop.
  • [0044]
    [0044]FIGS. 13 through 39, and FIGS. 46 and 47 show an individual using a user fixture and an exercise device in accordance with the present invention to perform methods of exercise.
  • [0045]
    [0045]FIGS. 40 through 45 show an individual using an exercise device in accordance with the present invention to perform methods of exercise.
  • [0046]
    Like reference symbols in the various drawings indicate like elements.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0047]
    [0047]FIG. 1 shows an implementation of an exercise machine (150) according to the present invention. Pedals (152, 154) are attached to the cranking arms (160, 162), which form part of the cranking assembly (164), the sprocket portion of which (not shown) is within the machine enclosure. The posts (166, 168) of the pedals (152, 154) of the cranking assembly (164) necessarily travel in a circle.
  • [0048]
    In common cycling, forces transmitted from the bottom of the user's foot to the pedal will be observed to be distributed across a portion of the top surface of the pedal. When a user grasps a user fixture with her hand and transmits forces through the user fixture to the pedal of a cranking assembly of an exercise machine as disclosed herein, a distribution of forces across the interface between the user fixture and the pedal will also be seen. It is the nature of the cranking assemblies of bicycles and of the exercise machine disclosed herein that the forces distributed about the top surface of the pedal can be resolved, for purposes of analysis, to a single force vector, directed parallel to the sprocket of the cranking assembly. The force vector acts on a point located on the axis of the pedal post, a small distance from the connection between the pedal post and the cranking arm. It can be shown that a good approximation of the position of this point, in the case of normal cycling, is about half the distance that the post projects from the end of the crankshaft, since that point will be directly underneath the user's foot. In the event a user fixture is utilized in conjunction with a pedal, that point will often be aligned with a longitudinal extension of the user fixture. A similar force transmission point can be established in the event the pedal and the pedal post are not present, and a user fixture with an extension is attached to the pedal position of the cranking arm in their place.
  • [0049]
    The force transmission point on the axis of the pedal must traverse through a circle. This circle defines an important reference plane for that cranking arm, which reference plane will hereinafter be referred to as the force transmission plane.
  • [0050]
    Another reference plane, hereinafter referred to as the user's symmetric plane, is useful to consider when an exercise does not require the user to twist his trunk. The symmetric plane is herein defined as that plane which bisects the user's body into his left and his right sides, and about which plane he may be said to be approximately bilaterally symmetrical.
  • [0051]
    Referring again to FIG. 1, a resistance-offering element (not shown), such as a flywheel system, is also contained within the machine enclosure (170). The machine enclosure may also include a post mounting location (172) for adjustably accommodating an inserted seat post (174), flat portions (176, 178, 180) of the base (182) suitable for a user to stand or kneel upon, and two support mounting locations (184, 186). Each support mounting location may include two support mounting holes (188 and 189, 190 and 191), each support mounting hole being adapted to accommodate the insertion of a support (e.g., 192, 194) and hold it in place. Two supports (192, 194) are shown installed in mating support mounting holes (188, 189). The construction of the mating holes (188, 189) cause the two supports (192, 194) to be parallel, one to the other. They are also arranged such that they are equidistant from and straddling the force transmission plane of the cranking assembly (164). End portions (196, 198) of the supports are suitably configured for a user to grasp them, or to utilize them for support. A seat (200) is shown attached to each of two supports (192, 194), and may be permitted to slide along elongated straight portions (202, 204) of the two supports, which due to the construction of the mounting holes are held substantially parallel, one to the other. The user can sit in this seat (200) when he desires to perform certain exercises (see FIGS. 28 and 29) and his symmetric plane will be aligned with the force transmission plane. Furthermore, the seat (200) can be placed atop the post (174) (see, e.g., FIG. 13).
  • [0052]
    [0052]FIG. 2 illustrates a flywheel (2) coupled to a cranking assembly (4) of an exercise machine (not shown in its entirety) through a continuous drive loop (16), such as a chain or belt. The cranking assembly has two crankshafts (6, 8). First (10) and second (12) pedal positions of the respective crankshafts (6, 8) are shown, and a weight (18) can be attached to an unused pedal position (10) to provide a unique exercise experience for the user. Weights (20, 22, 24, 26) may also be attached to the flywheel to increase its inertia and rotational momentum.
