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Publication numberUS20020153955 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/797,153
Publication dateOct 24, 2002
Filing dateMar 1, 2001
Priority dateNov 16, 2000
Also published asCN1357969A, EP1213831A1, US6452456, US6476668, US20020121936
Publication number09797153, 797153, US 2002/0153955 A1, US 2002/153955 A1, US 20020153955 A1, US 20020153955A1, US 2002153955 A1, US 2002153955A1, US-A1-20020153955, US-A1-2002153955, US2002/0153955A1, US2002/153955A1, US20020153955 A1, US20020153955A1, US2002153955 A1, US2002153955A1
InventorsRanjit Gharpurey, Gugliemo Sirna
Original AssigneeRanjit Gharpurey, Gugliemo Sirna
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fast-setting, low power, jammer insensitive, biasing apparatus and method for single-ended circuits
US 20020153955 A1
Abstract
A single-ended circuit, such as an LNA (300), in accordance with the present invention includes an input power matching circuit (310) and a bias circuit (305) connected to an output transistor (Qin) which provides the amplification. A degeneration inductance (Le) and load impedance (Lo) couple to the emitter and collector of the output transistor (Qin), respectively.
The bias circuit (305) is configured to eliminate base shot-noise of the output transistor (Qin) which generates the amplification. The bias circuit (305) in accordance with the present invention also eliminates the noise of the bias resistor (Rx1) that is included within the bias circuit (305). Specifically, the bias circuit (305) includes a current reference source (Iref) and an emitter follower circuit (315) connected to a current mirror circuit (Q1, Q2, Rx2) that connects to a bias resistor(Rx1). This bias circuit (305) can be implemented in a wide-class of single-ended circuits.
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Claims(7)
What is claimed is:
1. A low noise amplifier, having an input node and an output node comprising:
an input power matching circuit including a filter and a blocking capacitor, the input node coupled to the filter, the filter coupled to the blocking capacitor;
an output transistor having a base, collector and emitter, the base coupled to the blocking capacitor, the collector coupled to the output node;
a bias circuit having a bias resistor, the bias circuit coupled to the base of the output transistor such that the bias circuit eliminates base shot-noise of the output transistor and noise of the bias resistor;
a degeneration inductance coupled to the emitter of the output transistor; and
a load impedance coupled to the output node.
2. The low noise amplifier as recited in claim 1, wherein the filter comprises a capacitor and an inductor, the capacitor coupled to the input node, the inductor coupled to the blocking capacitor.
3. The low noise amplifier as recited in claim 1, wherein the bias circuit comprises a current mirror circuit, a current reference source, the bias resistor, and an emitter follower circuit, the current reference source coupled to the current mirror circuit, the emitter follower circuit coupled to the current mirror circuit, the current mirror circuit coupled to the bias resistor.
4. The low noise amplifier as recited in claim 3 wherein the emitter follower circuit comprises a current source, a capacitor, and a first transistor having a base, a collector and a emitter, the current source and the capacitor coupled to the emitter of the first transistor.
5. The low noise amplifier as recited in claim 3 wherein the current mirror circuit includes a second resistor, a first and second current mirror transistor each having a respective base, collector and emitter, the base of the first current mirror transistor and the collector of the second current mirror transistor coupled to the reference current source, the second resistor coupled between the base of the second current mirror transistor and the emitter of the first current mirror transistor, the emitter of the first current mirror transistor coupled to the bias resistor.
6. A single-ended circuit, having an input node, an output node, a power supply rail and ground, comprising:
(a) a first inductor coupled to the input node;
(b) a first capacitor coupled between the first resistor and ground;
(c) a blocking capacitor coupled in series to the first inductor;
(d) a biasing circuit comprising:
(i) a first transistor, having a base, emitter and collector, the collector of the first transistor coupled to the power supply rail;
(ii) a first current source coupled between the emitter of the first transistor and ground;
(iii) a reference current source coupled between the power supply rail and the base of first transistor;
(iv) a second transistor, having a base, emitter and collector, the collector of the second transistor coupled to the reference current source, and the emitter of the second transistor coupled to ground;
(v) a second capacitor coupled between the emitter of the first transistor and the base of the second transistor;
(vi) a third transistor, having a base, emitter and collector, the collector coupled to the power supply rail, the base coupled to the collector of the first transistor; and
(vii) a second resistor coupled between the base of the second transistor and the emitter of the third transistor;
(e) a third resistor coupled between the second resistor and the blocking capacitor;
(f) a fourth transistor, having a base, emitter and collector, the base coupled to the third, the collector coupled to the output node;
(g) a second inductor coupled between the emitter of the fourth transistor and ground; and
(h) a third inductor coupled between the power supply rail and the output node.
