US 2002271 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 21, 1935. A v. LoMBARDl :2,002,271
` KNITTED FABRIC Filed Oct. 18. 1933 5 Sheets-Sheet l /hvemrs l/fncenf lombardi May 21, 1935. `v. LOMBARD-l 2,002,271 Y KNITTED FABRIC Filed Oczt.y 18, 1933 5 Sheets-Sheet y3 All /45 l//ncan Lombard/f May 21, 193s. y; LOMBARD, 2,002,271
KNITTED FABRIC Filed oct., 18, 1933V 5 sheetssheet 4 /nVenfo/l.'
V/'ncem Lombardi 240 MAQ/MQW, myx
Patented May 21, 1935 U'Nl'riao STATE-s Pilx'riilvr QFFIcE -KNITTED FABRIC Vincent Lombardi, Garden Ci'ty, N. Y. Application october 1s, 1933; `sensu No. 694,042 s'cicims. (ci. 66-169) 'i 'I'his invention relates to knitted fabrics 4parf- The invention will be better understood by ticularly of the type employing yarn ofdifferent reference to the following detailed description characteristicsin producing pattern effects and taken' in connection with the accompanying wherein certain yarns in certain portinsof the drawings in Which i 5 fabric are concealed behindloops of other yarn. Fig. 1 `represents schematically the reverse of 5 An object ls to provide improved and novel patva two color fabric where each color is fed singly; tern effects and in certain embodiments to pro- Fig. 2 is an edgeview ofthe fabric of Fig. 1; vide pattern effects onthe rear side ofthe fabric Fig. 3 is the schematic of a three color fabric, suitable to be used as the exposed side of a garreverse side, knitting one at a time and in roi ment manufactured therefrom. tation;
` As to another important feature itrmay be Fig. 4 S the Schematic. reverse Side, 0f a tWO noted that while the interlock fabric of U. s. color fabric similar to Fig. 1 except two yarns of patent #1,426,576 issued Aug 22, l1922,15 satis.'l each color alternate with two yarns of the other factory for a two color fabric, it is generally un- 001er; i 1:, satisfactory .for threeor more color knitting Eig. 5 is similar t0 Fig. 4 eXCeDt that each C0101' 15 because of undue thickness and operating difliknitSl four yarns before the feeding 0f the other cuitiesin its production on e singie rowof needles. color yarn and shows the general appearance of A particular object of this invention is to provide the fabric; t i athree or more color fabric comparatively thin, Fig- 6 is `the geriereieppearenee of the reverse 20 capable of being produced on a single row of side of a fabric as in Fig. 5 where several yarns 20 needles, and having k'each eoior yarn form blocks of one oo1o11` alternate with a' corresponding numor stripes of jersey` stitch with the other color ber of the other color; yarns concealed in the rear thereof, until a Wale Fig- 7 EiveS the front appearance 0f iShe fabric is Areached where another color yarn comes to of Fig- 5 the front for forming jersey stitches, thereby Fig. 8 is the schematic, reverse side, of a fabric 25 producing a fabric of three or more colorsin Similar G0 Fig- 4 eXCeDtthe yarnSof Only one which each portion is distinctly a definite desired 00101 Skip the `formation of loops to give the coior without having the front eoiormixed in loose yarns previously mentioned; withcoiors of yarns forming ioops in other por- Fis. 9 is' the general appearance of Fis. 8,
'30 tions.V It is contemplated that the some effect reverse side, showing the bulging or puirms to- 30 may bedesirable for three orV more yarns of. any Wards the .front diie t0 Yarns 0f only One color differing characteristic or for 4that ,matter all Skipping the formation Of loops; l f yarns may be identieeL A Fig. 10 is the same as Fig. 9 except itshows the The general principle of` the invention is to front Side 0f the fabric; 3;, have one or moresuccessively fed lyarns to form Fg- 11 iS en edge 0I1`vieW 0f Fi8 10;` 35
loops in contiguous wales androwsiond in the Fig. 12 is'similar toFig. 5 except that all yarns portionso formed to passsubsequendy fed yarns form loops in a wolebetween the two looped porloosely behindsaidwales; and then towhave said '510115 0f different c0101's; loose yarns in turn formfregular loops in 'a plu- Fig- 1 3 iS the general appearance 0f the front of 40 ralty of` contiguous walesl and rows with yarns` Fig. 12
. normally knitting in seidufst pei-tion passing Fig. 14A isthejschematic of a four color fabric, loosely behind the loops in the second portion. reverse Side, with the f011r COlOrS knitting one at If'desired there may be a Wale between vsaidtwo` o time, and forming the aforementioned loose portions Awhere all yarns knit to produce a firmer yarns; l i
4:, .connection between the two` portions. `It; may Fig. 14Bis SrnilartOFig- 14AeXeeDt that the 45 i also be desirable in one or more wales `of one loose yarnsjare periodically interlocked in wales portion to tie in one o r Aa pluralityv ofthe loose of the yarn leepebehind Whiehtheylie; yarns, as by interlocking for example, between Fig. 15 is ajdetail of the interlock feature of two lopsin adjacent rows. Such a bunching of Fig. 14B; i e
5.0 the loose yarns when applied at various points Fig. 16 is the general appearance of the reverse* inthe fabric produces anernbroideryeifect which of a fabric as in Fig. 6 except having the loose renders the reverse side of the fabriddesirable yarns tied-in as in'ig.` 14B; as the exposed side in garment manufacture. ,l'ig. 1'7 is the schematic of the rear of a fabric Other features of the invention will-V appear in somewhat like Fig. Shut with the loose yarn por- 5 the following detailed description. tions staggered 'ondiagonals instead of vertically 55 and horizontally and with the loose yarns tied in as in Fig. 15;
Fig.18 is the general appearance of a fabric as Fig. 17, also the rear view;
Fig. 19 shows the peculiar type of bias produced with a group 'of yarns knitting throughoutl the fabric alternating with groups of yarns alternately looping and forming loose yarns, in staggered lwales the said loose yarns being tied as in Fig. 15 the reverse side of the fabric being shown;
Fig.20 is the general appearance of a fabric as in Fig. 19, also reverse side;
Fig. 21 is the front view of a four color fabric like that of Fig. 14B;
Fig. 22 is the front view of a two color fabric,
`each color four wales wide;
