Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20020180799 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/865,485
Publication dateDec 5, 2002
Filing dateMay 29, 2001
Priority dateMay 29, 2001
Also published asUS6886137
Publication number09865485, 865485, US 2002/0180799 A1, US 2002/180799 A1, US 20020180799 A1, US 20020180799A1, US 2002180799 A1, US 2002180799A1, US-A1-20020180799, US-A1-2002180799, US2002/0180799A1, US2002/180799A1, US20020180799 A1, US20020180799A1, US2002180799 A1, US2002180799A1
InventorsCharles Peck, John Mackay
Original AssigneePeck Charles C., Mackay John D.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Eye gaze control of dynamic information presentation
US 20020180799 A1
Abstract
A hands-free system uses eye gaze information from an eye gaze tracking device to continuously control the rate and direction of scrollable information presented on a display in a natural manner. Initially, images begin scrolling on the display at an initial rate. An eye tracking device is used to determine the area on the display that the user is gazing. If the gaze remains fixed near an anchor position, this indicates that the images are scrolling at a comfortable speed for the user to read the information. However, if the gaze begins to drift towards the side of the display where information is appearing, the scroll rate is increased since this indicates that the text is scrolling too slowly. Conversely, if the user's gaze is detected to move toward the side of the screen where information is disappearing, the scroll rate is decreased since this indicates that the user is falling behind. If the user's gaze gets too close to the side of the screen where information is disappearing the scroll direction may be reversed.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(16)
We claim:
1. A system for using eye gaze to control a scroll rate of information presented on a display, comprising:
a display for displaying scrolling information;
means for monitoring a gaze position on said display relative to an anchor position;
control means for adjusting a speed of said scrolling information if said gaze position deviates from said anchor position.
2. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented on a display as recited in claim 1 wherein said scrolling information scrolls from a bottom of said display to a top of said display and
wherein said control means increases said scroll rate if said gaze position moves below said anchor position and decreases said scroll rate if said gaze position moves above said anchor position.
3. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented on a display as recited in claim 2 wherein said control means reverses scroll direction if said gaze position moves near said top of said display.
4. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented on a display as recited in claim 1 wherein said scrolling information scrolls from a top of said display to a bottom of said display.
5. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented on a display as recited in claim 4 wherein said control means reverses scroll direction if said gaze position moves near said bottom of said display.
6. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented on a display as presented in claim 1 wherein said anchor position is horizontal Line at the center of said display.
7. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented on a display as recited in claim 1 wherein said scrolling information scrolls horizontally from a first side of said display to a second side of said display.
8. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented in a display as recited in claim 7 wherein said anchor position is a vertical line at a center of said display.
9. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented in a display as recited in claim 1 wherein said control means dynamically adjusts said anchor position to the position of gaze dwell.
10. A system for using eye gaze to control the rate of information presented in a display as recited in claim 7 wherein said control means reverses scroll direction if said gaze position moves near said second side o said display.
11. A method for automatically adjusting a scroll rate of information scrolling on a display, comprising the steps of:
defining an initial anchor position near a center line of a display;
scrolling information across said display at a scroll rate with new information appearing at a first side of said display and disappearing at a second side of said display;
tracking a gaze position on said display;
increasing said scroll rate if said gaze position moves from said anchor position toward said first side of said display; and
decreasing said scroll rate if said gaze position moves from said anchor position toward said second side of said display.
12. A method for automatically adjusting a scroll rate of information scrolling on a display as recited in claim 11 further comprising the step of:
reversing scroll direction if said gaze moves near said second side of said display.
13. A method for automatically adjusting a scroll rate of information scrolling on a display as recited in claim 11 further comprising the step of:
dynamically adjusting said anchor position in response to gaze dwell.
14. A computer readable medium comprising software instructions for automatically adjusting a scroll rate of information scrolling on a display, said instructions comprising the steps of:
defining an initial anchor position near a center line of a display;
scrolling information across said display at a scroll rate with new information appearing at a first side of said display and disappearing at a second side of said display;
tracking a gaze position on said display;
increasing said scroll rate if said gaze position moves from said anchor position toward said first side of said display; and
decreasing said scroll rate if said gaze position moves from said anchor position toward said second side of said display.
