Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20020142429 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/994,485
Publication dateOct 3, 2002
Filing dateNov 27, 2001
Priority dateAug 20, 1997
Also published asCA2301801A1, EP1060260A2, US6346406, WO1999009199A2, WO1999009199A3
Publication number09994485, 994485, US 2002/0142429 A1, US 2002/142429 A1, US 20020142429 A1, US 20020142429A1, US 2002142429 A1, US 2002142429A1, US-A1-20020142429, US-A1-2002142429, US2002/0142429A1, US2002/142429A1, US20020142429 A1, US20020142429A1, US2002142429 A1, US2002142429A1
InventorsAlexey Ryazanov, William Hait, Karen Pavur
Original AssigneeUniversity Of Medicine And Dentistry
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Elongation factor-2 kinase (EF-2 kinase) and methods of use therefor
US 20020142429 A1
Abstract
A new superfamily of protein kinases has been discovered that centers around eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase). The protein kinases of this new superfamily have the following characteristics: 1) sequence similarity to eEF-2 kinase; 2) no sequence similarity to the protein kinases of either the serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase or histidine kinase superfamily; and, 3) specifically phosphorylates α-helical regions of proteins as opposed to β-turns, as seen in all other protein kinases. Assays have been developed utilizing eEF-2 kinase and a phosphorylation target consisting of a novel α-helical 16-amino acid peptide sequence to facilitate high-throughput screening for compounds that can specifically inhibit this protein kinase that has been implicated tumor growth and other hyperproliferitive disorders. Additionally, the disclosed invention includes assessing eEF-2 kinase levels for diagnostic purposes, and therapeutic formulations to inhibit eEF-2 kinase activity.
Images(8)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(50)
What is claimed is:
1. A protein kinase which is a member of a superfamily, said protein kinase being characterized by:
A. greater than 40% sequence similarity with eEF-2 kinase from any organism; and.
B. phosphorylates an amino acid within an alpha helical domain of its target protein.
2. A protein kinase of claim 1 which phosphorylates eukaryotic elongation factor-2 (eEF-2), and is designated as eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase).
3. A protein kinase of claim 1 which phosphorylates eukaryotic myosin heavy chain (MHC), and is designated as myosin heavy chain kinase (MHCK).
4. A protein kinase of claim 1 that phosphorylates a peptide sequence derived from the phosphorylation site of a target protein.
5. A peptide sequence having SEQ ID NO: 20.
6. A protein kinase of claim 1 which is a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 2, SEQ ID NO: 4, and SEQ ID NO: 10, and fragments thereof.
7. A protein kinase of claim 1 which is derived from mammalian cells.
8. A protein kinase of claim 1 labeled with a detectable label.
9. A protein kinase of claim 8 wherein the label is selected from enzymes, chemicals which fluoresce, and radioactive elements.
10. An antibody to the protein kinase of claim 1.
11. An antibody to the phosphorylated form of the target protein of claim 1.
12. An antibody to the phosphorylated form of the peptide of claim 5.
13. The antibody of claim 10, 11 or 12 which is a polyclonal antibody.
14. The antibody of claim 10, 11 or 12 which is a monoclonal antibody.
15. An immortal cell line that produces a monoclonal antibody according to claim 14.
16. The antibody of claim 10, 11 or 12 labeled with a detectable label.
17. The antibody of claim 10, 11 or 12 wherein the label is selected from enzymes, chemicals which fluoresce and radioactive elements.
18. A DNA sequence which encodes eEF-2 kinase, or a fragment thereof, selected from the group consisting of:
(A) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 1);
(B) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 3);
(C) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 9);
(D) DNA sequences that hybridize to any of the foregoing DNA sequences under standard hybridization conditions;
(E) DNA sequences that code for expression of an amino acid sequence encoded by any of the foregoing DNA sequences.
(F) degenerate variants thereof;
(G) alleles thereof; and,
(H) hybridizable fragments thereof.
19. A recombinant DNA molecule comprising a DNA sequence which encodes eEF-2 kinase, or a fragment thereof, selected from the group consisting of:
(A) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 1);
(B) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 3);
(C) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 9);
(D) DNA sequences that hybridize to any of the foregoing DNA sequences under standard hybridization conditions;
(E) DNA sequences that code for expression of an amino acid sequence encoded by any of the foregoing DNA sequences.
(F) degenerate variants thereof;
(G) alleles thereof; and,
(H) hybridizable fragments thereof.
20. The recombinant DNA molecule of either of claims 18 or 19, wherein said DNA sequence is operatively linked to an expression control sequence.
21. The recombinant DNA molecule of claim 20, wherein said expression control sequence is selected from the group consisting of the early or late promoters of SV40 or adenovirus, the lac system, the trp system, the TAC system, the TRC system, the major operator and promoter regions of phage λ, the control regions of fd coat protein, the promoter for 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, the promoters of acid phosphatase and the promoters of the yeast α-mating factors.
22. A probe capable of screening for eEF-2 kinase in alternate species prepared from the DNA sequence of claim 18.
23. A probe capable of screening for members of the protein kinase superfamily of claim 1 prepared from the DNA sequence of claim 18.
24. A unicellular host transformed with a recombinant DNA molecule comprising a DNA sequence or degenerate variant thereof, which encodes a protein kinase, or a fragment thereof, selected from the group consisting of:
(A) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 1);
(B) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 3);
(C) the DNA sequences of FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 9);
(D) DNA sequences that hybridize to any of the foregoing DNA sequences under standard hybridization conditions; and
(E) DNA sequences that code on expression for an amino acid sequence encoded by any of the foregoing DNA sequences;
wherein said DNA sequence is operatively linked to an expression control sequence.
25. The unicellular host of claim 24 wherein the unicellular host is selected from the group consisting of E. coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Streptomyces, yeasts, CHO, R1.1, B-W, L-M, COS 1, COS 7, BSC1, BSC40, and BMT10 cells, plant cells, insect cells, and human cells in tissue culture.
26. A method for detecting eEF-2 kinase and assessing eEF-2 kinase levels by:
A. contacting a biological sample from a mammal in which the presence or activity of said eEF-2 kinase is suspected with a binding partner of said eEF-2 kinase under conditions that allow binding of said eEF-2 kinase to said binding partner to occur; and,
B. detecting whether binding has occurred, and to what degree, between said eEF-2 kinase from said sample and the binding partner;
wherein the detection of binding indicates that presence or activity of said eEF-2 kinase in said sample, and indicates a level of said eEF-2 kinase in the sample.
27. An assay system for screening drugs and other agents for ability to modulate eEF-2 kinase activity. comprising a predetermined amount of eEF-2 kinase mixed with varying amounts of drug or agent, along with target protein and ATP; wherein detection is via either a detectable label on the γ-phosphate of ATP, or on an antibody directed against the phosphorylated target protein.
28. The assay system of claim 27 wherein the label on the γ-phosphate of ATP comprises one of the following:
A. 32P
B. 33P
C. 35S
D. a biotinylated phosphate moiety; or,
E. a fluorescent phosphate moiety.
29. The assay system of claim 27 wherein the label on the antibody comprises one of the following:
A. an enzyme detectable with calorimetric, fluorescent, or chemiluminescent substrates, such as alkaline phosphatase or horseradish peroxidase;
B. a biotin moiety;
C. a fluorescent moiety; or,
D. a radioactive moiety chosen from the following group of isotopes: 3H, 14C, 32P, 33P, 35S, 36Cl, 51Cr, 57Co, 58Co, 59Fe, 90Y, 125I, 131I, and 186Re.
30. An assay system for screening drugs and other agents for ability to modulate eEF-2 kinase activity, comprising:
A. culturing an observable cellular test colony inoculated with a drug or agent;
B. harvesting a supernatant from said cellular test colony; and,
C. examining said supernatant for the presence of said eEF-2 kinase activity wherein an increase or a decrease in a level of said eEF-2 kinase activity indicates the ability of a drug to modulate the activity of said eEF-2 kinase.
31. A test kit for assessing the level of eEF-2 kinase activity in a eukaryotic cellular sample, comprising:
A. a predetermined amount of a detectably labelled specific binding partner of eEF-2 kinase.
B. other reagents; and,
C. directions for use of said kit.
31. The test kit of claim 31 wherein said labeled immunochemically reactive component is selected from the group consisting of polyclonal antibodies to eEF-2 kinase, monoclonal antibodies to eEF-2 kinase, fragments thereof, and mixtures thereof.
32. A method of preventing and/or treating cellular debilitations, derangements and/or dysfunctions and/or other disease states in mammals, comprising administering to a mammal a therapeutically effective amount of a material selected from the following group:
A. peptides that inhibit eEF-2 kinase;
B. antibodies against eEF-2 kinase; and,
C. other drugs or agents that specifically inhibit eEF-2 kinase.
33. A pharmaceutical composition for the treatment of cellular debilitation, derangement and/or dysfunction in mammals, comprising:
A. a therapeutically effective amount of a material selected from the group consisting of: peptides that inhibit eEF-2 kinase; antibodies against eEF-2 kinase; and, other drugs or agents that specifically inhibit eEF-2 kinase; and,
B. a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier.
34. A recombinant virus transformed with the DNA molecule, or a derivative or fragment thereof, in accordance with claim 18.
35. A recombinant virus transformed with the DNA molecule, or a derivative or fragment thereof, in accordance with claim 19.
36. The recombinant DNA molecule of claim 20 comprising plasmid pGEX-3X, clone E3 or plasmid pGEX-3X, clone E4.
37. An antisense nucleic acid against eEF-2 kinase mRNA comprising a nucleic acid sequence hybridizing to said mRNA.
38. The antisense nucleic acid of claim 37 which is RNA.
39. The antisense nucleic acid of claim 37 which is DNA.
40. The antisense nucleic acid of claim 37 which binds to the initiation codon of any of said mRNAs.
41. A recombinant DNA molecule having a DNA sequence which, on transcription, produces an antisense ribonucleic acid against eEF-2 kinase mRNA, said antisense ribonucleic acid comprising an nucleic acid sequence capable of hybridizing to said mRNA.
42. A eEF-2 kinase-producing cell line transfected with the recombinant DNA molecule of claim 41.
43. A method for creating a cell line which exhibits reduced expression of eEF-kinase, comprising transfecting a eEF-2 kinase-producing cell line with a recombinant DNA molecule of claim 41.
44. A ribozyme that cleaves eEF-2 kinase mRNA.
45. The ribozyme of claim 44 which is a Tetrahymena-type ribozyme.
46. The ribozyme of claim 44 which is a Hammerhead-type ribozyme.
47. A recombinant DNA molecule having a DNA sequence which, upon transcription, produces the ribozyme of claim 44.
48. A eEF-2 kinase-producing cell line transfected with the recombinant DNA molecule of claim 47.
49. A method for creating a cell line which exhibits reduced expression of eEF-2 kinase, comprising transfecting a eEF-2 kinase-producing cell line with the recombinant DNA molecule of claim 44.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0001] This invention relates generally to the identification of a new superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases and the use of one member of this superfamily, elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase), in assays to screen for specific inhibitors. Specific inhibitors of the eEF-2 kinase may be potent therapeutics for amelioration of malignant transformation. Additionally, sequences complementary to eEF-2 kinase may have therapeutic efficacy as antisense drugs or be used in gene therapy. Specifically, the invention relates to assays developed using the recombinant eEF-2 kinase to screen for inhibitors of phosphorylation of a peptide derived from the myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0002] Protein phosphorylation plays a critical role in many cellular processes (Krebs (1994) Trends Biochem. Sci. 19:439; Hanks and Hunter, (1996) FASEB J. 9:576-596; Hardie and Hanks, (1995) The Protein Kinase Facts Book (Academic, London)). There are two well-characterized superfamilies of protein kinases, with most of the protein kinases belonging to the serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase superfamily (Hanks and Hunter, (1996); Hardie and Hanks, (1995)). The characterization of several hundred members of this superfamily revealed that they all share a similar structural organization of their catalytic domains which consist of twelve conserved subdomains (Hanks and Hunter, (1996); Hardie and Hanks, (1995)). The other superfamily is referred to as the histidine kinase superfamily and is involved in the prokaryotic two-component signal transduction system, acting as sensor components (Stock et al., (1989) Microbiol. Rev. 53:450-490; Parkinson and Kofoid, (1992) Annu. Rev. Genet. 26:71-112; Swanson, et al., (1994) Trends Biochem. Sci. 19:485-490). Recently, eukaryotic members of this superfamily have also been described (Chang et al., (1993) Science 263:539-544; Ota and Varshavsky, (1993) Science 262:566-569; Maeda et al., (1994) Nature 369:242-245). Mitochondrial protein kinases have also recently been described that show structural homology to the histidine kinases, but phosphorylate their substrates on serine (Popov et al., (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267:13127-13130; Popov et al., (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268:26602-22606). Finally, several new protein kinases have been reported that show a lack of homology with either of the kinase superfamilies (Maru and Witte, (1991) Cell 67:459-468; Beeler et al., (1994) Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:982-988; Dikstein et al., (1996) Cell 84:781-790; Futey et al., (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270:523-529; Eichenger et al., (1996) EMBO J. 15:5547-5556). However, these protein kinases are viewed as an exception to the general rule as they have yet to be fully characterized.

[0003] The cloning and sequencing of the extensively characterized eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2 kinase) from a variety of eukaryotic organisms has now revealed the existence of a novel class of protein kinases (Ryazanov et al., (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 94:4884-4889). eEF-2 kinase, previously known as Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase III, is highly specific for phosphorylation of elongation factor-2 (eEF-2), an abundant cytoplasmic protein that catalyzes the movement of the ribosome along mRNA during translation in eukaryotic cells (reviewed in Ryazanov and Spirin, (1993) In Translational Regulation of Gene Expression (Plenum, New York) Vol. 2, pp. 433-455; Nairn and Palfrey, (1996) In Translational Control (CSHL Press, New York) pp. 295-318). All mammalian tissues, and various invertebrate organisms, exhibit eEF-2 kinase activity (Abdelmajid et al., (1993) Int. J. Dev. Biol. 37:279-290). eEF-2 kinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of eEF-2 at two highly conserved threonine residues located within a GTP-binding domain (Ryazanov and Spirin, (1993) In Translational Regulation of Gene Expression (Plenum, New York) Vol. 2, pp. 433-455; Nairn and Palfrey, (1996) In Translational Control (CSHL Press, New York) pp. 295-318). When eEF-2 is phosphorylated, it becomes inactive with respect to protein synthesis (Ryazanov et al., (1988) Nature 334:170-173). Since eEF-2 phosphorylation is dependent on Ca2+ and calmodulin, eEF-2 kinase plays a pivotal role in modulating the protein synthesis rate in response to changes in intracellular calcium concentration. Phosphorylation of eEF-2 has also been linked to the regulation of cell cycle progression. For example, transient phosphorylation of eEF-2 occurs during the mitogenic stimulation of quiescent cells (Palfrey et al., (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262:9785-9792) and during mitosis (Celis et al., (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 87:4231-4235). In addition, changes in the level of eEF-2 kinase activity is associated with a host of cellular processes such as cellular differentiation (End et al., (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257:9223-9225; Koizumi et al., (1989) FEBS Lett. 253:55-58; Brady et al., (1990) J. Neurochem. 54:1034-1039), oogenesis (Severinov et al., (1990) New Biol. 2: 887-893), and malignant transformation (Bagaglio et al., (1993) Cancer Res. 53:2260-2264).

[0004] The sequence eEF-2 kinase appears to have no homology to either the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases or to any members of the known protein kinase superfamilies (Ryazanov et al., (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 94:4884-4889). However, the recently described myosin heavy chain kinase A (MHCK A) from Dictyostelium (Futey et al., (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270:523-529) shows a great deal of homology with eEF-2 kinase. These two kinases define a novel class of protein kinases that may represent a new superfamily.

[0005] Evidence for MHCK and eEF-2 kinase forming the core of a new superfamily is as follows. MHCK A from Diclyostelium, has a demonstrated role in the regulation of myosin assembly (Futey et al., (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270:523-529; Ct et al., (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:6846-6849). eEF-2 kinase is a ubiquitous Ca2+/calmodulin-dependant protein kinase involved in the regulation of protein synthesis by Ca2+ (Redpath et al., (1996) J. Biol. Chem 271:17547-17554; Ryazanov et al., (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 94:4884-4889). Both MHCK A and eEF-2 kinase display no homology to any of the known protein kinases, but are strikingly similar to each other; amino acid sequences of their catalytic domains are 40% identical. Another protein kinase homologous to MHCK A and eEF-2 kinase has recently been identified in Dictyostelium (Clancy et al., (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272:11812-11815), and an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequence, with a high degree of similarity to the catalytic domain common to both MHCK A and eEF-2 kinase, has been deposited in GenBank (clone FC-AN09/accession #C22986). An amino acid sequence alignment of the catalytic domains of these new protein kinases is shown in FIG. 1A. These kinases have a catalytic domain of approximately 200 amino acids which can be subdivided into seven conserved subdomains. Subdomains V, VI, and VII have a predicted β-sheet structure and are presumably involved in ATP-binding, while subdomains I through IV may be involved in substrate binding and catalysis. These new protein kinases have no homology to the members of the eukaryotic serine/threonineltyrosine protein kinase superfamily with the exception of the GXGXXG motif in subdomain VI which is present in many ATP-binding proteins. Thus, MHCK A, eEF-2 kinase, and related protein kinases may represent a new superfamily. Evolutionary analysis of these new kinases (FIG. 1B) reveals that they can be subdivided into 2 families: the eEF-2 kinase family which includes eEF-2 kinases from different organisms, and the MHCK family which includes MHCK A, MHCK B and FC-AN09. These two families appear to have split more than a billion years ago.

[0006] An interesting question is why does nature employ these unusual kinases to phosphorylate eEF-2 and myosin heavy chains? Perhaps the answer is related to the secondary structure of the phosphorylation sites. As was originally reported by Small et al. (Small et al., (1977), Biochim. Biophys. Res. Comm. 79:341-346), phosphorylation sites are usually located at predicted β-turns. Subsequent studies, including X-ray crystallographic data, demonstrated that phosphoacceptor sites in substrates of conventional protein kinases are often located in turns or loops and usually have flexible extended conformation (Knighton et al., (1991) Science 253:414-420; Pinna and Ruzzene (1996) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1314:191-225). In contrast to this, the existing evidence suggests that the peptides around phosphorylation sites for eEF-2 kinases and MHCK A have an α-helical conformation. The two major phosphorylation sites for MHCK A are located in a region which has a coiled-coil α-helical structure (Vaillancourt et al., (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 253:10082-10087). The major phosphorylation site in eEF-2, threonine 56, is located within a sequence which is homologous among all translational elongation factors. In the crystal structure of the prokaryotic elongation factor EF-Tu, this sequence has an α-helical conformation (Polekhina et al., (1996) Structure 4:1141-1151; Abel et al., (1996) Structure 4:1153-1159). These facts suggest that eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A differ from conventional protein kinases in that they phosphorylate amino acids located within α-helices.

[0007] Thus, in addition to the two well-characterized superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases, which phosphorylate amino acids located in loops and turns, there appears to be a third superfamily of α-helix-directed kinases.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0008] Novel protein kinase inhibitors have the potential to form the basis for pharmaceutical compositions that can ameliorate malignant transformation. In order to find these inhibitors, libraries of chemical compounds are routinely screened using an automated protein kinase assay. The drawback to this approach is that most protein kinases have a very similar structure, thus making it difficult to specific inhibitors which act solely on a particular protein kinase. We have recently determined the primary structure of eEF-2 kinase, a ubiquitous enzyme which is involved in the regulation of protein synthesis and the cell cycle. Unexpectedly, we found that eEF-2 kinase has a unique structure. It has no homology to any other mammalian protein kinase. This feature makes eEF-2 kinase an ideal target in the search for a specific protein kinase inhibitor. Since preliminary evidence suggests that eEF-2 kinase is upregulated in human cancers (data not shown), including, but not limited to, breast cancer, identification of specific inhibitors of eEF-2 kinase can eventually lead to the development of novel anticancer drugs. In order be able to perform a high throughput screen for an eEF-2 kinase inhibitor, it is first necessary to develop a simple assay which is amenable to automation. The existing assay involves incubation of partially purified eEF-2 kinase along with purified eEF-2 and [γ-32P]ATP as substrates in the presence of increasing concentrations of candidate inhibitors. Results are then obtained by electrophoretic separation of the reaction mixtures, followed by autoradiography. Results are then quantified by either densitometry or scintillation counting of excised bands from the gel containing 32P-eEF-2. Clearly, this assay, as it stands, is time-consuming, expensive, and not amenable to automation. Furthermore, it is difficult to purify large amounts of native eEF-2 required to perform multiple assays, and attempts to overexpress a recombinant form of eEF-2 were unsuccessful as its overexpression was toxic to host strains (personal communication from James Bodley, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis). Therefore, we have developed new methodologies for determining eEF-2 kinase activity, which involves the use of a specific peptide substrate; easily and economically manufactured in large scale. These methods are relatively inexpensive, fast, and can be fully automated.

[0009] In our first attempt to use a peptide as an eEF-2 kinase substrate, we generated peptides centered around the phosphorylation site of eEF-2. This strategy did not yield a peptide that was functional in phosphorylation assays (data not shown). Surprisingly, we found that a 16′mer peptide (RKKFGESEKTKTKEFL (SEQ ID NO: 20)), based on the phosphorylation site of Dictyostelium discoideum MHC, was an acceptable substrate for use with eEF-2 kinase in phosphorylation assays. It is interesting to note that while eEF-2 kinase can phosphorylate a peptide derived from MHC, it is not able to phosphorylate native MHC (Ryazanov et al., (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 94:4884-4889).

[0010] In accordance with the present invention, a new superfamily of protein kinases and corresponding methods for assaying their phosphorylation activity are disclosed. The protein kinases of this new superfamily have the following characteristics: 1) No significant sequence homology to protein kinases of either the serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase or histidine kinase super families; 2) moderate to high (≧40%) to eEF-2 kinases from any organism; and, 3) phosphorylates an amino acid within an α-helical domain.

[0011] The present invention also relates to a recombinant DNA molecule or cloned gene, or a degenerate variant thereof, which encodes eEF-2 kinase; preferably a nucleic acid molecule, in particular a recombinant DNA molecule or cloned gene, encoding the eEF-2 kinase has a nucleotide sequence or is complementary to a DNA sequence shown in FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, and 9).

[0012] The human and murine DNA sequences of the eEF-2 kinase gene of the present invention or portions thereof, may be prepared as probes to screen for complementary sequences and genomic clones in the same or alternate species. The present invention extends to probes so prepared that may be provided for screening cDNA and genomic libraries for the eEF-2 kinase gene. For example, the probes may be prepared with a variety of known vectors, such as the phage A vector. The present invention also includes the preparation of plasmids including such vectors, and the use of the DNA sequences to construct vectors expressing antisense RNA or ribozymes which would attack the mRNAs of any or all of the DNA sequences set forth in FIGS. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, and 9). Correspondingly, the preparation of antisense RNA and ribozymes are included herein.

[0013] The present invention also includes eEF-2 kinase proteins having the activities noted herein, and that display the amino acid sequences set forth and described above and selected from SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, and 10.

