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Publication numberUS20020175570 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/863,713
Publication dateNov 28, 2002
Filing dateMay 23, 2001
Priority dateMay 23, 2001
Also published asCN1320737C, CN1511368A, DE10296891T5, US6483207, WO2002095905A2, WO2002095905A3
Publication number09863713, 863713, US 2002/0175570 A1, US 2002/175570 A1, US 20020175570 A1, US 20020175570A1, US 2002175570 A1, US 2002175570A1, US-A1-20020175570, US-A1-2002175570, US2002/0175570A1, US2002/175570A1, US20020175570 A1, US20020175570A1, US2002175570 A1, US2002175570A1
InventorsRobert Redlich
Original AssigneeRedlich Robert Walter
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Auto-centering linear motor
US 20020175570 A1
Disclosed is a method of generating magnetic centering force on the permanent magnets of a reciprocating permanent magnet motor or generator, by allowing the ferromagnetic structure of the machine to saturate magnetically when the permanent magnets are near the ends of their travel.
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I claim:
1. An electromechanical transducer for converting reciprocating motion to alternating voltage or for converting alternating voltage to reciprocating motion, said transducer comprising the combination a) through d) as follows,
a) a permanent magnet in the shape of a ring bounded by two circular cylinders and two parallel planes, both cylinders coaxial about an axis A-A, both planes perpendicular to axis AA, the permanent magnet being magnetized substantially perpendicular to the surfaces of the cylinders, the permanent magnet length being (S+L) measured in a direction parallel to axis A-A, where S and L are defined below,
b) a plurality of stationary and substantially identical flux loop members composed of ferromagnetic material, the flux loop members extending generally radially outward from said axis A-A, each flux loop member having a pair of air gaps separated by a distance S measured parallel to axis A-A,, all said pairs of gaps being bounded by two cylindrical surfaces, both surfaces coaxial with axis A-A, each air gap having length L measured parallel to axis A-A, said permanent magnet ring positioned within the plurality of air gap pairs and movable in a direction parallel to axis A-A, the distance so moved, measured from the location where the magnet ring is axially centered in the air gaps, being denoted here by X,
c) an armature coil wound to encircle the central portions of all of said flux loop members,
d) one or more regions of said flux loop members where, for the purpose of creating a magnetically generated axial centering force on said magnet ring, the ferromagnetic material comprising said region or regions is magnetically saturated when |X|=L/2 and current in said armature coil is zero, saturation being defined here as magnetic intensity H exceeding 20 Oersteds.
  • [0001]
    1. U.S. Pat. 4,602,174
  • [0002]
    2. Disclosure Document no. 172295
  • [0003]
    The invention is in the general field of reciprocating permanent magnet AC electric motors and generators. Specifically, it is a means of generating magnetic centering forces to confine reciprocating magnets within the air gaps of such machines.
  • [0004]
    Reference 1 discloses an AC electrical machine that can be used either as a generator to convert reciprocating motion of a permanent magnet ring to AC voltage, or as a motor to convert AC voltage to reciprocating motion of a permanent magnet ring. Referring to FIG. 4 of Reference 1, permanent magnets 50 reciprocate in a left-right direction, and if the machine is conventionally designed, there will be no force on the permanent magnets if there is no current in armature coil 56, provided the magnets do not emerge from the air gaps. If the magnets do so emerge, strong magnetic forces are generated that expel the magnets further. To prevent emergence of the magnets and their subsequent expulsion from the air gap, mechanical and/or magnetic centering springs have been used in prior art. The latter are disclosed in Reference 2. Centering springs introduce complication and increase cost. The object of the present invention is to provide magnetically generated centering force on the reciprocating magnets without adding cost or complexity.
  • [0005]
    In the invention, the ferromagnetic structure (60, 62, 64, 68 of FIG. 6, Reference 1) is designed unconventionally in that all or part of it is allowed to magnetically saturate as permanent magnets 50 of Ref. 1 approach the left or right extremes of the air gap in which they reciprocate. Theory shows, and experiment confirms, that magnetic saturation causes a force to be exerted on the reciprocating magnets in a direction such as to confine the magnets within the air gap. Conventional design avoids magnetic saturation because it degrades performance by lowering efficiency, and, in the case of generators, distorts output voltage waveform. In a linear motion AC motor-generator of the type disclosed in Ref. 1 but modified according to the invention, it is found that useful centering forces can be generated without incurring a significant performance penalty.
  • [0006]
    [0006]FIG. 1A is a cross sectional view of a linear, permanent magnet motor or generator according to prior art. In FIG. 1A, dimensions and magnetic quantities that are changed by the invention are identified by symbols.
  • [0007]
    [0007]FIG. 1B is a cross-sectional view of a linear, permanent magnet motor or generator, in which dimensions and magnetic quantities that distinguish the invention from prior art are identified by symbols.
  • [0008]
    [0008]FIG. 2 shows graphs of magnetic quantities in the iron structure according to prior art and in the invention. These quantities are plotted against displacement X of the magnets from their centered position. The quantities graphed are magnetic intensity H′ (prior art), magnetic flux density B′ (prior art), H (invention) and B (invention).
  • [0009]
    [0009]FIG. 3 shows, for prior art and the invention, graphs of magnetic force on the motor magnets plotted against displacement of the magnets from their centered position.