7. A bias circuit to filter noise comprising:
(a) an emitter follower circuit comprising
(i) a first transistor having a base, collector and emitter;
(ii) a current source coupled between the emitter of first transistor and ground; and
(iii) a capacitor coupled to the emitter of the first transistor;
(b) a current mirror circuit coupled to the emitter follower circuit, the current mirror circuit comprising
(i) a second transistor having a base, collector and emitter, the collector of the second transistor coupled to the power supply rail, the base of the second transistor coupled to the base of the first transistor; and
(ii) a third transistor having a base, collector and emitter, the collector of the third transistor coupled to the base of the second transistor, the base of the third transistor coupled to the capacitor, the emitter of the third transistor coupled to ground; and
(iii) a resistor coupled between the emitter of the second transistor and the base of the third transistor; and
(c) a current reference source coupled between the power supply rail and the base of the second and third transistors.
Description
    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to semiconductor devices, and, more particularly, to a fast-settling, low power, biasing circuit for single-ended circuits.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Radio Frequency (RF) receivers include preamplifiers to boost an incoming signal level prior to the frequency conversion process. The presence of intermodulation products produced by large interfering signals compromises the receiver's ability to process very weak signals. This is what is conventionally known as desensitization. Third-order intermodulation occurs when two interfering signals at differing frequencies combine in the amplifier third-order nonlinearity to produce an intermodulation product close to the desired signal.
  • [0003]
    Desensitization may also occur when a single large interfering signal (i.e. a blocker or jammer) is present. The reduction in sensitivity arises through two separate mechanisms. The first, gain compression, is caused by third-order nonlinearity in the circuit, allowing the existing noise source in the amplifier and mixer to exert a larger influence, thus degrading the overall noise performance. The second mechanism, second-order nonlinearity in the circuit, promotes mixing between relatively low-frequency noise sources in the amplifier and the interfering signal. As a result, low-frequency noise is up-converted to the desired signal frequency which degrades the circuit noise performance. More on the study of blocking and desensitization can be found in “Blocking and Desensitization in RF Amplifiers,” R. G. Meyer and A. K. Wong, IEEE (1995), which is incorporated by reference herein.
  • [0004]
    Particularly, desensitization occurs in single-ended circuits, such as single-ended front-end Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) for wireless receivers, that operate in the presence of jammers due to an increase in the noise floor at the output of the circuit and gain compression. Essentially, distortion in the circuit causes an up-conversion of low-frequency noise into the band of interest. This added noise increases the noise-floor of the circuit, that causes the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) at the output of the amplifier to degrade considerably in the presence of large amplitude jammers.
  • [0005]
    A primary source of low-frequency noise is noise generated in the bias circuit of the single-ended circuit. A new technique for reducing bias noise in a conventional LNA circuit is presented in FIG. 1a. The bias circuit shown prevents desensitization from occurring. This single-transistor LNA circuit includes a transistor Qin as its primary gain device. As shown, power supply Ps applies a voltage input to the circuit. An output is observed at output node Pout. The bias circuit is composed of transistors Q1 and Q2, that act as mirror devices. If the device area of transistors Qin and Q1 is Ain and A1, respectively, then the current flowing through transistor Qin is Iref(Ain/A1). A resistor Rx1 is added in series with the bias circuit, to ensure that the incoming Radio Frequency (RF) power is not diverted into the bias circuit and is supplied primarily to transistor Qin for proper amplification. Since a base current flows into transistor Qin, a static voltage drop develops across resistor Rx1. In order to balance this drop, a resistor Rx2 is added in series with the base of transistor Q1. Note that the base current in transistor Qin equals the base current of transistor Q1 multiplied by Ain/A1. Therefore in order to balance the base-current drops, resistor Rx2 must equal Rx1(Ain/A1).