[0014] In a further embodiment of the invention, the full DNA sequence of the recombinant DNA molecule or cloned gene so determined may be operatively linked to an expression control sequence which may be introduced into an appropriate host. The invention accordingly extends to unicellular hosts transformed with the cloned gene or recombinant DNA molecule comprising a DNA sequence encoding eEF-2 kinase, and more particularly, the complete DNA sequence determined from the sequences set forth above and in SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, and 9.

[0015] According to other preferred features of certain preferred embodiments of the present invention, a recombinant expression system is provided to produce biologically active animal or human eEF-2 kinase.

[0016] The present invention naturally contemplates several means for preparation of eEF-2 kinase, including as illustrated herein known recombinant techniques, and the invention is accordingly intended to cover such synthetic preparations within its scope. The isolation of the cDNA and amino acid sequences disclosed herein facilitates the production of eEF-2 kinase by such recombinant techniques, and accordingly, the invention extends to expression vectors prepared from the disclosed DNA sequences for expression in host systems by recombinant DNA techniques, and to the resulting transformed hosts.

[0017] The invention includes an assay system for screening of potential drugs effective at attenuating eEF-2 kinase activity of target mammalian cells by interrupting or potentiating the phosphorylation of eEF-2. In one instance, the test drug could be administered to a cellular sample along with ATP carrying a detectable label on its γ-phosphate that gets transferred to eEF-2, or a peptide substrate, by eEF-2 kinase. Quantification of the labeled eEF-2 or peptide substrate is diagnostic of the candidate drug's efficacy. A further embodiment would provide for the assay to be performed using a purely in vitro system comprised of eEF-2 kinase, ATP or labeled ATP, eEF-2 or peptide analog of a portion of eEF-2 or MHC, appropriate buffer, and detection reagents and/or instrumentation to detect and quantify the extent of eEF-2 kinase-directed phosphorylation activity.

[0018] The assay system could more importantly be adapted to identify drugs or other entities that are capable of binding to the eEF-2 kinase and/or its cognate phosphorylation target (e.g. eEF-2), either in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus, thereby inhibiting or potentiating eEF-2 kinase activity and its resultant phenotypic outcome. Such an assay would be useful in the development of drugs that would be specific against particular cellular activity, or that would potentiate such activity, in time or in level of activity. For example, such drugs might be used to treat various carcinomas or other hyperproliferitive pathologies.

[0019] The present invention likewise extends to antibodies against specifically phosphorylated eEF-2 kinase targets (e.g. eEF-2 or peptide), including naturally raised and recombinantly prepared antibodies. These antibodies and there labeled counterparts are included within the scope of the present invention for their particular ability in detecting eEF-2 kinase activity via detection of the phosphorylated product by ELISA or any other immunoassay known to the skilled artisan.

[0020] In the instance where a radioactive label, such as the isotopes 3H, 14C, 32P, 33P, 35S, 36Cl, 51Cr, 57Co, 58Co, 59Fe, 90Y, 125I, 131I, and 186Re are used, known currently available counting procedures may be utilized. In the instance where the label is an enzyme, detection may be accomplished by any of the presently utilized calorimetric, spectrophotometric, fluorospectrophotometric, amperometric or gasometric techniques known in the art.

[0021] In a further embodiment, the present invention contemplates antagonists of the activity of eEF-2 kinase. In particular, an agent or molecule that inhibits phosphorylation of eEF-2. In a specific embodiment, the antagonist can be a peptide comprising sequences, or sequence variants adjacent to, and including, the phosphorylation site in either eEF-2 or MHC. It is anticipated that these peptides would be competitive inhibitors of eEF-2 kinase's cognate target.

[0022] In still a further embodiment, the invention contemplates antisense drugs such that sequences complementary to the eEF-2 kinase mRNA inhibit production of functional eEF-2 kinase. In a specific embodiment, the antisense drug may be a complementary oligonucleotide (DNA, RNA, or hybrid thereof), which may or may not be modified so as to have the following characteristics: 1) enhanced hybridization kinetics; 2) tighter binding to complementary sequence than its unmodified counterpart; and/or, 3) resistance to nucleases. In another specific embodiment, the antisense drug may be a complementary oligonucleotide (DNA, RNA, or hybrid thereof), that has the ability to cleave its target sequence either by ribozyme, or ribozyme-like, activity, or by nuclease activity imparted on the antisense drug by physical attachment to anyone of a number of nucleases.

[0023] More specifically, the therapeutic method generally referred to herein could include the method for the treatment of various pathologies or other cellular dysfunctions and derangements by the administration of pharmaceutical compositions that may comprise effective inhibitors of eEF-2 kinase activity, or other equally effective drugs developed for instance by a drug screening assay prepared and used in accordance with a further aspect of the present invention.

[0024] Accordingly, it is a principal object of the present invention to provide a method and an associated assay system for screening potential inhibitors of eEF-2 kinase activity.

[0025] It is a further object of the present invention to provide antibodies to the phosphorylated eEF-2 kinase target, and methods for their preparation, including recombinant means.

[0026] It is a further object of the present invention to provide a method for detecting eEF-2 kinase activity in mammals in which invasive, spontaneous, or idiopathic pathological states are suspected to be present.

[0027] It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a method for the treatment of mammals to control the amount or activity of eEF-2 kinase, so as to alter the adverse consequences of such presence or activity, or where beneficial, to enhance such activity.

[0028] It is a still further object of the present invention to provide a method for the treatment of mammals to control the amount or activity of eEF-2 kinase, so as to treat or avert the adverse consequences of invasive, spontaneous or idiopathic pathological states.

[0029] It is a still further object of the present invention to provide pharmaceutical compositions for use in therapeutic methods which comprise or are based upon a sequence complementary to that of the eEF-2 kinase mRNA, which would form the basis for an antisense therapeutic that can reduce expression, and thus activity, of eEF-2 kinase.

[0030] It is yet another object of the invention to provide pharmaceutical compositions for use in therapeutic methods which comprise or are based upon peptide analogs of eEF-2 phosphorylation target amino acid sequences. It is anticipated that certain peptide analogs may act as efficacious competitive inhibitors of eEF-2 phosphorylation.

[0031] Other objects and advantages will become apparent to those skilled in the art from a review of the ensuing description which proceeds with reference to the following illustrative drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0032]FIG. 1. A, Sequence alignment of the catalytic domains of human eEF-2 kinase, C. elegans eEF-2 kinase, MHCK A, MHCK B and clone FC-ANO9. Identical amino acids (bold) and conserved hydrophobic amino acids (0) are noted. B, Phylogenetic tree of sequences shown in (A), with the addition of mouse and rat eEF-2 kinases. Tree was obtained using the J. Hein method with PAM250 residue weight table. The following accession numbers were used for the sequences: U93846-U93850, 1495779, 1170675, 1903458, C22986.

[0033]FIG. 2. Expression of recombinant eEF-2 kinase in vitro. Plasmid DNA from clones Cefk-1, Cefk-2, as well as mouse and human eEF-2 kinase cDNA were used in the TNT wheat germ extract coupled transcription/translation system (Promega). [35S]Methionine-labeled products were then analyzed by SDS/PAGE.

[0034]FIG. 3. Activity of recombinant eEF-2 kinase in vitro. A large scale (0.5 ml) reaction using a mixture of Cefk-1 and Cefk-2 plasmids was run as in FIG. 2, with the omission of labeled methionine. In the control experiment, the reaction was run with a plasmid containing a luciferase gene. (A) The reaction mixtures were separated by chromatography on a Mono Q column as described. (B) eEF-2 kinase activity in fractions was measured as the ability to phosphorylate purified rabbit eEF-2 in the presence of [γ-32P]ATP. Purified rabbit reticulocyte eEF-2 kinase was used in the (+) control experiments. (C) Ca2+/calmodulin-dependency of recombinant C. elegans eEF-2 kinase. Mono Q fraction 25 was assayed in a standard eEF-2 kinase assay in the presence and absence of Ca2+and calmodulin and 20 μM trifluoperazine (TFP) or N-(6 aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalene-sulfonamide (W7). (D) Ca2+/calmodulin-dependency of recombinant human eEF-2 kinase. Human eEF-2 kinase cDNA was expressed in a coupled transcription/translation system as described above and eEF-2 kinase activity was assayed without further purification.

[0035]FIG. 4. Northern blot analysis of tissue distribution of mouse eEF-2 kinase mRNA. Northern blots of mouse tissue containing 2 μg of polyadenylated RNA per lane were probed with the random-primed 32P-labeled mouse eEF-2 kinase cDNA (31). The major transcript appeared at 3.1 kb and minor transcripts at 6.1 and 2.5 kb were also apparent (exposure time, 5 days). The same blots were stripped and rehybridized with a human eEF-2 cDNA (exposure time, 4 days).

[0036]FIG. 5. Sequence alignment of C. elegans, mouse, human eEF-2 kinase, and the catalytic domain of Dictyostelium discoideum MHCK A. Identical amino acids are indicated by dark blue boxed regions and chemically conserved amino acids are indicated by light blue shaded regions. Amino acids in the human sequence that are identical to the mouse sequence are represented by dots. Amino acids underlined in black correspond to the six regions that match peptides obtained from the sequencing of purified rabbit reticulocyte eEF-2 kinase. The GXGXXG nucleotide-binding motif is underlined in red. The blue dashed line over residues 625-632 in C. elegans eEF-2 kinases designates the amino acids corresponding to exon 4, which is missing in Cefk-2.

[0037]FIG. 6. Substrate specificity of eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A. Phosphorylation assays containing eEF-2 kinase (50 ng) or MHCK A (0.2 μg) and either 0.5 μg rabbit reticulocyte eEF-2 or 0.1 μg Dictyostelium myosin were performed under standard conditions except that incubation time was extended to 10 min.

[0038]FIG. 7. Schematic representation of the structure of mammalian and C. elegans eEF-2 kinases and MHCK A. The homologous regions are represented by dark shading. The regions of weak similarity are represented by light shading. The position of the GXGXXG motif is indicated by vertical arrows.

[0039]FIG. 8. Assay for eEF-2 kinase activity. Recombinant eEF-2 kinase (2 μg) was incubated with increasing concentrations of a peptide phosphorylation target (RKKGESEKTKTKEFL) in a buffer consisting of 12.5 mM Hepes-KOH (pH 7.4), 2.5 mM magnesium acetate, 1.25 mM DTT, 25 μM CaCl2, 0.5 μg calmodulin, 100 μM ATP, and 0.5 μCi [γ-33P]ATP in a total volume of 50 μl. Samples were incubated at 30 C. and aliquots were withdrawn at various time points, and the reaction was terminated by incubation in an ice water bath. The aliquots were then spotted onto phosphocellulose paper (2 cm2 cm) and washed (44 min) with 75 mM phosphoric acid. The papers were then rinsed with 100% ethanol, dried, and then counted in a scintillation counter.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0040] In accordance with the present invention there may be employed conventional molecular biology, microbiology, and recombinant DNA techniques within the skill of the art. Such techniques are explained fully in the literature. See, e.g., Sambrook et al, “Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual” (1989); “Current Protocols in Molecular Biology” Volumes I-III [Ausubel, R. M., ed. (1994)]; “Cell Biology: A Laboratory Handbook” Volumes I-III [J. E. Celis, ed. (1994))]; “Current Protocols in Immunology” Volumes I-III [Coligan, J. E., ed. (1994)]; “Oligonucleotide Synthesis” (M. J. Gait ed. 1984); “Nucleic Acid Hybridization” [B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins eds. (1985)]; “Transcription And Translation” [B. D. Hames & S. J. Higgins, eds. (1984)]; “Animal Cell Culture” [R. I. Freshney, ed. (1986)]; “Immobilized Cells And Enzymes” [IRL Press, (1986)]; B. Perbal, “A Practical Guide To Molecular Cloning” (1984).

[0041] Therefore, if appearing herein, the following terms shall have the definitions set out below.

[0042] The terms “elongation factor-2 kinase”, “eEF-2 kinase ”, “EF-2 kinase”, “Cefk”, and any variants not specifically listed, may be used herein interchangeably, and as used throughout the present application and claims refer to proteinaceous material including single or multiple proteins, and extends to those proteins having the amino acid sequence data described herein and presented in FIGS. 1 and 5 (SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, abd 14), and the profile of activities set forth herein and in the claims. Accordingly, proteins displaying substantially equivalent or altered activity are likewise contemplated. These modifications may be deliberate, for example, such as modifications obtained through site-directed mutagenesis, or may be accidental, such as those obtained through mutations in hosts that are producers of the complex or its named subunits. Also, the terms elongation factor-2 kinase”, “eEF-2 kinase”, “EF-2 kinase”, and “Cefk” are intended to include within their scope proteins specifically recited herein as well as all substantially homologous analogs and allelic variations.

[0043] The amino acid residues described herein are preferred to be in the “L” isomeric form. However, residues in the “D” isomeric form can be substituted for any L-amino acid residue, as long as the desired fractional property of immunoglobulin-binding is retained by the polypeptide. NH2 refers to the free amino group present at the amino terminus of a polypeptide. COOH refers to the free carboxy group present at the carboxy terminus of a polypeptide. In keeping with standard polypeptide nomenclature, J. Biol. Chem., 243:3552-59 (1969), abbreviations for amino acid residues are shown in the following Table of Correspondence:

TABLE OF CORRESPONDENCE
SYMBOL
1-Letter 3-Letter AMINO ACID
Y Tyr tyrosine
G Gly glycine
F Phe phenylalanine
M Met methionine
A Ala alanine
S Ser serine
I Ile isoleucine
L Leu leucine
T Thr threonine
V Val valine
P Pro proline
K Lys lysine
H His histidine
Q Gln glutamine
E Glu glutamic acid
W Trp tryptophan
R Arg arginine
D Asp aspartic acid
N Asn asparagine
C Cys cysteine

[0044] It should be noted that all amino-acid residue sequences are represented herein by formulae whose left and right orientation is in the conventional direction of amino-terminus to carboxy-terminus. Furthermore, it should be noted that a dash at the beginning or end of an amino acid residue sequence indicates a peptide bond to a further sequence of one or more amino-acid residues. The above Table is presented to correlate the three-letter and one-letter notations which may appear alternately herein.

[0045] A “replicon” is any genetic element (e.g., plasmid, chromosome, virus) that functions as an autonomous unit of DNA replication in vivo; i.e., capable of replication under its own control.

[0046] A “vector” is a replicon, such as plasmid, phage or cosmid, to which another DNA segment may be attached so as to bring about the replication of the attached segment.

[0047] A “DNA molecule” refers to the polymeric form of deoxyribonucleotides (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine) in its either single stranded form, or a double-stranded helix. This term refers only to the primary and secondary structure of the molecule, and does not limit it to any particular tertiary forms. Thus, this term includes double-stranded DNA found, inter alia, in linear DNA molecules (e.g., restriction fragments), viruses, plasmids, and chromosomes. In discussing the structure of particular double-stranded DNA molecules, sequences may be described herein according to the normal convention of giving only the sequence in the 5′ to 3′ direction along the nontranscribed strand of DNA (i.e., the strand having a sequence homologous to the mRNA).

[0048] An “origin of replication” refers to those DNA sequences that participate in DNA synthesis.

[0049] A DNA “coding sequence” is a double-stranded DNA sequence which is transcribed and translated into a polypeptide in vivo when placed under the control of appropriate regulatory sequences. The boundaries of the coding sequence are determined by a start codon at the 5′ (amino) terminus and a translation stop codon at the 3′ (carboxyl) terminus. A coding sequence can include, but is not limited to, prokaryotic sequences, cDNA from eukaryotic mRNA, genomic DNA sequences from eukaryotic (e.g., mammalian) DNA, and even synthetic DNA sequences. A polyadenylation signal and transcription termination sequence will usually be located 3′ to the coding sequence.

[0050] Transcriptional and translational control sequences are DNA regulatory sequences, such as promoters, enhancers, polyadenylation signals, terminators, and the like, that provide for the expression of a coding sequence in a host cell.

[0051] A “promoter sequence” is a DNA regulatory region capable of binding RNA polymerase in a cell and initiating transcription of a downstream (3′ direction) coding sequence. For purposes of defining the present invention, the promoter sequence is bounded at its 3′ terminus by the transcription initiation site and extends upstream (5′ direction) to include the minimum number of bases or elements necessary to initiate transcription at levels detectable above background. Within the promoter sequence will be found a transcription initiation site (conveniently defined by mapping with nuclease S1), as well as protein binding domains (consensus sequences) responsible for the binding of RNA polymerase. Eukaryotic promoters will often, but not always, contain “TATA” boxes and “CAT” boxes. Prokaryotic promoters contain Shine-Dalgarno sequences in addition to the −10 and −35 consensus sequences.

[0052] An “expression control sequence” is a DNA sequence that controls and regulates the transcription and translation of another DNA sequence. A coding sequence is “under the control” of transcriptional and translational control sequences in a cell when RNA polymerase transcribes the coding sequence into mRNA, which is then translated into the protein encoded by the coding sequence.

[0053] A “signal sequence” can be included before the coding sequence. This sequence encodes a signal peptide, N-terminal to the polypeptide, that communicates to the host cell to direct the polypeptide to the cell surface or secrete the polypeptide into the media, and this signal peptide is clipped off by the host cell before the protein leaves the cell. Signal sequences can be found associated with a variety of proteins native to prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

[0054] The term “oligonucleotide,” as used herein in referring to the probe of the present invention, is defined as a molecule comprised of two or more ribonucleotides, preferably more than three. Its exact size will depend upon many factors which, in turn, depend upon the ultimate function and use of the oligonucleotide.

[0055] The term “primer” as used herein refers to an oligonucleotide, whether occurring naturally as in a purified restriction digest or produced synthetically, which is capable of acting as a point of initiation of synthesis when placed under conditions in which synthesis of a primer extension product, which is complementary to a nucleic acid strand, is induced, i.e., in the presence of nucleotides and an inducing agent such as a DNA polymerase and at a suitable temperature and pH. The primer may be either single-stranded or double-stranded and must be sufficiently long to prime the synthesis of the desired extension product in the presence of the inducing agent. The exact length of the primer will depend upon many factors, including temperature, source of primer and use of the method. For example, for diagnostic applications, depending on the complexity of the target sequence, the oligonucleotide primer typically contains 15-25 or more nucleotides, although it may contain fewer nucleotides.

[0056] The primers herein are selected to be “substantially” complementary to different strands of a particular target DNA sequence. This means that the primers must be sufficiently complementary to hybridize with their respective strands. Therefore, the primer sequence need not reflect the exact sequence of the template. For example, a non-complementary nucleotide fragment may be attached to the 5′ end of the primer, with the remainder of the primer sequence being complementary to the strand. Alternatively, non-complementary bases or longer sequences can be interspersed into the primer, provided that the primer sequence has sufficient complementarity with the sequence of the strand to hybridize therewith and thereby form the template for the synthesis of the extension product.

[0057] As used herein, the terms “restriction endonucleases” and “restriction enzymes” refer to bacterial enzymes, each of which cut double-stranded DNA at or near a specific nucleotide sequence.

[0058] A cell has been “transformed” by exogenous or heterologous DNA when such DNA has been introduced inside the cell. The transforming DNA may or may not be integrated (covalently linked) into chromosomal DNA making up the genome of the cell. In prokaryotes, yeast, and mammalian cells for example, the transforming DNA may be maintained on an episomal element such as a plasmid. With respect to eukaryotic cells, a stably transformed cell is one in which the transforming DNA has become integrated into a chromosome so that it is inherited by daughter cells through chromosome replication. This stability is demonstrated by the ability of the eukaryotic cell to establish cell lines or clones comprised of a population of daughter cells containing the transforming DNA. A “clone” is a population of cells derived from a single cell or common ancestor by mitosis. A “cell line” is a clone of a primary cell that is capable of stable growth in vitro for many generations.

[0059] Two DNA sequences are “substantially homologous” when at least about 75% (preferably at least about 80%, and most preferably at least about 90 or 95%) of the nucleotides match over the defined length of the DNA sequences. Sequences that are substantially homologous can be identified by comparing the sequences using standard software available in sequence data banks, or in a Southern hybridization experiment under, for example, stringent conditions as defined for that particular system. Defining appropriate hybridization conditions is within the skill of the art. See, e.g., Maniatis et al., supra; DNA Cloning, Vols. I & II, supra; Nucleic Acid Hybridization, supra.

[0060] It should be appreciated that also within the scope of the present invention are DNA sequences encoding eEF-2 kinase which code for a protein having the same amino acid sequence as SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, and 10, but which are degenerate to SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, and 9. By “degenerate to” is meant that a different three-letter codon is used to specify a particular amino acid. It is well known in the art that the following codons can be used interchangeably to code for each specific amino acid:

Phenylalanine (Phe or F) UUU or UUC
Leucine (Leu or L) UUA or UUG or CUU or CUC or CUA or
CUG
Isoleucine (Ile or I) AUU or AUC or AUA
Methionine (Met or M) AUG
Valine (Val or V) GUU or GUC of GUA or GUG
Serine (Ser or S) UCU or UCC or UCA or UCG or AGU or
AGC
Proline (Pro or P) CCU or CCC or CCA or CCG
Threonine (Thr or T) ACU or ACC or ACA or ACG
Alanine (Ala or A) GCU or GCG or GCA or GCG
Tyrosine (Tyr or Y) UAU or UAC
Histidine (His or H) CAU or CAC
Glutamine (Gln or Q) CAA or CAG
Asparagine (Asn or N) AAU or AAC
Lysine (Lys or K) AAA or AAG
Aspartic Acid (Asp or D) GAU or GAC
Glutamic Acid (Glu or E) GAA or GAG
Cysteine (Cys or C) UGU or UGC
Arginine (Arg or R) CGU or CGC or CGA or CGG or AGA or
AGG
Glycine (Gly or G) GGU or GGC or GGA or GGG
Tryptophan (Trp or W) UGG
Termination codon UAA (ochre) or UAG (amber) or UGA (opal)

[0061] It should be understood that the codons specified above are for RNA sequences. The corresponding codons for DNA have a T substituted for U.

[0062] Mutations can be made in SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, and 9 such that a particular codon is changed to a codon which codes for a different amino acid. Such a mutation is generally made by making the fewest nucleotide changes possible. A substitution mutation of this sort can be made to change an amino acid in the resulting protein in a non-conservative manner (i.e., by changing the codon from an amino acid belonging to a grouping of amino acids having a particular size or characteristic to an amino acid belonging to another grouping) or in a conservative manner (i.e., by changing the codon from an amino acid belonging to a grouping of amino acids having a particular size or characteristic to an amino acid belonging to the same grouping). Such a conservative change generally leads to less change in the structure and function of the resulting protein. A non-conservative change is more likely to alter the structure, activity or function of the resulting protein. The present invention should be considered to include sequences containing conservative changes which do not significantly alter the activity or binding characteristics of the resulting protein.