  • [0053]
    [0053]FIG. 3 shows an example of a user fixture (30) that has a projection (38) that can connect with the pedal position of a crankshaft. The user fixture has a handle end (32) for the user to grip that provides two gripping extensions (34, 36) so the user may grip the handle end (32) with both hands. Those skilled in the art will recognize that, through the user fixture, a user can apply force to the pedal position of a crankshaft, and thereby turn the cranking assembly (4), activate the continuous drive loop (16), and urge the flywheel (2) to spin.
  • [0054]
    [0054]FIGS. 4 and 5 show examples of user fixtures (84, 86) that can be attached to the cranking assembly (4). One (84) of the user fixtures has a handle end (88) which is convenient for one-handed gripping. The other (86) user fixture had a handle end (90) which is convenient for two-hand gripping.
  • [0055]
    [0055]FIG. 6 shows a clip pedal (44) is shown, which can be attached to the pedal position of the crankshaft. An example of a user fixture (46) is shown which can be selectably attached to the clip pedal (44) by the user.
  • [0056]
    An adapter (52) is shown in FIG. 7 which can be used to adapt a clip pedal (54) so that a user can selectably attach a user fixture (56) to the clip pedal (54). Those skilled in the art will recognize that user fixtures with connecting ends of widely-differing geometries can be attached to the same clip pedal by the user of a compatible adapter.
  • [0057]
    [0057]FIG. 8 illustrates a stationary bike (64), equipped with a flywheel (66), and with a telescoping frame (68) that allows the front of the bike to be raised or lowered to simulate uphill or downhill riding. The telescoping frame also raises the height of the pedal positions (70).
  • [0058]
    A recumbent position machine (78) is shown in FIG. 9. The seat (80) of the recumbent machine (78) may recline for flat or inclined exercises. The cranking assembly (82) can rotate through 360 degrees.
  • [0059]
    [0059]FIGS. 10A, 10B and 10C illustrate that weights, such as ten pound weights (94, 96, 98, 100), can be selectably attached to pegs (104, 106, 108, 110) on the flywheel (102) to increase the amount of rotating mass. Ten pound weights are shown, but other weights could also be used to give the user the ability to consume more calories during exercising. In addition, it may be possible to distribute weights of different values on pegs (104, 106, 108, 110) to provide an asymmetric rotating mass.
  • [0060]
    [0060]FIG. 11 depicts an exercise device which includes a user fixture (122) having a handle (130) and a flexible cord or cable (124). A pulley support and guide attachment (126) is attached by a bracket (127) to the frame (125) of the device. The pulley support and guide attachment (126) permits exercises including the user fixture (122) to be done smoothly and safely by eliminating the tendency for the cable (124) and the handle (130) to become entangled, or to whip wildly if the user should drop the fixture during an exercise session.
  • [0061]
    [0061]FIG. 12 is an enlarged view of a cranking assembly (144). A guard plate (138), having a hole (140) through which a pedal post or user fixture post can be passed, is shown interposed between the pedal (or user fixture) and the cranking assembly (144). During exercise, the guard plate protects the users hands or feet from the portion of the cranking assembly (144) near the continuous drive loop (135).
  • [0062]
    According to the present invention, such exercises as are shown in FIGS. 13 through 47 are beneficially done in a cyclic fashion by which the user causes the cranking assembly to rotate rhythmically in one direction, as it would if rotated by a user seated on the seat and pedaling both pedals with his feet in an overturning fashion (the typical use of a stationary bike).
  • [0063]
    The level of intensity required to achieve the benefits inherent in a variable rotational technology program is relatively low. One works comfortably within 65%-75% of one's maximum heart rate which will 1) strengthen the heart, 2) develop the aerobic system, 3) preserve blood sugar, 4) maximize fat consumption and 5) develop endurance.
