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Publication numberUS20020176984 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/816,470
Publication dateNov 28, 2002
Filing dateMar 26, 2001
Priority dateMar 26, 2001
Also published asUS6852365, US20040038045
Publication number09816470, 816470, US 2002/0176984 A1, US 2002/176984 A1, US 20020176984 A1, US 20020176984A1, US 2002176984 A1, US 2002176984A1, US-A1-20020176984, US-A1-2002176984, US2002/0176984A1, US2002/176984A1, US20020176984 A1, US20020176984A1, US2002176984 A1, US2002176984A1
InventorsWilson Smart, Kumar Subramanian, Eugene Orloff
Original AssigneeWilson Smart, Kumar Subramanian, Eugene Orloff
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Silicon penetration device with increased fracture toughness and method of fabrication
US 20020176984 A1
Abstract
A silicon penetration device with increased fracture toughness and method of fabrication thereof are provided. The method comprises strengthening silicon penetration devices by thermally growing a silicon oxide layer on the penetration device and then subsequently stripping the silicon oxide. The method also includes strengthening silicon penetration devices through the sputtering of thin film coatings on the silicon penetration devices.
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Claims(27)
We claim as our invention
1. A method of forming a silicon penetration device having increased fracture toughness, the method comprising:
cleaning the surface of the silicon penetration device;
heating the cleaned silicon penetration device;
exposing the silicon penetration device to a reactive environment at elevated temperature to form an adherent film on the surface of the penetration device, the reactive environment containing one or more of the following reactants at one time, or in a sequence: oxygen, ozone, steam, hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen;
cooling the silicon penetration device; and
etching the silicon penetration device to remove at least a part of the adherent film.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein, during the cleaning step, the silicon penetration device is RCA cleaned.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein the heating step is accomplished by a Tylan oxide furnace.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein during the heating step the temperature of the device is raised to 1100 degrees Celsius.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein the cooling step begins when the silicon penetration device has approximately one (1) micrometer of film has grown on the surface of the silicon substrate.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein during the etching step the silicon penetration device is placed in a 6:1 solution of water and hydrofluoric acid.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein during the etching step the silicon penetration device is placed in a buffered oxide etchant (BOE) for approximately thirty (30) minutes such that the thermally grown surface layer is removed and the smoothened surface of the silicon substrate is exposed.
8. A method of forming a penetration device having increased fracture toughness, the method comprising:
cleaning the surface of the silicon penetration device;
heating the cleaned silicon penetration device;
exposing the silicon penetration device to a dry oxygen environment at elevated temperature to form an adherent film on the surface of the penetration device;
introducing a wet steam into the oxygen environment;
further exposing the silicon penetration device to a dry oxygen environment;
cooling the silicon penetration device; and
etching the silicon penetration device to remove at least a part of the oxide film.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein the first exposure of the silicon penetration device to a dry oxygen environment is for about five (5) minutes;
10. The method of claim 8 wherein the wet steam is introduced into the furnace for a variable predetermined time such that silicon oxide growth rate on the silicon substrate is approximately forty (40) Angstroms per minute;
11. The method of claim 8 wherein the cooling step begins when approximately one (1) micrometer of silicon oxide has grown on the surface of the silicon substrate.
12. A method of forming a penetration device having increased fracture toughness, the method comprising: cleaning the silicon penetration device; and depositing a nickel film on the silicon substrate.
13. The method of claim 12 wherein during the cleaning step the silicon penetration device is submerged into methylene chloride (CH2Cl2).
14. The method of claim 13 wherein during the cleaning step the silicon penetration device is cleaned for approximately ten (10) minutes.
15. The method of claim 12 wherein during the depositing step the nickel film is sputtered on the silicon substrate to a thickness of approximately one (1) micrometer.
16. The method of claim 12 wherein during the depositing step the nickel film is deposited on the substrate at a power of approximately five-hundred (500) watts and at a rate of approximately four hundred and ninety-five (495) Angstroms per minute.
17. A penetration device with increased fracture toughness, comprising:
an unprocessed silicon penetration device; and
an adherent film comprising silicon reacted with one or more of the following: oxygen, ozone, steam, hydrogen, ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen on the silicon substrate, at least a portion of which is removed by an etchant.
18. A penetration device with increased fracture toughness, comprising:
an unprocessed silicon substrate;
a silicon oxide layer on the silicon substrate, at least a portion of which is removed by an etchant.