15. A computer readable medium comprising software instructions for automatically adjusting a scroll rate of information scrolling on a display as recited in claim 14, said instructions further comprising the steps of:
reversing scroll direction if said gaze moves near said second side of said display.
16. A computer readable medium comprising software instructions for automatically adjusting a scroll rate of information scrolling on a display as recited in claim 14, said instructions further comprising the steps of:
dynamically adjusting said anchor position in response to gaze dwell.
Description
    BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    1. Field of the Invention
  • [0002]
    The present invention generally relates to a system for scrolling a screen and, more particularly, to a system for scrolling an image on a computer display screen based on eye movements
  • [0003]
    2. Description of the Related Art
  • [0004]
    Eye tracking systems can determine where on a computer screen the user is looking and they have been used as the primary input device of computers, replacing both the keyboard and the mouse. Thus, such systems are able to control all processes of a computer that do not require response times that are too short to be provided via eye movements and software constraints. Since these systems do not require any force or the use of any movements other than the eyes, they are appealing for use by people who are unable to use conventional devices.
  • [0005]
    While eye trackers can enable human-computer interaction using only the eyes, there are many reasons that such interaction can be difficult, frustrating, and tiresome. First, people do not normally consciously control their eye movements. Furthermore, people are not accustomed to changing their visual environment simply by looking at it. Another reason is that the accuracy of eye position information is limited to the angle of foveation, which is about 1 degree. This angle describes the portion of the visual field that falls entirely on the high resolution part of the retina, called the fovea. Since everything projected onto the fovea is high resolution, it is unnecessary to move the eye to evaluate foveated objects. Consequently, special techniques must be employed to improve the specificity of eye gaze information (such as enlarging an area that has been dwelled upon). Finally, eye gaze information is limited to cursor or screen position, which leads to very cumbersome styles of interaction.
  • [0006]
    Conversely, most input devices are able to convey both the action (e.g., left/right mouse click) and the object of the action (e.g., the graphical construct underneath the mouse cursor). To distinguish between an action and the object, eye trackers either use a secondary input, such as a sip-and-puff switch, or they distinguish between eye movement and eye dwell. Moving the eye to a particular screen location and dwelling there indicates the object and the desire to perform an action. This can produce a dialog window with buttons indicating the desired action, which can then be selected by looking at them and dwelling upon them. However, this results in an unnatural, slow, and cumbersome means of controlling the computer.
  • [0007]
    Reading text and navigating through information on computer screens can be difficult even when using conventional input devices and interaction idioms, like dragging the tab on a window scroll bar. This is made even more difficult when the user is unable to use conventional devices and must use alternatives, like eye tracking systems.
  • [0008]
    The challenge, therefore, is to make reading text and navigating through scrollable information easier and more natural. Scrollable information includes any information that is discretized into individual units and can be displayed sequentially. Examples of navigating through scrollable information include reading text, searching through thumbnail images, perusing the columns or rows of a spreadsheet, etc.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0009]
    The invention uses eye gaze information from an eye gaze tracking system to continuously control the rate and direction of scrollable information presentation in a natural manner. Initially, images begin scrolling on the display at an initial rate. An eye tracking device is used to determine the area on the display that the user is looking. For example, consider the case of text scrolling on the display from bottom to top at an initial rate. If the users eyes remain fixed near the vertical middle of the display, reading left to right, this indicates that the text is scrolling at a comfortable speed for the user to read the text. Alternatively, if the user's eyes begin to drift up towards the top of the screen, this indicates that the text is scrolling too fast and the user is not keeping up. In this case, this shift in eye position is detected by the eye tracking device and the scroll rate is automatically reduced to a more comfortable rate for the user. If the users's eyes are reading too close to the top of the display, the scroll direction may actually be reversed so that the line being read is more centered in the display. Conversely, if the eye tracker detects that the user's eyes are drifting towards the bottom of the display, this indicates that the user is reading faster than the information is being presented and the scroll rate is automatically increased to a more comfortable rate.