[0063] The following is one example of various groupings of amino acids:

[0064] Amino Acids With Nonpolar R Groups

[0065] Alanine

[0066] Valine

[0067] Leucine

[0068] Isoleucine

[0069] Proline

[0070] Phenylalanine

[0071] Tryptophan

[0072] Methionine

[0073] Amino Acids With Uncharged Polar R Groups

[0074] Glycine

[0075] Serine

[0076] Threonine

[0077] Cysteine

[0078] Tyrosine

[0079] Asparagine

[0080] Glutamine

[0081] Amino Acids With Charged Polar R Groups (Negatively Charged at pH 6.0)

[0082] Aspartic acid

[0083] Glutamic acid

[0084] Basic Amino Acids (Positively Charged at pH 6.0)

[0085] Lysine

[0086] Arginine

[0087] Histidine (at pH 6.0)

[0088] Another Grouping May be Those Amino Acids With Phenyl Groups:

[0089] Phenylalanine

[0090] Tryptophan

[0091] Tyrosine

[0092] Another Grouping May be According to Molecular Weight (i.e., Size of R Groups):

Glycine  75
Alanine  89
Serine 105
Proline 115
Valine 117
Threonine 119
Cysteine 121
Leucine 131
Isoleucine 131
Asparagine 132
Aspartic acid 133
Glutamine 146
Lysine 146
Glutamic acid 147
Methionine 149
Histidine (at pH 6.0) 155
Phenylalanine 165
Arginine 174
Tyrosine 181
Tryptophan 204

[0093] Particularly preferred substitutions are:

[0094] Lys for Ar, and vice versa such that a positive charge may be maintained;

[0095] Glu for Asp and vice versa such that a negative charge may be maintained;

[0096] Ser for Thr such that a free —OH can be maintained; and

[0097] Gln for Asn such that a free NH2 can be maintained.

[0098] Amino acid substitutions may also be introduced to substitute an amino acid with a particularly preferable property. For example, a Cys may be introduced a potential site for disulfide bridges with another Cys. A His may be introduced as a particularly “catalytic” site (i.e., His can act as an acid or base and is the most common amino acid in biochemical catalysis). Pro may be introduced because of its particularly planar structure, which induces β-turns in the protein's structure.

[0099] Two amino acid sequences are “substantially homologous” when at least about 70% of the amino acid residues (preferably at least about 80%, and most preferably at least about 90 or 95%) are identical, or represent conservative substitutions.

[0100] A “heterologous” region of the DNA construct is an identifiable segment of DNA within a larger DNA molecule that is not found in association with the larger molecule in nature. Thus, when the heterologous region encodes a mammalian gene, the gene will usually be flanked by DNA that does not flank the mammalian genomic DNA in the genome of the source organism. Another example of a heterologous coding sequence is a construct where the coding sequence itself is not found in nature (e.g., a cDNA where the genomic coding sequence contains introns, or synthetic sequences having codons different than the native gene). Allelic variations or naturally-occurring mutational events do not give rise to a heterologous region of DNA as defined herein.

[0101] An “antibody” is any immunoglobulin, including antibodies and fragments thereof, that binds a specific epitope. The term encompasses polyclonal, monoclonal, and chimeric antibodies, the last mentioned described in further detail in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,816,397 and 4,816,567.

[0102] An “antibody combining site” is that structural portion of an antibody molecule comprised of heavy and light chain variable and hypervariable regions that specifically binds antigen.

[0103] The phrase “antibody molecule” in its various grammatical forms as used herein contemplates both an intact immunoglobulin molecule and an immunologically active portion of an immunoglobulin molecule.

[0104] Exemplary antibody molecules are intact immunoglobulin molecules, substantially intact immunoglobulin molecules and those portions of an immunoglobulin molecule that contains the paratope, including those portions known in the art as Fab, Fab′, F(ab′)2 and F(v), which portions are preferred for use in the therapeutic methods described herein.

[0105] Fab and F(ab′)2 portions of antibody molecules are prepared by the proteolytic reaction of papain and pepsin, respectively, on substantially intact antibody molecules by methods that are well-known. See for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,342,566 to Theofilopolous et al. Fab′ antibody molecule portions are also well-known and are produced from F(ab′)2 portions followed by reduction of the disulfide bonds linking the two heavy chain portions as with mercaptoethanol, and followed by alkylation of the resulting protein mercaptan with a reagent such as iodoacetamide. An antibody containing intact antibody molecules is preferred herein.

[0106] The phrase “monoclonal antibody” in its various grammatical forms refers to an antibody having only one species of antibody combining site capable of immunoreacting with a particular antigen. A monoclonal antibody thus typically displays a single binding affinity for any antigen with which it immunoreacts. A monoclonal antibody may therefore contain an antibody molecule having a plurality of antibody combining sites, each immunospecific for a different antigen; e.g., a bispecific (chimeric) monoclonal antibody.

[0107] The phrase “pharmaceutically acceptable” refers to molecular entities and compositions that are physiologically tolerable and do not typically produce an allergic or similar untoward reaction, such as gastric upset, dizziness and the like, when administered to a human.

[0108] The phrase “therapeutically effective amount” is used herein to mean an amount sufficient to prevent. and preferably reduce by at least about 30 percent, more preferably by at least 50 percent, most preferably by at least 90 percent, a clinically significant change in the S phase activity of a target cellular mass, or other feature of pathology such as for example, elevated blood pressure, fever or white cell count as may attend its presence and activity.

[0109] A DNA sequence is “operatively linked” to an expression control sequence when the expression control sequence controls and regulates the transcription and translation of that DNA sequence. The term “operatively linked” includes having an appropriate start signal (e.g., ATG) in front of the DNA sequence to be expressed and maintaining the correct reading frame to permit expression of the DNA sequence under the control of the expression control sequence and production of the desired product encoded by the DNA sequence. If a gene that one desires to insert into a recombinant DNA molecule does not contain an appropriate start signal, such a start signal can be inserted in front of the gene.

[0110] The term “standard hybridization conditions” refers to salt and temperature conditions substantially equivalent to 5 SSC and 65 C. for both hybridization and wash. However, one skilled in the art will appreciate that such “standard hybridization conditions” are dependent on particular conditions including the concentration of sodium and magnesium in the buffer, nucleotide sequence length and concentration, percent mismatch, percent formamide, and the like. Also important in the determination of “standard hybridization conditions” is whether the two sequences hybridizing are RNA-RNA, DNA-DNA or RNA-DNA. Such standard hybridization conditions are easily determined by one skilled in the art according to well known formulae, wherein hybridization is typically 10-20 C. below the predicted or determined Tm with washes of higher stringency, if desired.

[0111] In one aspect, the present invention relates to the identification of a new superfamily of protein kinases centered around eEF-2 kinase. Accordingly, it includes the DNA sequences coding for these family members. In addition, the invention also contemplates that each member of this new protein kinase superfamily has its own cognate phosphorylation target. As specified supra, two of these targets are eEF-2 and MHC, which are phosphorylated by eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A, respectively.

[0112] In a particular embodiment, the present invention relates to phosphorylation target analogs, which are short peptide sequences derived from phosphorylation targets of this new superfamily of protein kinases centered around eEF-2 kinase. Specifically, it is contemplated that these peptide analogs will be instrumental in the development of high throughput screening assays to identify inhibitors of members of this new superfamily.

[0113] As overexpression of eEF-2 kinase has been associated with a variety of cancers and other hyperproliferitive pathologies (discussed supra), the invention also includes assay systems for the screening of potential drugs effective at inhibiting eEF-2 kinase activity. It is contemplated that any of the recited assays can be automated using technology that is standard to the skilled artisan.

[0114] As stated above, the present invention also relates to a recombinant DNA molecule or cloned gene, or a degenerate variant thereof, which encodes a eEF-2 kinase, or a fragment thereof, that possesses a molecular weight of about 100 kD and an amino acid sequence set forth in FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 2, 4, and 10); preferably a nucleic acid molecule, in particular a recombinant DNA molecule or cloned gene, encoding the 100 kD eEF-2 kinase has a nucleotide sequence or is complementary to a DNA sequence shown in FIG. 5 (SEQ ID NO: 1, 3, and 9).

[0115] Therapeutic possibilities are raised by the knowledge of the eEF-2 kinase sequence and the existence of peptide analogs that can act as phosphorylation targets for the kinase. Accordingly, it is contemplated that sequences that are derived from the complement to the eEF-2 kinase mRNA sequence, and various modifications thereof, can act as potent antisense drugs that either inhibit expression in a competitive fashion, or, more effectively, by nuclease activity associated with the antisense drug that cleaves the eEF-2 kinase mRNA sequence, thus rendering it irreversibly inactive. Alternative therapeutics are also contemplated that concern the use of peptides and peptide analogs representing portions of phosphorylation target amino acid sequences. It is envisioned that such peptide-based drugs would inhibit eEF-2 kinase activity on its native target, thus bypassing the cascade of events that would lead to malignant transformation.

[0116] The antisense or peptide-based drugs may be prepared in pharmaceutical compositions, with a suitable carrier and at a strength effective for administration by various means to a patient experiencing an adverse medical condition associated with specific malignancies for the treatment thereof. A variety of administrative techniques may be utilized, among them parenteral techniques such as subcutaneous, intravenous and intraperitoneal injections, catheterizations and the like. Average quantities of the antisense or peptide-based drugs may vary and in particular should be based upon the recommendations and prescription of a qualified physician or veterinarian.

[0117] Also, antibodies including both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, and drugs that modulate the production or activity of eEF-2 kinase may possess certain diagnostic applications and may, for example, be utilized for the purpose of detecting and/or measuring levels of eEF-2 kinase. It is anticipated that further experimentation will reveal a prognostic correlation between eEF-2 kinase levels and the prediction and or progression of certain malignancies associated with carcinoma. For example, eEF-2 kinase may be used to produce both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to themselves in a variety of cellular media, by known techniques such as the hybridoma technique utilizing, for example, fused mouse spleen lymphocytes and myeloma cells. Likewise, small molecules that mimic or antagonize the activity of eEF-2 kinase of the invention may be discovered or synthesized, and may be used in diagnostic and/or therapeutic protocols.

[0118] The general methodology for making monoclonal antibodies by hybridomas is well known. Immortal, antibody-producing cell lines can also be created by techniques other than fusion, such as direct transformation of B lymphocytes with oncogenic DNA, or transfection with Epstein-Barr virus. See, e.g., M. Schreier et al., “Hybridoma Techniques” (1980); Hammerling et al., “Monoclonal Antibodies And T-cell Hybridomas” (1981); Kennett et al., “Monoclonal Antibodies” (1980); see also U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,341,761; 4,399,121; 4,427,783; 4,444,887; 4,451,570; 4,466,917; 4,472,500; 4,491,632; 4,493,890.

[0119] Panels of monoclonal antibodies produced against eEF-2 kinase peptides can be screened for various properties; i.e., isotype, epitope, affinity, etc. Of particular interest are monoclonal antibodies that neutralize the activity of eEF-2 kinase. Such monoclonals can be readily identified in eEF-2 kinase activity assays. High affinity antibodies are also useful when immunoaffinity purification of native or recombinant eEF-2 kinase is desired.

[0120] Preferably, the anti-eEF-2 kinase antibody used in the diagnostic methods of this invention is an affinity purified polyclonal antibody. More preferably, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody (mAb). In addition, it is preferable for the anti-eEF-2 kinase antibody molecules used herein be in the form of Fab, Fab′, F(ab′)2 or F(v) portions of whole antibody molecules.

[0121] As suggested earlier, the diagnostic method of the present invention comprises examining a cellular sample or medium by means of an assay including an effective amount of an antagonist to eEF-2 kinase, such as an anti-eEF-2 kinase antibody, preferably an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody, and more preferably a mAb. In addition, it is preferable for the anti-eEF-2 kinase antibody molecules used herein be in the form of Fab, Fab′, F(ab′)2 or F(v) portions or whole antibody molecules. As previously discussed, patients capable of benefiting from this method include those suffering from cancer, a pre-cancerous lesion, a viral infection or other like pathological derangement. Methods for isolating the eEF-2 kinase and inducing anti-eEF-2 kinase antibodies and for determining and optimizing the ability of anti-eEF-2 kinase antibodies to assist in the examination of the target cells are all well-known in the art.

[0122] Methods for producing polyclonal anti-polypeptide antibodies are well-known in the art. See U.S. Pat. No. 4,493,795 to Nestor et al. A monoclonal antibody, typically containing Fab and/or F(ab′)2 portions of useful antibody molecules, can be prepared using the hybridoma technology described in Antibodies—A Laboratory Manual, Harlow and Lane, eds., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York (1988), which is incorporated herein by reference.

[0123] Splenocytes are typically fused with myeloma cells using polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Fused hybrids are selected by their sensitivity to HAT. Hybridomas producing a monoclonal antibody useful in practicing this invention are identified by their ability to immunoreact with the present eEF-2 kinase and their ability to inhibit specified eEF-2 kinase activity in target cells.

[0124] A monoclonal antibody useful in practicing the present invention can be produced by initiating a monoclonal hybridoma culture comprising a nutrient medium containing a hybridoma that secretes antibody molecules of the appropriate antigen specificity. The culture is maintained under conditions and for a time period sufficient for the hybridoma to secrete the antibody molecules into the medium. The antibody-containing medium is then collected. The antibody molecules can then be further isolated by well-known techniques.

[0125] Media useful for the preparation of these compositions are both well-known in the art and commercially available and include synthetic culture media, inbred mice and the like. An exemplary synthetic medium is Dulbecco's minimal essential medium (DMEM; Dulbecco et al., Virol. 8:396 (1959)) supplemented with 4.5 gm/l glucose, 20 mM glutamine, and 20% fetal calf serum. An exemplary inbred mouse strain is the Balb/c.

[0126] Methods for producing monoclonal anti-eEF-2 kinase antibodies are also well-known in the art. See Niman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:4949-4953 (1983). Typically, the present eEF-2 kinase or a peptide analog is used either alone or conjugated to an immunogenic carrier, as the immunogen in the before described procedure for producing anti-eEF-2 kianse monoclonal antibodies. The hybridomas are screened for the ability to produce an antibody that immunoreacts with the eEF-2 kinase peptide analog and the present eEF-2 kinase.

[0127] The present invention further contemplates therapeutic compositions useful in practicing the therapeutic methods of this invention. A subject therapeutic composition includes, in admixture, a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient (carrier) and one or more of an anti-eEF-2 kinase antibody, peptide analog capable of competing for phosphorylation of eEF-2 by eEF-2 kinase. antisense drug against eEF-2 kinase mRNA, or any other compound that is found to inhibit eEF-2 kinase activity. In a preferred embodiment, the composition comprises an antigen capable of modulating the activity of eEF-2 kinase within a target cell.

[0128] The preparation of therapeutic compositions which contain polypeptides, analogs or active fragments as active ingredients is well understood in the art. Typically, such compositions are prepared as injectables, either as liquid solutions or suspensions, however, solid forms suitable for solution in, or suspension in, liquid prior to injection can also be prepared. The preparation can also be emulsified. The active therapeutic ingredient is often mixed with excipients which are pharmaceutically acceptable and compatible with the active ingredient. Suitable excipients are, for example, water, saline, dextrose, glycerol, ethanol, or the like and combinations thereof. In addition, if desired, the composition can contain minor amounts of auxiliary substances such as wetting or emulsifying agents, pH buffering agents which enhance the effectiveness of the active ingredient.

[0129] A polypeptide, analog or active fragment can be formulated into the therapeutic composition as neutralized pharmaceutically acceptable salt forms. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include the acid addition salts (formed with the free amino groups of the polypeptide or antibody molecule) and which are formed with inorganic acids such as, for example, hydrochloric or phosphoric acids, or such organic acids as acetic, oxalic, tartaric, mandelic, and the like. Salts formed from the free carboxyl groups can also be derived from inorganic bases such as, for example, sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, or ferric hydroxides, and such organic bases as isopropylamine, trimethylamine, 2-ethylamino ethanol, histidine, procaine, and the like.

[0130] The therapeutic polypeptide-, analog- or active fragment-containing compositions are conventionally administered intravenously, as by injection of a unit dose, for example. The term “unit dose” when used in reference to a therapeutic composition of the present invention refers to physically discrete units suitable as unitary dosage for humans, each unit containing a predetermined quantity of active material calculated to produce the desired therapeutic effect in association with the required diluent; i.e., carrier, or vehicle.

[0131] The compositions are administered in a manner compatible with the dosage formulation, and in a therapeutically effective amount. The quantity to be administered depends on the subject to be treated, capacity of the subject's immune system to utilize the active ingredient, and degree of inhibition or neutralization of eEF-2 kinase activity desired. Precise amounts of active ingredient required to be administered depend on the judgment of the practitioner and are peculiar to each individual. However, suitable dosages may range from about 0.1 to 20, preferably about 0.5 to about 10, and more preferably one to several, milligrams of active ingredient per kilogram body weight of individual per day and depend on the route of administration. Suitable regimes for initial administration and booster shots are also variable, but are typified by an initial administration followed by repeated doses at one or more hour intervals by a subsequent injection or other administration. Alternatively, continuous intravenous infusion sufficient to maintain concentrations of ten nanomolar to ten micromolar in the blood are contemplated.

Formulations

[0132]

Ingredient mg/ml
Intravenous Formulation I
cefotaxime 250.0
antibody, peptide, antisense drug, or other compound 10.0
dextrose USP 45.0
sodium bisulfite USP 3.2
edetate disodium USP 0.1
water for injection q.s.a.d. 1.0 ml
Intravenous Formulation II
ampicillin 250.0
antibody, peptide, antisense drug, or other compound 10.0
sodium bisulfite USP 3.2
disodium edetate USP 0.1
water for injection q.s.a.d. 1.0 ml
Intravenous Formulation III
gentamicin (charged as sulfate) 40.0
antibody, peptide, antisense drug, or other compound 10.0
sodium bisulfite USP 3.2
disodium edetate USP 0.1
water for injection q.s.a.d. 1.0 ml
Intravenous Formulation IV
antibody, peptide, antisense drug, or other compound 10.0
dextrose USP 45.0
sodium bisulfite USP 3.2
edetate disodium USP 0.1
water for injection q.s.a.d. 1.0 ml

[0133] As used herein, “pg” means picogram, “ng” means nanogram, “ug” or “μg” mean microgram, “mg” means milligram, “ul” or “μl” mean microliter, “ml” means milliliter, “l” means liter.

[0134] Another feature of this invention is the expression of the DNA sequences disclosed herein. As is well known in the art, DNA sequences may be expressed by operatively linking them to an expression control sequence in an appropriate expression vector and employing that expression vector to transform an appropriate unicellular host.

[0135] Such operative linking of a DNA sequence of this invention to an expression control sequence, of course, includes, if not already part of the DNA sequence, the provision of an initiation codon, ATG, in the correct reading frame upstream of the DNA sequence.

[0136] A wide variety of host/expression vector combinations may be employed in expressing the DNA sequences of this invention. Useful expression vectors, for example, may consist of segments of chromosomal, non-chromosomal and synthetic DNA sequences. Suitable vectors include derivatives of SV40 and known bacterial plasmids, e.g., E. coli plasmids col E1, pCR1, pBR322, pMB9 and their derivatives, plasmids such as RP4; phage DNAS, e.g., the numerous derivatives of phage λ, e.g., NM989, and other phage DNA, e.g., M13 and filamentous single stranded phage DNA; yeast plasmids such as the 2μ plasmid or derivatives thereof; vectors useful in eukaryotic cells, such as vectors useful in insect or mammalian cells; vectors derived from combinations of plasmids and phage DNAs, such as plasmids that have been modified to employ phage DNA or other expression control sequences; and the like.

[0137] Any of a wide variety of expression control sequences—sequences that control the expression of a DNA sequence operatively linked to it—may be used in these vectors to express the DNA sequences of this invention. Such useful expression control sequences include, for example, the early or late promoters of SV40, CMV, vaccinia, polyoma or adenovirus, the lac system, the tip system, the TAC system, the TRC system, the LTR system, the major operator and promoter regions of phage λ, the control regions of fd coat protein, the promoter for 3-phosphoglycerate kinase or other glycolytic enzymes, the promoters of acid phosphatase (e.g., PhoS), the promoters of the yeast α-mating factors, and other sequences known to control the expression of genes of prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells or their viruses, and various combinations thereof.

[0138] A wide variety of unicellular host cells are also useful in expressing the DNA sequences of this invention. These hosts may include well known eukaryotic and prokaryotic hosts, such as strains of E. coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Streptomyces, fungi such as yeasts, and animal cells, such as CHO, R1.1, B-W and L-M cells, African Green Monkey kidney cells (e.g., COS 1, COS 7, BSC1, BSC40, and BMT10), insect cells (e.g., Sf9), and human cells and plant cells in tissue culture.

[0139] It will be understood that not all vectors, expression control sequences and hosts will function equally well to express the DNA sequences of this invention. Neither will all hosts function equally well with the same expression system. However, one skilled in the art will be able to select the proper vectors, expression control sequences, and hosts without undue experimentation to accomplish the desired expression without departing from the scope of this invention. For example, in selecting a vector, the host must be considered because the vector must function in it. The vector's copy number, the ability to control that copy number, and the expression of any other proteins encoded by the vector, such as antibiotic markers, will also be considered.

[0140] In selecting an expression control sequence, a variety of factors will normally be considered. These include, for example, the relative strength of the system, its controllability, and its compatibility with the particular DNA sequence or gene to be expressed, particularly as regards potential secondary structures. Suitable unicellular hosts will be selected by consideration of, e.g., their compatibility with the chosen vector, their secretion characteristics, their ability to fold proteins correctly, and their fermentation requirements, as well as the toxicity to the host of the product encoded by the DNA sequences to be expressed, and the ease of purification of the expression products.

[0141] Considering these and other factors, a person skilled in the art will be able to construct a variety of vector/expression control sequence/host combinations that will express the DNA sequences of this invention on fermentation or in large scale animal culture.

[0142] The present invention extends to the preparation of antisense oligonucleotides and ribozymes that may be used to interfere with the expression of the eEF-2 kinase gene at the translational level. This approach utilizes antisense nucleic acid and ribozymes to block translation of a specific mRNA, either by masking that mRNA with an antisense nucleic acid or cleaving it with a ribozyme.

[0143] Antisense nucleic acids are DNA or RNA molecules that are complementary to at least a portion of a specific mRNA molecule. (See Weintraub, 1990; Marcus-Sekura, 1988.) In the cell, they hybridize to that mRNA, forming a double stranded molecule. The cell does not translate an mRNA in this double-stranded form. Therefore, antisense nucleic acids interfere with the expression of mRNA into protein. Oligomers of about fifteen nucleotides and molecules that hybridize to the AUG initiation codon will be particularly efficient, since they are easy to synthesize and are likely to pose fewer problems than larger molecules when introducing them into eEF-2 kinase-producing cells. Antisense methods have been used to inhibit the expression of many genes in vitro (Marcus-Sekura, 1988; Hambor et al., 1988).

[0144] Ribozymes are RNA molecules possessing the ability to specifically cleave other single stranded RNA molecules in a manner somewhat analogous to DNA restriction endonucleases. Ribozymes were discovered from the observation that certain mRNAs have the ability to excise their own introns. By modifying the nucleotide sequence of these RNAs, researchers have been able to engineer molecules that recognize specific nucleotide sequences in an RNA molecule and cleave it (Cech, 1988.). Because they are sequence-specific, only mRNAs with particular sequences are inactivated.

[0145] Investigators have identified two types of ribozymes, Tetrahymena-type and “hammerhead”-type. (Hasselhoff and Gerlach, 1988) Tetrahymena-type ribozymes recognize four-base sequences, while “hammerhead”-type recognize eleven- to eighteen-base sequences. The longer the recognition sequence, the more likely it is to occur exclusively in the target mRNA species. Therefore, hammerhead-type ribozymes are preferable to Tetrahymena-type ribozymes for inactivating a specific mRNA species, and eighteen base recognition sequences are preferable to shorter recognition sequences.