19. The penetration device of claim 18 wherein the device is RCA cleaned.
20. The penetration device of claim 18 wherein the silicon oxide layer is formed in a Tylan oxide furnace having a temperature of approximately 1100 degrees Celsius.
21. The penetration device of claim 18 wherein wet steam is introduced into a furnace.
22. The penetration device of claim 18 wherein the silicon oxide layer has a growth rate on the silicon substrate of approximately forty (40) Angstroms per minute;
23. The penetration device of claim 18 wherein the silicon oxide layer has a thickness of approximately one (1) micrometer.
24. The penetration device of claim 18 wherein the etchant used to remove at least a portion of the silicon oxide layer is a buffered oxide etchant.
25. A penetration device with increased fracture toughness, the device comprising;
an unprocessed silicon penetration device; and
a nickel film deposited on the silicon substrate of the penetration device.
26. The penetration device of claim 23 wherein the nickel film is sputtered on the silicon substrate to a thickness of approximately one (1) micrometer.
27. The penetration device of claim 24 wherein the nickel film is deposited on the substrate at a power of approximately five-hundred (500) watts and at a rate of approximately four hundred and ninety-five (495) Angstroms per minute.
Description
    TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0001]
    This invention relates generally to a method for strengthening silicon penetration devices such as needles or probes by increasing fracture toughness.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0002]
    It is well known in the art that silicon is a brittle substance. A penetration device constructed from single crystal silicon must possess a certain degree of mechanical robustness in order to ensure successful use of the needle without accidental fracture of the needle in patients. The device may have an interior channel (a hollow penetration device through which fluids can pass for sampling or injection) or it may be solid (for use as a lancet or probe). Integrated circuit and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) technologies are used to fabricate these silicon penetration devices. Common MEMS fabrication methods, such as bulk etching with potassium hydroxide solution, leave the surface of the penetration device in a roughened state, with resultant increase in surface flaws. The actual failure of the silicon penetration device is the result of microcrack propagation initiated at a flaw on the surface of the material. It is important therefore, to increase the fracture toughness of the penetration device to permit reliable skin penetration without breakage.
  • [0003]
    In Kim et al, U.S. Statutory Invention Registration H001166, a tightly adherent thermally grown silicon containing oxide layer was utilized in order to limit the strength diminishing effects of microflaws located on the surface of the substrate. The materials applied are a composition of matter comprising silicon-based ceramics. In Kim, the material was exposed to an environment of essentially hydrogen and water vapor at the correct temperature and pressure for a predetermined amount of time thereby forming the oxide layer.
  • [0004]
    In Leger et al, U.S. Pat. No. 3,628,983, thin film coatings were applied to vitreous and vitrocrystalline (derived from or consisting of glass) bodies. Chemical modifications were made to the coatings of Leger while the coatings were in a heated condition with the film and substrate being subsequently cooled to create compressive stresses in the films. The chemical modifications varied between a step involving the oxidation of a metal or a metal compound, and the replacement of alkali metal ions in the coating by ions which derived from the medium and which conferred on the coating a lower coefficient of thermal expansion. Creating a compressive stress on the surface of the substrate provides a means of holding together surface defects which otherwise limit the strength of the material.
  • [0005]
    In Ishi et al, U.S. Pat. No. 4,985,368, the substrate of a semiconductor was strengthened by depositing oxide over a corner of the device. The substrate consisted of a main surface, a predetermined impurity concentration of a first conductivity type, and a trench with a sufficient radius of curvature over at least a bottom corner portion thereof. A two-layer film consisting of oxide and nitride was formed on the main surface of the substrate, the side portions of the trench and a portion of the bottom of the trench. A second, selective, oxide layer was formed on the bottom and at the corner portion of the trench. The selective oxide layer spanned the corner portion of the trench with a radius of curvature more than {fraction (1/10)} and less than of the width of the trench.
  • [0006]
    The above prior art teaches the application of oxide to produce a compressive film intended to reduce microcrack propagation. In no case was the film subsequently removed, providing the substantial increase in fracture toughness shown in our present invention.
  • [0007]
    In Leger, an external thin film coating was applied to a material in an attempt to minimize the effects of surface flaws. However, Leger did not use nickel as one of the thin films. Furthermore, the materials that are being strengthened are vitreous and vitrocrystalline bodies. Also, the methods of Leger involve creating compressive stresses in the films through both chemical treating at an elevated temperature and subsequent cooling.