  • [0010]
    In short, the present invention controls the rate of progression and the direction of progression through the information and it does so continuously based on the relationship between the text display and the position of the eyes. It uses a negative feedback system for natural control and it extracts the control information unobtrusively during the process of reading or information perusal. Explicit and secondary control gestures, such a, eye dwell or sip-and-puff devices are not required.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0011]
    The foregoing and other objects, aspects and advantages will be better understood from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment of the invention with reference to the drawings, in which:
  • [0012]
    [0012]FIG. 1 is a diagram showing the basic set up of the eye gaze control system according to the present invention;
  • [0013]
    [0013]FIG. 2 is a screen illustrating automatic scroll rate; and
  • [0014]
    [0014]FIG. 3 is a flow diagram illustrating the steps for automatically controlling the display scroll rate according to gaze position.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION
  • [0015]
    Referring now to the drawings, and more particularly to FIG. 1 there is shown a typical set up for the present invention. A display monitor 10 is connected to a computer 12 and positioned in front of a user 14. Traditional input devices such as a keyboard 16 or mouse (not shown) may also be present. However, in certain situations, the user may have physical constraints that render them unable to use traditional input devices. Therefore, the present invention provides an alternative to these traditional devices and would be useful for any individual capable of moving his or her eyes, including a quadriplegic or similarly disabled person.
  • [0016]
    In particular, an eye gaze tracker 18 is mounted and aimed such that the user's eyes 22 are in its field of vision 20. Suitable eye tracking devices or cameras are well known in the art. The purpose of eye gaze trackers, also called eye trackers, is to determine where an individual is looking. The primary use of the technology is as an input device for human-computer interaction. In such a capacity, eye trackers enable the computer to determine where on the computer screen the individual is looking. The most effective and common eye tracking technology exploits the “bright-eye” effect. The bright-eye effect is familiar to most people as the glowing red pupils observed in photographs of people taken with a flash that is mounted near the camera lens. In the case of eye trackers, the eye is illuminated with infrared light, which is not visible to the human eye. An Infrared camera can easily detect the infrared light re-emitted by the retina. It can also detect the even brighter primary reflection of the infrared illuminator off of the front surface of the eye. The relative position of the primary reflection to the large circle caused by the light re-emitted by the retina (the bright-eye effect) can be used to determine the direction of gaze. This information, combined with the relative positions of the camera 18, the eyes 22, and the computer display 10, can be used to compute where on the computer screen the user 14 is looking 24.
  • [0017]
    The invention uses eye gaze information from an eye gaze tracking system to continuously control the rate and direction of scrollable information presentation in a natural manner. The invention may be applied to text or information that scrolls in any direction, such as vertically or horizontally.
  • [0018]
    Referring to FIG. 2, this description will assume that the scrollable information is text and that it scrolls vertically from the bottom to top of a text window as indicated by arrow 30 (the vertical scroll bar 32 moves from top to bottom). This, however, is not a requirement as the invention applies to other types of information and multiples styles of scrolling.
  • [0019]
    Groups of text appear at the bottom of the text window and appear to move up the screen at an initial rate. If the eye gaze is near the center 34 of the text window then the rate of text movement does not change. This is consistent with the reader being able to assimilate the text at exactly the same rate as it is being presented. If the text is being presented too fast, then the reader will tend to follow a group of text past the center of the text window, say to point 36. Thus, when the eye gaze moves above the center of the screen, the rate of text presentation will automatically slow down. Similarly, if the text is being presented too slowly, the reader will tend to read ahead. This corresponds to moving the eye gaze below the center of the text window, say to point 38. Thus, the invention will increase the rate of text presentation when the eye gaze moves below the center of the text window. In this manner, the rate of information presentation will automatically adjust to the rate at which it is being assimilated.
  • [0020]
    As a variation, this rate adjustment mechanism need not be anchored to the center of the window 34. The anchor location can dynamically adjust itself to the position of eye gaze dwell. Thus, the rate remains constant as long as the eye does not move up or down. If it moves down, the invention increases the rate of information presentation; if it moves up, the invention decreases the rate of information presentation. In this manner, the rate at which information is presented depends only on the vertical location of the eye gaze. When the eye gaze is at the top of the window the rate of information presentation is low and the rate is very high near the bottom of the window.