  • [0064]
    Referring to FIGS. 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17, an individual (250), standing erect with feet on the floor at approximately shoulder width, is shown performing exercises with the present device. Using both hands, he grasps a user fixture (252) (overhand grip in FIGS. 13, 14 and 16; underhand grip in FIGS. 15 and 17), which is attached to the pedal (152) of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. (It will be understood that the interface between the user fixture and the cranking assembly may, but need not, include a pedal as such.) Through the user fixture (252), the user in FIGS. 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation, and the user fixture (252), grasped at points equidistant from and astride the force transmission plane, preferably remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted.
  • [0065]
    For purposes of understanding certain of the exercises described below, another reference plane, herein termed the user's symmetric plane, is useful to consider when an exercise does not require the user to twist his trunk. The symmetric plane is defined as that plane which bisects the user's body into his left and his right sides, and about which plane he may be said to display bilateral symmetry.
  • [0066]
    Referring again to FIG. 13, the user (250), feet pointing away from the cranking assembly (164), the points of placement of his feet on the floor defining a line which is perpendicular to the force transmission plane defined above, is seen to exercise those muscles that turn his torso in a particular direction. In FIG. 14, the user (250), feet pointing toward the cranking assembly (164), symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his arms, evenly extended before him, to rotate forward and down evenly at the shoulder joint. In FIG. 15, the user (250), feet pointing away from the cranking assembly (164), symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his arms, initially extended downward and slightly behind him, to flex up and down, elbows extending out then in, hands moving up and in, then down and away. In FIG. 16, the user (250), feet pointing toward the cranking assembly (164), symmetric plane remaining perpendicular to the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, is seen to exercise those muscles which cause his arms, initially extended evenly before him, to rotate forward and down at the shoulder joint, in an uneven fashion, involving a wider range of muscles than those involved in the exercise of FIG. 12. In FIG. 17, the user (250), feet pointed away from the cranking assembly (164), the points of placement of his feet on the floor defining a line which is aligned with the force transmission plane, and his torso rotated 90 degrees, is seen to exercise, in cooperation, both those muscles which hold his torso in a static rotated position, as well as those muscles which permit him to pull his arms back from a position where they are extended forward at approximately chest level to a position where they are flexed, hands closer to his chest.
  • [0067]
    It should be understood that many of the exercises described herein may be performed by a user in a smooth, uninterrupted manner. For example, the user (250) may change foot positions to move between the exercises shown in FIGS. 13 to 17 without stopping, and the resistance element of the device may be in constant motion throughout.
  • [0068]
    Referring to FIGS. 18 and 19, an individual, standing erect with an exercise machine (150) at his side, torso straight and untwisted, feet approximately at shoulder width, the points of placement of his feet on the floor defining a line that is parallel to and roughly directly below the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164), symmetric plane parallel to and offset from the force transmission plane, is shown performing exercises utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. Using one hand, he grasps a user fixture (254) that is attached at its far end to the pedal (152) of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. The user fixture (254), grasped at a point that is aligned with the force transmission plane, remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted. Through the user fixture (254), the user (250) in FIGS. 18 and 19 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. In FIG. 18, the user (250), is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his left arm to rotate down at the shoulder joint, as well as those muscles which cause his left arm to rotate forward and backward at the shoulder joint, the latter due to the changing angle of the force vector. In FIG. 19, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his right arm to rotate downward at the shoulder joint, as well as those muscles which cause his right arm to rotate forward and backward at the shoulder joint, the latter due to the changing angle of the force vector. Muscles that tend to keep the user's torso from being flexed or turned at the waist are also exercised in the methods of exercise depicted in FIGS. 18 and 19.