Fig. 23 illustrates various possible treatments of the yarn bundles on the rear of the fabric;
Fig. 24 is an alternative to the arrangements of Fig. 23 and a further development of a part of Fig. 23;
Fig. 25 represents how the rear yarn bundles may be treated to form pleats in the front of the fabric;
Fig.`26 is an edge view ofthe fabric of Fig. 25; Fig. 27 represents schematically various choices of Wales in which the loose yarns may be tied in certain fabrics of this invention; and
Figs. 28 and 29 show modified fabrics. Referring particularly to Fig. 1 the schematic form of the reverse side of a knitted fabric shown therein illustratesv a form of pattern in which yarns of two colors are employed, each yarn knitting 4alternately in several successive rows, the alternate yarns being of one color andthe remaining yarns of a different color. Thus yarns 30, 32, 34, 36, 38 are of one color and yarns 3|, 33, 35, 31 of a different color. Yarn 30 forms loops in eight successive wales from Wale 39to Wale 40, then passes to the rear of the fabric where it follows an unlooped path for eight Wales from Wale 4| to Wale 42 where it lies behind the loops of a previously fed yarn 3| which is of the other color. After wale 42, yarn 30 begins looping again and forms regular loops in six Wales ending the section A. `In section B all yarns form loops so that section B when viewed from the front is a mixture of the two colors. It is apparent that section C is a repetition of section A. Yarn 3| between wales' 39 and 40 lies behind the loops of yarn 32, forms loops in wales 4| to 42 and lies behind the loops of yarn 32 in wales 43 to 44. The path for each of the yarns 32, 34, 36 and 38 is the same as for yarn 30 while the path for each of the yarns 33, 35, and 31 is the same as for yarn 3|. Thus the front of the fabric between wales 39 and 40 and between wales 43 and 44 will be of the color of yarn 30, while in wales 4| to 42 the color will be that of yarn 3|. In each part of section A there is yarn passing behind each series of loops of the other color. This arrangement therefore forms wide vertical stripes of alternate colors in the fabric, that is stripes running at right angles to the direction each yarn is fed to the needles. Furthermore there is no chance for anygyarn lying behind regular loops to show through the fabric when viewed from the front. The feature of Fig. 1 is therefore that yarns of each color .form loops in several successive wales and then for several wales pass behind several successive wales of loops of yarn of the other color. Another important feature is having the long unlooped portion of each yarn lie behind loops of a previously fed yarn, as in Fig. 1 the knitting is from bottom to top. The loops in section B are shown smaller than the size of those in section A, but the showing in this figure as in other schematic views such as Figs. 3v and 4 does not necessarily show the true relative loop sizes as in reality the various loops will tend to be of the same size,I tending to pucker the fabric which may later be pressed out.
Fig. 2 is an edge view of the fabric of Fig. 1, the dotted portions representing loops in the front of the fabric and the long straight lines representing the unlooped lengths of each color yarn lying behind loops of the other yarn color. 'Ihus we may assume that the figure traces the paths for yarns 30 and 3|.
Fig. `3 applies the principles of Fig. 1 to a threecolor fabric. Thus yarn 45 of one color .atithe left of the figure forms loops in eight successive wales, then is passed to the rear of the fabric where it extends in a substantially straight path behind eight successive wales of loops of a previously fed yarn 46 of a second color, then continues inthe rear of the fabric for eight more wales of loops of a previously 'fed yarn 41 of the third color, after which yarn 45 again forms loops in the front of the fabric for a desired number of wa1es,`re`peating if desired the pattern effect just described. Thus each color yarn forms loops for a desired number of wales then passes to the rear of the fabric where it lies in a substantially straight path behind loops of the other two yarns of different colors without being'` caught in the knitting along said pathv until it again begins to form loops in the front of the fabric. It will lbe apparent therefore that' each series of loops of yarn of one color; has behind the loops a straight portion of yarn of the second color and a straight portion of yarn of thethird color. Yarns 48 and 5| are of the same color as yarn 45 and follow similar paths; yarn 48 is of the same color as yarn 46 and follows a similar path; and yarn 5l) is the same color as yarn 41 and follows a similar path. Thus inv Fig. 3 every third fed yarn is of the same color. The view of Fig. 3 is of course schematic and taken from the rear the normal fabric would be more tightly knitted. It will be apparent that the front of the fabric will have solid vertical stripes of the three different colors, each eight wales wide or any other desired width, and each stripe viewed from the front will not disclose the yarn of the other colors. l
Fig. 4 is also a schematic showing but in this case two yarns of each color are fed in succession followed by two successively fed yarns of the secondr color and then repeating. Thus yarns 52, 53 are of the same color and each forms loops in six wales from Wale 54 to Wale 55, the loops of yarn 52 being shown the larger, although in the actual fabric the knitting will result in loops of all about the same size, see Figure 5. The two yarns V54, A55 then pass to the rear of the fabric Where theyboth lie behind a row of loops of yarn 56 which is of a different color, after which they begin the formation of regular loops. Yarn 56, 51 of a color differing from yarn 52 lie together behind the row of loops of yarn 58 from Wale 54 to Wale 55, there form loops in the next six wales and repeat the process. Yarn 52, v53, 58, 59, 62, and 63 are of one color while yarns 56, 51, 6U, and 6| are of the second color. The front appearance is substantially the same as in Fig. 1 namely solid vertical stripes of the two colors.