[0146] The DNA sequences described herein may thus be used to prepare antisense molecules against, and ribozymes that cleave mRNAs for eEF-2 kinase.

[0147] The present invention also relates to a variety of diagnostic applications, including methods for detecting and quantifying the levels of eEF-2 kinase. As mentioned earlier, eEF-2 kinase can be used to produce antibodies to itself by a variety of known techniques, and such antibodies could then be isolated and utilized as in tests for the presence and levels of eEF-2 kinase activity in suspect target cells.

[0148] As described in detail above, antibody(ies) to eEF-2 kinase can be produced and isolated by standard methods including the well known hybridoma techniques. For convenience, the antibody(ies) to eEF-2 kinase will be referred to herein as Ab1 and antibody(ies) raised in another species as Ab2.

[0149] The presence and levels of eEF-2 kinase in cells can be ascertained by the usual immunological procedures applicable to such determinations. A number of useful procedures are known. Three such procedures which are especially useful, utilize either eEF-2 kinase labeled with a detectable label, antibody Ab1 labeled with a detectable label, or antibody Ab2 labeled with a detectable label. The procedures may be summarized by the following equations wherein the asterisk indicates that the particle is labeled, and “” stands for eEF-2 kinase:

*+Ab 1= *Ab 1  A.

+Ab*= Ab 1*

+Ab 1 +Ab 2 * =Ab 1 Ab 2*

[0150] The procedures and their application are all familiar to those skilled in the art and accordingly may be utilized within the scope of the present invention. The “competitive” procedure, Procedure A, is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,654,090 and 3,850,752. Procedure C, the “sandwich” procedure, is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. RE 31,006 and 4,016,043. Still other procedures are known such as the “double antibody,” or “DASP” procedure.

[0151] In each instance, eEF-2 kinase forms complexes with one or more antibody(ies) or binding partners and one member of the complex is labeled with a detectable label. The fact that a complex has formed and, if desired. the amount thereof, can be determined by known methods applicable to the detection of labels.

[0152] It will be seen from the above, that a characteristic property of Ab2 is that it will react with Ab1. This is because Ab1 raised in one mammalian species has been used in another species as an antigen to raise the antibody Ab2. For example, Ab2 may be raised in goats using rabbit antibodies as antigens. Ab2 therefore would be anti-rabbit antibody raised in goats. For purposes of this description and claims, Ab1 will be referred to as a primary or anti-eEF-2 kinase antibody, and Ab2 will be referred to as a secondary or anti-Ab1 antibody.

[0153] The labels most commonly employed for these studies are radioactive elements, enzymes, chemicals which fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light, and others.

[0154] A number of fluorescent materials are known and can be utilized as labels. These include, for example, fluorescein, rhodamine, auramine, Texas Red, AMCA blue and Lucifer Yellow. A particular detecting material is anti-rabbit antibody prepared in goats and conjugated with fluorescein through an isothiocyanate.

[0155] eEF-2 kinase can also be labeled with a radioactive element or with an enzyme. The radioactive label can be detected by any of the currently available counting procedures. The preferred isotope may be selected from 3H, 14C, 32P, 33P, 35S, 36Cl, 5″Cr, 57Co, 58Co, 59Fe, 90Y, 125I, 131I, and 186Re.

[0156] Enzyme labels are likewise useful, and can be detected by any of the presently utilized calorimetric, spectrophotometric, fluorospectrophotometric, amperometric or gasometric techniques. The enzyme is conjugated to the selected particle by reaction with bridging molecules such as carbodiimides, diisocyanates, glutaraldehyde and the like. Many enzymes which can be used in these procedures are known and can be utilized. The preferred are peroxidase, β-glucuronidase, β-D-glucosidase, β-D-galactosidase, urease, glucose oxidase plus peroxidase and alkaline phosphatase. U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,654,090; 3,850,752; and 4,016,043 are referred to by way of example for their disclosure of alternate labeling material and methods.

[0157] A particular assay system developed and utilized in accordance with the present invention, is known as a receptor assay. In a receptor assay, the material to be assayed is appropriately labeled and then certain cellular test colonies are inoculated with a quantity of both the labeled and unlabeled material after which binding studies are conducted to determine the extent to which the labeled material binds to the cell receptors. In this way, differences in affinity between materials can be ascertained.

[0158] Accordingly, a purified quantity of the eEF-2 kinase may be radiolabeled and combined, for example, with antibodies or other inhibitors thereto, after which binding studies would be carried out. Solutions would then be prepared that contain various quantities of labeled and unlabeled uncombined eEF-2 kinase, and cell samples would then be inoculated and thereafter incubated. The resulting cell monolayers are then washed, solubilized and then counted in a gamma counter for a length of time sufficient to yield a standard error of <5%. These data are then subjected to Scatchard analysis after which observations and conclusions regarding material activity can be drawn. While the foregoing is exemplary, it illustrates the manner in which a receptor assay may be performed and utilized, in the instance where the cellular binding ability of the assayed material may serve as a distinguishing characteristic.

[0159] In accordance with the above, an assay system for screening potential drugs effective to modulate the activity of eEF-2 kinase may be prepared. The eEF-2 kinase may be introduced into a test system, and the prospective drug may also be introduced into the resulting cell culture, and the culture thereafter examined to observe any changes in the eEF-2 kinase activity of the cells, due either to the addition of the prospective drug alone, or due to the effect of added quantities of the known eEF-2 kinase. Alternatively, these assays can be carried out in a purely in vitro fashion as discussed below.

Preliminary Considerations

[0160] The following examples are presented in order to more fully illustrate the preferred embodiments of the invention. They should in no way be construed, however, as limiting the broad scope of the invention.

EXAMPLE 1

[0161] Peptide Sequencing. eEF-2 kinase from rabbit reticulocyte lysate was purified as described (Hait et al., (1996) FEBS Lett. 397:55-60). Peptides were generated from the nitrocellulose-bound 103-kDa eEF-2 kinase protein by in situ tryptic digestion (Erdjument-Bromage et al., (1994) Protein Sci. 3:2435-2446) and fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC (Elicone et al., (1994) J. Chromatogr. 676:121-137) using a 1.0 mm Reliasil C18 column. Selected peak fraction were then analyzed by a combination of automated Edman sequencing and matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Erdjument-Bromage et al., (1994)). The peptide sequences provided an essential lead into the cloning of eEF-2 kinase from human, mouse, rat, and Caenorhabditis elegans.

EXAMPLE 2

[0162] Molecular Cloning of cDNAs Encoding C. elegans, Mouse, Rat, and Human eEF-2 Kinases. To clone the cDNA for C. elegans eEF-2 kinase, oligonucleotide primers were designed based on the amino and carboxy termini of the predicted gene product from F42A10.4. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) was performed using these primers and total RNA from C. elegans (a gift form Monica Driscoll, Rutgers University). A single PCR product of ˜2.3 kb was obtained and gel-purified using a gel extraction kit (Qiagen, Chatsworth, Calif.). The fragment was ligated into vector pCR2.1 using the TA cloning kit (Invitrogen, Sorrento Valley, Calif.), and then transformed into Escherichia coli. Plasmid DNA was purified, and restriction analysis used to verify the orientation of the coding sequence with respect to the T7 promoter. Two clones (Cefk-1 and Cefk-2, C. elegans eEF-2 kinase isoforms 1 and 2) were chosen and sequenced using a Li-Cor (Lincoln, Nebr.) Long Read IR model 400L Automated DNA Sequencer. Analysis revealed that the two clones were identical except for a deletion of 24 bp in Cefk-2 which corresponds to exon 4 and probably represents an alternatively spliced form.

[0163] To clone the mouse eEF-2 kinase, degenerate primers were designed based on the amino acid sequence of two peptides from rabbit eEF-2 kinase (LTPQAFSHFTFER (SEQ ID NO: 21) and LANXYYEKAE (SEQ ID NO: 22)): primer A, CA(G/A)GC(C/G/T/A)TT(C/T)(T/A)(C/G)(T/CCA(C/T)TT(C/T)AC(C/G/T/A)TT (C/T)GA(G/A(C/A)G (SEQ ID NO: 23); and primer B, TC(C/G/T/A)GC(C/T)TT(C/T)TC(G/A)TA(G/A)TA(C/T)TT(G/A)TT(C/G/A/T)G C (SEQ ID NO: 24). RT-PCR was performed using primers A and B and poly(A)+ RNA from mouse spleen (CLONTECH). A single PCR product (1.6 kb) was cloned into pCR2.1 (Invitrogen) and sequenced. Using sequence information form these mouse eEF-2 kinase cDNA fragments, new primers were designed for 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and 3′ RACE to obtain full-length mouse eEF-2 kinase cDNA. 5′ RACE and 3′ RACE were performed using Marathon-Ready mouse spleen cDNA (CLONTECH). This was carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions using the primers AP1 and C (TACAATCAGCTGATGACCAGAACGCTC) (SEQ ID NO: 25) 5′ antisense, or D (GGATTTGGACTGGACAAGAACCCCC) (SEQ ID NO: 19) 3′ sense.

[0164] To clone rat eEF-2 kinases, PCR was performed on a rat PC12 cDNA library cloned in λGT10 (CLONTECH) using primer B and vector primers. A 700-bp fragment was specifically amplified. The fragment was cloned into pCR2.1 (Invitrogen) and sequenced. This 700-bp fragments was radiolabeled and used to probe the same PC12 cDNA library (600,000 plaques). Fourteen positives were obtained in the initial screening. Five plaques were chosen for further analysis and sequencing based on insert sizes that ranged from 1.4 to 2.0 kb.

[0165] Recently, eEF-2 kinase from rabbit reticulocyte lysate was purified to near homogeneity (Hait et al., (1996)). This enabled determination of its partial amino acid sequence (see EXAMPLE 1). Two peptide sequences (LTPQAFSHFTFER and LANXYYEKAE) were compared with entries in a nonredundant database using the National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST program (Altschul et al., (1990) J. Mol. Biol. 215:403-410). Matches were found with a C. elegans hypothetical protein (F42A10.4; GenBank accession number U10414). This sequence was obtained from the C. elegans genome sequencing project and is located on chromosome III (Wilson et al., (1994) Nature 368:32-38). The 100% identity between the sequenced peptides and the C. elegans protein, as well as the fact that the predicted molecular weight of the C. elegans protein is similar to that of eEF-2 kinase, suggested that this gene encoded eEF-2 kinase. We cloned the full-length cDNA by RT-PCR using C. elegans total RNA. Several clones were isolated and sequenced. Cefk-1 has six of the predicted exons and encodes 768 amino acids. Cefk-2 represents an alternatively spliced form that has five exons; it is missing amino acids 625-632 that correspond to exon four.

[0166] As is demonstrated in EXAMPLE 3, Cefk-1 and Cefk-2 have eEF-2 kinase activity when expressed in cell-free system using a wheat germ extract coupled transcription/translation system.

[0167] To determine the amino acid sequence of mammalian eEF-2 kinase, we cloned and sequenced the cDNA of mouse eEF-2 kinase. We reasoned that since the sequenced peptides from rabbit eEF-2 were 100% identical to C. elegans eEF-2 kinase, then the two peptides should also match the sequence of mouse eEF-2 kinase. Degenerate primers were designed based on the amino acid sequence of the peptides and were used to perform RT-PCR on mouse spleen poly(A)+ mRNA. A single PCR product of ˜1.6 kb was obtained and sequenced. To obtain the full-length cDNA, 5′ RACE and 3′ RACE were performed using mouse spleen cDNA. The full-length cDNA, which encodes 724 amino acids, was expressed in a cell-free coupled transcription/translation system. A single translation product with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa was obtained (FIG. 2).

[0168] We next cloned and sequenced cDNA for rat eEF-2 kinase using a fragment of mouse eEF-2 kinase cDNA to probe a PC12 cDNA library. However, after this work was completed, a paper describing the cloning of eEF-2 from rat skeletal muscle was published (Redpath et al., (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271:17547-17554) and the reported sequence appears to be identical to the eEF-2 kinase sequence from PC12 cells. Like the mouse eEF-2 kinase, the rat eEF-2 kinase cDNA encodes a 724-amino acid protein.

[0169] We also cloned the human eEF-2 kinase cDNA. RT-PCR was performed on poly(A)+ mRNA from the human glioma cell line T98G using 20′mer primers corresponding to the 5′ and 3′ ends of the mouse eEF-2 kinase coding region. The human eEF-2 kinase cDNA encodes a 725 amino acid protein.

EXAMPLE 3

[0170] Expression of eEF-2 Kinase from C. elegans, Mouse, Rat, and Human in a Cell-Free System. Plasmid DNA from clones Cefk-1, Cefk-2, as well as mouse and human eEF-2 kinase cDNA were used in the TNT wheat germ extract coupled transcription/translation system (Promega). [35S]Methionine-labeled products were then analyzed by SDS/PAGE. The reaction mixture (50 μl total volume) contained 1 μg of plasmid DNA and 26 μCi of [35S]methionine (specific activity=1175.0 Ci/mmol; 1 Ci=37 GBq). Other components were added to the reaction mixture according to the manufacturer's protocol. The reaction mixture was incubated for 1.5 h at 30 C. and terminated by incubation on ice. A 10 μl aliquot of the reaction mixture was mixed with 2 μl of 5 Laemmli buffer and boiled for 5 min. Samples were analyzed by SDS/PAGE on 8% gels and autoradiography.

[0171] The remainder of the transcription/translation reaction was diluted 4-fold with buffer A (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.4/1 mM MgCl2/10% glycerol/7 mM 2-mercaptoethanol) and applied to a HR5/5 Mono Q column (Pharmacia) equilibrated with buffer A. The column was developed with 20 column volumes of a 50-600 mM KCl linear gradient to buffer A.

[0172] To assay for eEF-2 kinase activity, 5 Al from each fraction was added to a reaction mixture (40 μl) containing 50 mM Hepes-KOH (ph. 7.4) 10 mM magnesium acetate, 0.1 mM CaCl2, 5 mM dithiothreitol, 50 μM ATP, 2 μCi [γ-32P]ATP, 0.6 μg calmodulin, and 0.5 μg rabbit reticulocyte eEF-2. Reactions were incubated at 30 C. for 2 min and were terminated by adding 20 μl of 30 Laemmli sample buffer. Samples were boiled for 5 min and proteins separated by SDS/PAGE on 8% gels. Phosphoproteins were analyzed by autoradiography.

[0173] To determine whether Cefk-1 and Cefk-2 have eEF-2 kinase activity, we expressed them in a cell-free coupled transcription/translation system. Translation of Cefk-1 and Cefk-2 produced products with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa (FIG. 2), which is slightly larger than the computer-predicted molecular weight of the protein but is identical to the molecular weight of a rabbit reticulocyte eEF-2 kinase as determined by SDS/PAGE. The translation products of the mixture of Cefk-1 and Cefk-2 are able to phosphorylate eEF-2 (FIG. 3) and elute from a Mono Q column at the same position as endogenous C. elegans eEF-2 kinase (FIG. 3A). The eEF-2 phosphorylation activity of the recombinant protein is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependant (FIG. 3C). We are currently studying whether there are differences in the catalytic properties Cefk-1 and Cefk-2 isoforms.

[0174] Mouse and human eEF-2 kinase cDNAs were expressed in a coupled transcription/translation system and a product of 100 kDa was obtained (FIG. 2). As shown in FIG. 3, the recombinant human eEF-2 kinase activity was strictly Ca2+/calmodulin-dependant. The kinase activity was completely inhibited by the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-napthalene-sulfonamide. We have recently expressed human eEF-2 kinase in bacteria as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein and demonstrated that the ability of the recombinant enzyme to phosphorylate eEF-2 and to undergo autophosphorylation are strictly calmodulin-dependent (data not shown).

EXAMPLE 4

[0175] Analysis of Mouse eEF-2 Kinase mRNA Expression in Various Tissues. eEF-2 kinase and eEF-2 hybridizations were performed using a 1.6 kb EcoRI mouse cDNA fragment and a 2.6 kb EcoRI human cDNA fragment, respectively. cDNAs were labeled with [32P]dCTP using the random-primed DNA labeling method (Feinberg and Vogelstein (1983) Anal. Biochem. 132:6-13). A multiple tissue Northern blot (CLONETECH) was prehybridized at 42 C. for 16 h in a 50% formamide solution containing 10 Denhardt's, 5 SSPE, 2% SDS, and 100 μg/ml salmon sperm DNA. Hybridizations were completed in the same solution containing the 32P-labeled probe (1106 cpm/ml; specific activity, ˜1108 dpm/μg DNA) and 10% dextran sulfate at 42 C. for 16 h. Blots were washed twice at room temperature (15 min) in 2 SSPE, 0.05% SDS, and once at 50 C. (15 min) in 0.5 SSPE, 0.5% SDS. RNA/cDNA hybrids were visualized by autoradiography.

[0176] Northern blot analysis shows that eEF-2 kinase is ubiquitously expressed in mouse tissues and is particularly abundant in skeletal muscle and heart (FIG. 4). The abundance of eEF-2 kinase mRNA in muscle tissues may indicate that phosphorylation of eEF-2 is particularly important in muscle, or that there are additional substrates of eEF-2 kinase which are muscle-specific.

EXAMPLE 5

[0177] Lack of Homology of eEF-2 Kinase to Members of Eukaryotic Protein Kinase Superfamily. The alignment of the amino acid sequences of C. elegans and mammalian eEF-2 kinases is shown in FIG. 5. Rat and mouse eEF-2 kinase are very similar being 97% identical and differing by only 23 amino acids. Human eEF-2 kinase is 90% identical to mouse and rat eEF-2 kinase. In contrast, C. elegans eEF-2 kinase is found to be only 40% identical to mammalian eEF-2 kinase.

[0178] According to the current classification, eEF-2 kinase belongs to the family of closely related calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. Surprisingly, upon analyzing eEF-2 kinase sequences, we did not find any homology to the other calmodulin-dependent kinases or to any other members of the protein kinase super-family. The only motif which it shares with all other protein kinases is the GXGXXG motif (279-284 in C. elegans eEF-2 kinases; 295-300 in mouse eEF-2 kinase) which forms a glycine-rich loop and is part of the ATP-binding site. Comparison of mammalian and C. elegans eEF-2 kinase revealed only one extended region of homology that spans ˜200 amino acids upstream of the GXGXXG motif. The high degree of similarity and the proximity to the nucleotide-binding site suggests that these 200 amino acids represent the catalytic domain. This region has a high degree of similarity and a portion of this region (amino acids 251-300 in mouse eEF-2 kinase) displays 75% identity to the catalytic domain of MHCKA (see below), which also suggests that this is the catalytic domain. In the recently published rat eEF-2 kinase sequence [Redpath et al., J. Biol. Chem. 271: 17547-17554 (1996)], the catalytic domain was predicted to reside between amino acids 288 and 554 based on the homology with the catalytic domain of cAMP-dependant protein kinase (PKA). Our results demonstrate that their prediction cannot be correct for several reasons. First, we find that the homology of this region with PKA is not statistically significant. Second, this region is the least conserved between mammalian and C. elegans eEF-2 kinase. Finally, according to secondary structure predictions [made by Alexei V. Finkelstein, Institute of Protein Research, Russia using the ALB-GLOBULE program [Ptitsyn and Finkelstein, Biopolymers 22:15-25 (1983)]], this region most likely has a distorted structure and contains almost no α-helices or β-strands, which are characteristic of a catalytic domain.

[0179] Because eEF-2 kinase is CA2+/calmodulin-dependant, it should contain a calmodulin-binding domain, which is usually represented by an amphipathic α-helix. There are several regions that could possibly assume an amphipathic α-helical conformation. Further biochemical analysis is required to determine which of these is the calmodulin-binding domain.

[0180] In the C-terminal region, there is a short stretch of 22 amino acids which is 86% identical between mammalian and C. elegans eEF-2 kinase and is preceded by a longer region of weak homology. We do not know the function of this conserved region at present. One of the possibilities is that it is that it is involved in oligomerization of the kinase. It was thought previously that eEF-2 kinase was an elongated monomer because it migrated during gel filtration as an ˜150-kDa protein and migrated on SDS gels as a 105-kDa polypeptide [Ryazanov and Spirin, Translational Regulation of Gene Expression, Pienum, N.Y., Vol 2, pp 433-455 (1993); Abdelnajid et al., Int. J. Dev. Biol., 37:279-290 (1993)]. However, the molecular weight of a monomer of mammalian eEF-2 kinase based on the predicted sequence is just 82 kDa. Thus, it is possible that eEF-2 kinase is not a monomer but a responsible for dimerization. Interestingly, according to computer prediction using the COIL program, this conserved region can form a coiled-coil. Formation of coiled-coil is often responsible for dimerization [Lupas, Trends Biochem. Sci., 21:375-382 (1996)].

EXAMPLE 6

[0181] Striking Homology Between eEF-2 Kinase and MHCK A from Dictyostelium. We found that eEF-2 kinases is homologous to the central portion of the recently described MHCKA from Dictyostelium [Futey et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270:523-529 (1995) see FIG. 5]. The kinase was biochemically identified as a 130-kDa protein and has a demonstrated role in myosin assembly, both in vitro and in vivo [Futey et al., 1995, supra]. As with eEF-2 kinase, MHCKA displays no region with detectable similarity to the conserved catalytic domains found in known eukaryotic protein kinases. Primary structure analysis of MHCKA revealed an amino-terminal domain with a probable coiled-coil structure, a central nonrepetitive domain, and a C-terminal domain consisting of seven WD repeats [Futey et al., 1995, supra]. A fragment of the central nonrepetitive domain of MHCKA containing amino acids 552-841 was recently shown to represent the catalytic domain [Cote et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272:6846-6849 (1997)].

[0182] Because the catalytic domain of MHCKA and eEF-2 kinase have a high degree of similarity, the substrate specificity of these two kinases was assayed. FIG. 6 shows that MHCK A cannot phosphorylate eEF-2, and likewise, rabbit eEF-2 kinase cannot use myosin heavy chains as a substrate. This demonstrated that each of these kinases is specific for their respective substrates.

EXAMPLE 7

[0183] eEF-2 Kinase and MHCK A Define a New Class of Protein Kinases. Members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily are characterized by a conserved catalytic domain containing approximately 260 amino acids and is divided into twelve subdomains [Hanks and Hunter, FASEB J., 9:576-596 (1996); Hardie and Hanks, The Protein Kinase Facts Book, Academic, London (1995), Taylor et al., Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 8:429-462 (1992) Johnson et al., Cell. 85: 149-158 (1996)]. The three-dimensional structure of several protein kinases revealed that the catalytic domain consists of two lobes. The smaller N-terminal lobe, which has a twisted β-sheet structure, represents the ATP-binding domain. The larger C-terminal lobe, which is predominantly α-helical is involved in substrate binding. At the primary structure level, the only motif similar between eEF-2 kinase, MHCK A, and other protein kinases is the GXGXXG motif which forms the loop interacting directly with the phosphates of ATP [Hanks and Hunter, 1996, supra; Hardie and Hanks 1995, supra; Taylor et al., supra]. In eukaryotic protein kinases, this motif is located at the very N terminus of the ATP-binding lobe of the catalytic domain. In contrast, in a eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A, this motif is close to the C terminus of the catalytic domain (see FIG. 7). However, the overall topology of the ATP-binding subdomain of eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A can be similar to other protein kinases because the region upstream of the GXGXXG motif is strongly predicted to contain four or five β-strands and thus can form a twisted β-sheet.