  • [0069]
    Referring to FIGS. 20, 21, 22 and 23, an individual, bending forward at the waist with feet shoulder-width apart or wider, is shown performing exercises utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. In FIGS. 20 and 21, the user (250), the points of placement of his feet on the floor defining a line that is parallel to and offset from the force transmission plane, is situated so that the line of his shoulders is aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIGS. 22 and 23, the user's symmetric plane remains aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise. In FIGS. 20 and 21, the user (250) extends his left (FIG. 20) or his right (FIG. 21) arm away from his torso, and grasps with the hand of his extended arm a user fixture (254) at a point aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIGS. 22 and 23, the user (250) extends both arms away from his chest and grasps a user fixture with both hands at points equidistant from and astride the force transmission plane. Through the user fixture (252 or 254), the user (250) in FIGS. 20, 21, 22 and 23 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation, the user fixture (252 or 254) remaining substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during exercise. In FIG. 20 and 21, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause either his left arm (FIG. 20) or his right arm (FIG. 21), which during the applicable exercise is extended downward from the torso, to rotate inward at the shoulder joint toward the center of his body. In FIG. 22, the user (250), feet facing away from the cranking assembly (164), is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his right and left arms, extended downward from the torso, to rotate up and down in unison at the shoulder joint. In FIG. 23, the user (250), feet facing the cranking assembly (164), is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his right and left arms, extended downward from the torso, to rotate down in unison at the shoulder joint. Muscles that tend to maintain the user's bent-at-the-waist posture, with torso straight, are also exercised by the user (250) performing the exercises shown in FIGS. 20, 21, 22 and 23.
  • [0070]
    Referring to FIGS. 24, 25, 26 and 27, an individual is shown, legs folded, sitting on his feet with his knees pointing forward and his torso erect and untwisted, grasping a user fixture (252) with both hands and performing exercises utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. In FIG. 24, the user (250) faces toward the cranking assembly (164), his symmetric plane remaining perpendicular to the force transmission plane and remaining aligned with the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164) during the exercise depicted. In FIG. 25, the user (250) faces toward the cranking assembly (164), his symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted. In FIGS. 26 and 27, the user (250) faces away from the cranking assembly (164), his symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted. Through the user fixture (252), the user (250) in FIGS. 24, 25, 26 and 27 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. In FIGS. 25, 26, and 27, moreover, the user fixture (252), grasped at points equidistant and astride the force transmission plane, remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted.
  • [0071]
    Referring again to FIG. 24, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his right and left arms, initially extended evenly above his head, to rotate forward and downward in an uneven fashion at the shoulder joint. The uneven rate of rotation is due to the changing angle of the force vector between the user's hands and the pedal (152) of the exercise machine (150), which causes the user fixture (252) to periodically assume a shallow angle to the vertical. Specifically of note in the exercise motion shown in FIG. 24 is that from the user's point of view, the end of the user fixture (252) attached to the pedal moves not just up and down, but also side-to-side, because of the circular traverse of the pedal. This side-to-side cyclical motion translates to the imposition of forces upon the user's torso that would cause it to bend it left or right at the waist if not opposed. Thus the user (250) in FIG. 24 must exercise those muscles that tend to hold the torso erect when exposed to such lateral forces. In FIG. 25, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles which cause his right and left arms to cycle between a position in which they are bent at the elbows, with elbows roughly at his side and arms pointing forward, and a position in which they are straight at the elbows, and extended in front of the user (250), slightly above shoulder level. In FIG. 26, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles which cause his right and left arms to move from a position in which they are extended downward and behind the user (250) (and toward the exercise machine (150)), to a position in which they are flexed, with elbows outward, and hands near his shoulderblades. In FIG. 27, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles which cause his right and left arms to cycle between a position in which they are extended upward above the user's head and a position in which they are flexed at the elbow, with elbows out, with hands near the tops of the user's shoulders. The user (250) in FIGS. 24, 25, 26 and 27 must also exercise muscles that function to support the erect torso when it is subjected to forces tending to bend the torso backward or forward at the waist.
  • [0072]
    Referring to FIGS. 28 and 29, an individual is shown, legs folded, sitting on his feet, knees together and pointing forward, torso erect, symmetric plane perpendicular to the force transmission plane and offset from the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164), grasping the user fixture (254) with one hand at a point aligned with the force transmission plane, and performing exercises utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. Through the user fixture (254), the user (250) in FIGS. 28 and 29 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also in FIGS. 28 and 29, the user fixture (254) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted. In FIGS. 28 and 29, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause either his left arm (FIG. 28) or his right arm (FIG. 29), which during the applicable exercise is extended forward from the torso and held approximately at shoulder level, to rotate inward at the shoulder joint toward the center of his body. Muscles that tend to maintain the user's upright posture, spine straight and untwisted, are also exercised by the user (250) performing the exercises shown in FIGS. 28 and 29.