Fig. is an extension ofthe feature of Fig. 4 except that four successively fed yarns are of the same color. Fig. 5 also asin previous figures tuckinggeffe'ct at the junction of sections F andl voi.' a second color.
shows the reverse of the fabric but instead of being schematic vit shows the naturaly distribution of the fabric resulting from the particular type of knitting shown therein. In section D the` loops are all substantially the same size and are all of thesame colr. In section E all of the loops are l Each group of four yarnsof the first color forming loops in section D are hunched in yparallel pathsM behind the loops in 'section E; ywhile each group of four yarns of the second color are bunched vin parallel paths behind the loops in sectionvD. The transition from vsection D to section E gives a marked characteristic in the front of thev fabric as each group of yarns ceases forming loops and retires to the back of thefabric and vice versa. Theloose yarns from right side of `section E are shown broken off to show uniform knitting to the right of section E.
Fig. 6 shows the general appearance of the rear of a fabric made in accordance with Fig. 5 each color group consisting of any number of yarns as many as eight for example. Section F Fig. 6 represents all loops of the first color and periodically on the back thereof are bunched the group 4of yarns eight for example which do not form loops in section F but do in-section `G. The next section to the right of section G,
isthe same as section F, the next the same as section G, etc. For example the parallel yarns eight for example in group 10 form loops in sections F and H but in 'section'G lie behind the loops of ,yarn of the other color. `The peculiar G should be noted as it forms an important characteristic of pattern effect of this invention.
Figure '7 shows in perspective the appearance of the front 'of a fabric made in accordance with Fig`.5. Section F is composed of loops of all thel same color; the same as section H, while section G is a solid stripe of a different color. In having eight for example successively fed yarns form loopsA say in section F and then have all eight pass to the rear'of loops in section G of yarn which was in the rear of'secftion `F gives a unique pattern effect where eachgroup of eightis tucked in under the regularlyformed loops of the other` color. Note that for example the edges of sec-- "tion F lat the points 1|V to 14 are'not directly looped in with the loops of theyarns in adjacentl sections but merely lie1 on top of the other color yarns which are passing to the rear at the designated points. That is, the loops in the last Wale formed in section F (refer also to Fig. 5)
are` not interlooped with the loops inv the first wale formed in section G, so that loose edges are formed along the sides of each stripe butV` not in such a manner as to permit unraveling or destruction of the fabric. Y
Figs. 8, 9, 10, and 11 illustrate another type of pattern effect that may be produced in accord-` ance wtih this invention; In Fig. 8 the rear of a two color fabric is schematically disclosed in lwhich yarns of only one color skip the formation of loops as in Fig. l. Thus yarns to 88 areA of lone colorand allthe other yarns are of a second color.4 Thus beginning at the `left yarns 80 to 84 lie `behind loops in several wales of loops of the second color then form loops in the regular .e fabric of Fig. 8, will look quite different because isvof ycourse of the rear of thefabric.
of the fact that the periodic failure of the yarns of one color to form loops is not compensated for by corresponding unlooped prtions of the second color. l This results in a pinching or a bulging of` the blocks of loops of yarns80 to 84 away from the average surface of the fabric. This crowding and consequent bulging of the loops of yarns 80 to 84 is shown more clearlyV in Fig. 9 which shows the actual distortion of the fabricof Fig. 8 also viewed'from the rear. In the upper central portion of Fig.9 will be seen the resulting crowding of theloopsof yarns 80 to 84 causing them to project away from the front of course be distributed throughout the fabric to create any desired pattern effect. Thus Fig. 10
represents a front view of such a fabric as that of Fig. 9 where each shaded block suchas block is an outwardly bulging portion say of black on a background of the yarn of the other color, white for example. A side view of the fabric of Fig. l0 is shown in Fig. 11 where the bulges above the level of the main fabric arershown at the left of the gure, such as at points 9|, S2.