[0184] However, the mechanism of ATP-binding to eEF-2 kinase is probably quite different in comparison to other conventional members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily. In protein kinases, there is a conserved lysine residue, corresponding to Lys-72 in cAMP-dependant protein kinases which binds to the β- and γ-phosphates of ATP and is located at about 20 amino acids downstream of the GXGXXG motif. Analysis of eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A sequences revealed that there are no conserved lysine residues in the vicinity of the GXGXXG motif. There is another atypical protein kinase, BCR-ABLE, which does not contain this conserved lysine and it is proposed that it interacts with ATP via two cysteine residues [Maro and Witte, Cell, 67:459-468 (1991)]. Interestingly, eEF-2 kinase and MHCK-A contain two conserved cysteine residues (Cys-313 and Cys-317 in mouse eEF-2 kinase) which are located near the GXGXXG motif and therefore might be involved in ATP binding. Thus the mechanism of ATP-binding of eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A is different from other members of the protein kinase superfamily, but may be similar to that of the BCR-ABLE protein kinase.

[0185] The overall catalytic mechanism of eEF-2 kinase and MHCKA is probably also very different from other eukaryotic protein kinases. All members of the eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily contain a DXXXN motif in the catalytic loop and a DFG motif in the activation segment [Hanks and Hunter, 1996; supra, Hardie and Hanks 1995, supra; Taylor et al., supra; Johnson et al., 1996, supra]. These two motifs, which are directly involved in the catalysis of the protein phosphorylation reaction, are absent from the eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A catalytic domain.

[0186] We do not know at the present time whether there are other protein kinases which are structurally similar to eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A. An extensive search of the entire nonrestricted database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information using the BLAST program did not reveal any protein with a significant homology to the catalytic domain of eEF-2 kinase and MHCKA. A search of the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) database revealed several ESTs from C. elegans, mouse and human which are essentially identical to portions of eEF-2 kinase cDNA sequences reported here. Interestingly, a search of the recently completed genome database of Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not reveal any protein with homology to eEF-2 kinase despite the fact that eEF-2 phosphorylation was reported in yeast (41).

[0187] Conclusion. Since the catalytic domains of eEF-2 kinase and MHCK A do not share homology with other known protein kinases, these two protein kinases establish the presence of a novel and widespread superfamily of eukaryotic protein kinases. Although the existence of several unusual protein kinases have been reported, to our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the existence of a biochemically well-characterized and ubiquitous protein kinase that is structurally unrelated to other serine/threonine/tyrosine kinases. Contrary to the widely accepted belief that all eukaryotic protein kinases evolved from a single ancestor, our results suggest that eukaryotic protein kinases appeared at least twice during the course of evolution. This also suggests that. in addition to the relatively well-characterized catalytic mechanism employed by members of eukaryotic serine/threonine/tyrosine protein kinase superfamily, there exists another mechanism of protein kinase superfamily, there exists another mechanism of protein phosphorylation. Further studies will reveal the molecular details of this mechanism and whether there are other protein kinases that phosphorylate their substrates using this mechanism.

EXAMPLE 8

[0188] Preparation of recombinant eEF-2 kinase fusion proteins with GST, 6xHis, and thioredoxin. Human eEF-2 kinase cDNA was cloned into three different expression vectors: pGEX-2T (Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, N.J.); pRSET A (Invitrogen, Sorrento Valley, Calif.); and, pThioHisB (Invitrogen). After transformation into Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), transformants were cultured in LB broth containing 50 μg/ml ampicillin. When the cultured reached an A600 value of 0.7, isopropyl-β-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) was added to the bacterial cultures to a final concentration of 0.5 μM to induce expression. After three hours, the cultures were harvested by centrifugation, and the cells were then sonicated. After extract preparation and analysis by SDS-PAGE, it was found that all of the expressed tag forms of the eEF-2 kinase were in inclusion bodies. Inclusion bodies were precipitated, dissolved in 8.0 M urea, and dialyzed overnight against 20 mM Tris-HCl (ph. 7.0) buffer containing 100 mM NaCl and 4 mM ρ-mercaptoethanol. The refolded protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and assayed for the ability to phosphorylate eEF-2. All of the fusion eEF-2 kinase preparations were able to efficiently phosphorylate eEF-2 (data not shown).

EXAMPLE 9

[0189] eEF-2 Kinase Activity Assay Using a 16-Amino Acid Peptide Derived from Myosin Heavy Chain as the Phosphorylation Target. We found that 16′mer peptide, RKKFGESEKTKTKEFL, can serve as a good substrate for eEF-2 kinase. (Note: circular dichroism measurements (data not shown) indicated that this peptide is in an α-helical structure, and that amidation of the peptide further stabilizes the α-helical structure, resulting in stronger phosphoacceptor activity.) Since recombinant eEF-2 is impossible to overexpress, as discussed supra, and large amounts of the protein are required to for large scale screening assays, the discovery of a peptide (easily synthesized on a large scale) that exhibits the same phosphoacceptor activity as eEF-2 was the critical breakthrough that allows for the development of a variety of automated high throughput screening assays for screening drug candidates.

[0190] The basic assay is as follows: 0.2-10.0 μg of recombinant eEF-2 kinase (produced as described in EXAMPLE 6) is incubated with the 16′mer peptide (described above) in a buffer consisting of 12.5 mM Hepes-KOH (ph. 7.4), 2.5 mM magnesium acetate, 1.25 mM DTT, 25 μM CaCl2, 0.05-2.5 μg calmodulin, 100 μM ATP, and 0.5 μCi [γ-33P]ATP in a total volume of 5-250 μl. Samples are incubated at 30 C. and aliquots can be withdrawn at various time points or at a single end point, and the reaction terminated by lowering the temperature (<4 C.). The aliquots are then spotted onto phosphocellulose paper (2 cm2 cm) and washed (44 min) with 75 mM phosphoric acid. The papers are then rinsed with 100% ethanol, dried, and then counted in a scintillation counter. The assay can be performed at various peptide concentrations, as we did in the experiment illustrated in FIG. 8. Clearly for a high throughput drug screening assay, that would be amenable to automation, the assays would most likely be performed using one peptide concentration with increasing amounts of different drug (inhibitor) candidates, and the data collected at a single time point. The assay can be performed in any one of the following formats:

[0191] 1. with [γ-32P]ATP or [γ-33P]ATP and then detected using either standard scintillation counting, or detected in the format of a homogeneous assay using a Scintillation Proximity Assay, described in detail in both the Amersham Product Catalog (1997), pp. 252-258, and U.S. Pat. No. 4,568,649;

[0192] 2. in any of a number of standard immunoassay formats using antibodies that are specific for the phosphorylated form of the 16′mer peptide. Detection would then be, as described in more detail supra, through the use of either isotopically- or nonisotopically-labeled antibodies, secondary antibodies, or 16′mer peptide.

[0193] While the invention has been described and illustrated herein by references to various specific material, procedures and examples, it is understood that the invention is not restricted to the particular material combinations of material, and procedures selected for that purpose. Numerous variations of such details can be implied as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art.

