US 20020196846 A1 Abstract Transcoding of a video stream to reduce the size of the video stream with little, if any, loss in video quality after subsampling. After accessing a video stream of video pictures (i.e., video frames or fields), the blocks of the video picture are each subject to matrix pre-multiplication and post-multiplication. Such matrix multiplication does degrade the video quality if subsampling was not to occur. However, the pre-multiplication and post-multiplication matrices are calculated based on the subsampling matrices that will be used to ultimately subsample the video stream such that after subsampling eventually occurs, the matrix multiplications result in minimal loss of video quality.
Claims(25) 1. In a video management system configured to receive a video stream containing one or more video pictures that are each divided into blocks, wherein the video management system is to provide a representation of the one or more video pictures to a subsample decoder for subsampling, a method of reducing the size of the one or more frames with minimal, if any, effect on the video quality generated from the one or more frames after subsampling, the method comprising the following:
accessing a video picture that is to be subsampled; and for at least one block of the video picture, reducing the size of the block to generate a reduced size block in such a way that subsampled decoding the reduced size block results in substantially the same reduced size image as subsampled decoding the original block. 2. The method in accordance with providing the video picture with its one or more reduced size blocks to the subsample decoder. 3. The method in accordance with subsampled decoding the video picture. 4. The method in accordance with displaying the subsample decoded video picture on a display device. 5. The method in accordance with displaying the subsample decoded video picture on a display device as a reduced sized picture of a picture-in-picture display. 6. The method in accordance with representing the block as a matrix; pre-multiplying the block matrix by a pre-multiplication matrix, the pre-multiplication matrix generated from a first subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in a first direction; and post-multiplying the block matrix by a post-multiplication matrix generated from a second subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in a second direction that is substantially perpendicular to the first direction. 7. The method in accordance with receiving an indication over a network that the subsample decoder is to operate on the video stream. 8. The method in accordance with receiving the first and second subsample matrix over a network from the subsample decoder. 9. The method in accordance with generating the pre-multiplication matrix by performing the following:
determining a first inverse matrix that represents the multiplication inverse of a matrix that results from the multiplication of a first transform matrix times the vertical subsampling matrix; and
multiplying the first inverse matrix by the vertical subsampling matrix to generate the pre-multiplication matrix.
10. The method in accordance with determining a first inverse matrix that represents the multiplication inverse of a matrix that results from the multiplication of a vertical discrete cosign transform matrix times the vertical subsampling matrix. 11. The method in accordance with determining a first inverse matrix that represents the multiplication inverse of a matrix that results from the multiplication of a vertical wavelet transform matrix times the first subsampling matrix. 12. The method in accordance with generating the post-multiplication matrix by performing the following:
determining a second inverse matrix that represents the multiplication inverse of a matrix that results from the multiplication of a second transform matrix times the transpose of the horizontal subsampling matrix; and
multiplying the transpose of the horizontal subsampling matrix by the second inverse matrix to generate the post-multiplication matrix.
13. The method in accordance with determining a second inverse matrix that represents the multiplication inverse of a matrix that results from the multiplication of a horizontal discrete cosign transform matrix times the horizontal subsampling matrix. 14. The method in accordance with determining a second inverse matrix that represents the multiplication inverse of a matrix that results from the multiplication of a horizontal wavelet transform matrix times the horizontal subsampling matrix. 15. The method in accordance with horizontal subsampling the video picture using the horizontal subsampling matrix; and vertical subsampling the video picture using the vertical subsampling matrix. 16. The method in accordance with 17. The method in accordance with accessing a video frame that is to be subsampled. 18. The method in accordance with accessing a video frame that is to be subsampled. 19. In a video management system configured to receive a video stream containing one or more video pictures that are each divided into blocks, wherein the video management system is to provide a representation of the one or more video pictures to a subsample decoder for subsampling, a method of reducing the size of the one or more frames with minimal, if any, effect on the video quality generated from the one or more frames after subsampling, the method comprising the following:
accessing a video picture that is to be subsampled; and for at least one block of the video picture, performing the following:
representing the block as a matrix;
pre-multiplying the block matrix by a pre-multiplication matrix, the pre-multiplication matrix generated from a first subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in a first direction; and
post-multiplying the block matrix by a post-multiplication matrix generated from a second subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in a second direction that is substantially perpendicular to the first direction.