It has been pointed out above in connection with Fig. 5 the loose connection' between adjacent sections such as sections D and E, due to the fact that the loops in the last wale of D are of one color yarn only, while all the loopsA in the first Wale of section E are of the other color yarn exclusively;V If desired an improved connecting link between such sections can be provided by havinga wale between sections D and E where all yarns of both colors knit regular loops. This is `exemplified in Fig. l2 where section Mis composed exclusively of loops of one color yarn, section N composed exclusively of loops of the second color yarn, the second color yarn, lying in hunched parallel paths in the rear of section M and the first color yarns lying in hunched parallel paths in the rear of section N, much as in Fig. 5 except that between sections M and N there isa wale 94 where yarns of both colors knit in succession to provide a more binding connection between the two sections. The view in Fig. l2 A front view of the fabric of Fig. 12 isshown in Fig. 13
which gives the general appearance. Sections O and Q are of one color and sections P and R of a second color. The general appearance is different from Fig. 6, giving a raggededge toward other sections with an interlocking effect like gearing. Y
Fig. 14 section A is a rear View schematically yarns unattachedto the fabric of thesaid otherv color yarns in its rearward path, each yarn being taken up in the knitting only in the wales where it forms regular loops. y l
In Fig. 14 section B a new feature isintroduced in the knitting. The transition between sections Aand B Fig. 14 is not fully disclosed as section B may be treated as a separate fabric. Fig. 14 section B is also of four color knitting one at a time and in rotation.' For simplicity let us designate by one character all yarns in this section of the same color. Portion a comprises loops entirely of yarn |00; portion b by entirely yarn lill; portion c entirely .yarn' |02 and portion d section B are made in the of the unlooped entirely yarn |03; said four yarns being of different colors. In the middle wale of portion b the loops of yarn IOI have periodically interlocked therein in the rear of the fabric the three adjacent yarns |00, |02. and |03 of .the yother three colors. Thus at the point I 04 after the formation of the loop |05 of yarn IOI the next three yarns fed of the three other colors are caught on the needle which formed loop |05 but without knittingI the same Yand when the next fed color yarn IOI comes around the said three unlooped yarns fall below the needle latch, loop |06 is formed and as a result the saidthree yarns are interlocked between'loops |05 and |00` in the manner described in my U. S. Patent #1,426,576 issued Aug. 22, 1922. The other interlocking points in same manner. It should be noted that in this figure the only interlocking yarns takes place in the middle wale of each color stripe but the interlocking can take place in any desired Wale. Since the interlocking ineach portion takes place between loops of successively fed yarns it follows that the corresponding interlocking points of portions a, b, c, and d are not on a horizontal line but on a diagonal. It should also be remembered that section B Fig. k14 is schematic but the actualdetails of the knitting would be as shown in Fig. 15 which is an enlarged reproduction of point |04 of Fig. 14. Further description of Fig. 15 is believed unnecessary,- except to emphasize that Fig. 14B is the samefabric as Fig. 14A save forthe interlocking and consequent bunching of the loose yarns, also it is not necessary to'interlockthe loose yarns in every section.
'I'he general appearance of a fabric such as shown in Fig. Gwhen modied to have the loose yarns tied or interlocked one or more times in the rear of each colored stripe is shown in Fig. 16. Such a fabric has desirable pattern characteristics on its reverse side so that it frequently is desirable to use the reverse side of such a fabric as the exposed side'of a garment made thereof. It will be obvious from the foregoing that points such as ||0 in Fig. 16 represents tying or interlocking points for the loose yarns as illustrated in Fig. l5.
Now let us assume a single color fabric in whith lccking manner at one or more points in each unlooped portion. vThe reverse side of such a fabric is shown schematically in Fig. 17. Thus the six yarns from yarn III to |I2.are not regularly looped between wales I I3 and I I 4 but lie in the rear of the fabric behind the loops of the yarn fed previously to yarn III. In each of the wales |I5 and I6 the said six loose yarnsare tied or inter'- locked in the manner of Fig. I5 between the loop of the yarn fed previouslyto yarn III and the loop of the yarn fed subsequently to yarn II 2. In the lower portion of Fig. 17 the loose yarn sections and the tying-in points for the loose yarns are staggered withgrespect to the corresponding parts just described. Thus in wale ||4 at the point |I9 six loose yarns are tied in which yarns do not form loops between wales II'I and |I8. Still farther down and yarns are similarly interlockedat the point in Wale I I8. Anothery tying-in point for six loose yarns is shown at point I2I. Thus the sections of the fabric having loose yarns can be staggered iny accordance with a preconceived pattern which will be correspondingly followed bythe tying-in to the right six other loosey points. One type of such a pattern effect is shown in Fig. 18 where the loose yarns extending over a variable number of wales are shown in relief on the white background which is assumed to be the regularly looped portion of the fabric. It is of course understood that one may use on the outside of a garment manufactured in accordance with Fig. 1S the side having the loose yarns. The general effect of such a pattern is similar to hand embroidery work superimposed upon a knitted fabric. It will be obvious that the features of Fig. 17 and 18 can be carried out with yarn of more than one color where for example the loose yarns are all of the same color on a knitted fabric of a contrasting fabric or the various bunches of loose yarns may be of different colors as may be desired. It is to be understood that in the actual fabric the paths of the loose yarns would be straighter than in the schematic showing of Fig. 17 between wales |I3 and II4.