  • [0008]
    In Wilson et al “Fracture Testing of Bulk Silicon Microcantilever Beams Subjected to a Side Load” silicon microcantilevers were fracture tested experimentally. However, the silicon microcantilevers of the Wilson experiment did not undergo surface modifications. Furthermore, in Wilson, the strengthening of devices through surface modifications was not addressed.
  • [0009]
    While the prior art devices exemplify existing methods, there still exists a need for improved methods for strengthening silicon penetration devices by increasing fracture toughness.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0010]
    It is an object of the present invention, therefore, to provide a strengthened silicon penetration device with increased fracture toughness and method for fabrication thereof. The penetration device or probe of such a device is approximately the thickness of a human hair, much smaller than a metal needle or lancet, yet can penetrate skin reliably and virtually painlessly.
  • [0011]
    Another object of the present invention is to strengthen silicon penetration devices by thermally growing a silicon oxide layer on the penetration device or probe from the bulk silicon material thereof and subsequently stripping the silicon oxide therefrom.
  • [0012]
    Yet another object of the present invention is to strengthen penetration devices through the sputtering of thin film coatings on the silicon penetration device or probe.
  • [0013]
    Another object of the present invention is to provide silicon penetration devices on which a silicon oxide layer was thermally grown from the bulk silicon material of the device substrate and then subsequently removed, resulting in an increase in fracture toughness.
  • [0014]
    Still another object of the present invention is to provide silicon penetration devices which are coated with a one (1) micrometer nickel film, resulting in an increase in fracture toughness.
  • [0015]
    Another object of the present invention is to provide a method of increasing fracture toughness that does not require a film in a compressed state in the finished product.
  • [0016]
    To achieve the foregoing and other objects and in accordance with the purpose of the present invention as embodied and broadly described herein, the present invention is directed to a penetration device with increased fracture toughness and method for its construction.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0017]
    [0017]FIG. 1A is a sectional side view illustrating an unprocessed silicon penetration device 10 a, that is, the device prior to applying the methods of the present invention;
  • [0018]
    [0018]FIG. 1B is a sectional side view illustrating a silicon penetration device 10 b after formation of a silicon oxide layer 12 b on the top and bottom surfaces thereof;
  • [0019]
    [0019]FIG. 1C is a sectional side view illustrating a silicon penetration device 10 c after removal of the silicon oxide layer 12 c to expose the smoothed silicon surface; and
  • [0020]
    [0020]FIG. 1D is a sectional side view illustrating a silicon penetration device 10 d having a nickel film 14 d deposited thereon.
  • [0021]
    The first two digits of each reference number in the above figures indicate related elements. The third digit indicates the figure in which an element is shown.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0022]
    The present invention comprises methods of increasing the fracture toughness of silicon penetration devices. The first method comprises two steps. In the first step, the silicon surface of the device substrate is reacted at elevated temperatures with gaseous materials to form a thick adherent silicon-containing chemical film, for example a silicon oxide or oxynitride, on the silicon substrate surface. In the second step, the chemically-bound silicon film is removed by etching.
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 1A shows a side sectional view of silicon substrate 10 a of a previously unprocessed penetration device, that is, a device prior to applying the methods of this invention. The penetration device silicon has been fabricated using standard integrated circuit (IC) and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processing technologies, probably including wet etching.
  • [0024]
    As illustrated in FIG. 1B, an embodiment of the present invention includes a method for strengthening silicon penetration devices by thermally growing a silicon oxide layer 12 b on silicon penetration device substrate 10 b, and subsequently stripping the silicon oxide layer 12 b from substrate 10 b. The resultant silicon substrate 10 c, which has a freshly exposed silicon surface, is illustrated in FIG. 1C. As illustrated in FIG. 1D, the present invention further includes strengthening penetration devices through the sputtering of thin film coating 14 d on the silicon substrate 10 d.
  • [0025]
    The first step is the thermal growing of a thin layer of silicon oxide 12 b on the surface of the silicon substrate 10 a by oxidizing the bulk silicon of the substrate surface. The second step is the subsequent removal of silicon oxide layer 12 b in a buffered oxide etch. Each of these two processing steps results in penetration devices which exhibit an increase in the critical strength values (that is, the maximum bending force and maximum critical force) over the unprocessed device, as can be seen in TABLE 1.