20. The method in accordance with providing the video picture with its one or more reduced size blocks to the subsample decoder. 21. The method in accordance with subsampled decoding the video picture. 22. The method in accordance with displaying the subsample decoded video picture on a display device. 23. A video management system configured to receive a video stream containing one or more video pictures that are each divided into blocks, wherein the video management system is to provide a representation of the one or more video pictures to a subsample decoder for subsampling, the video management system comprising the following:
means for accessing a video picture; and means for transcoding the video picture such that subsampled decoding the reduced size picture results in substantially the same reduced size image as subsampled decoding the original video picture. 24. A video management system configured to receive a video stream containing one or more video pictures that are each divided into blocks, wherein the video management system is to provide a representation of the one or more video pictures to a subsample decoder for subsampling, the video management system comprising the following:
a memory configured to store one or more video pictures; and a transcoder configured to perform the following:
accessing a video picture from the memory;
for at least one block of the video picture, performing the following:
representing the block as a matrix;
pre-multiplying the block matrix by a pre-multiplication matrix, the pre-multiplication matrix generated from a first subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in a first direction; and
post-multiplying the block matrix by a post-multiplication matrix generated from a second subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in a second direction that is substantially perpendicular to the first direction.
25. A video network comprising the following:
a video management system configured to perform the following:
accessing a video picture;
transcoding the video picture so as to reduce the size of the video picture without introducing error as measure after subsampling; and
a video node coupled to the video management system so as to receive the transcoded video picture from the video management system, the video node further configured to subsample the transcoded video picture; and a display device coupled to the video node so as to receive the subsampled video picture, the display device further configured to display the subsampled video picture. Description [0001] 1. The Field of the Invention [0002] The present invention relates to the field of video processing. In particular, the present invention relates to the compression of a video stream when it is known that the video stream is to be subsampled for minimal loss after subsampled decoding. [0003] 2. Background and Relevant Art [0004] Video constitutes a series of images that, when displayed above a certain rate, gives the illusion to a human viewer that the image is moving. Video is now a widespread medium for communicating information whether it be a television broadcast, a taped program, or the like. More recently, digital video has become popular. [0005] An uncompressed digital video stream has high bandwidth and storage requirements. For example, the raw storage requirement for uncompressed CCIR-601 resolution 4:2:2: serial digital video is approximately 20 megabytes per second of video. In addition, associated audio and data channels also require bandwidth and storage. From a transmission bandwidth perspective, 20 megabytes per second is much faster than conventional transmission techniques can practicably support. In addition, from a storage perspective, a two-hour movie would occupy approximately 144 Gigabytes of memory, well above the capabilities of a conventional Digital Versatile Disk (DVD). Therefore, what were desired were systems and methods for compressing (or coding) digital video in a way that maintains a relatively high degree of fidelity with the original video once uncompressed (or decoded). [0006] One conventional high-quality compression standard is called MPEG-2, which is based on the principle that there is a large degree of visual redundancy in video streams. By removing much of the redundant information, the video storage and bandwidth requirements are significantly reduced. [0007]FIG. 1A illustrates a display order [0008] Under the MPEG-2 standard, there are three classes of pictures, I-pictures, P-pictures and B-pictures. While MPEG-2 allows for a number of display orders for groups of pictures, the display order illustrated in FIG. 1A is commonly used. In this common display order, there are a series of I-pictures. For clarity, only I-pictures I [0009] The I-pictures are “intra-coded” meaning that they can be restructured without reference to any other picture in the video stream. [0010] The P-pictures are “inter-coded” meaning that they may only be restructured with reference to another reference picture. Typically, the P-picture may include motion vectors that represent estimated motion with respect to the reference picture. The P-picture may be reconstructed using the immediately preceding I-picture or P-picture as a reference. In FIG. 1A, arrows illustrate the predictive relationship between pictures wherein the picture at the head of the arrow indicates the predictive picture, and the picture at the tail of the arrow indicates the reference picture used to reconstruct the predictive picture. For example, the reconstruction of P-picture P [0011] B-pictures are also inter-coded. The B-picture is typically reconstructed using the immediately preceding I-picture or P-picture as a reference, and the immediately subsequent I-picture or P-picture as a reference. For example, the reconstruction of B-picture B [0012]FIG. 1B illustrates the decode order [0013]FIG. 