However there is a peculiarand desirable distortion when the features of Fig. 17 are appliedv to a fabric in which a group of successively fed yarns of one color alternate with a group of successively fed yarns of a second color when the wales for the loose yarn portions in one direction are stag-f gered. We have this exemplified in Fig. 19 where each group of one color consists of four yarns and each group of the other color has two yarns. This results in an exaggerated slanting effect mentioned in connection with Fig. 14 second B. The character of the slanting effect in Fig. l9will be understood by noting that between the blocks A and D of the same color one will nd ten wales while between blocks B and C there are only four wales;-hence the slanting effect illustrated. In Fig. 19 the heavy yarns may be of one color and the lightly drawn lines may represent yarns of a second color. Each looped portion of a single color when considered across the fabric slopes upwardly from left to right and then the unlooped portions of said single color slope down-4 wardly until they begin to form loops again when they start another upward slope. VIn the particular portion of the fabricshown in Fig. 19 only the' heavy yarns have unlooped portions, the
. lightly drawn yarns looping in allwales. Thus yarns to |28 beginning at the left of the figure form regular loops in eight successive walls and then pass to the rear ofthe fabric where they are unlooped for ten successive wales between wales |29 and |30, loosely lying on the rear of the fabric except in Wale I3I where the saidfour yarns are tied'in or interlocked between loops of the other color yarn as shown in detail in Fig. 15. The other groups of four yarns are also unlooped in a slightly different series of wales so that the portions of the fabric containing unlooped yarns of the color of yarn |25 form a stripe which is not vertical but inclined to the right as one proceeds downwardly from the top of thefigure. The general appearance of a fabric made in accordance with Fig. 19 is shown in Fig.20. The tucked-in groups of loose yarns form a slanting configuration from top to bottom, while the stripes across the fabric between the loose yarn portions are also in a slanting path. It is obvious that the number of yarns in each stripe shown in Fig. 20 may be any desired number and may vary in different portions of the fabric if desired.
As noted most of the figures described show lone at a time in rotation, making four loops in stripes |40 to |43 may each be of different color,
each four wales` wide and each stripe having the other color yarns lying loosely in the rear vof the fabric as in previous figures.
may be a repetition of stripe |40 as to color. In-
termediate vthe stripes may be seen the loose crossingyarns in the rear of the frabric asV at the point |45. l nite spacing' between the last Wale in one stripen o and the first wale in the next stripe produced by the fact as previously explained that the loops of the said two wales are not interknitted but each acts as the termination of thefabric in `that particular region.` AThat is'the loops in'one stripe are not tied into 4theloops of the adjacent stripe.
Fig. `22 is the fronti appearance of 'another fabric forming one type of this invention with lengthwise stripessay of two colors fed"`a.lter nately six rows at a time, each yarn knitting from wales in each stripe. Thus stripes |50, |5|, may be 'of one color and stripes |52, |53 ofi a second color, each stripe four wales wide. 'I'he'yarns forming loops in stripe |50 lie in the rear lof the fabric until Ythey form loops in the first Wale in stripe |5|, `the same thing being truc for the yarns of the otherstripes. Theamount of unlooped yarn between ,stripes` of` the same color is sufficient to produce a definite spacing between adjacent stripes of different colors as shown in the figure. Between adjacent stripes are seer the loose yarns in the rear of the .fabric and in this particular figure each set of vsix yarns forming loops in stripes |50, |5| is tied in the first and last wales of each ofthe `stripes |52; |53 in theY manner shown in Fig. 15 and each set of six yarns forming loops in stripes 52, |53 is tied in thefrst and-last wales of each of stripes |50, |5|\. 4If the o |92 in a subsequent row much as in group |64 regular looping is done loosely to form al flimsy material the tying-in points may Vshow through the fabric slightly when viewed from the front as is evident in the figure.
Figures 23, 24, and 25 show special treatment of the loose yarn bundles on the rear of the fabric to create a varietyof .desirable'patterneffects bearing in mind that the rearA of the fabric may be the exposed side in garment manufactured therefrom. d
Fig. 23 schematically represents the rear of a two color fabric when one color yarn knits in every wale several rows at a time and where the second color yarn knits'for several Wales and then forms loose yarns onthe back of the fabric. The lightly shaded portion of this figure such as portion |60 represents loops of one color'yarn, while the blocks such as block1 |6| represents loops of the second color yarn in a plurality of rows and wales; The `second color yarnforms loose crossing yarns between adjacent' blocks as o the group of yarns |62 lying in the rear of' loops` of the first color yarn.,V This `group |62 is tied into loops of the first yarn in the same manner as in Fig. 15 except in a.l row of loops formed sev- Stripe |44- The effect to be noted is thedefio row and in. Wales between the blocks of loops |83,
|84 of the first yarn, but the said group after forming loops in block |84 is bent back to be tied into loops of theflrst yarn atV the point |68 in a last waleof loops in block |84 and the first WaleV of loops of theflrst yarn so 'as to leavea hole in the fabric at the point |19, the hole constituting apart of the pattern effect. i y
Still another group |1`| f loose yarns in Fig. 23V between loopblocks |85, |86 is not only tied into the loops of the other color (see Fig. 15) in wales between blocks |85 and |86 butis also bent back to be tied into the fabric in a row above block |85 and `in a row above b1ock'|86, thereby forming two holes in the fabric'at the points |80,y |8| in the manner previously described. Still another ltype of pattern effect is shown in connection withthe groups |16, |11` of loose yarns in `which the group |16 is not tied into the fabric of the first color yarn but group |11 is tiedin` at :the point |18 in a row of the first color yarn Fig. 23 may bejused in the same or differenti fabrics;
Fig. 24 is an enlarged detail of a modification of Fig. 23 with respect to the .manner in which the loose yarns are tied into the fabric land in particular it is a modification of the arrangement of groups |16',v |11 of that figure.r The ,white background in Fig. 24 is the looped fabric `proper and includes-both color yarn as in Fig. 23. As in all figures the lowermost part represents the first formed portion ofthe fabric. Group may be the `upper part of loose yarns tied into the first yarn loops at two separated points |9|,
Fig. 23. The nextgroup-|93 of the loose yarns of the second color before being tied in are pulled `through the loop formed by group .|9050 that' group |93 passes to the rear of the upper section ofgroup |90 and then is tied intov the first color loops at pomts |94, |95. Similarly group |96 passes through the loop formed by group |93 and then is tied into the fabric and soon for v'the rest ofthe fabric. Group |91 however is not tied into the fabric at an intermediate point 'and therefore resembles group |16, Fig. 23 al-4 though if the fabric` werecontinued it will be readily apparent that group |91 could be pulled `through loop |98 andlfastened'in the same manas group |64 Fig. 23 are loose enough, that is the yarns are of sufficient length not to` pull the looped fabric together or to pinch it by reas'on of theirregular pathi taken by the groups because of the points chosen for their tying-in points. f
`I-Ioweverin 25 the loose yarns for one l coloryarnfare restricted in length so as to pinch the looped portion in front of them. Another difference is that in Figs. 23 and 24 only one color yarn forms thebundles of loose yarns while4 in Fig. 25 both color -yarns produce the loose yarnv bundles. y d
Referring now to Fig. 25 the rear of the fabric shown therein is of two colors in which both L.