  • [0073]
    Referring to FIGS. 30 and 31, an individual is shown sitting on a sliding seat (200) of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, facing the exercise machine (150) with legs extended in front of him in the direction of the exercise machine (150), symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, knees bent and feet resting on the floor, grasping a user fixture (252) with both hands at points that are equidistant from and astride the force transmission plane, and performing an exercise. The user (250) cycles between the postures shown in FIGS. 30 and 31 while performing the exercise. During the exercise depicted in FIG. 30 and 31, the user fixture (252) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. The user (250) arrives at the posture in FIG. 30 by exercising those muscles that extend his legs, causing the seat upon which he sits to ride backward (away from the cranking assembly (164)) along the supports (192, 194). At the same time, the user (250) is causing the user fixture (252) to move forward with the pedal (152) by exercising those muscles that pivot his torso forward at the waist as well as those that extend his arms forward, approximately shoulder level. The user (250) moves from the posture in FIG. 30 to the posture of FIG. 31 by exercising those muscles that cause his legs to flex at the knee, drawing his lower body closer to the cranking assembly (164), causing the seat (200) to ride forward along the supports (192, 194). At the same time, the user (250) is causing the user fixture (252) to move backward with the pedal (152) by exercising those muscles that pivot his torso from the forward bend posture to an erect posture, and by exercising those muscles that cause his arms to flex at the elbow.
  • [0074]
    Referring to FIGS. 32 and 33, an individual is shown laying on his back, head pointed toward and legs extended away from an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, knees bent and feet resting on the floor, grasping a user fixture (252) with both hands at points equidistant from and astride the force transmission plane, and performing exercises. Through the user fixture (252), the user (250) in FIGS. 32 and 33 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercises depicted in FIGS. 32 and 33, the user fixture (252) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIG. 32, the user (250) grasps the user fixture (252) with arms fully extended above his torso, and exercises those muscles that cause his extended arms to rotate up and down at the shoulder joint, cycling between a position in which his hands are somewhat above shoulder level, and a position in which his hands are somewhat below shoulder level. In FIG. 33 the user (250) grasps the user fixture (252) with arms flexed at the elbow, and exercises those muscles that cause his upper arm to rotate up and down at the shoulder joint, cycling between a position in which his elbow is extended and his forearms parallel to the floor, and a position in which his elbow and upper arm lay against the floor.
  • [0075]
    Referring to FIGS. 34 and 35, an individual is shown laying on his back, head pointed toward and legs extended away from an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane remaining perpendicular to the force transmission plane and offset from the axis of rotation during the exercise depicted, knees bent and feet resting on the floor, grasping a user fixture (254) with one hand at a point aligned with the force transmission plane, and performing exercises. Through the user fixture (254), the user (250) in FIGS. 34 and 35 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercises depicted in FIGS. 34 and 35, the user fixture (254) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIGS. 34 and 35, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause either his right arm (FIG. 34) or his left arm (FIG. 35), which during the applicable exercise is extended forward from the torso and held approximately at shoulder level, to rotate inward at the shoulder joint toward the center of his body
  • [0076]
    Referring to FIG. 36, an individual is shown laying on his side, spine twisted approximately 90 degrees so that his shoulders rest on the floor, head pointed toward and legs extended away from the cranking assembly (164), spine substantially straight (though twisted) and remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, knees bent, grasping the user fixture (252) with both hands, performing exercises utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. In FIG. 36, the user (250) grasps the user fixture (252) with both hands at points equidistant from and astride the force transmission plane with arms fully extended above his torso. Through the user fixture (252), the user (250) in FIG. 36 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercise depicted in FIG. 36 the user fixture (252) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIG. 36, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his extended arms to rotate up and down at the shoulder joint, cycling between a position in which his hands are somewhat above shoulder level, and a position in which his hands are somewhat below shoulder level. At the same time the user (250) is exercising those muscles that hold his spine in a 90-degree twist.