    TABLE 1
    Maximum bending stress and maximum critical force
    for silicon penetration device with an “average” 94
    micrometer thick penetration device or probe
    Maximum
    Bending Maximum
    Force, bend Critical
    (MegaPascal, Force
    Condition MPa) (Newton, N)
    Polished silicon wafer 1227 0.251
    reference
    Unprocessed penetration 455 0.093
    device (roughened
    surface from KOH
    micromachining etch)
    Penetration device with ˜1 665 0.136
    micrometer thermal
    silicon oxide surface
    coating (1100 C.)
    Penetration device with 2024 0.414
    oxide removed via BOE
    etch
  • [0026]
    The maximum bending stress and maximum critical force values for the penetration device with an “average” 94 micrometer thick penetration device or probe after various steps of the present invention are provided in TABLE 1. These values provide a measure of the fracture toughness of the penetration device, with higher values indicating increased toughness. Standard MEMS fabrication techniques to produce silicon penetration devices include micromachining the silicon wafer with wet etchants such as potassium hydroxide solution. Prior to such treatment, a silicon penetration device with the initial reference surface of the polished silicon wafer has a maximum bending stress of 1227 Mpa and a maximum critical force of 0.251 N. After standard micromachining with a potassium hydroxide solution etch, the maximum bending stress decreases to 455 Mpa and the maximum critical force decreases to 0.093 N. This etching process increases surface roughness, producing a corresponding increase in surface defects where microcracks can initiate and thus decrease the fracture toughness of the penetration device.
  • [0027]
    The two-step method of the present invention has several advantages over the prior art. For instance, in the first step, when thermally growing silicon oxide layer 12 b from the surface of silicon substrate 10 a, silicon oxide layer 12 b actually becomes the outer surface of the needle or probe. This outer surface is smoother than the original roughened surface of substrate 10 a, with the interface between silicon oxide layer 12 b and substrate 10 b possibly also becoming more smooth during the oxide formation process. When silicon oxide layer 12 b is then removed, the resultant penetration device exhibits a significant increase in fracture toughness in comparison to the unprocessed device.
  • [0028]
    The two processing steps of the present invention will now be described. In step one, silicon oxide layer 12 b is grown at elevated temperatures on the surface of silicon substrate 10 a. The silicon substrate 10 a itself serves as the source of silicon in the reaction to form silicon oxide layer 12 b, the outer surface of substrate 10 b. Silicon has a significantly greater coefficient of thermal expansion than does silicon oxide. Thus, when silicon oxide layer 12 b is formed at an elevated temperature and silicon microprobe device subsequently cooled to room temperature, silicon substrate 10 b undergoes a greater contraction than does silicon oxide layer 12 b. This places silicon oxide layer 12 b in a state of compression, thereby tending to hold the microflaws together and inhibiting failure. Further, photomicrographs of the oxide surface indicate that it is visibly smoother than the surface of unprocessed substrate 10 a. Referring to TABLE 1, the values of the maximum bending stress and maximum critical force for a penetration device with silicon oxide layer 12 b of the present invention are greater than those for unprocessed precursor silicon penetration device 10 a, which had been micromachined using a wet KOH (potassium hydroxide) etch.
  • [0029]
    In the second step of the present invention, silicon oxide layer 12 b is removed from substrate 10 b thereby revealing the newly-exposed silicon surface of substrate 10 c. Again referring to TABLE 1, the values of the maximum bending stress and maximum critical force for a device with substrate 10c surface characteristics are a factor of 3.04 greater than those for a device comprising silicon substrate 10 b and silicon oxide layer 12 b and, most unexpectedly, 1.65 greater than those for the polished silicon wafer reference device. The reasons for this unexpected increase in fracture toughness are not known. Two possible postulates may contribute to the observed increase.
  • [0030]
    a. In step 1, when silicon oxide layer 12 b is grown on substrate 10 a at elevated temperatures, annealing may possibly occur at the interface between silicon oxide layer 12 b and the single crystal silicon substrate, creating a smoother silicon boundary. Therefore, when silicon oxide layer 12 b is removed from substrate 10 b in step 2, the newly uncovered surface of substrate 10 c is smoother with fewer defects
  • [0031]
    b. A layer of polycrystalline silicon may possibly recrystallize at the silicon oxide/silicon interface during the elevated temperature processing. The polycrystalline silicon layer exposed when the oxide layer is removed may contribute to a decrease in surface roughness. Further, polycrystalline silicon has a higher fracture toughness than single crystal silicon.