colors in the left hand portion form loose yarns, one color yarn with sufficient length` not to pinch the fabric but for the other color the loose yarns are short enoughto pinch the fabric, although the illustrated loop lformation is thev primary cause of the bulging. disclosed. Thus the groups such as 200, 20| are like the bundles in Fig. 16, substantially straight, tied in at two points in the loops of the second color yarn. Each bundle 200, 20| comprises several yarns, six or eight for example and these bundles are of sullicient length that they do notpinch the looped fabric in front of them. The bundles at the left such as bundle 205 are of the same color. The yarns which are in loose bundles in section 202 form regular loops in the front of the fabric inpsections. 203 and 204, but the regular loop Wales in these two sections are pinched together so as to form pleats or vertical ridges in the front of the fabric separated by valleys.4 'I'hus in section 203 the yarns which form regular loops in sections 202, 206 are unlooped in the ordinary sense and form interconnected bundles of yarns such as bundle 2| in the same manner as in Fig. 24 except that each bundle may be tied into the'jfront'reg'ular loops in only `one point. is tied in a row considerably above its normal position giving a loop formation so that the pulling up of eachv bundle to its intermediate interlocking point causes the regularly looped por-` tion to bulge out as shown in Fig. 26 (a crosssection of Fig. 25) where portion 2|0 is the regularly Alooped but bowed out portion of section 203 (Fig. 25 and character 2|| represents one of the loose yarn bundles of that section. Section 204 is similar to section 203 except that both color yarns form in turn a vertical row of loose yarn bundle loops as in section 203. 'Ihat is the row 2|5 of loose bundle loops is made up of yarn` which forms the regular front loops insection 202 while the regular front loops in front of bundles 2|5 is yarn which form vbundles 20|, etc. in section 202. T'he two color yarns are in reverse position in row 2| 8, row 2|1 is the same as row 2 I5, and soon. Thus in front of the fabric of Fig. 25 we have vertical pleats of jersey stitchesseparated by flat jersey portions such as section 202 when desired.r In the rear of the fabric the loose yarns may form substantially straight bundles as in section 202 or they may be interconnected to form a chain of loops of the' yarn bundles as in Fig. 24 except pinching the fabricto form lthe pleats. The .arrangement of Fig. 25 may of course vbe applied equally well to more than two color yarns.
Certain principles should be emphasized in the disposition of the loose yarns in the rear of the fabric. Let us assume for illustration a four lcolor fabric wherethe colors are fed successively one at a time to form vertical stripes of the four colors,V each stripe say of six Wales, and where no attempt is made to bundle the loose yarns in any section. In the section therefore of the rst color, the second color will pass to the rear of six Wales and the question can be raised as to in how many Wales and what Wales the second color should betied in as in Fig. 17. In general it is preferred not to skip more than three wales before tying in the loose second color yarnand an attractive eiect can be obtained by skipping three wales, then tying-in in two or three successive wales, then lying loose behind the next three Wales and so on until the Wale is reached Where the second yarn begins forming front loops; That is, it is definitely contemplated that it will be frequently desirable to tie in the Each bundle in section 203 loose yarns in two or more contiguous Wales. The observations made .above about the second color yarn will apply of course to the other color yarns ofthe fabric.
The above principles are exemplified in Fig. 27 which represents diagrammatically the various types of tying-in that maybe used say in a four color fabric. Section 220 may represent a stripe yof the first color six'wales Wide, While section 22| may represent a similar six Wale stripe of a second color, the two stripes being slightly spaced apart as explained in connection with Fig. 21. 'Ihe stripes of the other two colors are not shown but may be assumed to be the same. The horizontal lines across the wales do not represent all of the loose yarns in the back of the fabric but each is intended to represent a color yarn which does not form regular loops in either section 220 or 22| and ,theA said lines are intended to represent alternative ways of tying in the loose yarn in Wales of each stripe. Thus yarn 222 is interlocked in the fourth Wale of section 220 and also in the fourth Wale of section 22|. This method Will not always be desirable as one will note that the yarn is untied in five successive wales, two in section 220 and the first three in section 22|. The interlocking of yarn 223 is more advantageous being tied to the fabric in fourth and sixth wales of both sections. Yarn 224 is tied inthe first and fifth Wales of both sections; yarn 225 is interlocked in' the last three vwales of both sections; and yarn 226 is tied in -the last two Wales of both sections. Note that it Will be occasionally desirableto interlock the loose yarn in two or more successive Wales of the same row. The interlocking for yarns 222 and 226 are the least desirable of those shown since they'skip more than three wales between tying-in points. It will be obvious how the principles disclosed in Fig. 27 may be embodied in the various types of fabric previously described.