  • [0077]
    Referring to FIG. 37, an individual is shown laying on his side, right shoulder directly above left shoulder, head pointed toward and legs extended away from the cranking assembly (164), spine untwisted and substantially straight and remaining substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, knees bent, grasping the user fixture (254) with one hand at a point aligned with the force transmission plane, and performing exercises utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. Through the user fixture (254), the user (250) in FIG. 37 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercise depicted in FIG. 37 the user fixture (254) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIG. 37, the user (250) grasps the user fixture (254) with right arm fully extended and rotated up from his right side, and is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his extended right arm to rotate out and up at the shoulder joint from a position in which his right hand is somewhat below shoulder level to a position in which his right hand is approximately at shoulder level.
  • [0078]
    Referring to FIG. 38, an individual is shown, initially laying on his back, feet extended toward and head pointed away from the cranking assembly (164), symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, knees bent and feet resting on the floor, grasping a user fixture (252) with both hands at points equidistant from and astride the force transmission plane, and performing an exercise utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, which exercise periodically causes him to rise from the position described above to an erect sitting posture. Through the user fixture (252), the user (250) in FIG. 38 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercise depicted in FIG. 38 the user fixture (252) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIG. 38, the user (250) grasps the user fixture (252) with both arms extended, evenly rotated up at the shoulder joint so that the left and right hands are even and below chest level, and is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his torso to bend upward and forward at the waist, and his extended arms to further rotate up at the shoulder joint so that the user's hands are even with the user's shoulders, causing the user fixture (252) to move forward and rotate the cranking assembly (164).
  • [0079]
    Referring to FIG. 39, an individual is shown, legs folded, sitting on his feet with his knees pointing away from the cranking assembly (164), torso generally erect, symmetric plane aligned with the force transmission plane, grasping the user fixture (252) with both hands at points equidistant from and astride the force transmission plane, and performing an exercise utilizing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, which exercise causes his torso and head to cycle between a position in which his torso and head are closer to, and a position in which his torso and head are farther from, the exercise machine (150). Through the user fixture (252), the user (250) in FIG. 39 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercise depicted in FIG. 39 the user fixture (252) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIG. 39, the user (250) grasps the user fixture (252) and holds it against his neck with both arms flexed, elbows pointing downward and hands held closely near the shoulders, and is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his torso to cycle between two positions in which the torso is rotated somewhat short of the fully upright posture, one biasing forward of the fully upright posture, one biasing backward. At the same time the user (250) is exercising torso muscles, he is exercising those muscles that rotate the head and neck forward (when the torso is biasing forward) and backward (when the torso is biasing backward).
  • [0080]
    Referring to FIG. 40, an individual is shown facing an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane perpendicular to the force transmission plane but offset from the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164). The individual stands erect on his left foot in front of the cranking assembly (164), his right leg remaining flexed at the knee and extended toward the cranking assembly (164), his upper right leg remaining substantially aligned with a vertical plane defined by it and the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164) during the exercise depicted, his right foot attached to the pedal (152) of the exercise machine (150), bracing himself at arm's length from the exercise machine (150) by grasping a support (192) of the exercise machine (150) with arms extended, and performing exercises causing the cranking assembly (164) of the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. No user fixture is utilized. In FIG. 40 the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his foot to traverse in a vertically- and laterally-oriented circle, and that cause his upper right leg to twist at the hip joint and to rotate up and down at the hip joint in cooperation with the circular traverse of the right foot and lower right leg. Also of note in the exercise motion shown in FIG. 40 is that from the user's point of view, the pedal (152), because of its circular traverse, moves not just up and down, but also left-to-right. This side-to-side cyclical motion translates to the imposition of forces upon the user's right leg and his torso that work against the maintenance of erect posture. Thus the user (250) in FIG. 40 must also exercise muscles that tend to hold his torso erect and resist lateral forces during the course of exercising muscles related to leg movement.
  • [0081]
    Referring to FIG. 41, an individual is shown standing to one side of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane perpendicular to the force transmission plane but offset from the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164), standing erect on his left foot next to the cranking assembly (164), his right leg remaining flexed at the knee and extended sideward toward the cranking assembly (164), his upper right leg remaining substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, his right foot attached to the pedal (154) of the exercise machine (150), bracing himself close to the exercise machine (150) by grasping a support (194) of the exercise machine (150) with arms flexed at the elbow, and performing exercises that cause the cranking assembly (164) of the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. No user fixture is utilized. In FIG. 41 the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his foot to traverse in a lateral circle, and his upper right leg to move up and down in the hip joint in cooperation with the circular traverse of the right foot. At the same time the user (250) is exercising those muscles that maintain the user's erect standing posture.