  • [0032]
    In sum, a preferred embodiment of the present invention comprises the following processing steps:
  • [0033]
    1. The unprocessed penetration device is RCA cleaned. RCA clean is a standard semiconductor cleaning process using two solutions in sequence. The first is an aqueous solution of ammonia and hydrogen peroxide; the second an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide.
  • [0034]
    2. The RCA-cleaned device is placed in a Tylan oxide furnace and the temperature is increased to 1100 degrees Celsius.
  • [0035]
    3. The penetration device is exposed to a dry oxygen environment for five (5) minutes;
  • [0036]
    4. A wet steam is introduced into the furnace for a variable predetermined time resulting in silicon oxide layer 12 b growth on substrate 10 b of approximately forty (40) Angstroms per minute;
  • [0037]
    5. The dry oxygen environment is reintroduced into the furnace;
  • [0038]
    6. The penetration device is removed from the furnace having approximately one (1) micrometer of silicon oxide layer 12 b growth on the top and bottom surfaces of substrate 10 a; and
  • [0039]
    7. The penetration device is placed in a buffered oxide etchant for approximately thirty (30) minutes, removing the thermally grown oxide layer, and exposing the smoothened surface of the penetration device 16 of the present invention. The buffered oxide etchant solution comprises water, ammonium fluoride, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonium hydrogen fluoride.
  • [0040]
    The present invention further includes strengthening the penetration device by depositing a 0.5 micrometer to 1.0 micrometer thick nickel film layer 14 d onto both sides of substrate 10 a. Preferably, the nickel film layer 14 d is deposited on substrate 10 a through a sputtering technique. The presence of the nickel film layer 14 d on substrate 10 d reduces the effects of the strength limiting flaws on the surface of the silicon penetration device 10 d by sealing and covering the defects thereon, thus inhibiting microcrack propagation and increasing fracture toughness.
  • [0041]
    The methods of the present invention with the nickel film layer 14 d comprise the following steps:
  • [0042]
    1. The penetration device is cleaned by submersing them into methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) for approximately ten (10) minutes; and
  • [0043]
    2. A nickel film layer 14 d having a thickness of one (1) micrometer is sputtered onto both sides of substrate 10 d at a power of approximately five-hundred (500) watts and at a rate of approximately four hundred and ninety-five (495) Angstroms per minute.
  • [0044]
    The resultant silicon penetration device with nickel film layer 14 d exhibits significantly greater fracture toughness than the device with KOH etched substrate 10 a. The value of the maximum bending stress for the device with nickel film layer 14 d is a factor of 1.19 greater than that for the device with substrate 10 a alone.
  • INDUSTRIAL APPLICABILITY
  • [0045]
    It will be apparent to those skilled in the are that the objects of this invention have been achieved as described hereinbefore by providing a silicon penetration device with increased fracture toughness and method of fabrication thereof. The method comprises strengthening silicon penetration devices by thermally growing a chemically-bound silicon-containing layer on the penetration device and then subsequently stripping off the layer. The method also includes strengthening silicon penetration devices through the sputtering of thin film coatings on the silicon penetration devices. The resultant penetration devices exhibit increased fracture toughness and are capable of penetrating skin reliably and painlessly without breakage. They are useful for a wide range of blood monitoring and sampling applications.
  • CONCLUSION
  • [0046]
    The foregoing description of the preferred embodiments of the subject invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description and for a better understanding of the invention. Various changes may be made in the embodiments presented herein without departing from the concept of the invention. For example, other chemicals capable of reacting with the silicon of the unprocessed penetration device 10 a to form a thick adherent film can be added together, individually, or in sequence during the film formation steps. Therefore, the scope of the invention is to be determined by the terminology of the following claims and the legal equivalents thereof.
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Classifications
U.S. Classification428/336, 428/698, 428/701, 428/446
International ClassificationC23C14/16, C23C14/02
Cooperative ClassificationC23C14/165, C23C14/024, Y10T428/265, C23C14/021
European ClassificationC23C14/16B, C23C14/02A, C23C14/02B
Legal Events
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Dec 9, 2002ASAssignment
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Effective date: 19970221
Dec 13, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: KUMETRIX, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SMART, WILSON;ORLOFF, EUGENE;REEL/FRAME:013577/0637;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010522 TO 20010621
Sep 30, 2003ASAssignment
Owner name: KUMETRIX, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SUBRAMANIAN, KUMAR;REEL/FRAME:014562/0171
Effective date: 20030812