  • [0021]
    As the eye gaze approaches the top of the window, the rate of text presentation will decrease until the eye gaze reaches the point 40 at which the direction of information presentation reverses. At this point, the effect of eye gaze position is reversed. At the top of the window, the rate of reverse information presentation (an downward motion) is at its highest. As the eye gaze approaches the center of the window 34 the reverse rate slows until it gets high enough that the direction reverses again. At this point, the information will once again flow from the bottom to the top.
  • [0022]
    To decrease the flow rate discontinuity at the direction reversals, a transient effect can be added. This transient effect will tend to slow down the rate, but its effect will diminish with time. Thus, a reversal from upward motion to downward motion will be slow enough that the eye can adjust and follow the information. During this transient, the eye can move to the vertical position that corresponds to the rate at which information can be assimilated. Soon the transient effect dissipates and normal behavior resumes.
  • [0023]
    [0023]FIG. 3 is a flow diagram outlining the above procedure. Once the system is started 50, text or other display objects begin to scroll at an initial scroll rates 52, perhaps one line every 5-10 seconds. In the preferred embodiment the scrolling is a smooth continuous motion. The computer 12, via the eye gaze tracker 18, computes the user's gaze position 54 and compares it to an anchor point. As shown in FIG. 2, the anchor point can be any point where the user is comfortable reading but for illustration purposes is initially set to be at the horizontal line in the at the vertical center 34 of the display. In decision block 56, if the user is determined to be gazing at the anchor point, the scroll rate remains unchanged. If, in decision block 58, it is determined that the user's gaze is drifting below the anchor point (e.g., point 38 in FIG. 2), the scroll rate is increased at block 60 since this indicates that the text is being presented too slowly and the user is reading ahead. Similarly, is at decision block 62, if it is determined that the user is gazing above the anchor point (e.g., point 36 in FIG. 2), the scroll rate is automatically decreased at block 64 since this indicates that the text is being presented faster than the reader read. If at decision block 66 it is determined that the user is gazing very near the top of the screen, the scroll direction is reversed at block 68 since in this situation it is likely that some of the text has scrolled off of the screen prior being read.
  • [0024]
    The invention has been described in terms of items scrolling from bottom to top, since this is the typical manner in scrolling items are read. However, one skilled in the art will recognize that the teachings set forth are equally as valid for text scrolling from top to bottom simply by interchanging the points at which the scroll rate is increased or decreased. Similarly, horizontal scrolling rates can also be automatically adjusted by determining the users gaze position relative to the left and right sides of the screen.
  • [0025]
    The invention may be applied to text or information that scrolls in any direction, such as vertically or horizontally. This description assumed that the scrollable information is text and that it scrolls vertically from the top to the bottom of a text window. This, however, is not a requirement as the invention applies to other types of information and multiples styles of scrolling. In addition, this invention is preferably embodied in software stored in any suitable machine readable medium such as magnetic or optical disk, network server, etc., and intended to be run of course on a computer equipped with the proper hardware including an eye gaze tracker and display.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5016282 *Jul 12, 1989May 14, 1991Atr Communication Systems Research LaboratoriesEye tracking image pickup apparatus for separating noise from feature portions
US5717413 *Mar 28, 1997Feb 10, 1998Canon Kabushiki KaishaControl device for display device