2A illustrates the general process involved with encoding a digital picture [0014] If the digital picture [0015] B-pictures are encoded similar to how P-pictures are encoded, except that motion may be estimated with reference to a prior reference picture and a subsequent reference picture. [0016]FIG. 2B illustrates a conventional decoder [0017] In this manner, MPEG-2 combines the functionality of motion compensation, discrete cosine transformation, quantization, and variable length coding to significantly reduce the size of a video stream with some generally acceptable reduction in video quality. Despite conventional standards such as MPEG-2 that provide significant compression to a video stream, it is desirable to reduce the bandwidth requirements of the video stream even more to maximize network and storage performance. [0018] One way to further reduce the bandwidth requirements is to compress the video stream even beyond the compression performed during the original MPEG-2 encoding processes. However, this results in a loss of video information and thus degrades the quality of the video stream to a certain extent. Therefore, what are desired are systems and methods for further compressing a video stream with less, if any, loss of video information. [0019] The present invention extends to both methods and systems for transcoding a video stream so as to reduce the size of the video stream with little, if any, degradation of video quality after subsampling. The video steam includes a number of video pictures such as frames or fields and may be stored in memory or accessed from a transmission. In addition, each video picture includes one or more blocks. These blocks are the fundamental unit upon which subsampling may be performed. For example, under the MPEG-2 standard, developed by the Moving Pictures Experts Group, subsampling may be performed on blocks of 8 pixels by 8 pixels. [0020] The video management system accesses one of the video pictures from the video stream. Then, for at least one block of the video picture, the video management system represents the block as a matrix of pixel values. Then, the block matrix is pre-multiplied by a pre-multiplication matrix and post-multiplied by a post-multiplication matrix. The pre-multiplication matrix is generated from a subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in one direction. The post-multiplication matrix is generated from a subsample matrix that represents the subsampled decoding in a substantially perpendicular direction. [0021] The pre-multiplication matrix and the post-multiplication matrix are structured so that the block of pixels is altered in a manner that subsampling of the altered block of pixels results in the same subsampled image as subsampling of the original block of pixels. The pre-multiplication matrix and the post-multiplication matrix are also designed to decrease the size of the encoded version of the block of pixels. [0022] This strategic altering of blocks of pixels may be repeated for each block in the video picture and for each video picture in the video stream that is to be subject to subsampled decoding. Accordingly, the memory and bandwidth requirements of the video stream may be substantially reduced with the satisfaction that the reduction comes at minimal cost in video quality assuming that the video stream is to ultimately be subsample decoded. In one aspect of the invention, the further compressed video stream is sent to a subsample decoder where it is subsampled and presented on a display device. [0023] Additional features and advantages of the invention will be set forth in the description which follows, and in part will be obvious from the description, or may be learned by the practice of the invention. The features and advantages of the invention may be realized and obtained by means of the instruments and combinations particularly pointed out in the appended claims. These and other features of the present invention will become more fully apparent from the following description and appended claims, or may be learned by the practice of the invention as set forth hereinafter. [0024] In order to describe the manner in which the above-recited and other advantages and features of the invention can be obtained, a more particular description of the invention briefly described above will be rendered by reference to specific embodiments thereof, which are illustrated in the appended drawings. Understanding that these drawings depict only typical embodiments of the invention and are not therefore to be considered to be limiting of its scope, the invention will be described and explained with additional specificity and detail through the use of the accompanying drawings in which: [0025]FIG. 1A illustrates a display order of an MPEG-2 video stream in accordance with the prior art; [0026]FIG. 1B illustrates a decode order of an MPEG-2 video stream in accordance with the prior art; [0027]FIG. 2A illustrates an encode sequence in accordance with MPEG-2 and in accordance with the prior art; [0028]FIG. 2B illustrates a decode sequence in accordance with MPEG-2 and in accordance with the prior art; [0029]FIG. 3 schematically illustrates a video network in which the principles of the present invention may operate; and [0030]FIG. 4 is a flowchart of a method for transcoding a video stream so that there is little, if any, loss in video quality after subsampling in accordance with the present invention. [0031] Subsampling is a process that reduces the dimensions of a video image such as when the video stream is to be displayed in a reduced-size picture-in-picture display. The present invention extends to both methods and systems for reducing the size of the video stream with minimal, if any, effect on the video quality as displayed after subsampling. A video management system accesses a video stream by receiving the video stream from