  • [0006]
    In practice, an RF signal represented by va cos(ωt) may be applied to the input of the LNA circuit; meanwhile a jammer signal of strength va′ cos((ω+Δω)t) may be applied to the input of the LNA as well. The jammer is much larger than the incoming RF signals in most wireless standards. For example, the Global System for Global Communication (GSM) standard requires that the LNA should not suffer any degradation in the output SNR in the presence of a −23 dBm jammer that is at a frequency 3 MHz away from the incoming RF signal having a power level of −98 dBm. With this level of jammer signal, low-frequency noise can be up-converted as explained above. At node 1, there exists low-frequency noise from the bias circuit output. Due to second-order harmonic distortion inherent in the LNA, the jammer tone beats with low-frequency noise at frequency Δω, and converts the noise upward to ω+Δω+Δω and ω+Δω−Δω. The latter term is at the same frequency as the desired signal. Thus, the SNR ratio at the desired output frequency suffers. It should be noted that this effect scales with the strength of the jammer, such that is the SNR degrades more for larger jammer strengths. This effect is shown in FIGS. 1b and 1 c.
  • [0007]
    The following noise sources impact the total noise at low frequencies in the bias circuit: a) the noise of the reference bias (Iref), b) the noise of bias resistor Rx2, c) the base shot-noise of transistor Q1, and d) the collector shot-noise of transistor Q1. Several other noise sources, however, may exist in a LNA circuit; yet, their impact is negligible. As a consequence of the tightly coupled feedback loop formed by transistors Q1 and Q2 and resistor Rx2, the impedance seen by the reference current source, Iref, is of the order of the inverse of the transconductance gm of transistor Q1. This is a small quantity in most bias circuits. Consequently, the noise of the reference bias circuit is small at its output, node X. In addition, as a result, the collector shot-noise of transistor Q1 is mitigated. The remaining noise sources noted above in b) and c) are major noise sources in the LNA circuit shown in FIG. 1a, since this circuit presents these noise sources with a relatively high impedance at the base of transistor Q1. Thus, noise current at this node develops a large noise voltage, which is effectively amplified by transistor Q1 at its collector node. Since transistor's Q2 placement with adjacent elements is such that it represents a voltage follower circuit, any noise at its base appears on its emitter with little attenuation. Hence, a large noise voltage develops at the base of transistor Qin. As explained above, this low-frequency noise can be up-converted to RF frequencies.
  • [0008]
    An approach that has been used to mitigate the noise up-conversion, is the use of external passive LC filters at the input node of the LNA circuit, or at the collector of transistor Q1 is shown in FIG. 2. The indicated LC circuit including inductor Ln and capacitor Cn creates a notch in the frequency domain at the frequency equal to the difference between the jammer and the signal-frequency. Thus, any noise on the bias line is filtered off at this frequency. The notch LC filter is so designed, that it appears as a very high impedance at the radio-frequency, and hence has a minimal impact on circuit performance. The LC notch circuit is effective in reducing the influence of the jammer.
  • [0009]
    This approach, however, has several disadvantages. First, it requires the use of external inductor and capacitor elements which add to the total cost of the solution. Second, the value of the capacitor in the notch filter is relatively high, since the filtering action is required at low frequencies. As a consequence, when the amplifier is powered on, it requires a long time to settle to its steady state, often in the order of hundreds of microseconds, which may be unacceptable in the overall system. Third, parasitics introduced by the large external components can degrade RF performance.
  • [0010]
    It should also be pointed out, that the solution of using a tuned series LC circuit applied at the input of the amplifier is very effective in suppressing the noise of resistor Rx1 and the base shot noise of transistor Qin as well, in addition to suppressing the noise of the bias circuit. However, there are several practical problems with this implementation as mentioned above namely increase in the cost because of added external components, slow turn-on time, and worsened RF performance due to added parasitics of the external tank components. If a noise filter is used at the collector of transistor Q1, it will show the same small increase due to the noise from resistor Rx1 and the base shot noise of transistor Qin.
  • [0011]
    Thus, a need exists for a fast settling, low power biasing technique for a single-ended circuit.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0012]
    To address the above-discussed deficiencies of the biasing circuitry for single-ended circuits, the present invention teaches a fast settling, low power biasing circuit and method for single-ended circuits. In particular, a LNA in accordance with the present invention includes an input power matching circuit, an output transistor, a bias circuit, a degeneration inductance, and a load impedance. The input power matching circuit and the bias circuit couple to the output transistor which provides the amplification. The degeneration inductance and load impedance couple to the emitter and collector of the output transistor, respectively. The bias circuit is configured to eliminate base shot-noise of the output transistor which generates the amplification. The bias circuit in accordance with the present invention also eliminates the noise of the bias resistor that is included within the bias circuit.