While this invention is directed to the fabric rather than to its method of manufacture it is thought advisable to refer in general terms to the needle manipulation required to produce this invention, although such Will be apparent to those `skilled in the art by reference lto the drawings straight path over the retracted groups of needles.
In a Well known manner, as .by sinkers, these loops and the straight yarn are pushed back With the fabric to thereafter permit any needle or groups of needles to be advanced.
Thus in case the yarn in the next yarn carrier is to repeat the pattern just set up on the needles the same groups of needles Will be separated out and caused to knit another row of loops, and the yarn Will again pass over the retracted needles, which still retain the original loops. This may be repeated a number of times, and While the loops continue to form in the selected and separated groups, the looseyarns over the continuously retracted groups will be crowded together between the fabric held by these groups and the sinkers to form bundles. After say four or six yarns have been thus bundled and by the sinkers are being *pushedv back over` the `[top of vmay-now be `separated out and advancedin front of the bundles to receivethe next yarn and cause it `to form loops with the original loops retained bythese needles until now, this knitting continuing the fabric formerlyproduced byp'these groups in a uniformmanner as far as the `front* of the fabric is concerned; and this knitting may be further continued without disturbance `from the loose f yarns on the back of the fabric which now have passed over the topfof ,the needle cylinder. During this yprocedure the. formerly se,A lected groups may `of course beheldin fully retracted position to permit the formation of bundles of loose yarns, or they partake in the knittingso that all needles will be producing straight jersey cloth. Y.
' in which two types of yarn knit loops, then one" type of yarn ceases `newly formed loop, as
When it is desired to tie the loose yarns, whether they. are single `yarns or bundles, Minto the fabric proper by interlocking in accordance with my U. S. patent above referred to, a needle within the idling groups is selected for each such` tie and separated out by a prearranged pattern setting at the same time the selection is `made of the active needle groups; these tie needles by special provision, as by special butt configuration, are advanced to anintermediate position when position, and thus .will receive the loose yarns without casting the original loops or such loose yarns which are heldunder the hook. The tie needles may thus be retracted and advanced `simultaneously with the active needles without formation of loops and receive at each advancement va loose yarn. When a bundle has been formed theftie needles will partake in the movements of the formerly idling needles ,withwhichthey are grouped. Thus vin' the first movement to fully f advanced position the tie needle willcast its original loop as well as the bundled. yarns, and
the other needles of these groups will advance in frontL of the bundled yarns which are being f the sinker action `and will `cast next yarn thus will knit onall held back by their loops; the
these needles, the loop on each tiel needle passing down 1 through the semi-loop formation of the yarn bundle, and the yarn bundle thereafter passfabric interlocked within the ingV on into the interlooping portions ofthe original loop and the described for a `single yarn in'my above mentioned patent.` Thereafter the tie needles `operate with their associatedneedles to form regular jersey stitches. l
Fig. 28 represents in general the rear of a fabric like Fig. 8 with the loose yarns tied-in-as in Fig. 15 butywith a further modification.- Assuming the` space between two Vvertical lines represents a Wale, beginning? at the` left, there are five wales forming loops and forms bundles of loose yarns in the rear of the fabric for several wales lying behind regular loops of the second type of yarn and thesebundles are shown at 230 and 23|. Assume that the length of bundle 230 is ten wales or ten knitting needles on a knitting machine and that the two middle needles of such a group are omitted or made inoperative. This would result in long unknitt'ed yarns of the second type in the front of the fabric corresponding to the two inoperative needles and this is indicated 'by the horizontal lines in the yarns, etc. It
from of bundles 23o, 23|. The fabric of Fig. 28 therefore has `the previously described yarn `bundles in the rear and non-bundled unknitted -color may be fed to. form eight successive rows in ,yarns `for a definite distance in the front in the section `236 eachfrow say sevenwales wide after which only one yarn ofthe second color is fedand then again eight successive rows of the first color,
alternating in this manner. Insection 236 the single fed yarn of the second color such as yarn 231 does'not form loops but is carried in the rear` of thefabric asinany of the previous figures..
Then in section 233 each grou'plofeight yarns of j the first coloris unknitted but forms yarn bundles in the rear of the fabric suchas bundle 239 as in Fig. 16 or 17. If we assume that portion 238 is normally six wales wide or six needles wide it will be seen that eachsecond color yarn such as yarn `231 knits regular loops in only `the first and sixth wales, the needles for the intervening fourl i :wales being inoperative so that in the said first `,and sixth wales long loops are formed and these long loops serve to tie into bundles the loose yarns of the first color crossing portion 238. The speci- L 1 fied first and sixth `wales are designated as 240 the active needles are moved to the fully advanced\ and 24|. `In between wales 204 and 24| each yarn of the second color since it is notknitted in the intervening wales is merged into each bundle such -as bundle 23 9.until wale 24|` is reached where it the definite separation of the stripes of the pres `dominating yarn Vsuch asstripesf236, 243. `The 5,
yarnof .the so-called second color may of course be thei sameas thef'rst color, except treated difs ferently,` in the knitting. s
`In the aboveedescription of the various figures it has been convenient to describe differently treated, yarns asbeing` of different colors. Such however is notessentialas they `may, be different i in some other characteristic such as texture, `maf terial or size,silk or` wool yarns, heavy and thin f is of course to be understood that ifdesiredthe differently treated yarns may have identical characteristics, the varied Atreatments merely giving a patternefect in a `fabric of a single color. For example it may be desirable to have Figs. 8` and 12 of a single color.` to be understood that this invention is `capable of embodiments, differing widely from those described above for illustrative purposes, without It is also departing in any wise from the spirit of this in- ,e
vention as defined from the appended claims.