1 25 2178 base pairs nucleic acid double linear cDNA NO Homo sapiens 1 ATGGCAGACG AAGACCTCAT CTTCCGCCTG GAAGGTGTTG ATGGCGGCCA GTCCCCCCGA 60 GCTGGCCATG ATGGTGATTC TGATGGGGAC AGCGACGATG AGGAAGGTTA CTTCATCTGC 120 CCCATCACGG ATGACCCAAG CTCGAACCAG AATGTCAATT CCAAGGTTAA TAAGTACTAC 180 AGCAACCTAA CAAAAAGTGA GCGGTATAGC TCCAGCGGGT CCCCGGCAAA CTCCTTCCAC 240 TTCAAGGAAG CCTGGAAGCA CGCAATCCAG AAGGCCAAGC ACATGCCCGA CCCCTGGGCT 300 GAGTTCCACC TGGAAGATAT TGCCACCGAA CGTGCTACTC GACACAGGTA CAACGCCGTC 360 ACCGGGGAAT GGCTGGATGA TGAAGTTCTG ATCAAGATGG CATCTCAGCC CTTCGGCCGA 420 GGAGCAATGA GGGAGTGCTT CCGGACGAAG AAGCTCTCCA ACTTCTTGCA TGCCCAGCAG 480 TGGAAGGGCG CCTCCAACTA CGTGGCGAAG CGCTACATCG AGCCCGTAGA CCGGGATGTG 540 TACTTTGAGG ACGTGCGTCT ACAGATGGAG GCCAAGCTCT GGGGGGAGGA GTATAATCGG 600 CACAAGCCCC CCAAGCAGGT GGACATCATG CAGATGTGCA TCATCGAGCT GAAGGACAGA 660 CCGGGCAAGC CCCTCTTCCA CCTGGAGCAC TACATCGAGG GCAAGTACAT CAAGTACAAC 720 TCCAACTCTG GCTTTGTCCG TGATGACAAC ATCCGACTGA CGCCGCAGGC CTTCAGCCAC 780 TTCACTTTTG AGCGTTCCGG CCATCAGCTG ATAGTGGTGG ACATCCAGGG AGTTGGGGAT 840 CTCTACACTG ACCCACAGAT CCACACGGAG ACGGGCACTG ACTTTGGAGA CGGCAACCTA 900 GGTGTCCGCG GGATGGCGCT CTTCTTCTAC TCTCATGCCT GCAACCGGAT TTGCGAGAGC 960 ATGGGCCTTG CTCCCTTTGA CCTCTCGCCC CGGGAGAGGG ATGCAGTGAA TCAGAACACC 1020 AAGCTGCTGC AATCAGCCAA GACCATCTTG AGAGGAACAG AGGAAAAATG TGGGAGCCCC 1080 CGAGTAAGGA CCCTCTCTGG GAGCCGGCCA CCCCTGCTCC GTCCCCTTTC AGAGAACTCT 1140 GGAGACGAGA ACATGAGCGA CGTGACCTTC GACTCTCTCC CTTCTTCCCC ATCTTCGGCC 1200 ACACCACACA GCCAGAAGCT AGACCACCTC CATTGGCCAG TGTTCAGTGA CCTCGATAAC 1260 ATGGCATCCA GAGACCATGA TCATCTAGAC AACCACCGGG AGTCTGAGAA TAGTGGGGAC 1320 AGCGGATACC CCAGTGAGAA GCGGGGTGAG CTGGATGACC CTGAGCCCCG AGAACATGGC 1380 CACTCATACA GTAATCGGAA GTACGAGTCT GACGAAGACA GCCTGGGCAG CTCTGGACGG 1440 GTATGTGTAG AGAAGTGGAA TCTCCTCAAC TCCTCCCGCC TCCACCTGCC GAGGGCTTCG 1500 GCCGTGGCCC TGGAAGTGCA AAGGCTTAAT GCTCTGGACC TCGAAAAGAA AATCGGGAAG 1560 TCCATTTTGG GGAAGGTCCA TCTGGCCATG GTGCGCTACC ACGAGGGTGG GCGCTTCTGC 1620 GAGAAGGGCG AGGAGTGGGA CCAGGAGTCG GCTGTCTTCC ACCTGGAGCA CGCAGCCAAC 1680 CTGGGCGAGC TGGAGGCCAT CGTGGGCCTG GGACTCATGT ACTCGCAGTT GCCTCATCAC 1740 ATCCTAGCCG ATGTCTCTCT GAAGGAGACA GAAGAGAACA AAACCAAAGG ATTTGATTAC 1800 TTACTAAAGG CCGCTGAAGC TGGCGACAGG CAGTCCATGA TCCTAGTGGC GCGAGCTTTT 1860 GACTCTGGCC AGAACCTCAG CCCGGACAGG TGCCAAGACT GGCTAGAGGC CCTGCACTGG 1920 TACAACACTG CCCTGGAGAT GACGGACTGT GATGAGGGCG GTGAGTACGA CGGAATGCAG 1980 GACGAGCCCC GGTACATGAT GCTGGCCAGG GAGGCAGAGA TGCTGTTCAC AGGAGGCTAC 2040 GGGCTGGAGA AGGACCCGCA GAGATCAGGG GACTTGTATA CCCAGGCAGC AGAGGCAGCG 2100 ATGGAAGCCA TGAAGGGCCG ACTGGCCAAC CAGTACTACC AAAAGGCTGA AGAGGCCTGG 2160 GCCCAGATGG AGGAATAA 2178 725 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO Homo sapiens 2 Met Ala Asp Glu Asp Leu Ile Phe Arg Leu Glu Gly Val Asp Gly Gly 1 5 10 15 Gln Ser Pro Arg Ala Gly His Asp Gly Asp Ser Asp Gly Asp Ser Asp 20 25 30 Asp Glu Glu Gly Tyr Phe Ile Cys Pro Ile Thr Asp Asp Pro Ser Ser 35 40 45 Asn Gln Asn Val Asn Ser Lys Val Asn Lys Tyr Tyr Ser Asn Leu Thr 50 55 60 Lys Ser Glu Arg Tyr Ser Ser Ser Gly Ser Pro Ala Asn Ser Phe His 65 70 75 80 Phe Lys Glu Ala Trp Lys His Ala Ile Gln Lys Ala Lys His Met Pro 85 90 95 Asp Pro Trp Ala Glu Phe His Leu Glu Asp Ile Ala Thr Glu Arg Ala 100 105 110 Thr Arg His Arg Tyr Asn Ala Val Thr Gly Glu Trp Leu Asp Asp Glu 115 120 125 Val Leu Ile Lys Met Ala Ser Gln Pro Phe Gly Arg Gly Ala Met Arg 130 135 140 Glu Cys Phe Arg Thr Lys Lys Leu Ser Asn Phe Leu His Ala Gln Gln 145 150 155 160 Trp Lys Gly Ala Ser Asn Tyr Val Ala Lys Arg Tyr Ile Glu Pro Val 165 170 175 Asp Arg Asp Val Tyr Phe Glu Asp Val Arg Leu Gln Met Glu Ala Lys 180 185 190 Leu Trp Gly Glu Glu Tyr Asn Arg His Lys Pro Pro Lys Gln Val Asp 195 200 205 Ile Met Gln Met Cys Ile Ile Glu Leu Lys Asp Arg Pro Gly Lys Pro 210 215 220 Leu Phe His Leu Glu His Tyr Ile Glu Gly Lys Tyr Ile Lys Tyr Asn 225 230 235 240 Ser Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Arg Asp Asp Asn Ile Arg Leu Thr Pro Gln 245 250 255 Ala Phe Ser His Phe Thr Phe Glu Arg Ser Gly His Gln Leu Ile Val 260 265 270 Val Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp Leu Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile His 275 280 285 Thr Glu Thr Gly Thr Asp Phe Gly Asp Gly Asn Leu Gly Val Arg Gly 290 295 300 Met Ala Leu Phe Phe Tyr Ser His Ala Cys Asn Arg Ile Cys Glu Ser 305 310 315 320 Met Gly Leu Ala Pro Phe Asp Leu Ser Pro Arg Glu Arg Asp Ala Val 325 330 335 Asn Gln Asn Thr Lys Leu Leu Gln Ser Ala Lys Thr Ile Leu Arg Gly 340 345 350 Thr Glu Glu Lys Cys Gly Ser Pro Arg Val Arg Thr Leu Ser Gly Ser 355 360 365 Arg Pro Pro Leu Leu Arg Pro Leu Ser Glu Asn Ser Gly Asp Glu Asn 370 375 380 Met Ser Asp Val Thr Phe Asp Ser Leu Pro Ser Ser Pro Ser Ser Ala 385 390 395 400 Thr Pro His Ser Gln Lys Leu Asp His Leu His Trp Pro Val Phe Ser 405 410 415 Asp Leu Asp Asn Met Ala Ser Arg Asp His Asp His Leu Asp Asn His 420 425 430 Arg Glu Ser Glu Asn Ser Gly Asp Ser Gly Tyr Pro Ser Glu Lys Arg 435 440 445 Gly Glu Leu Asp Asp Pro Glu Pro Arg Glu His Gly His Ser Tyr Ser 450 455 460 Asn Arg Lys Tyr Glu Ser Asp Glu Asp Ser Leu Gly Ser Ser Gly Arg 465 470 475 480 Val Cys Val Glu Lys Trp Asn Leu Leu Asn Ser Ser Arg Leu His Leu 485 490 495 Pro Arg Ala Ser Ala Val Ala Leu Glu Val Gln Arg Leu Asn Ala Leu 500 505 510 Asp Leu Glu Lys Lys Ile Gly Lys Ser Ile Leu Gly Lys Val His Leu 515 520 525 Ala Met Val Arg Tyr His Glu Gly Gly Arg Phe Cys Glu Lys Gly Glu 530 535 540 Glu Trp Asp Gln Glu Ser Ala Val Phe His Leu Glu His Ala Ala Asn 545 550 555 560 Leu Gly Glu Leu Glu Ala Ile Val Gly Leu Gly Leu Met Tyr Ser Gln 565 570 575 Leu Pro His His Ile Leu Ala Asp Val Ser Leu Lys Glu Thr Glu Glu 580 585 590 Asn Lys Thr Lys Gly Phe Asp Tyr Leu Leu Lys Ala Ala Glu Ala Gly 595 600 605 Asp Arg Gln Ser Met Ile Leu Val Ala Arg Ala Phe Asp Ser Gly Gln 610 615 620 Asn Leu Ser Pro Asp Arg Cys Gln Asp Trp Leu Glu Ala Leu His Trp 625 630 635 640 Tyr Asn Thr Ala Leu Glu Met Thr Asp Cys Asp Glu Gly Gly Glu Tyr 645 650 655 Asp Gly Met Gln Asp Glu Pro Arg Tyr Met Met Leu Ala Arg Glu Ala 660 665 670 Glu Met Leu Phe Thr Gly Gly Tyr Gly Leu Glu Lys Asp Pro Gln Arg 675 680 685 Ser Gly Asp Leu Tyr Thr Gln Ala Ala Glu Ala Ala Met Glu Ala Met 690 695 700 Lys Gly Arg Leu Ala Asn Gln Tyr Tyr Gln Lys Ala Glu Glu Ala Trp 705 710 715 720 Ala Gln Met Glu Glu 725 2175 base pairs nucleic acid double linear cDNA NO Mus musculus 3 ATGGCAGACG AAGACCTCAT CTTCTGCCTG GAAGGTGTTG ACGGTGGCAG GTGCTCCCGA 60 GCTGGCCACA ATGCGGACTC TGACACAGAC AGTGACGATG ATGAGGGCTA TTTCATCTGC 120 CCCATCACTG ATGACCACAT GTCCAATCAG AATGTCAGCT CCAAAGTCCA GAGCTACTAT 180 AGCAACCTAA CAAAAACAGA GTGCGGCTCC ACAGGGTCAC CAGCCAGCTC CTTCCACTTC 240 AAGGAAGCCT GGAAGCATGC GATCGAGAAA GCCAAGCACA TGCCTGACCC CTGGGCTGAA 300 TTCCATCTCG AGGACATCGC CACAGAACAT GCTACTCGGC ACAGGTACAA CGCTGTCACC 360 GGGGAATGGC TGAAAGACGA GGTTCTGATC AAGATGGCGT CTCAGCCCTT CGGCCGTGGA 420 GCAATGAGGG AGTGCTTCAG GACGAAGAAA CTCTCCAACT TCTTGCACGC CCAGCAATGG 480 AAGGGGGCCT CCAACTACGT GGCCAAGCGC TACATCGAGC CGGTGGACAG GAGCGTGTAC 540 TTTGAGGATG TGCAGCTCCA GATGGAGGCG AAGCTCTGGG GGGAGGATTA CAATCGGCAC 600 AAGCCCCCCA AGCAGGTGGA TATCATGCAG ATGTGCATCA TTGAGCTAAA GGACAGACCA 660 GGCCAGCCCC TCTTCCACTT GGAGCACTAC ATTGAGGGCA AGTACATCAA GTACAATTCC 720 AACTCAGGCT TTGTCCGTGA TGACAACATC CGACTAACCC CACAGGCCTT CAGCCATTTC 780 ACATTTGAGC GTTCTGGTCA TCAGCTGATT GTAGTGGACA TCCAGGGTGT GGGTGACCTT 840 TATACCGACC CACAGATCCA CACTGAGAAA GGCACTGACT TTGGAGATGG TAACCTTGGT 900 GTCCGGGGAA TGGCTCTCTT CTTCTACTCT CATGCCTGCA ACCGGATTTG TCAGAGCATG 960 GGCCTTACGC CCTTTGACCT CTCCCCACGG GAACAGGATG CGGTGAATCA GAGCACCAGG 1020 CTATTGCAAT CAGCCAAGAC CATCTTGAGG GGGACAGAGG AGAAGTGTGG GAGTCCCCGC 1080 ATAAGGACAC TCTCTAGCAG CCGGCCCCCT TTGCTCCTTC GCCTGTCAGA GAACTCCGGG 1140 GATGAGAACA TGAGTGACGT GACCTTTGAC TCTCTGCCTT CCTCCCCGTC TTCAGCTACA 1200 CCACACAGCC AGAAACTGGA CCACCTCCAT TGGCCAGTGT TTGGTGACCT CGATAACATG 1260 GGCCCTAGAG ACCATGACCG TATGGACAAT CACCGGGACT CTGAGAATAG TGGGGACAGT 1320 GGGTATCCAA GCGAGAAGCG AAGTGACCTG GATGATCCTG AGCCCCGAGA ACACGGCCAC 1380 TCCAACGGCA ACCGAAGGCA TGAATCTGAC GAGGATAGCC TGGGCAGCTC TGGACGGGTC 1440 TGTGTGGAGA CGTGGAACCT GCTCAATCCC TCCCGCCTGC ACCTGCCGAG GCCCTCGGCC 1500 GTGGCCCTAG AAGTGCAGAG GCTAAATGCC CTGGACCTTG GAAGGAAAAT CGGGAAGTCT 1560 GTTTTGGGGA AAGTCCATTT GGCCATGGTG CGATACCACG AGGGCGGGCG CTTCTGCGAG 1620 AAGGATGAGG AGTGGGATCG AGAGTCAGCC ATCTTCCATC TGGAGCATGC AGCTGACCTG 1680 GGAGAACTGG AGGCCATCGT GGGCCTAGGC CTCATGTACT CTCAGCTGCC CCACCACATC 1740 CTGGCTGATG TCTCTCTGAA GGAGACAGAG GAGAACAAGA CAAAAGGCTT TGATTACTTA 1800 CTGAAGGCGG CAGAAGCTGG TGACAGGCAT TCCATGATTT TAGTGGCCCG AGCTTTTGAC 1860 ACTGGCCTGA ACCTCAGCCC AGACAGGTGT CAAGACTGGT CGGAAGCCTT GCACTGGTAC 1920 AACACAGCCC TGGAGACAAC AGACTGCGAT GAAGGCGGGG AGTACGATGG GATACAGGAC 1980 GAGCCCCAGT ACGCACTGCT GGCCAGGGAG GCGGAGATGC TGCTCACCGG GGGATTTGGA 2040 CTGGACAAGA ACCCCCAAAG ATCAGGAGAT TTGTACACCC AGGCAGCTGA GGCAGCAATG 2100 GAAGCCATGA AGGGCCGGCT AGCCAACCAG TACTACGAGA AGGCGGAAGA GGCCTGGGCC 2160 CAGATGGAGG AATAA 2175 724 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO Mus musculus 4 Met Ala Asp Glu Asp Leu Ile Phe Cys Leu Glu Gly Val Asp Gly Gly 1 5 10 15 Arg Cys Ser Arg Ala Gly His Asn Ala Asp Ser Asp Thr Asp Ser Asp 20 25 30 Asp Asp Glu Gly Tyr Phe Ile Cys Pro Ile Thr Asp Asp His Met Ser 35 40 45 Asn Gln Asn Val Ser Ser Lys Val Gln Ser Tyr Tyr Ser Asn Leu Thr 50 55 60 Lys Thr Glu Cys Gly Ser Thr Gly Ser Pro Ala Ser Ser Phe His Phe 65 70 75 80 Lys Glu Ala Trp Lys His Ala Ile Glu Lys Ala Lys His Met Pro Asp 85 90 95 Pro Trp Ala Glu Phe His Leu Glu Asp Ile Ala Thr Glu His Ala Thr 100 105 110 Arg His Arg Tyr Asn Ala Val Thr Gly Glu Trp Leu Lys Asp Glu Val 115 120 125 Leu Ile Lys Met Ala Ser Gln Pro Phe Gly Arg Gly Ala Met Arg Glu 130 135 140 Cys Phe Arg Thr Lys Lys Leu Ser Asn Phe Leu His Ala Gln Gln Trp 145 150 155 160 Lys Gly Ala Ser Asn Tyr Val Ala Lys Arg Tyr Ile Glu Pro Val Asp 165 170 175 Arg Ser Val Tyr Phe Glu Asp Val Gln Leu Gln Met Glu Ala Lys Leu 180 185 190 Trp Gly Glu Asp Tyr Asn Arg His Lys Pro Pro Lys Gln Val Asp Ile 195 200 205 Met Gln Met Cys Ile Ile Glu Leu Lys Asp Arg Pro Gly Gln Pro Leu 210 215 220 Phe His Leu Glu His Tyr Ile Glu Gly Lys Tyr Ile Lys Tyr Asn Ser 225 230 235 240 Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Arg Asp Asp Asn Ile Arg Leu Thr Pro Gln Ala 245 250 255 Phe Ser His Phe Thr Phe Glu Arg Ser Gly His Gln Leu Ile Val Val 260 265 270 Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp Leu Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile His Thr 275 280 285 Glu Lys Gly Thr Asp Phe Gly Asp Gly Asn Leu Gly Val Arg Gly Met 290 295 300 Ala Leu Phe Phe Tyr Ser His Ala Cys Asn Arg Ile Cys Gln Ser Met 305 310 315 320 Gly Leu Thr Pro Phe Asp Leu Ser Pro Arg Glu Gln Asp Ala Val Asn 325 330 335 Gln Ser Thr Arg Leu Leu Gln Ser Ala Lys Thr Ile Leu Arg Gly Thr 340 345 350 Glu Glu Lys Cys Gly Ser Pro Arg Ile Arg Thr Leu Ser Ser Ser Arg 355 360 365 Pro Pro Leu Leu Leu Arg Leu Ser Glu Asn Ser Gly Asp Glu Asn Met 370 375 380 Ser Asp Val Thr Phe Asp Ser Leu Pro Ser Ser Pro Ser Ser Ala Thr 385 390 395 400 Pro His Ser Gln Lys Leu Asp His Leu His Trp Pro Val Phe Gly Asp 405 410 415 Leu Asp Asn Met Gly Pro Arg Asp His Asp Arg Met Asp Asn His Arg 420 425 430 Asp Ser Glu Asn Ser Gly Asp Ser Gly Tyr Pro Ser Glu Lys Arg Ser 435 440 445 Asp Leu Asp Asp Pro Glu Pro Arg Glu His Gly His Ser Asn Gly Asn 450 455 460 Arg Arg His Glu Ser Asp Glu Asp Ser Leu Gly Ser Ser Gly Arg Val 465 470 475 480 Cys Val Glu Thr Trp Asn Leu Leu Asn Pro Ser Arg Leu His Leu Pro 485 490 495 Arg Pro Ser Ala Val Ala Leu Glu Val Gln Arg Leu Asn Ala Leu Asp 500 505 510 Leu Gly Arg Lys Ile Gly Lys Ser Val Leu Gly Lys Val His Leu Ala 515 520 525 Met Val Arg Tyr His Glu Gly Gly Arg Phe Cys Glu Lys Asp Glu Glu 530 535 540 Trp Asp Arg Glu Ser Ala Ile Phe His Leu Glu His Ala Ala Asp Leu 545 550 555 560 Gly Glu Leu Glu Ala Ile Val Gly Leu Gly Leu Met Tyr Ser Gln Leu 565 570 575 Pro His His Ile Leu Ala Asp Val Ser Leu Lys Glu Thr Glu Glu Asn 580 585 590 Lys Thr Lys Gly Phe Asp Tyr Leu Leu Lys Ala Ala Glu Ala Gly Asp 595 600 605 Arg His Ser Met Ile Leu Val Ala Arg Ala Phe Asp Thr Gly Leu Asn 610 615 620 Leu Ser Pro Asp Arg Cys Gln Asp Trp Ser Glu Ala Leu His Trp Tyr 625 630 635 640 Asn Thr Ala Leu Glu Thr Thr Asp Cys Asp Glu Gly Gly Glu Tyr Asp 645 650 655 Gly Ile Gln Asp Glu Pro Gln Tyr Ala Leu Leu Ala Arg Glu Ala Glu 660 665 670 Met Leu Leu Thr Gly Gly Phe Gly Leu Asp Lys Asn Pro Gln Arg Ser 675 680 685 Gly Asp Leu Tyr Thr Gln Ala Ala Glu Ala Ala Met Glu Ala Met Lys 690 695 700 Gly Arg Leu Ala Asn Gln Tyr Tyr Glu Lys Ala Glu Glu Ala Trp Ala 705 710 715 720 Gln Met Glu Glu 3465 base pairs nucleic acid double linear cDNA NO Dictyostelium discoideum 5 ATGTTTAATA TAAAAAAGAG AAAAGAGAGT ATAACAGGTA TACCACCAAT AAATGTTAAT 60 AGTCCACAAT CAGTTCCATT GAGTGGAACA TTGCAATCAC CATTGATTAC ACCAAATTCA 120 CCAAATTTTG TTTCACGTCA ATGTCCATTC AAAAAGTTTG GATGTAGTAG TTTTTTAGTT 180 TCAAAGGCAG AGTTTGATAA TCACTTAAAG GATGACGCAC AATTTCATTT ACAATTGGCA 240 GTGGAGAAAT TTGATCATCA ATTTGATTTA CACACACAAT TGATGGCACA TTTTACTGAG 300 CAAATGGAGG ATCAATTAGA GAAAACAATG AAGGTCGTAC GTAATCATAC AGATAGTTTA 360 GGCGGTAATG TTCAAACCAA ATTGGATGAA GGCATTGAAA AATGTATGGC TTTTGCTAAA 420 AAGGTTGAAC AACAACAACA ACAATTGGCC AAAAGATTAA TCACTCAACA AATTCAAGAG 480 AAGAAATCAA CCTCTTCACC TTTAGTTAAA GGTGGTATTA GTGGTGGTGG TGGTAGTGGT 540 GGCGATGATT CTTTTGATGG CGCAAATATA TCATCAATGT CAACTAGTAA ACAAGAATTA 600 CAACAAGAAT TACAATCATT ATCAATTAAA ATGAAAAAAG AATTGACAGA ATTATCCGAT 660 GAACTATCAC AAAAATTAGA ACGTTCAACA GGTAATATAG ATATTAAAAT AAAGAGAATC 720 GAAGGTGAAG TTAATGAAAA GATTGATAAA CGTCAATTGG TCTCTACGAT CGATGATTCA 780 ATTGGAAAGA AAACAGATTC CATCGGTTAT ACATTGGAGA GTTCAATCAT TAAAAAGGTT 840 GAAGAGAAAG AGAAAAAGAA ATCCGAACAA AATCAACTTC TCTTTGATTC AAAGATTGAA 900 TCCTTAAAAG ATAAGATTAA AATCATTGAA ACTCAACAAT TGGATACTTC ATCAGAGGTT 960 AGAAAATTGA AATTAGAAAG TACAAGTAGT GGAAATTTAA TGGCAGGTCT TAATGGTACC 1020 TCTGGTAGAC CTTCATCATC TTCTCACTTT ATTCCATCCT CTGTTTCTGC CGCTGCTAAC 1080 AATATCAACA AGAATGAAAT CATGGAAGAG GTTAAAAAGG TAGAAGAGAA ACTTCAAAAG 1140 AAAATTCGTG AAGAGATTGA TAATACAAAA GCTGAACTCT CAAAGGTTGA ACGTTCCGTT 1200 AAAGATAATC GTAGTGAAAT TGAAGGTTTG GAAAAAGATT GTAAGAATCA ATTCGATAAA 1260 CAAGACAATA AGATCAAACA AGTTGAGGAT GATTTGAAAA AGAGTGATTC ATTACTTTTG 1320 TTAATGCAAA ATAACCTCAA GAAATATAAT GAATTTGTTG ATAGAGAACG TGATCGTGAA 1380 AGTGAACGTT TGAAACTTCA AGATTCTATC AAACGTTTAG AACAAAATCA AAAGAAAATC 1440 GAAGCTGAAA TTCAAGAAGG TAATGAACAA GTTGAACGTG TTTTACGTGA GGAAGCTTCA 1500 ATCTCACCAA TTAGTTCAGT TCCAAAATCA CCAATCACAA CCAAACGTTC ATCGATTATT 1560 TTAAATTCAC CACCAATGAC TTCACAACAA TCATCACCAA AGATTCAAGA TCTTCTCTCA 1620 AGTAGTGGTA GTAGTAGTGT TAGTGGTATA AATATTTCCT CTGAAACCGG TGAAATGGGT 1680 ATTCTTTGGG AATTTGATCC AATCATTAAC AAATGGATTA GATTATCAAT GAAGCTAAAG 1740 GTAGAAAGAA AACCATTTGC AGAGGGTGCT CTTAGAGAGG CTTATCATAC CGTTTCATTG 1800 GGTGTTGGAA CCGATGAAAA TTATCCATTA GGTACAACCA CCAAATTATT CCCACCAATT 1860 GAAATGATTT CACCAATTTC AAAGAATAAT GAGGCAATGA CTCAATTGAA GAATGGTACA 1920 AAATTTGTTT TGAAACTCTA CAAAAAGGAA GCTGAACAAC AAGCTAGCAG AGAATTATAC 1980 TTTGAAGATG TTAAAATGCA AATGGTCTGT AGAGATTGGG GTAATAAATT CAATCAAAAG 2040 AAACCACCAA AGAAAATTGA ATTCCTTATG TCTTGGGTTG TAGAGTTAAT CGATAGATCT 2100 CCTTCTTCCA ATGGTCAACC AATACTTTGT TCCATTGAAC CATTATTGGT TGGTGAATTC 2160 AAAAAGAATA ATTCAAATTA TGGTGCAGTT TTAACCAATC GTTCAACTCC ACAAGCATTC 2220 TCTCATTTCA CCTATGAACT CTCAAATAAA CAAATGATCG TTGTCGATAT TCAAGGTGTT 2280 GATGATCTTT ACACTGATCC TCAAATTCAT ACACCCGATG GTAAAGGATT TGGTCTTGGT 2340 AATCTTGGTA AAGCAGGTAT CAATAAATTC ATCACCACTC ACAAATGTAA TGCTGTTTGT 2400 GCTCTTTTAG ATTTAGATGT TAAATTGGGT GGTGTACTAT CTGGAAATAA TAAGAAACAA 2460 CTTCAACAAG GTACTATGGT TATGCCAGAT ATTCTCCCAG AACTTATGCC ATCTGATAAC 2520 ACCATTAAAG TGGGTGCAAA ACAACTTCCA AAAGCTGAAT TCTCAAAGAA AGATCTCAAA 2580 TGTGTTAGCA CCATTCAAAG TTTCCGTGAA CGTGTTAACT CGATCGCATT CTTTGATAAT 2640 CAAAAGTTAT TATGCGCTGG TTATGGTGAT GGTACCTATA GAGTTTTCGA TGTCAATGAC 2700 AATTGGAAAT GTTTATACAC TGTCAATGGT CATAGAAAAT CAATTGAAAG TATCGCTTGT 2760 AATAGTAATT ACATTTTCAC TTCATCACCT GATAACACCA TCAAAGTTCA TATCATTCGT 2820 AGTGGTAACA CCAAATGTAT AGAGACATTG GTTGGTCACA CTGGTGAAGT TAATTGTGTC 2880 GTGGCCAATG AAAAATATCT TTTCAGTTGT AGTTATGATA AAACTATCAA GGTTTGGGAT 2940 TTGTCAACCT TTAAAGAAAT TAAATCATTT GAGGGTGTTC ATACAAAGTA CATTAAAACA 3000 TTGGCTTTGA GTGGACGTTA TCTTTTTAGT GGTGGTAACG ATCAAATCAT TTACGTTTGG 3060 GATACTGAAA CACTTAGTAT GCTTTTCAAT ATGCAAGGTC ATGAAGATTG GGTACTCTCT 3120 CTTCATTGTA CCGCTAGTTA TCTTTTCTCA ACCTCAAAAG ATAATGTCAT CAAGATTTGG 3180 GATCTCTCAA ATTTCAGTTG TATCGATACT CTAAAAGGTC ATTGGAATTC TGTCTCAAGT 3240 TGTGTCGTAA AAGATCGTTA TCTATACAGT GGTTCTGAAG ATAATTCAAT CAAAGTTTGG 3300 GATCTCGATA CACTTGAATG TGTTTACACC ATTCCAAAAT CTCATTCTTT GGGTGTAAAA 3360 TGTTTAATGG TTTTCAATAA TCAAATCATT TCTGCTGCTT TCGATGGTTC AATTAAAGTT 3420 TGGGAATGGC AATCGAAATA ATCTTTGTAA ATTTTTGTTA AAAAA 3465 1146 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO Dictyostelium