US6204828 *Mar 31, 1998Mar 20, 2001International Business Machines CorporationIntegrated gaze/manual cursor positioning system
US6215471 *Apr 28, 1998Apr 10, 2001Deluca Michael JosephVision pointer method and apparatus
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7365738Dec 2, 2003Apr 29, 2008International Business Machines CorporationGuides and indicators for eye movement monitoring systems
US7429108Aug 22, 2006Sep 30, 2008Outland Research, LlcGaze-responsive interface to enhance on-screen user reading tasks
US7438414May 3, 2006Oct 21, 2008Outland Research, LlcGaze discriminating electronic control apparatus, system, method and computer program product
US7561143 *Mar 11, 2005Jul 14, 2009The University of the ArtsUsing gaze actions to interact with a display
US7681123 *May 31, 2005Mar 16, 2010Resource Consortium LimitedUser interface for dynamic presentation of text
US7872635May 14, 2004Jan 18, 2011Optimetrics, Inc.Foveated display eye-tracking system and method
US8094122Feb 28, 2008Jan 10, 2012International Business Machines CorporatoinGuides and indicators for eye movement monitoring systems
US8311284 *Feb 28, 2007Nov 13, 2012Optalert Pty LtdIncapacity monitor
US8350906Jan 30, 2008Jan 8, 2013BinocleControl method based on a voluntary ocular signal particularly for filming
US8611015Nov 22, 2011Dec 17, 2013Google Inc.User interface
US8643680 *Apr 8, 2011Feb 4, 2014Amazon Technologies, Inc.Gaze-based content display
US8745524 *Nov 10, 2008Jun 3, 2014Wistron Corp.Display method and device thereof
US8786953Nov 5, 2013Jul 22, 2014Google Inc.User interface
US8878773May 24, 2010Nov 4, 2014Amazon Technologies, Inc.Determining relative motion as input
US8942434Dec 20, 2011Jan 27, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.Conflict resolution for pupil detection
US8947351Sep 27, 2011Feb 3, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.Point of view determinations for finger tracking
US8947355 *Mar 25, 2010Feb 3, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.Motion-based character selection
US8963950 *Jun 9, 2010Feb 24, 2015Sony CorporationDisplay control apparatus and display control method
US8970452Nov 2, 2011Mar 3, 2015Google Inc.Imaging method
US9041734Aug 12, 2011May 26, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.Simulating three-dimensional features
US9223415Jan 17, 2012Dec 29, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.Managing resource usage for task performance
US9230516 *Feb 16, 2012Jan 5, 2016Kyocera CorporationAutomatic scrolling speed control by tracking user's eye
US20050246619 *May 31, 2005Nov 3, 2005Krause Philip RUser interface for dynamic presentation of text
US20060066567 *Sep 29, 2004Mar 30, 2006Scharenbroch Gregory KSystem and method of controlling scrolling text display
US20060140420 *Dec 23, 2004Jun 29, 2006Akihiro MachidaEye-based control of directed sound generation
US20060194181 *Nov 10, 2005Aug 31, 2006Outland Research, LlcMethod and apparatus for electronic books with enhanced educational features
US20060256083 *Aug 22, 2006Nov 16, 2006Outland ResearchGaze-responsive interface to enhance on-screen user reading tasks
US20070003913 *Sep 26, 2006Jan 4, 2007Outland ResearchEducational verbo-visualizer interface system
US20070024579 *May 3, 2006Feb 1, 2007Outland Research, LlcGaze discriminating electronic control apparatus, system, method and computer program product
US20070040033 *Sep 26, 2006Feb 22, 2007Outland ResearchDigital mirror system with advanced imaging features and hands-free control
US20070078552 *Nov 21, 2006Apr 5, 2007Outland Research, LlcGaze-based power conservation for portable media players
US20070290993 *Jun 15, 2006Dec 20, 2007Microsoft CorporationSoap mobile electronic device
US20080024433 *Jul 26, 2006Jan 31, 2008International Business Machines CorporationMethod and system for automatically switching keyboard/mouse between computers by user line of sight
US20080165195 *Aug 13, 2007Jul 10, 2008Outland Research, LlcMethod, apparatus, and software for animated self-portraits
US20090034796 *Feb 28, 2007Feb 5, 2009Optalert Pty LtdIncapacity monitor
US20090271734 *Oct 29, 2009Hung-Young HsuDisplay method and device thereof
US20090273562 *Nov 5, 2009International Business Machines CorporationEnhancing computer screen security using customized control of displayed content area