  • [0013]
    Specifically, the bias circuit includes a current mirror circuit, a current reference source, the bias resistor, and an emitter follower circuit. The current reference source and the emitter follower circuit are connected to the current mirror circuit which connects to the bias resistor. This biasing circuit can be implemented in a wide-class of single-ended circuits.
  • [0014]
    Advantages of this design include but are not limited to a fully integratable solution which eliminates up-converted noise due to the presence of jammer signals. Since an LNA circuit in accordance with the present invention can be fully integrated on-chip, the additional cost is negligible and, hence, acceptable. Further, the turn-on time of the circuit is small, and acceptable in most systems.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0015]
    For a more complete understanding of the present invention and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following description taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which like reference numbers indicate like features and wherein:
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 1a is a known embodiment of a low-noise amplifier (LNA);
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIG. 1b is a diagram of the input power vs. frequency of the noise and the up-converted noise in the presence of a jammer signal;
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIG. 1c is a diagram of the input power vs. frequency of the noise and the up-converted noise in the presence of a larger jammer signal;
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 2 is another known embodiment of a LNA;
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 3 is a embodiment of a LNA in accordance with the present invention;
  • [0021]
    [0021]FIG. 4 is a diagram of the capacitance of capacitor Cm vs. frequency in the presence of a jammer signal;
  • [0022]
    [0022]FIG. 5 is an alternate embodiment of a LNA; and
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 6 is an alternate embodiment of a LNA.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0024]
    The proposed biasing apparatus 300 and technique, as shown in FIG. 3, can be implemented in a wide-class of single-ended circuits. A single-ended circuit, such as an LNA (300), in accordance with the present invention includes an input power matching circuit (310) and a bias circuit (305) connected to an output transistor (Qin) which provides the amplification. A degeneration inductance (Le) and load impedance (Lo) couple to the emitter and collector of the output transistor (Qin), respectively.
  • [0025]
    The bias circuit (305) is configured to eliminate base shot-noise of the output transistor (Qin) which generates the amplification. The bias circuit (305) in accordance with the present invention also eliminates the noise of the bias resistor (Rx1) that is included within the bias circuit (305). Specifically, the bias circuit (305) includes a current reference source (Iref) and an emitter follower circuit (315) connected to a current mirror circuit (Q1, Q2, Rx2) that connects to a bias resistor (Rx1). This bias circuit (305) can be implemented in a wide-class of single-ended circuits.
  • [0026]
    More particularly, the design consists of a capacitor Cm, of a value that can be integrated on-chip using known integrated circuit (IC) processes (˜5-20 pf), and an emitter follower circuit consisting of transistor Qm, where the transistor Qm is biased with a small current of the order of a tenth of a milli-ampere (Im). Transistor Qm is placed in an emitter follower configuration that connects to the collector of transistor Q1. Since emitter followers are ideally unity gain voltage buffers, node X and node Y are ideally at the same potential. In effect, a low-frequency pole is introduced at a frequency of πRx2Cm. Since resistor Rx2 is usually a large resistance, the value of capacitance Cm, required on-chip is small and can be integrated on-chip (in the order of 5-20 pF for most applications). In response to any current noise, ibn, injected into the base of transistor Q1, the voltage generated at the base is given by: υ bn 2 i bn 2 ( ( R x 2 2 1 + ω 2 R x 2 2 C m 2 ) / ( g m 1 R c 1 ) 2 )
  • [0027]
    where resistance Rc1 is the total load seen at the collector of transistor Q1. The voltage at the collector of transistor Q1 and hence at node X, is given by: υ Xn 2 i bn 2 ( ( R x 2 2 1 + ω 2 R x 2 2 C m 2 ) )
  • [0028]
    As shown, capacitor Cm significantly attenuates the noise. If the −3 dB corner frequency above is, for example, 1 MHz, then at a 3 MHz offset, the noise will be attenuated by a factor of 10 or by 10 dB. In a similar fashion, the up-converted noise will also be attenuated by 10 dB. Another notable characteristic is that the attenuation increases with frequency.
  • [0029]
    Since the jammer in most systems is specified at a fixed offset compared to the desired RF signal, capacitor Cm can be sized to provide adequate attenuation of the up-converted noise, through simulation, or hand analysis.