discoideum 6 Met Phe Asn Ile Lys Lys Arg Lys Glu Ser Ile Thr Gly Ile Pro Pro 1 5 10 15 Ile Asn Val Asn Ser Pro Gln Ser Val Pro Leu Ser Gly Thr Leu Gln 20 25 30 Ser Pro Leu Ile Thr Pro Asn Ser Pro Asn Phe Val Ser Arg Gln Cys 35 40 45 Pro Phe Lys Lys Phe Gly Cys Ser Ser Phe Leu Val Ser Lys Ala Glu 50 55 60 Phe Asp Asn His Leu Lys Asp Asp Ala Gln Phe His Leu Gln Leu Ala 65 70 75 80 Val Glu Lys Phe Asp His Gln Phe Asp Leu His Thr Gln Leu Met Ala 85 90 95 His Phe Thr Glu Gln Met Glu Asp Gln Leu Glu Lys Thr Met Lys Val 100 105 110 Val Arg Asn His Thr Asp Ser Leu Gly Gly Asn Val Gln Thr Lys Leu 115 120 125 Asp Glu Gly Ile Glu Lys Cys Met Ala Phe Ala Lys Lys Val Glu Gln 130 135 140 Gln Gln Gln Gln Leu Ala Lys Arg Leu Ile Thr Gln Gln Ile Gln Glu 145 150 155 160 Lys Lys Ser Thr Ser Ser Pro Leu Val Lys Gly Gly Ile Ser Gly Gly 165 170 175 Gly Gly Ser Gly Gly Asp Asp Ser Phe Asp Gly Ala Asn Ile Ser Ser 180 185 190 Met Ser Thr Ser Lys Gln Glu Leu Gln Gln Glu Leu Gln Ser Leu Ser 195 200 205 Ile Lys Met Lys Lys Glu Leu Thr Glu Leu Ser Asp Glu Leu Ser Gln 210 215 220 Lys Leu Glu Arg Ser Thr Gly Asn Ile Asp Ile Lys Ile Lys Arg Ile 225 230 235 240 Glu Gly Glu Val Asn Glu Lys Ile Asp Lys Arg Gln Leu Val Ser Thr 245 250 255 Ile Asp Asp Ser Ile Gly Lys Lys Thr Asp Ser Ile Gly Tyr Thr Leu 260 265 270 Glu Ser Ser Ile Ile Lys Lys Val Glu Glu Lys Glu Lys Lys Lys Ser 275 280 285 Glu Gln Asn Gln Leu Leu Phe Asp Ser Lys Ile Glu Ser Leu Lys Asp 290 295 300 Lys Ile Lys Ile Ile Glu Thr Gln Gln Leu Asp Thr Ser Ser Glu Val 305 310 315 320 Arg Lys Leu Lys Leu Glu Ser Thr Ser Ser Gly Asn Leu Met Ala Gly 325 330 335 Leu Asn Gly Thr Ser Gly Arg Pro Ser Ser Ser Ser His Phe Ile Pro 340 345 350 Ser Ser Val Ser Ala Ala Ala Asn Asn Ile Asn Lys Asn Glu Ile Met 355 360 365 Glu Glu Val Lys Lys Val Glu Glu Lys Leu Gln Lys Lys Ile Arg Glu 370 375 380 Glu Ile Asp Asn Thr Lys Ala Glu Leu Ser Lys Val Glu Arg Ser Val 385 390 395 400 Lys Asp Asn Arg Ser Glu Ile Glu Gly Leu Glu Lys Asp Cys Lys Asn 405 410 415 Gln Phe Asp Lys Gln Asp Asn Lys Ile Lys Gln Val Glu Asp Asp Leu 420 425 430 Lys Lys Ser Asp Ser Leu Leu Leu Leu Met Gln Asn Asn Leu Lys Lys 435 440 445 Tyr Asn Glu Phe Val Asp Arg Glu Arg Asp Arg Glu Ser Glu Arg Leu 450 455 460 Lys Leu Gln Asp Ser Ile Lys Arg Leu Glu Gln Asn Gln Lys Lys Ile 465 470 475 480 Glu Ala Glu Ile Gln Glu Gly Asn Glu Gln Val Glu Arg Val Leu Arg 485 490 495 Glu Glu Ala Ser Ile Ser Pro Ile Ser Ser Val Pro Lys Ser Pro Ile 500 505 510 Thr Thr Lys Arg Ser Ser Ile Ile Leu Asn Ser Pro Pro Met Thr Ser 515 520 525 Gln Gln Ser Ser Pro Lys Ile Gln Asp Leu Leu Ser Ser Ser Gly Ser 530 535 540 Ser Ser Val Ser Gly Ile Asn Ile Ser Ser Glu Thr Gly Glu Met Gly 545 550 555 560 Ile Leu Trp Glu Phe Asp Pro Ile Ile Asn Lys Trp Ile Arg Leu Ser 565 570 575 Met Lys Leu Lys Val Glu Arg Lys Pro Phe Ala Glu Gly Ala Leu Arg 580 585 590 Glu Ala Tyr His Thr Val Ser Leu Gly Val Gly Thr Asp Glu Asn Tyr 595 600 605 Pro Leu Gly Thr Thr Thr Lys Leu Phe Pro Pro Ile Glu Met Ile Ser 610 615 620 Pro Ile Ser Lys Asn Asn Glu Ala Met Thr Gln Leu Lys Asn Gly Thr 625 630 635 640 Lys Phe Val Leu Lys Leu Tyr Lys Lys Glu Ala Glu Gln Gln Ala Ser 645 650 655 Arg Glu Leu Tyr Phe Glu Asp Val Lys Met Gln Met Val Cys Arg Asp 660 665 670 Trp Gly Asn Lys Phe Asn Gln Lys Lys Pro Pro Lys Lys Ile Glu Phe 675 680 685 Leu Met Ser Trp Val Val Glu Leu Ile Asp Arg Ser Pro Ser Ser Asn 690 695 700 Gly Gln Pro Ile Leu Cys Ser Ile Glu Pro Leu Leu Val Gly Glu Phe 705 710 715 720 Lys Lys Asn Asn Ser Asn Tyr Gly Ala Val Leu Thr Asn Arg Ser Thr 725 730 735 Pro Gln Ala Phe Ser His Phe Thr Tyr Glu Leu Ser Asn Lys Gln Met 740 745 750 Ile Val Val Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Asp Asp Leu Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln 755 760 765 Ile His Thr Pro Asp Gly Lys Gly Phe Gly Leu Gly Asn Leu Gly Lys 770 775 780 Ala Gly Ile Asn Lys Phe Ile Thr Thr His Lys Cys Asn Ala Val Cys 785 790 795 800 Ala Leu Leu Asp Leu Asp Val Lys Leu Gly Gly Val Leu Ser Gly Asn 805 810 815 Asn Lys Lys Gln Leu Gln Gln Gly Thr Met Val Met Pro Asp Ile Leu 820 825 830 Pro Glu Leu Met Pro Ser Asp Asn Thr Ile Lys Val Gly Ala Lys Gln 835 840 845 Leu Pro Lys Ala Glu Phe Ser Lys Lys Asp Leu Lys Cys Val Ser Thr 850 855 860 Ile Gln Ser Phe Arg Glu Arg Val Asn Ser Ile Ala Phe Phe Asp Asn 865 870 875 880 Gln Lys Leu Leu Cys Ala Gly Tyr Gly Asp Gly Thr Tyr Arg Val Phe 885 890 895 Asp Val Asn Asp Asn Trp Lys Cys Leu Tyr Thr Val Asn Gly His Arg 900 905 910 Lys Ser Ile Glu Ser Ile Ala Cys Asn Ser Asn Tyr Ile Phe Thr Ser 915 920 925 Ser Pro Asp Asn Thr Ile Lys Val His Ile Ile Arg Ser Gly Asn Thr 930 935 940 Lys Cys Ile Glu Thr Leu Val Gly His Thr Gly Glu Val Asn Cys Val 945 950 955 960 Val Ala Asn Glu Lys Tyr Leu Phe Ser Cys Ser Tyr Asp Lys Thr Ile 965 970 975 Lys Val Trp Asp Leu Ser Thr Phe Lys Glu Ile Lys Ser Phe Glu Gly 980 985 990 Val His Thr Lys Tyr Ile Lys Thr Leu Ala Leu Ser Gly Arg Tyr Leu 995 1000 1005 Phe Ser Gly Gly Asn Asp Gln Ile Ile Tyr Val Trp Asp Thr Glu Thr 1010 1015 1020 Leu Ser Met Leu Phe Asn Met Gln Gly His Glu Asp Trp Val Leu Ser 1025 1030 1035 1040 Leu His Cys Thr Ala Ser Tyr Leu Phe Ser Thr Ser Lys Asp Asn Val 1045 1050 1055 Ile Lys Ile Trp Asp Leu Ser Asn Phe Ser Cys Ile Asp Thr Leu Lys 1060 1065 1070 Gly His Trp Asn Ser Val Ser Ser Cys Val Val Lys Asp Arg Tyr Leu 1075 1080 1085 Tyr Ser Gly Ser Glu Asp Asn Ser Ile Lys Val Trp Asp Leu Asp Thr 1090 1095 1100 Leu Glu Cys Val Tyr Thr Ile Pro Lys Ser His Ser Leu Gly Val Lys 1105 1110 1115 1120 Cys Leu Met Val Phe Asn Asn Gln Ile Ile Ser Ala Ala Phe Asp Gly 1125 1130 1135 Ser Ile Lys Val Trp Glu Trp Gln Ser Lys 1140 1145 2237 base pairs nucleic acid double linear cDNA NO Dictyostelium discoideum 7 ATAAGAAGAT AGAAGATGAT ATTTAAAGTT TGGTTTTCAT ATGAAGATGA GGAAGTGGAA 60 CTATCAGAAT TAACAAATGA TACAACAGTG TCAGCAATTA GAAAGATCTT ACATGAAGGT 120 AAAATATTTA GATTTCCATA TGGTACATCT CAAACAGACT TGCAAATTGG AAAGATGTTA 180 CCATCTGGTA GTGGTGGAGG TGCAACTGCA GACAGCAAAT TTGAGAAGTT TAAAGCACGT 240 AATACATTAG CAGATATTCA ATATAAAGTT GGTGATACAT TATATGTTAG AGTTAAAAAA 300 AGTAAACCAA CAAATGATTC ATTATTACCA ACATTAAATA TAGCATTTTT AGATGGATCA 360 GAACGTGCAA TTAAATGGGA ATATGACCCA TATACTACAA CTGCTCAATG GACCTGTACA 420 GCAACATTAG TCAAAGTTGA ACCAGTACCA TTTGCTGAAG GTGCATTTAG GAAAGCTTAT 480 CATACATTGG ATTTAAGTAA ATCTGGTGCA AGTGGAAGAT ATGTATCAAA GATTGGTAAA 540 AAACCAACAC CAAGACCATC ATATTTTGAA GATGTAAAGA TGCAAATGAT AGCAAAGAAA 600 TGGGCAGATA AATATAATTC ATTTAAACCT CCAAAAAAGA TTGAATTTTT ACAATCATGC 660 GTTTTAGAGT TTGTAGATAG AACATCATCA GATTTAATTT GTGGAGCAGA ACCATATGTA 720 GAAGGACAAT ATAGAAAGTA TAATAATAAT AGTGGATTCG TTAGTAATGA TGAAAGAAAT 780 ACACCACAAT CATTCTCTCA TTTCACATAT GAACATTCAA ATCATCAATT ATTGATTATA 840 GATATTCAAG GTGTTGGTGA TCACTATACA GACCCACAAA TTCATACCTA TGATGGTGTT 900 GGTTTTGGTA TTGGTAATTT GGGTCAAAAA GGTTTTGAAA AGTTTTTAGA TACTCATAAA 960 TGTAATGCAA TTTGCCAATA TTTAAATTTA CAATCAATTA ATCCAAAATC TGAAAAAAGT 1020 GATTGTGGTA CTGTACCAAG ACCAGATTTA ATTTTCCCTG ATACATCTGA AAGAGATAAT 1080 AATAATAATA ATAATAATAA TAATAATAAT AATAATAATA ATAATAATAA TAATAGTAAT 1140 AATAATAATA ATAACAATAG TAGTATTTCA AAATCATTAG TTGAAATTTC AAGTGGTAGT 1200 AAAGAAAGAA ATGATAGAGA TTCGCCAAGT AGACAATTAT TTGTTTCAAA TGATGGTAAT 1260 ACATTAAATA CAAATAAAGA GAGATCAAAA TCAAAATCAA TAGATTTAGA AAAACCAGAA 1320 ATTTTAATAA ATAATAAGAA AAAAGAGAGT ATAAATTTGG AAACGATAAA ATTAATTGAA 1380 ACTATTAAAG GATATCATGT TACAAGTCAT TTATGTATTT GTGATAATTT ATTATTTACA 1440 GGATGTTCAG ATAATTCAAT TAGAGTGTAT GATTATAAGA GTCAAAATAT GGAATGTGTT 1500 CAAACCTTGA AAGGTCATGA AGGTCCAGTT GAATCAATTT GTTATAATGA TCAATATTTG 1560 TTTAGTGGTT CATCAGATCA TTCAATTAAA GTTTGGGATT TAAAGAAATT AAGATGTATT 1620 TTTACTTTGG AGGGTCATGA TAAACCTGTC CATACGGTTC TATTGAATGA TAAATATTTG 1680 TTTAGTGGTT CCTCTGACAA AACTATCAAA GTTTGGGATT TGAAAACTTT GGAATGTAAA 1740 TATACCCTTG AAAGTCATGC CAGAGCCGTC AAAACACTTT GTATATCTGG TCAATATTTA 1800 TTTAGTGGTT CAAATGATAA AACTATCAAG GTTTGGGATT TGAAAACTTT TCGTTGTAAC 1860 TACACTCTAA AAGGTCATAC TAAATGGGTC ACCACTATCT GTATATTAGG TACCAATCTC 1920 TACAGTGGCT CCTATGATAA AACTATAAGA GTTTGGAATT TAAAGAGTTT AGAATGTTCC 1980 GCTACTTTAA GAGGCCATGA TAGATGGGTT GAACATATGG TAATTTGTGA TAAATTATTA 2040 TTTACTGCTA GTGACGATAA TACAATTAAA ATTTGGGATT TAGAAACATT AAGATGTAAT 2100 ACAACTTTGG AAGGACATAA TGCAACCGTT CAATGTTTAG CAGTTTGGGA AGATAAAAAA 2160 TGTGTTATTA GTTGTAGTCA TGATCAAAGT ATTAGAGTTT GGGGTTGGAA TTAATTTAAA 2220 ATAAAAAAAA AAAACAT 2237 732 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO Dictyostelium discoideum 8 Met Ile Phe Lys Val Trp Phe Ser Tyr Glu Asp Glu Glu Val Glu Leu 1 5 10 15 Ser Glu Leu Thr Asn Asp Thr Thr Val Ser Ala Ile Arg Lys Ile Leu 20 25 30 His Glu Gly Lys Ile Phe Arg Phe Pro Tyr Gly Thr Ser Gln Thr Asp 35 40 45 Leu Gln Ile Gly Lys Met Leu Pro Ser Gly Ser Gly Gly Gly Ala Thr 50 55 60 Ala Asp Ser Lys Phe Glu Lys Phe Lys Ala Arg Asn Thr Leu Ala Asp 65 70 75 80 Ile Gln Tyr Lys Val Gly Asp Thr Leu Tyr Val Arg Val Lys Lys Ser 85 90 95 Lys Pro Thr Asn Asp Ser Leu Leu Pro Thr Leu Asn Ile Ala Phe Leu 100 105 110 Asp Gly Ser Glu Arg Ala Ile Lys Trp Glu Tyr Asp Pro Tyr Thr Thr 115 120 125 Thr Ala Gln Trp Thr Cys Thr Ala Thr Leu Val Lys Val Glu Pro Val 130 135 140 Pro Phe Ala Glu Gly Ala Phe Arg Lys Ala Tyr His Thr Leu Asp Leu 145 150 155 160 Ser Lys Ser Gly Ala Ser Gly Arg Tyr Val Ser Lys Ile Gly Lys Lys 165 170 175 Pro Thr Pro Arg Pro Ser Tyr Phe Glu Asp Val Lys Met Gln Met Ile 180 185 190 Ala Lys Lys Trp Ala Asp Lys Tyr Asn Ser Phe Lys Pro Pro Lys Lys 195 200 205 Ile Glu Phe Leu Gln Ser Cys Val Leu Glu Phe Val Asp Arg Thr Ser 210 215 220 Ser Asp Leu Ile Cys Gly Ala Glu Pro Tyr Val Glu Gly Gln Tyr Arg 225 230 235 240 Lys Tyr Asn Asn Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Ser Asn Asp Glu Arg Asn Thr 245 250 255 Pro Gln Ser Phe Ser His Phe Thr Tyr Glu His Ser Asn His Gln Leu 260 265 270 Leu Ile Ile Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp His Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln 275 280 285 Ile His Thr Tyr Asp Gly Val Gly Phe Gly Ile Gly Asn Leu Gly Gln 290 295 300 Lys Gly Phe Glu Lys Phe Leu Asp Thr His Lys Cys Asn Ala Ile Cys 305 310 315 320 Gln Tyr Leu Asn Leu Gln Ser Ile Asn Pro Lys Ser Glu Lys Ser Asp 325 330 335 Cys Gly Thr Val Pro Arg Pro Asp Leu Ile Phe Pro Asp Thr Ser Glu 340 345 350 Arg Asp Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn 355 360 365 Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Ser Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Asn Ser Ser Ile 370 375 380 Ser Lys Ser Leu Val Glu Ile Ser Ser Gly Ser Lys Glu Arg Asn Asp 385 390 395 400 Arg Asp Ser Pro Ser Arg Gln Leu Phe Val Ser Asn Asp Gly Asn Thr 405 410 415 Leu Asn Thr Asn Lys Glu Arg Ser Lys Ser Lys Ser Ile Asp Leu Glu 420 425 430 Lys Pro Glu Ile Leu Ile Asn Asn Lys Lys Lys Glu Ser Ile Asn Leu 435 440 445 Glu Thr Ile Lys Leu Ile Glu Thr Ile Lys Gly Tyr His Val Thr Ser 450 455 460 His Leu Cys Ile Cys Asp Asn Leu Leu Phe Thr Gly Cys Ser Asp Asn 465 470 475 480 Ser Ile Arg Val Tyr Asp Tyr Lys Ser Gln Asn Met Glu Cys Val Gln 485 490 495 Thr Leu Lys Gly His Glu Gly Pro Val Glu Ser Ile Cys Tyr Asn Asp 500 505 510 Gln Tyr Leu Phe Ser Gly Ser Ser Asp His Ser Ile Lys Val Trp Asp 515 520 525 Leu Lys Lys Leu Arg Cys Ile Phe Thr Leu Glu Gly His Asp Lys Pro 530 535 540 Val His Thr Val Leu Leu Asn Asp Lys Tyr Leu Phe Ser Gly Ser Ser 545 550 555 560 Asp Lys Thr Ile Lys Val Trp Asp Leu Lys Thr Leu Glu Cys Lys Tyr 565 570 575 Thr Leu Glu Ser His Ala Arg Ala Val Lys Thr Leu Cys Ile Ser Gly 580 585 590 Gln Tyr Leu Phe Ser Gly Ser Asn Asp Lys Thr Ile Lys Val Trp Asp 595 600 605 Leu Lys Thr Phe Arg Cys Asn Tyr Thr Leu Lys Gly His Thr Lys Trp 610 615 620 Val Thr Thr Ile Cys Ile Leu Gly Thr Asn Leu Tyr Ser Gly Ser Tyr 625 630 635 640 Asp Lys Thr Ile Arg Val Trp Asn Leu Lys Ser Leu Glu Cys Ser Ala 645 650 655 Thr Leu Arg Gly His Asp Arg Trp Val Glu His Met Val Ile Cys Asp 660 665 670 Lys Leu Leu Phe Thr Ala Ser Asp Asp Asn Thr Ile Lys Ile Trp Asp 675 680 685 Leu Glu Thr Leu Arg Cys Asn Thr Thr Leu Glu Gly His Asn Ala Thr 690 695 700 Val Gln Cys Leu Ala Val Trp Glu Asp Lys Lys Cys Val Ile Ser Cys 705 710 715 720 Ser His Asp Gln Ser Ile Arg Val Trp Gly Trp Asn 725 730 2307 base pairs nucleic acid double linear cDNA NO C. elegans 9 ATGACGATCG ACACAACAAA TGAGAGCGAC AATAGTCCAA CTAACTCACC AGGATTGGAG 60 GCCTCGGCTC GGACATTCTC GCTCAATGCG TCAAAAATGG TTCGGATAAC CGACGACTAC 120 GCAGATGAAG TGTTCATTGA ACAGAATGAT GTCGTTATCG AGAAGCCTCG TATGGATCCT 180 CTCCACGTTA GAAAACTTAT GGAGACATGG CGCAAGGCTG CTCGCCGAGC AAGAACAAAC 240 TATATAGATC CATGGGATGA GTTCAACATC CACGAGTATC CAGTACAACG AGCTAAACGA 300 TATAGGTATT CTGCAATCAG AAAGCAATGG ACAGAGGATA TAGTCGATGT GAGACTTCAT 360 CCGGACAGTT TTGCACGTGG AGCCATGCGA GAATGCTACC GACTCAAAAA GTGCTCCAAG 420 CACGGAACAA GTCAAGATTG GAGCAGCAAC TATGTCGCAA AAAGATACAT TTGTCAAGTC 480 GATCGTAGAG TTCTTTTCGA TGATGTCAGA CTTCAGATGG ATGCCAAATT ATGGGCTGAA 540 GAATATAATC GGTATAATCC ACCGAAGAAA ATTGATATTG TTCAAATGTG TGTCATTGAG 600 ATGATTGATG TAAAAGGTTC TCCACTCTAT CATTTGGAGC ATTTCATCGA GGGAAAATAT 660 ATAAAATACA ATTCAAACTC AGGATTTGTA TCAAATGCAG CTCGTCTTAC ACCACAAGCA 720 TTTTCTCACT TCACCTTCGA ACGTTCTGGT CATCAAATGA TGGTTGTCGA TATTCAAGGA 780 GTTGGTGATC TTTACACAGA TCCTCAGATT CATACAGTTG TGGGAACTGA TTATGGAGAT 840 GGAAACCTCG GAACTCGTGG AATGGCTCTT TTCTTCCATT CACACAGATG TAACGATATT 900 TGTGAGACAA TGGATCTATC AAATTTCGAA CTTTCGCCAC CTGAAATCGA GGCTACCGAA 960 GTTGCGATGG AAGTAGCTGC AAAGCAGAAA AAGTCATGCA TAGTTCCTCC AACTGTGTTC 1020 GAAGCAAGAA GAAATCGAAT TTCAAGTGAA TGTGTACATG TCGAGCATGG TATTTCGATG 1080 GATCAATTGA GAAAAAGGAA GACGTTGAAT CAATCGTCAA CCGATTTGTC AGCAAAGAGT 1140 CACAACGAAG ACTGTGTATG TCCTGAGTGT ATTCCAGTTG TTGAGCAACT CTGTGAGCCT 1200 TGCTCCGAAG ATGAAGAGGA CGAAGAAGAA GACTATCCAA GAAGTGAAAA AAGTGGAAAT 1260 AGTCAGAAAA GTCGACGTAG TAGAATGAGC ATTTCAACGA GATCTTCTGG CGATGAATCA 1320 GCATCTCGTC CTAGAAAATG CGGATTTGTA GATTTAAACT CACTTCGTCA GAGACATGAT 1380 AGCTTCAGAA GTTCTGTTGG GACATATTCT ATGAATAGTT CTAGACAAAC CAGAGACACT 1440 GAAAAGGATG AATTCTGGAA GGTTCTTCGA AAACAATCAG TTCCAGCAAA CATTCTATCA 1500 CTTCAACTTC AACAAATGGC TGCTAACCTG GAAAATGATG AAGACGTACC ACAAGTCACC 1560 GGGCATCAGT TCTCTGTCCT CGGTCAGATT CATATTGATC TCTCACGATA TCATGAGCTC 1620 GGGCGGTTCG TAGAAGTTGA TTCAGAACAT AAGGAAATGC TTGAGGGAAG TGAAAATGAC 1680 GCTCGTGTAC CAATCAAATA CGACAAGCAG TCTGCAATTT TCCATTTGGA TATCGCTCGG 1740 AAGTGTGGAA TCCTTGAGGC TGTGCTAACA TCGGCTCATA TTGTTCTCGG ATTACCACAT 1800 GAATTGTTGA AAGAAGTCAC CGTTGATGAT CTGTTTCCTA ATGGGTTTGG AGAACAGGAA 1860 AATGGAATTC GAGCTGATAA AGGACAAAAA CCTTGTGACC TAGAAGAGTT CGGCTCCGAT 1920 CTGATGGAAA TTGCTGCAGA GATGGGTGAT AAGGGTGCAA TGCTGTACAT GGCACACGCT 1980 TATGAAACTG GTCAGCATCT CGGACCGAAT CGAAGAACGG ATTATAAGAA ATCGATTGAT 2040 TGGTATCAAC GCGTCGTTGG ATTCCAAGAA GAAGAAGAAC TTGACTCTGA TTGTGGAAAA 2100 ACGACATTCT CCTCATTTGC TCCACTGACT CGTCACGAGA TTCTAGCCAA AATGGCTGAA 2160 ATGTACAAAG AGGGAGGTTA TGGCCTGAAT CAAGACTTCG AACGAGCATA TGGTCTATTC 2220 AATGAAGCTG CTGAAGCAGC AATGGAAGCA ATGAATGGAA AGCTCGCAAA TAAATACTAT 2280 GAAAAAGCGG AAATGTGTGG AGAATGA 2307 768 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO C. elegans 10 Met Thr Ile Asp Thr Thr Asn Glu Ser Asp Asn Ser Pro Thr Asn Ser 1 5 10 15 Pro Gly Leu Glu Ala Ser Ala Arg Thr Phe Ser Leu Asn Ala Ser Lys 20 25 30 Met Val Arg Ile Thr Asp Asp Tyr Ala Asp Glu Val Phe Ile Glu Gln 35 40 45 Asn Asp Val Val Ile Glu Lys Pro Arg Met Asp Pro Leu His Val Arg 50 55 60 Lys Leu Met Glu Thr Trp Arg Lys Ala Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Thr Asn 65 70 75 80 Tyr Ile Asp Pro Trp Asp Glu Phe Asn Ile His Glu Tyr Pro Val Gln 85 90 95 Arg Ala Lys Arg Tyr Arg Tyr Ser Ala Ile Arg Lys Gln Trp Thr Glu 100 105 110 Asp Ile Val Asp Val Arg Leu His Pro Asp Ser Phe Ala Arg Gly Ala 115 120 125 Met Arg Glu Cys Tyr Arg Leu Lys Lys Cys Ser Lys His Gly Thr Ser 130 135 140 Gln Asp Trp Ser Ser Asn Tyr Val Ala Lys Arg Tyr Ile Cys Gln Val 145 150 155 160 Asp Arg Arg Val Leu Phe Asp Asp Val Arg Leu Gln Met Asp Ala Lys 165 170 175 Leu Trp Ala Glu Glu Tyr Asn Arg Tyr Asn Pro Pro Lys Lys Ile Asp 180 185 190 Ile Val Gln Met Cys Val Ile Glu Met Ile Asp Val Lys Gly Ser Pro 195 200 205 Leu Tyr His Leu Glu His Phe Ile Glu Gly Lys Tyr Ile Lys Tyr Asn 210 215 220 Ser Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Ser Asn Ala Ala Arg Leu Thr Pro Gln Ala 225 230 235 240 Phe Ser His Phe Thr Phe Glu Arg Ser Gly His Gln Met Met Val Val 245 250 255 Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp Leu Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile His Thr 260 265 270 Val Val Gly Thr Asp Tyr Gly Asp Gly Asn Leu Gly Thr Arg Gly Met 275 280 285 Ala Leu Phe Phe His Ser His Arg Cys Asn Asp Ile Cys Glu Thr Met 290 295 300 Asp Leu Ser Asn Phe Glu Leu Ser Pro Pro Glu Ile Glu Ala Thr Glu 305 310 315 320 Val Ala Met Glu Val Ala Ala Lys Gln Lys Lys Ser Cys Ile Val Pro 325 330 335 Pro Thr Val Phe Glu Ala Arg Arg Asn Arg Ile Ser Ser Glu Cys Val 340 345 350 His Val Glu His Gly Ile Ser Met Asp Gln Leu Arg Lys Arg Lys Thr 355 