  • [0082]
    Referring to FIG. 42, an individual is shown standing to one side of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane parallel to but offset from the force transmission plane, standing erect on his right foot, right foot on a flat portion (176) of the exercise machine (150) with the cranking assembly (164) in front of his left leg, and the remainder of the exercise machine (150) next to his left shoulder. With his left leg remaining flexed at the knee and extending forward toward the cranking assembly (164), his left leg remaining substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, his left foot attached to the pedal (154) of the exercise machine (150), bracing himself close to the exercise machine (150) by grasping a support (194) of the exercise machine (150) with his left arm flexed at the elbow, he performs exercises causing the cranking assembly (164) of the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. No user fixture is utilized. In FIG. 42 the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his left foot to traverse in a forward circle, and his upper left leg to move up and down in the hip joint in cooperation with the circular traverse of the left foot. At the same time the user (250) is exercising those muscles that maintain the user's erect standing posture.
  • [0083]
    Referring to FIG. 43, an individual is shown kneeling to one side of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane parallel to but offset from the force transmission plane, kneeling erect on his right knee with the cranking assembly (164) in front of his left leg, and the remainder of the exercise machine (150) next to his left shoulder. With his left leg remaining flexed at the knee and extended toward the cranking assembly (164), his left leg remaining substantially aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, his left foot attached to the pedal (152) of the exercise machine (150), and bracing himself close to the exercise machine (150) by grasping the seat (200) of the exercise machine (150) with his left arm flexed at the elbow, he performs exercises that cause the cranking assembly (164) of the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. No user fixture is utilized. In FIG. 43 the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his left foot to traverse in a forward circle, and his upper left leg to move up and down in the hip joint in cooperation with the circular traverse of the left foot. At the same time the user (250) is exercising those muscles that maintain the user's erect kneeling posture.
  • [0084]
    Referring to FIG. 44, an individual is shown, laying on his back, legs extended toward and head pointed away the cranking assembly (164) of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane perpendicular to the force transmission plane and offset from the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164). With his left knee bent, his left foot resting on a flat portion (180) of the exercise machine (150), his right leg remaining flexed at the knee and extended toward the cranking assembly (164), his upper right leg remaining substantially aligned with a vertical plane containing the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164) during the exercise depicted, and his right foot attached to the pedal (152) of the exercise machine (150), he performs exercises that cause the cranking assembly (164) of the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. In FIG. 44 the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his foot to traverse in a horizontally-and laterally-oriented circle, and that cause his upper right leg to twist at the hip joint in cooperation with the circular traverse of the right foot and lower right leg. Also of note in the exercise motion shown in FIG. 44 is that from the user's point of view, the pedal (152), because of its circular traverse, moves not just forward and backward, but also left-to-right. This side-to-side cyclical motion translates to the imposition of torquing forces upon the user's right leg and his torso that work against the desired alignment of the upper right leg and the axis of rotation of the cranking assembly (164) in the same vertical plane. Thus the user (250) in FIG. 44 must also exercise muscles that tend to resist torquing forces and to keep his torso straight and in the proper orientation during the he course of exercising muscles related to leg movement.
  • [0085]
    Referring to FIG. 45, an individual is shown laying on his back, legs extended toward and head pointed away the cranking assembly (164) of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. With the exercise machine (150) located between his legs, his symmetric plane remaining parallel to and offset from the force transmission plane during the exercise disclosed, his left knee bent with his left foot resting on a flat portion (176) of the exercise machine (150), his right leg remaining flexed at the knee and extended toward the cranking assembly (164), and his right foot attached to the pedal (152) of the exercise machine (150), he performs exercises that cause the cranking assembly (164) of the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. No user fixture is utilized. In FIG. 45 the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his right foot to traverse in a forward circle, and his upper right leg to move up and down in the hip joint in cooperation with the circular traverse of his right foot.