US20100079508 *Sep 30, 2008Apr 1, 2010Andrew HodgeElectronic devices with gaze detection capabilities
US20100118141 *Jan 30, 2008May 13, 2010BinocleControl method based on a voluntary ocular signal particularly for filming
US20100169825 *Mar 15, 2010Jul 1, 2010Resource Consortium LimitedUser Interface for Dynamic Presentation Text
US20110001763 *Jun 9, 2010Jan 6, 2011Sony CorporationDisplay control apparatus and display control method
US20110029918 *Jun 28, 2010Feb 3, 2011Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Apparatus and method for navigation in digital object using gaze information of user
US20110205148 *Aug 25, 2011Corriveau Philip JFacial Tracking Electronic Reader
US20120131491 *Jun 6, 2011May 24, 2012Lee Ho-SubApparatus and method for displaying content using eye movement trajectory
US20120146895 *Jun 14, 2012Bjoerklund ChristofferArrangement, method and computer program for controlling a computer apparatus based on eye-tracking
US20120212407 *Feb 16, 2012Aug 23, 2012Kyocera CorporationInformation display device and scroll control method
US20120256967 *Apr 8, 2011Oct 11, 2012Baldwin Leo BGaze-based content display
US20130010208 *Jan 10, 2013Kuo Ching ChiangVideo display
US20130278625 *Apr 22, 2013Oct 24, 2013Kyocera CorporationInformation terminal and display controlling method
US20130321270 *Aug 6, 2013Dec 5, 2013Tobii Technology AbArrangement, method and computer program for controlling a computer apparatus based on eye-tracking
US20140081634 *Jan 11, 2013Mar 20, 2014Qualcomm IncorporatedLeveraging head mounted displays to enable person-to-person interactions
US20140247208 *May 14, 2013Sep 4, 2014Tobii Technology AbInvoking and waking a computing device from stand-by mode based on gaze detection
US20150091793 *Mar 8, 2013Apr 2, 2015Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Method for controlling device on the basis of eyeball motion, and device therefor
US20150135133 *Nov 11, 2013May 14, 2015Lenovo (Singapore) Pte. Ltd.Adjustable smooth scrolling
EP2695046A1 *Apr 4, 2012Feb 12, 2014Amazon Technologies, Inc.Gaze-based content display
EP2695046A4 *Apr 4, 2012Dec 10, 2014Amazon Tech IncGaze-based content display
WO2006045843A1 *Oct 28, 2005May 4, 2006Sr Labs S R LMethod and system of visualisation, processing and integrated analysis of medical images
WO2008107564A1Jan 30, 2008Sep 12, 2008BinocleControl method based on a voluntary ocular signal, particularly for filming
WO2012008966A1 *Jul 16, 2010Jan 19, 2012Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Systems and methods for eye tracking using retroreflector-encoded information
WO2012138744A1Apr 4, 2012Oct 11, 2012Amazon Technologies, Inc.Gaze-based content display
WO2013077978A3 *Nov 1, 2012Jul 18, 2013Google Inc.Method of using eye-tracking to center image content in a display
WO2013133618A1 *Mar 6, 2013Sep 12, 2013Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Method of controlling at least one function of device by using eye action and device for performing the method
WO2013133664A1 *Mar 8, 2013Sep 12, 2013Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Method for controlling device on the basis of eyeball motion, and device therefor
WO2015112432A1 *Jan 16, 2015Jul 30, 2015Microsoft Technology Licensing, LlcAutomated content scrolling
Classifications
U.S. Classification715/784
International ClassificationG06F3/00, G06F3/01
Cooperative ClassificationG06F3/0485, G06F3/013
European ClassificationG06F3/01B4
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
May 24, 2001ASAssignment
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:PECK, CHARLES C.;MACKAY, JOHN D.;REEL/FRAME:011866/0120;SIGNING DATES FROM 20010517 TO 20010524
Nov 9, 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: IPG HEALTHCARE 501 LIMITED, UNITED KINGDOM
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:020083/0864
Effective date: 20070926
Oct 1, 2008FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Feb 16, 2012ASAssignment
Owner name: TOBII TECHNOLOGY AB, SWEDEN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:IPG HEALTHCARE 501 LIMITED;REEL/FRAME:027714/0198
Effective date: 20120207
Oct 1, 2012FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 8