360 365 Leu Asn Gln Ser Ser Thr Asp Leu Ser Ala Lys Ser His Asn Glu Asp 370 375 380 Cys Val Cys Pro Glu Cys Ile Pro Val Val Glu Gln Leu Cys Glu Pro 385 390 395 400 Cys Ser Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Tyr Pro Arg Ser Glu 405 410 415 Lys Ser Gly Asn Ser Gln Lys Ser Arg Arg Ser Arg Met Ser Ile Ser 420 425 430 Thr Arg Ser Ser Gly Asp Glu Ser Ala Ser Arg Pro Arg Lys Cys Gly 435 440 445 Phe Val Asp Leu Asn Ser Leu Arg Gln Arg His Asp Ser Phe Arg Ser 450 455 460 Ser Val Gly Thr Tyr Ser Met Asn Ser Ser Arg Gln Thr Arg Asp Thr 465 470 475 480 Glu Lys Asp Glu Phe Trp Lys Val Leu Arg Lys Gln Ser Val Pro Ala 485 490 495 Asn Ile Leu Ser Leu Gln Leu Gln Gln Met Ala Ala Asn Leu Glu Asn 500 505 510 Asp Glu Asp Val Pro Gln Val Thr Gly His Gln Phe Ser Val Leu Gly 515 520 525 Gln Ile His Ile Asp Leu Ser Arg Tyr His Glu Leu Gly Arg Phe Val 530 535 540 Glu Val Asp Ser Glu His Lys Glu Met Leu Glu Gly Ser Glu Asn Asp 545 550 555 560 Ala Arg Val Pro Ile Lys Tyr Asp Lys Gln Ser Ala Ile Phe His Leu 565 570 575 Asp Ile Ala Arg Lys Cys Gly Ile Leu Glu Ala Val Leu Thr Ser Ala 580 585 590 His Ile Val Leu Gly Leu Pro His Glu Leu Leu Lys Glu Val Thr Val 595 600 605 Asp Asp Leu Phe Pro Asn Gly Phe Gly Glu Gln Glu Asn Gly Ile Arg 610 615 620 Ala Asp Lys Gly Gln Lys Pro Cys Asp Leu Glu Glu Phe Gly Ser Asp 625 630 635 640 Leu Met Glu Ile Ala Ala Glu Met Gly Asp Lys Gly Ala Met Leu Tyr 645 650 655 Met Ala His Ala Tyr Glu Thr Gly Gln His Leu Gly Pro Asn Arg Arg 660 665 670 Thr Asp Tyr Lys Lys Ser Ile Asp Trp Tyr Gln Arg Val Val Gly Phe 675 680 685 Gln Glu Glu Glu Glu Leu Asp Ser Asp Cys Gly Lys Thr Thr Phe Ser 690 695 700 Ser Phe Ala Pro Leu Thr Arg His Glu Ile Leu Ala Lys Met Ala Glu 705 710 715 720 Met Tyr Lys Glu Gly Gly Tyr Gly Leu Asn Gln Asp Phe Glu Arg Ala 725 730 735 Tyr Gly Leu Phe Asn Glu Ala Ala Glu Ala Ala Met Glu Ala Met Asn 740 745 750 Gly Lys Leu Ala Asn Lys Tyr Tyr Glu Lys Ala Glu Met Cys Gly Glu 755 760 765 2283 base pairs nucleic acid double linear cDNA NO C. elegans 11 ATGACGATCG ACACAACAAA TGAGAGCGAC AATAGTCCAA CTAACTCACC AGGATTGGAG 60 GCCTCGGCTC GGACATTCTC GCTCAATGCG TCAAAAATGG TTCGGATAAC CGACGACTAC 120 GCAGATGAAG TGTTCATTGA ACAGAATGAT GTCGTTATCG AGAAGCCTCG TATGGATCCT 180 CTCCACGTTA GAAAACTTAT GGAGACATGG CGCAAGGCTG CTCGCCGAGC AAGAACAAAC 240 TATATAGATC CATGGGATGA GTTCAACATC CACGAGTATC CAGTACAACG AGCTAAACGA 300 TATAGGTATT CTGCAATCAG AAAGCAATGG ACAGAGGATA TAGTCGATGT GAGACTTCAT 360 CCGGACAGTT TTGCACGTGG AGCCATGCGA GAATGCTACC GACTCAAAAA GTGCTCCAAG 420 CACGGAACAA GTCAAGATTG GAGCAGCAAC TATGTCGCAA AAAGATACAT TTGTCAAGTC 480 GATCGTAGAG TTCTTTTCGA TGATGTCAGA CTTCAGATGG ATGCCAAATT ATGGGCTGAA 540 GAATATAATC GGTATAATCC ACCGAAGAAA ATTGATATTG TTCAAATGTG TGTCATTGAG 600 ATGATTGATG TAAAAGGTTC TCCACTCTAT CATTTGGAGC ATTTCATCGA GGGAAAATAT 660 ATAAAATACA ATTCAAACTC AGGATTTGTA TCAAATGCAG CTCGTCTTAC ACCACAAGCA 720 TTTTCTCACT TCACCTTCGA ACGTTCTGGT CATCAAATGA TGGTTGTCGA TATTCAAGGA 780 GTTGGTGATC TTTACACAGA TCCTCAGATT CATACAGTTG TGGGAACTGA TTATGGAGAT 840 GGAAACCTCG GAACTCGTGG AATGGCTCTT TTCTTCCATT CACACAGATG TAACGATATT 900 TGTGAGACAA TGGATCTATC AAATTTCGAA CTTTCGCCAC CTGAAATCGA GGCTACCGAA 960 GTTGCGATGG AAGTAGCTGC AAAGCAGAAA AAGTCATGCA TAGTTCCTCC AACTGTGTTC 1020 GAAGCAAGAA GAAATCGAAT TTCAAGTGAA TGTGTACATG TCGAGCATGG TATTTCGATG 1080 GATCAATTGA GAAAAAGGAA GACGTTGAAT CAATCGTCAA CCGATTTGTC AGCAAAGAGT 1140 CACAACGAAG ACTGTGTATG TCCTGAGTGT ATTCCAGTTG TTGAGCAACT CTGTGAGCCT 1200 TGCTCCGAAG ATGAAGAGGA CGAAGAAGAA GACTATCCAA GAAGTGAAAA AAGTGGAAAT 1260 AGTCAGAAAA GTCGACGTAG TAGAATGAGC ATTTCAACGA GATCTTCTGG CGATGAATCA 1320 GCATCTCGTC CTAGAAAATG CGGATTTGTA GATTTAAACT CACTTCGTCA GAGACATGAT 1380 AGCTTCAGAA GTTCTGTTGG GACATATTCT ATGAATAGTT CTAGACAAAC CAGAGACACT 1440 GAAAAGGATG AATTCTGGAA GGTTCTTCGA AAACAATCAG TTCCAGCAAA CATTCTATCA 1500 CTTCAACTTC AACAAATGGC TGCTAACCTG GAAAATGATG AAGACGTACC ACAAGTCACC 1560 GGGCATCAGT TCTCTGTCCT CGGTCAGATT CATATTGATC TCTCACGATA TCATGAGCTC 1620 GGGCGGTTCG TAGAAGTTGA TTCAGAACAT AAGGAAATGC TTGAGGGAAG TGAAAATGAC 1680 GCTCGTGTAC CAATCAAATA CGACAAGCAG TCTGCAATTT TCCATTTGGA TATCGCTCGG 1740 AAGTGTGGAA TCCTTGAGGC TGTGCTAACA TCGGCTCATA TTGTTCTCGG ATTACCACAT 1800 GAATTGTTGA AAGAAGTCAC CGTTGATGAT CTGTTTCCTA ATGGGTTTGG AGAACAGGAA 1860 AATGGAATTC GAGACCTAGA AGAGTTCGGC TCCGATCTGA TGGAAATTGC TGCAGAGATG 1920 GGTGATAAGG GTGCAATGCT GTACATGGCA CACGCTTATG AAACTGGTCA GCATCTCGGA 1980 CCGAATCGAA GAACGGATTA TAAGAAATCG ATTGATTGGT ATCAACGCGT CGTTGGATTC 2040 CAAGAAGAAG AAGAACTTGA CTCTGATTGT GGAAAAACGA CATTCTCCTC ATTTGCTCCA 2100 CTGACTCGTC ACGAGATTCT AGCCAAAATG GCTGAAATGT ACAAAGAGGG AGGTTATGGC 2160 CTGAATCAAG ACTTCGAACG AGCATATGGT CTATTCAATG AAGCTGCTGA AGCAGCAATG 2220 GAAGCAATGA ATGGAAAGCT CGCAAATAAA TACTATGAAA AAGCGGAAAT GTGTGGAGAA 2280 TGA 2283 760 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO C. elegans 12 Met Thr Ile Asp Thr Thr Asn Glu Ser Asp Asn Ser Pro Thr Asn Ser 1 5 10 15 Pro Gly Leu Glu Ala Ser Ala Arg Thr Phe Ser Leu Asn Ala Ser Lys 20 25 30 Met Val Arg Ile Thr Asp Asp Tyr Ala Asp Glu Val Phe Ile Glu Gln 35 40 45 Asn Asp Val Val Ile Glu Lys Pro Arg Met Asp Pro Leu His Val Arg 50 55 60 Lys Leu Met Glu Thr Trp Arg Lys Ala Ala Arg Arg Ala Arg Thr Asn 65 70 75 80 Tyr Ile Asp Pro Trp Asp Glu Phe Asn Ile His Glu Tyr Pro Val Gln 85 90 95 Arg Ala Lys Arg Tyr Arg Tyr Ser Ala Ile Arg Lys Gln Trp Thr Glu 100 105 110 Asp Ile Val Asp Val Arg Leu His Pro Asp Ser Phe Ala Arg Gly Ala 115 120 125 Met Arg Glu Cys Tyr Arg Leu Lys Lys Cys Ser Lys His Gly Thr Ser 130 135 140 Gln Asp Trp Ser Ser Asn Tyr Val Ala Lys Arg Tyr Ile Cys Gln Val 145 150 155 160 Asp Arg Arg Val Leu Phe Asp Asp Val Arg Leu Gln Met Asp Ala Lys 165 170 175 Leu Trp Ala Glu Glu Tyr Asn Arg Tyr Asn Pro Pro Lys Lys Ile Asp 180 185 190 Ile Val Gln Met Cys Val Ile Glu Met Ile Asp Val Lys Gly Ser Pro 195 200 205 Leu Tyr His Leu Glu His Phe Ile Glu Gly Lys Tyr Ile Lys Tyr Asn 210 215 220 Ser Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Ser Asn Ala Ala Arg Leu Thr Pro Gln Ala 225 230 235 240 Phe Ser His Phe Thr Phe Glu Arg Ser Gly His Gln Met Met Val Val 245 250 255 Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp Leu Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile His Thr 260 265 270 Val Val Gly Thr Asp Tyr Gly Asp Gly Asn Leu Gly Thr Arg Gly Met 275 280 285 Ala Leu Phe Phe His Ser His Arg Cys Asn Asp Ile Cys Glu Thr Met 290 295 300 Asp Leu Ser Asn Phe Glu Leu Ser Pro Pro Glu Ile Glu Ala Thr Glu 305 310 315 320 Val Ala Met Glu Val Ala Ala Lys Gln Lys Lys Ser Cys Ile Val Pro 325 330 335 Pro Thr Val Phe Glu Ala Arg Arg Asn Arg Ile Ser Ser Glu Cys Val 340 345 350 His Val Glu His Gly Ile Ser Met Asp Gln Leu Arg Lys Arg Lys Thr 355 360 365 Leu Asn Gln Ser Ser Thr Asp Leu Ser Ala Lys Ser His Asn Glu Asp 370 375 380 Cys Val Cys Pro Glu Cys Ile Pro Val Val Glu Gln Leu Cys Glu Pro 385 390 395 400 Cys Ser Glu Asp Glu Glu Asp Glu Glu Glu Asp Tyr Pro Arg Ser Glu 405 410 415 Lys Ser Gly Asn Ser Gln Lys Ser Arg Arg Ser Arg Met Ser Ile Ser 420 425 430 Thr Arg Ser Ser Gly Asp Glu Ser Ala Ser Arg Pro Arg Lys Cys Gly 435 440 445 Phe Val Asp Leu Asn Ser Leu Arg Gln Arg His Asp Ser Phe Arg Ser 450 455 460 Ser Val Gly Thr Tyr Ser Met Asn Ser Ser Arg Gln Thr Arg Asp Thr 465 470 475 480 Glu Lys Asp Glu Phe Trp Lys Val Leu Arg Lys Gln Ser Val Pro Ala 485 490 495 Asn Ile Leu Ser Leu Gln Leu Gln Gln Met Ala Ala Asn Leu Glu Asn 500 505 510 Asp Glu Asp Val Pro Gln Val Thr Gly His Gln Phe Ser Val Leu Gly 515 520 525 Gln Ile His Ile Asp Leu Ser Arg Tyr His Glu Leu Gly Arg Phe Val 530 535 540 Glu Val Asp Ser Glu His Lys Glu Met Leu Glu Gly Ser Glu Asn Asp 545 550 555 560 Ala Arg Val Pro Ile Lys Tyr Asp Lys Gln Ser Ala Ile Phe His Leu 565 570 575 Asp Ile Ala Arg Lys Cys Gly Ile Leu Glu Ala Val Leu Thr Ser Ala 580 585 590 His Ile Val Leu Gly Leu Pro His Glu Leu Leu Lys Glu Val Thr Val 595 600 605 Asp Asp Leu Phe Pro Asn Gly Phe Gly Glu Gln Glu Asn Gly Ile Arg 610 615 620 Asp Leu Glu Glu Phe Gly Ser Asp Leu Met Glu Ile Ala Ala Glu Met 625 630 635 640 Gly Asp Lys Gly Ala Met Leu Tyr Met Ala His Ala Tyr Glu Thr Gly 645 650 655 Gln His Leu Gly Pro Asn Arg Arg Thr Asp Tyr Lys Lys Ser Ile Asp 660 665 670 Trp Tyr Gln Arg Val Val Gly Phe Gln Glu Glu Glu Glu Leu Asp Ser 675 680 685 Asp Cys Gly Lys Thr Thr Phe Ser Ser Phe Ala Pro Leu Thr Arg His 690 695 700 Glu Ile Leu Ala Lys Met Ala Glu Met Tyr Lys Glu Gly Gly Tyr Gly 705 710 715 720 Leu Asn Gln Asp Phe Glu Arg Ala Tyr Gly Leu Phe Asn Glu Ala Ala 725 730 735 Glu Ala Ala Met Glu Ala Met Asn Gly Lys Leu Ala Asn Lys Tyr Tyr 740 745 750 Glu Lys Ala Glu Met Cys Gly Glu 755 760 628 base pairs nucleic acid double linear cDNA NO Dictyostelium discoideum 13 GTATTGTATG TGTTTCAATT GAGAAGACTC CATTTGCAAA GGGTAGTTGT AGAACAGCAC 60 ATAAATTAAA GGATTGGAGT CAACCAGATC AAGGATTAGT TGGTAAATTT TCAACCAATA 120 AAAAGACGAC AAGAGATTCA TACTTTACAG ATGTATTGAT GCAAACATTT TGTGCTAAAT 180 GGGCAGAGAA ATTCAATGAA GCGAAACCAC CAAAACCAAT TACATTCTTA CCATCATACG 240 TTTACGAATT GATTGATCAT CCACCACCTT ATCCAGTTTG TGGTGGTGAA CCATTCATTG 300 AGGGAGATTA CAAGAAACAT AACAACAACA GTGGTTACGT TAGTAGTGAT GCTAGAAATA 360 CACCACAATC ATTCTCTCAT TTCTCATACG AACTCTCCAA TCATGAATTG TTGATCGTTG 420 ATATCCAAGG TGTCAACGAT TTCTACACTG ATCCTCAAAT TCATACGAAA TCAGGCGAGG 480 GCTTTGGCGA GGGTAATTTG GGCGAGACGG GTTTCCACAA ATTCCTTCAA ACACACAAGT 540 GTAATCCAGT TTGTGACTTT TTAAAGTTGA AACCAATCAA TCAATCAAAG AAAGCCCTCC 600 TAAGAGGTAC ATTACCCGTC GTACAATT 628 209 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO Dictyostelium discoideum 14 Ile Val Cys Val Ser Ile Glu Lys Thr Pro Phe Ala Lys Gly Ser Cys 1 5 10 15 Arg Thr Ala His Lys Leu Lys Asp Trp Ser Gln Pro Asp Gln Gly Leu 20 25 30 Val Gly Lys Phe Ser Thr Asn Lys Lys Thr Thr Arg Asp Ser Tyr Phe 35 40 45 Thr Asp Val Leu Met Gln Thr Phe Cys Ala Lys Trp Ala Glu Lys Phe 50 55 60 Asn Glu Ala Lys Pro Pro Lys Pro Ile Thr Phe Leu Pro Ser Tyr Val 65 70 75 80 Tyr Glu Leu Ile Asp His Pro Pro Pro Tyr Pro Val Cys Gly Gly Glu 85 90 95 Pro Phe Ile Glu Gly Asp Tyr Lys Lys His Asn Asn Asn Ser Gly Tyr 100 105 110 Val Ser Ser Asp Ala Arg Asn Thr Pro Gln Ser Phe Ser His Phe Ser 115 120 125 Tyr Glu Leu Ser Asn His Glu Leu Leu Ile Val Asp Ile Gln Gly Val 130 135 140 Asn Asp Phe Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile His Thr Lys Ser Gly Glu Gly 145 150 155 160 Phe Gly Glu Gly Asn Leu Gly Glu Thr Gly Phe His Lys Phe Leu Gln 165 170 175 Thr His Lys Cys Asn Pro Val Cys Asp Phe Leu Lys Leu Lys Pro Ile 180 185 190 Asn Gln Ser Lys Lys Ala Leu Leu Arg Gly Thr Leu Pro Val Val Gln 195 200 205 Leu 238 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO Homo sapiens 15 Gly Glu Trp Leu Asp Asp Glu Val Leu Ile Lys Met Ala Ser Gln Pro 1 5 10 15 Phe Gly Arg Gly Ala Met Arg Glu Cys Phe Arg Thr Lys Lys Leu Ser 20 25 30 Asn Phe Leu His Ala Gln Gln Trp Lys Gly Ala Ser Asn Tyr Val Ala 35 40 45 Lys Arg Tyr Ile Glu Pro Val Asp Arg Asp Val Tyr Phe Glu Asp Val 50 55 60 Arg Leu Gln Met Glu Ala Lys Leu Trp Gly Glu Glu Tyr Asn Arg His 65 70 75 80 Lys Pro Pro Lys Gln Val Asp Ile Met Gln Met Cys Ile Ile Glu Leu 85 90 95 Lys Asp Arg Pro Gly Lys Pro Leu Phe His Leu Glu His Tyr Ile Glu 100 105 110 Gly Lys Tyr Ile Lys Tyr Asn Ser Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Arg Asp Asp 115 120 125 Asn Ile Arg Leu Thr Pro Gln Ala Phe Ser His Phe Thr Phe Glu Arg 130 135 140 Ser Gly His Gln Leu Ile Val Val Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp Leu 145 150 155 160 Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile His Thr Glu Thr Gly Thr Asp Phe Gly Asp 165 170 175 Gly Asn Leu Gly Val Arg Gly Met Ala Leu Phe Phe Tyr Ser His Ala 180 185 190 Cys Asn Arg Ile Cys Glu Ser Met Gly Leu Ala Pro Phe Asp Leu Ser 195 200 205 Pro Arg Glu Arg Asp Ala Val Asn Gln Asn Thr Lys Leu Leu Gln Ser 210 215 220 Ala Lys Thr Ile Leu Arg Gly Thr Glu Glu Lys Cys Gly Ser 225 230 235 258 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO D. discoideum 16 Asn Lys Trp Ile Arg Leu Ser Met Lys Leu Lys Val Glu Arg Lys Pro 1 5 10 15 Phe Ala Glu Gly Ala Leu Arg Glu Ala Tyr His Thr Val Ser Leu Gly 20 25 30 Val Gly Thr Asp Glu Asn Tyr Pro Leu Gly Thr Thr Thr Lys Leu Phe 35 40 45 Pro Pro Ile Glu Met Ile Ser Pro Ile Ser Lys Asn Asn Glu Ala Met 50 55 60 Thr Gln Leu Lys Asn Gly Thr Lys Phe Val Leu Lys Leu Tyr Lys Lys 65 70 75 80 Glu Ala Glu Gln Gln Ala Ser Arg Glu Leu Tyr Phe Glu Asp Val Lys 85 90 95 Met Gln Met Val Cys Arg Asp Trp Gly Asn Lys Phe Asn Gln Lys Lys 100 105 110 Pro Pro Lys Lys Ile Glu Phe Leu Met Ser Trp Val Val Glu Leu Ile 115 120 125 Asp Arg Ser Pro Ser Ser Asn Gly Gln Pro Ile Leu Cys Ser Ile Glu 130 135 140 Pro Leu Leu Val Gly Glu Phe Lys Lys Asn Asn Ser Asn Tyr Gly Ala 145 150 155 160 Val Leu Thr Asn Arg Ser Thr Pro Gln Ala Phe Ser His Phe Thr Tyr 165 170 175 Glu Leu Ser Asn Lys Gln Met Ile Val Val Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Asp 180 185 190 Asp Leu Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile His Thr Pro Asp Gly Lys Gly Phe 195 200 205 Gly Leu Gly Asn Leu Gly Lys Ala Gly Ile Asn Lys Phe Ile Thr Thr 210 215 220 His Lys Cys Asn Ala Val Cys Ala Leu Leu Asp Leu Asp Val Lys Leu 225 230 235 240 Gly Gly Val Leu Ser Gly Asn Asn Lys Lys Gln Leu Gln Gln Gly Thr 245 250 255 Met Val 212 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO D. discoideum 17 Ala Gln Trp Thr Cys Thr Ala Thr Leu Val Lys Val Glu Pro Val Pro 1 5 10 15 Phe Ala Glu Gly Ala Phe Arg Lys Ala Tyr His Thr Leu Asp Leu Ser 20 25 30 Lys Ser Gly Ala Ser Gly Arg Tyr Val Ser Lys Ile Gly Lys Lys Pro 35 40 45 Thr Pro Arg Pro Ser Tyr Phe Glu Asp Val Lys Met Gln Met Ile Ala 50 55 60 Lys Lys Trp Ala Asp Lys Tyr Asn Ser Phe Lys Pro Pro Lys Lys Ile 65 70 75 80 Glu Phe Leu Gln Ser Cys Val Leu Glu Phe Val Asp Arg Thr Ser Ser 85 90 95 Asp Leu Ile Cys Gly Ala Glu Pro Tyr Val Glu Gly Gln Tyr Arg Lys 100 105 110 Tyr Asn Asn Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Ser Asn Asp Glu Arg Asn Thr Pro 115 120 125 Gln Ser Phe Ser His Phe Thr Tyr Glu His Ser Asn His Gln Leu Leu 130 135 140 Ile Ile Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp His Tyr Thr Asp Pro Gln Ile 145 150 155 160 His Thr Tyr Asp Gly Val Gly Phe Gly Ile Gly Asn Leu Gly Gln Lys 165 170 175 Gly Phe Glu Lys Phe Leu Asp Thr His Lys Cys Asn Ala Ile Cys Gln 180 185 190 Tyr Leu Asn Leu Gln Ser Ile Asn Pro Lys Ser Glu Lys Ser Asp Cys 195 200 205 Gly Thr Val Pro 210 233 amino acids amino acid single linear protein NO C. elegans 18 Lys Gln Trp Thr Glu Asp Ile Val Asp Val Arg Leu His Pro Asp Ser 1 5 10 15 Phe Ala Arg Gly Ala Met Arg Glu Cys Tyr Arg Leu Lys Lys Cys Ser 20 25 30 Lys His Gly Thr Ser Gln Asp Trp Ser Ser Asn Tyr Val Ala Lys Arg 35 40 45 Tyr Ile Cys Gln Val Asp Arg Arg Val Leu Phe Asp Asp Val Arg Leu 50 55 60 Gln Met Asp Ala Lys Leu Trp Ala Glu Glu Tyr Asn Arg Tyr Asn Pro 65 70 75 80 Pro Lys Lys Ile Asp Ile Val Gln Met Cys Val Ile Glu Met Ile Asp 85 90 95 Val Lys Gly Ser Pro Leu Tyr His Leu Glu His Phe Ile Glu Gly Lys 100 105 110 Tyr Ile Lys Tyr Asn Ser Asn Ser Gly Phe Val Ser Asn Ala Ala Arg 115 120 125 Leu Thr Pro Gln Ala Phe Ser His Phe Thr Phe Glu Arg Ser Gly His 130 135 140 Gln Met Met Val Val Asp Ile Gln Gly Val Gly Asp Leu Tyr Thr Asp 145 150 155 160 Pro Gln Ile His Thr Val Val Gly Thr Asp Tyr Gly Asp Gly Asn Leu 165 170 175 Gly Thr Arg Gly Met Ala Leu Phe Phe His Ser His Arg Cys Asn Asp 180 185 190 Ile Cys Glu Thr Met Asp Leu Ser Asn Phe Glu Leu Ser Pro Pro Glu 195 200 205 Ile Glu Ala Thr Glu Val Ala Met Glu Val Ala Ala Lys Gln Lys Lys 210 215 220 Ser Cys Ile Val Pro Pro Thr Val Phe 225 230 25 base pairs nucleic acid single linear other nucleic acid /desc = “Oligonucleotide Primer D” NO 19 GGATTTGGAC TGGACAAGAA CCCCC 25 16 amino acids amino acid single linear peptide NO 20 Arg Lys Lys Phe Gly Glu Ser Glu Lys Thr Lys Thr Lys Glu Phe Leu 1 5 10 15 13 amino acids amino acid single linear peptide NO 21 Leu Thr Pro Gln Ala Phe Ser His Phe Thr Phe Glu Arg 1 5 10 10 amino acids amino acid single linear peptide NO 22 Leu Ala Asn Xaa Tyr Tyr Glu Lys Ala Glu 1 5 10 29 base pairs nucleic acid single linear other nucleic acid /desc = “Oligonucleotides” NO 23 CANGCNTTNN NNCANTTNAC NTTNGANNG 29 26 base pairs nucleic acid single linear other nucleic acid /desc = “Oligonucleotides” NO 24 TCNGCNTTNT CNTANTANTT NTTNGC 26 27 base pairs nucleic acid single linear other nucleic acid /desc = “Oligonucleotides” NO 25 TACAATCAGC TGATGACCAG AACGCTC 27

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8030286 *Dec 22, 2006Oct 4, 2011University Of Medicine And Dentistry Of New JerseyMethods and means for increasing resistance to cell damage
Classifications
U.S. Classification435/194, 435/325, 435/320.1, 435/69.1
International ClassificationC12N15/09, C12Q1/68, C12P21/08, C12N15/54, C12N9/12, A61K38/00, C12N7/00, G01N33/15, C07K16/40, C12N1/21, G01N33/573, C12Q1/02, C12N1/19, C12N5/10, C12N1/15, G01N33/50
Cooperative ClassificationA61K38/00, C12N9/1205
European ClassificationC12N9/12C