Certain of the subject matter disclosed herein is disclosed and claimed in a divisional application Ser. No. '756,741 filed Dec. 10, 1934.
What is claimed is:
1. A knitted fabric comprising yarn knitted into loops in a plurality of wales and rows, one section of said fabric comprising a first yarn group knitted into regular-.front loops in more than two successive wales, a second yarn group knitted into regular front loops in more than two successive eliminated and` are incorporated in `with the 40 given section, said sections being disposed across the fabric parallelto a Wale, said rst yarn group lying loosely behind the loops in said second and third sections at least for a plurality ofadjacent wales without forming any front loops in said second and third sections,'said secondyarn group lying loosely-behind the loops in said rst and third sections at least for a plurality of adjacent wales without forming any front loops in said rst and third sections, said third yarn group lying loosely behind the loops in said first and second sections at least for ay plurality of f adja- Y cent wales without forming any front loops in said rst and second sections, aloose yarn of said first yarn group in the rear of said second section being.y caught in the fabric in at least one Wale of saidsecond section and being caught in the fabric in atleast one Wale vof said third section.
2. A knittedv fabric comprising yarn knitted into loops in a plurality of wales and rows, one section of said fabric comprising a first. yarn group knitted into regular front loops in morethan two successive wales, a second yarn group knitted into regular front loops in more than two successive Wales in a second section of the fabric, a third yarn group knitted into regular front loops in vmore than two successive wales in a third section of the fabric, said sections being disposed across the fabric parallel to a Wale, said third yarn group being followed by a fourth yarn group knitted into front loops in'said rst section, saidfourth yarn group being followed by a fth yarn group knitted into front loops in said second section, said fifth yarn group being followed by a sixth yarn group knitted into loops in said third section, where any mentioned group may comprise only one yarn knitted in one row in a given sectionjsaid first Aand fourth yarn groups lying loosely behind the loops in said second and third sections at least for a plurality of `adjacent Wales withoutforming'any front loops in said second and third sections, said second and fifth yarn groups lying loosely behind the loops in said rst and third sections at least for a plurality of adjacent wales without forming any front loops in said first and third sections, said third and sixthv yarn groups lying loosely behind the loops in said rst and second sections at least for a plurality of adjacent wales without forming front loops in said rst and second-sections, the loose yarnsof said first and fourth yarn'groups in the rear of said second section being caught inthe fabric in a wale of said second section and caught in the fabric in a Wale of saidthird section. l v
3. A knitted fabric in accordance with claim 2 in which the loose yarns of said rst group and the loose yarns of said second groupin the rear of said third sectionare caught together in the fabric between loops in adjacent rows of one Wale of said third section.
4. A knitted fabric in accordance with claim 2 in which said first section'is at least ve wales wide and the said second and third yarn groups each comprises a single yarn whichis caught in the rear of said rst section in one Wale between the same loops in adjacent rows.
5. A multicolor fabric of at least three colors, yarns of one color forming loops in a plurality of wales vand rows in one section of the fabric, yarns of a second vcolor forming loops in a plurality of wales-and rows in a second section, yarns'of a third color forming loops in a plurality of wales and rows in a third section, said sections being disposed across the fabric parallel to a row, said yarns of each color lying loosely behind the loops of every other color at. least for a plurality of adjacent wales in those sections where said each color forms no front loops, one yarn of said first color and one yarn of said second color being interlocked together in the rear of the fabric inone Wale of said third section between loops `of adjacent rows of the third color yarn.
6. A multicolorfabric of at least three colors, one section comprising yarns of one color forming regular front loops in a plurality of rows for more than two successive wales, a second section comprising yarns of a second color forming regular front loops in certain of said rows and for more than two successive wales, yarns of a third color vforming regular front loops in certain of said rows and for more than two successive wales, the yarns of each color at least for a plurality of adjacent wales lying loose in the back of said fabric in those wales where another color yarn formsloops, vsaid loose yarns being interlocked in the rear of the fabric at least once in each color section.
7. A multicolor fabric in accordance with claim 6 in which one yarn of said first color and one yarn of said second color are interlocked together-between adjacent loops in one wale of saidthird color section.
8. A multicolor fabric of at least three colors having one section comprising yarns of only one color knittedinto loops in a plurality of rows for at least ve wales, a second section comprising yarns of only a second color'knitted into loops ve wales next to said first ve Wales, a third color section comprising yarns of only a third color knitted into loops in certain of said pluralty of rows for at least ve wales next to said second five wales, each yarn of each color lying loosely behind the fabric for a majority of the wales of the other colors but interlocked in the rear of the fabric in at least one Wale in each of the other color section, said interlocking for each specied yarn comprising being caught in the rear of the fabric between the upper part of one loop and the lower part of another loop in the same Wale.
vin certain of said plurality of rows for at least