  • [0030]
    [0030]FIG. 4 illustrates the current noise at the output of the amplifier, with −90 dBm power input (no jammer) and −23 dBm input (with jammer), with and without the noise filtering circuit proposed here. Spectre RF was used for the simulation examples shown. The following component values have been assumed: Iref=0.2 mA, Rx2=32 kΩ, Rx1=2 kΩ. Three values of capacitor Cm are displayed, including −5 pF, 10 pF and 20 pF.
  • [0031]
    With no jammer applied at the input, the noise at an offset of 3 MHz is approximately 82 pA/sqrt Hz. Without the solution proposed here, the noise increases to approximately 390 pA/sqrt Hz, due to the noise up-conversion process detailed earlier. In conclusion, the circuit reduces this noise to approximately 120 pA/sqrt Hz. Note that there is still a minor increase in the noise level compared to the case without a jammer due to a small increase in the noise floor and low-frequency noise from resistor Rx1 and transistor Qin. The level of increase, however is acceptable in most systems, since in most wireless systems, a small increase in the noise floor is acceptable with an applied jammer. This implementation can be adapted by a circuit designer to meet system requirements.
  • [0032]
    Advantages of this design include but are not limited to a fully integratable solution which eliminates up-converted noise due to the presence of jammer signals. Since an LNA circuit in accordance with the present invention can be fully integrated on-chip, the additional cost is negligible and, hence, acceptable. Further, the turn-on time of the circuit is small, and acceptable in most systems.
  • [0033]
    A second embodiment as shown in FIG. 5 is an approach that reduces the noise because of the thermal noise of resistor Rx2 and the base shot noise of transistor Q1, by placing a capacitor, between node B and ground. However, note that because of the tight feedback loop formed by transistor Q1 and Q2 around Rx2, the net impedance at node B is approximately resistance Rx2 divided by the loop gain of the feedback loop. The loop gain can be a large quantity, since it is set primarily by the transconductance gm1, of transistor Q1. Thus, the effective impedance at node B is small. Consequently, the capacitance required at the base of transistor Q1 is too large for effective filtering and cannot be integrated.
  • [0034]
    A third embodiment includes as shown in FIG. 6 an approach of filtering the noise by placing a capacitor between nodes B and X. While this is effective, it introduces a new problem. At radio frequencies, this capacitor has a small impedance. Thus, the isolation from current Iref to the RF input port is severely compromised by this capacitor.
  • [0035]
    The reader's attention is directed to all papers and documents which are filed concurrently with this specification and which are open to public inspection with this specification, and the contents of all such papers and documents are incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0036]
    All the features disclosed in this specification (including any accompany claims, abstract and drawings) may be replaced by alternative features serving the same, equivalent or similar purpose, unless expressly stated otherwise. Thus, unless expressly stated otherwise, each feature disclosed is one example only of a generic series of equivalent or similar features.
  • [0037]
    The terms and expressions which have been employed in the foregoing specification are used therein as terms of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention in the use of such terms and expressions of excluding equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, it being recognized that the scope of the invention is defined and limited only by the claims which follow.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7522678 *Mar 28, 2003Apr 21, 2009Infineon Technologies AgMethod and apparatus for a data-dependent noise predictive viterbi
US7743314Dec 1, 2006Jun 22, 2010Marvell International Ltd.Method and apparatus for a data-dependent noise predictive viterbi
US8015477Jun 21, 2010Sep 6, 2011Marvell International Ltd.Method and apparatus for a data-dependent noise predictive viterbi
US20040037373 *Mar 28, 2003Feb 26, 2004Ashley Jonathan J.Method and apparatus for a data-dependent noise predictive Viterbi
US20070076826 *Dec 1, 2006Apr 5, 2007Infineon Technologies North America CorpMethod and apparatus for a data-dependent noise predictive viterbi
US20100322359 *Jun 21, 2010Dec 23, 2010Stockmanns Heinrich JMethod and apparatus for a data-dependent noise predictive viterbi
Classifications
U.S. Classification330/296, 330/302
International ClassificationH03F1/26, H03F1/30
Cooperative ClassificationH03F1/302, H03F2200/372, H03F2200/294
European ClassificationH03F1/30C
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Mar 1, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: TEXAS INSTRUMENTS INCORPORATED, TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GHARPUREY, RANJIT;SIRNA, GUGLIEMO;REEL/FRAME:011604/0162;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010115 TO 20010226
Jan 14, 2003CCCertificate of correction
Feb 28, 2006FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Feb 19, 2010FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8
Feb 25, 2014FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 12