  • [0086]
    Referring to FIG. 46, an individual is shown laying on his back, head pointed away from the cranking assembly (164) of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein, symmetric plane remaining aligned with the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, legs being together and having knees flexed, extended together upward, and with both feet attached to a user fixture (256) at points equidistant from and straddling the force transmission plane, performing exercises. Through the user fixture (256), the far end of which is attached to the pedal (152) of the cranking assembly (164), the user (250) in FIG. 46 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercise depicted in FIG. 46, the user fixture (256) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIG. 46, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his extended legs to rotate up and down at the hip joints, cycling between a position in which his feet are somewhat above waist level, and a position in which his feet are somewhat below waist level.
  • [0087]
    Referring to FIG. 47, an individual is shown laying on his back, head pointed away from the cranking assembly (164) of an exercise machine (150) as disclosed herein. With his symmetric plane remaining parallel to and offset from the force transmission plane during the exercise depicted, his left leg flexed with his left foot resting on a flat portion (178) of the exercise machine (150), his right leg remaining flexed at the knee and extended upward, his right leg aligned with the force transmission plane, and his right foot attached to a user fixture (256) at points equidistant and straddling the force transmission plane, he performs exercises. Through the user fixture (256), which is attached to the pedal (152) of the cranking assembly (164), the user (250) in FIG. 47 causes the cranking assembly (164) within the exercise machine (150) to rotate about its axis of rotation. Also, during the exercise depicted in FIG. 47, the user fixture (256) remains substantially aligned with the force transmission plane. In FIG. 47, the user (250) is seen to exercise those muscles that cause his extended right leg to rotate up and down at the hip joints, cycling between a position in which his right foot is somewhat above waist level, and a position in which his right foot is somewhat below waist level.
  • [0088]
    A number of embodiments of the invention have been described. Nevertheless, it will be understood that various modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, other embodiments are within the scope of the following claims.
Referenced by
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US7559878Jun 21, 2004Jul 14, 2009Hakooz Joe SCompact multimode device and method for low impact therapeutic exercise
US7935027 *Jun 6, 2006May 3, 2011The Shifter, IncSpontaneous symmetrical weight shifting trainer device
US8419597Aug 17, 2010Apr 16, 2013Emily L. CooperSystems and methods for a hill training apparatus for a bicycle trainer
US8764616Apr 4, 2013Jul 1, 2014Pro-Climb, LLCSystems and methods for a hill training apparatus for a bicycle trainer
US9039582May 30, 2014May 26, 2015Pro-Climb, LLCSystems and methods for a hill training apparatus for a bicycle trainer
US20050282684 *Jun 21, 2004Dec 22, 2005Hakooz Joe SCompact multimode device for low impact therapeutic exercise
US20050282690 *Jun 21, 2004Dec 22, 2005Hakooz Joe SErgonomic contact element for holding a hand or a foot
US20050282691 *Jun 21, 2004Dec 22, 2005Hakooz Joe SCompact multimode device and method for low impact therapeutic exercise
US20060293154 *Jun 6, 2006Dec 28, 2006Jase GraberSpontaneous symmetrical weight shifting trainer device
US20110039664 *Feb 17, 2011Cooper Emily LSystems and methods for a hill training apparatus for a bicycle trainer
Classifications
U.S. Classification482/57, 482/139
International ClassificationA63B21/018, A63B22/06, A63B69/06, A63B21/22, A63B22/10, A63B22/08, A63B23/12
Cooperative ClassificationA63B22/0005, A63B21/4017, A63B23/0476, A63B2022/003, A63B2022/0652, A63B2208/0238, A63B2208/0242, A63B21/018, A63B22/0076, A63B22/0023, A63B22/0605, A63B2022/0079, A63B2208/0204, A63B22/0007, A63B21/225
European ClassificationA63B22/06C, A63B22/00A4, A63B22/00B4, A63B21/22F, A63B22/08, A63B22/00R
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 29, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: CORPX DEVELOPMENT, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BYRD, RICHARD H. JR.;REEL/FRAME:012469/0369
Effective date: 20011028