  • [0010]
    [0010]FIG. 1A is a cross-sectional view of a contemporary embodiment of a reciprocating permanent magnet motor or generator as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,602,174. The machine is substantially axially symmetric about axis A-A. A permanent magnet ring 1 is magnetized radially with magnetization M, and reciprocates parallel to A-A in air gaps bounded by outer ferromagnetic structure 2 and inner ferromagnetic structure 3. A coil of wire 4 surrounds inner ferromagnetic structure 3. X denotes axial displacement of the magnet ring from the position where it is centered axially within the air gaps. With no current in coil 4, the magnetic flux density B′ and the magnetic intensity H′ in the inner and outer ferromagnetic structures are functions of X and of the dimensions y′ and Y′, and are denoted in FIG. 1A by the conventional functional notation B′ (X), H′ (X) respectively.
  • [0011]
    [0011]FIG. 2 shows graphs of H′ (X) and B′ (X) in a prior art machine conventionally designed to avoid magnetic saturation. B′ (X) is a substantially linear function of X with a maximum value typically less than 13000 Gauss, and H′ (X) is typically below 10 Oersted for all X.
  • [0012]
    [0012]FIG. 1B is a cross sectional view of a linear permanent magnet motor or generator according to the invention. FIG. 1B the same as FIG. 1A except that one or both of dimensions y and Y are made sufficiently smaller than their prior art counterparts y′ and Y′ so that magnetic saturation occurs near X=L/2 and X=−L/2, which are the values of X at which magnets 1 begin to emerge from the air gap between iron structures 2 and 3.
  • [0013]
    [0013]FIG. 2 shows graphs of H(X) and B(X) in a motor or generator according to the invention. Near |X|=L/2, H(X) rises above 20 Oersted, exceeding typical saturation for electrical steel, which is about 10 oersted. B(X) near |X|=L/2 falls below a linear projection of its values at small X, and reaches a maximum value exceeding 15000 Gauss.
  • [0014]
    The purpose of allowing parts of ferromagnetic structures 2 and 3 to saturate when magnet ring 1 nears either end of the air gaps is to generate magnetic forces that prevent the magnet ring from leaving the air gap. The existence of such forces is predicted by the theory of electromagnetic energy, which teaches that, in order to increase magnetic flux density B by a differential amount dB in a differential volume dV, energy equal to (HdBdV) is required. In the invention, the source of such energy is mechanical work done on the magnet ring by an axial force moving through a distance dX, from which it follows that the force F on the magnet ring can be found from the following equation;
  • F=−∫HdB/dXdV   equation (1)
  • [0015]
    The minus sign in equation (1) means F is in a direction opposite to dX. The integral must in principle be taken over all of space, but in prior art and in the invention, the dominant contribution to it is from the volume occupied by ferromagnetic structures 2 and 3 of FIGS. 1A and 1B, provided the magnet ring does not leave the air gaps. In prior art, magnetic saturation is avoided by dimensioning the ferromagnetic structure so that H′ is considerably less than 10 Oersted for all X (5 Oersteds is typical), and F is too low to be of practical use in confining the magnet ring. In the invention, however, saturation typically raises H(L/2) to above 20 Oersted, resulting in a much larger value of F that will prevent magnet ring 1 from leaving the air gap.
  • [0016]
    [0016]FIG. 3 shows graphs of F in prior art and in the invention. In both cases the magnets will be expelled from the air gap if |X|≧L/2, as indicated by rapidly increasing force for |X|≧L/2. In the invention, but not in prior art, there is a relatively large restraining force to prevent magnet ring 1 from reaching X=L/2 and subsequently being expelled from the air gap.
  • [0017]
    Considerable variation is possible within the spirit of the invention. For example, magnetic saturation could be confined to outer ferromagnetic structure 2, or to inner ferromagnetic structure 3, rather than existing in both structures.
Referenced by
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US7128032Mar 26, 2004Oct 31, 2006Bose CorporationElectromagnetic actuator and control
US7252053May 19, 2006Aug 7, 2007Bose CorporationElectromagnetic actuator and control
US8692422 *Feb 15, 2011Apr 8, 2014King Abdulaziz City For Science And TechnologySpring-less buried magnet linear-resonant motor
US8704411Sep 24, 2013Apr 22, 2014King Abdulaziz City For Science And TechnologySpring-less buried magnet linear-resonant motor
US9350221Sep 24, 2013May 24, 2016King Abdulaziz City For Science And TechnologySpring-less buried magnet linear-resonant motor
US20050211198 *Mar 26, 2004Sep 29, 2005Froeschle Thomas AElectromagnetic actuator and control
US20060213467 *May 19, 2006Sep 28, 2006Bose Corporation, A Delaware CorporationElectromagnetic actuator and control
US20120207628 *Aug 16, 2012King Abdulaziz City For Science And TechnologySpring-less buried magnet linear-resonant motor
EP1596402A2 *Feb 9, 2005Nov 16, 2005Bose CorporationElectromagnetic actuator and control
EP1804259A2 *Feb 9, 2005Jul 4, 2007Bose CorporationElectromagnetic actuator and control
U.S. Classification310/15
International ClassificationH02K33/16, H02K35/02, H02K7/09
Cooperative ClassificationH02K33/16, H02K35/02, H02K7/09
European ClassificationH02K35/02, H02K7/09, H02K33/16
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Effective date: 20160126