a video channel, or by accessing a memory where the video stream is stored. Once the video management system determines that only a reduced-size version of the video stream is ultimately to be displayed as when the video stream is to be subject to subsampling, the video management system compresses each picture (e.g., frame or field) of the video frame. Although this compression would cause loss of picture quality if the picture were to be displayed in its full size, this compression is performed in such a manner that there is little, if any, loss in video quality as displayed after subsampling. Any loss in video quality would be primarily due to re-quantization, and finite-precision effects inherent in computer processing. [0032] Embodiments within the scope of the present invention include computer-readable media for carrying or having computer-executable instructions or data structures stored thereon. Such computer-readable media can be any available media that can be accessed by a general purpose or special purpose computer. By way of example, and not limitation, such computer-readable media can comprise RAM, ROM, EEPROM, CD-ROM or other optical disk storage, magnetic disk storage or other magnetic storage devices, or any other medium which can be used to carry or store desired program code means in the form of computer-executable instructions or data structures and which can be accessed by a general purpose or special purpose computer. [0033] When information is transferred or provided over a network or another communications connection (either hardwired, wireless, or a combination of hardwired or wireless) to a computer, the computer properly views the connection as a computer-readable medium. Thus, any such connection is properly termed a computer-readable medium. Combinations of the above should also be included within the scope of computer-readable media. Computer-executable instructions comprise, for example, instructions and data which cause a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or special purpose processing device to perform a certain function or group of functions. [0034] The precise operating environment in which the principles of the present invention are implemented is not important to the present invention. The principles of the present invention may be implemented in any operating environment that is able to implement the principles of the present invention. For example, given suitable software and/or adaptation, general-purpose computers, special-purpose computers or special purpose processing devices (whether now developed or to be developed in the future) might implement the principles of the present invention. In addition, the principles of the present invention may be implemented by software, hardware, firmware or any combination thereof. [0035] As will be described in further detail below, the principles of the present invention are most advantageous when the video processing in accordance with the present invention is followed by subsampling. The environment discussed below with respect to FIG. 3 illustrates just one example of an environment in which subsampling is performed and is provided for illustrative purposes only, and not for purposes of limiting the claims. One of ordinary skill in the art will easily recognize that the principles of the present invention may be implemented in any environment where the video processed in accordance with the present invention is to be subsampled. [0036]FIG. 3 and the corresponding discussion provide a general description of a network [0037] The video management system [0038] While FIG. 3 and the corresponding discussion above provide a general description of a suitable environment in which the invention may be implemented, it will be appreciated that the features of the present invention disclosed herein may be practiced in association with a variety of different system configurations. [0039]FIG. 4 illustrates a method [0040] First, the video stream is accessed (act [0041] In order to generate the reduced size blocks, the block of pixels is represented as a matrix (act [0042] A transform domain matrix A may be generated by performing pre-multiplication and post-multiplication on a corresponding spatial domain matrix P. This operation is represented in matrix form by the following equation 1: [0043] where, [0044] P is the spatial domain matrix corresponding to the transform domain matrix A; [0045] A is the transform domain matrix corresponding to the spatial domain matrix P; [0046] D is the transform matrix for the vertical direction; and [0047] E is the transform matrix for the horizontal direction. [0048] If the spatial domain matrix P is, for example, an 8-by-8 matrix where each element represents a pixel component, the matrices D, E and A are also 8-by-8 matrices. There is no requirement that the matrices D and E be unitary or symmetric. Also there is no requirement that the D and E represent the same transform. In one case, D could represent a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) matrix in the vertical direction, while E represents D transpose (i.e., the DCT matrix in the horizontal direction). However, in another example D could represent a wavelet transform matrix in the vertical direction, while D represents the DCT matrix in the horizontal direction. [0049] Conversely, the spatial domain matrix P may be generated from a transform domain matrix by performing an inverse matrix transform on the transform domain matrix. This inverse operation is represented in matrix form by the following equation 2: [0050] Subsampling of the spatial domain matrix P occurs by pre-multiplying the matrix P by a subsampling matrix that defines the subsampling in one direction such as when performing horizontal subsampling. The resulting subsampled matrix may then be post-multiplied by the transpose of another subsampling matrix that defines the subsampling in a substantially perpendicular direction as when performing vertical subsampling. This subsampling is performed on the spatial domain matrix P as illustrated by the following equation 3: [0051] where, [0052] p is the subsampled spatial domain matrix of the spatial domain matrix P; [0053] S is the subsampling matrix that is used for horizontal subsampling; and [0054] T′ is the transpose of the subsampling matrix T that is used for vertical sub sampling. [0055] Rewriting equation 3 by substituting the value of matrix P from equation 2 results in the following equation 4: [0056] Each of these matrices may conceptually be split into four separate quadrants based on the subsample size. For example, the matrix A may be rewritten as the following equation 5:
[0057] where, [0058] A [0059] A [0060] A [0061] A [0062] Similarly, the top two components of the matrix may be combined and the bottom two components may be combined so that the matrix A is defined as in the following equation 6:
[0063] where, [0064] A [0065] A [0066] For instance, if the matrix A is an 8 row by 8 column matrix, and the subsampling cuts each dimension size (horizontal and vertical) in half, the matrix component A [0067] Thus, the size of the matrix components is important for the transcoder to know when performing the subsample transcoding in accordance with the present invention since the subsampling ratio used to perform subsample transcoding by the transcoder [0068] Referring to FIG. 3, the video node (e.g., video node [0069] In accordance with the principles of the present invention, the transform domain matrix A is converted into a matrix a that has zero values in all but its upper left component a [0070] where, [0071] Z represents matrix components having zero values for all elements. [0072] Since the matrix a has many zero values, coding methods such as Huffman variable length coding reduce the coded representation of the matrix a significantly as compared to the coded representation of the matrix A. Thus, the size of the coded video stream is significantly reduced when converting matrix A to the matrix a for each block in each picture of the video stream. [0073] In accordance with the principles of the present invention, the matrix A is converted into the matrix a in such a manner that subsampled decoding of the matrix a results in the same pixel block (i.e., matrix p defined by equation 4) as subsampled decoding the matrix A. Specifically, the following equation 8 holds true: [0074] As mentioned above, the matrix a only has the potential for non-zero elements in its upper left matrix component a [0075] In equation 9, the matrix (m1) [0076] In equation 9, the matrix P represents the spatial domain representation of a block of pixels and, in a typical example, is an 8 row by 8 column matrix. [0077] The matrix S is the vertical subsampling matrix. For example, if each dimension of the picture is cut in half when sub sampling, and the block P has 8 rows, the matrix S would be a 4 row by 8 column matrix. [0078] The matrix T′ is the transpose of the matrix T. The matrix T is the horizontal subsampling matrix. For example, if each dimension of the picture is cut in half when subsampling, and the block P has 8 columns, the matrix T′ would be an 8 row by 4 column matrix. [0079] The matrix (m1) [0080] The matrix (n1) [0081] The dimension of the resulting pre-multiplication matrix (m1) [0082] The dimension of the resulting post-multiplication matrix T′×(n1) [0083] To continue with the illustrative but non-limiting example of the dimensions of the matrices involved, in this example, equation 9 results in the pre-multiplication of an eight row by eight column matrix by a four row by eight column pre-multiplication matrix, and in the post-multiplication of the eight row by eight column matrix by an eight row by four column pre-multiplication matrix. In this example, the result is a four row by four column matrix that constitutes the potential non-zero values of the eight row by eight column matrix a. [0084] Referring to FIG. 4, after the subsample transcoding is completed for each block, variable length coding is performed on the blocks and then the transcoded video is either stored for future subsampled decoding, or the transcoded video is provided to the subsample decoder (act [0085] Since the transcoded video stream is smaller after variable length coding than the original encoded video stream, less memory is required to store the video stream if the video stream is stored. Also, less network bandwidth is required to transmit the video stream if the video stream is transmitted over the network. According, the memory and network bandwidth needed to handle the video stream are reduced. The subsample transcoding described above would result in a loss of image quality if subsampled decoding was not to occur. However, if it is known that the video stream is to ultimately be subsample decoded, the video stream may be subsampled transcoded in accordance with the present invention with the assurance that the subsampled transcoding will result in no lost image quality after subsampled decoding. Accordingly, although some additional processing is required to perform the subsampled transcoding, the principles of the present invention allow for reduced memory and bandwidth requirements with no cost in terms of loss of video quality after subsampled transcoding. [0086] The present invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from its spirit or essential characteristics. The described embodiments are to be considered in all respects only as illustrative and not restrictive. The scope of the invention is, therefore, indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description. All changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope. Classifications
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