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Publication numberUS20030017500 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/984,276
Publication dateJan 23, 2003
Filing dateOct 29, 2001
Priority dateJul 15, 1998
Also published asUS6534631, US20030040088, WO2001051504A1
Publication number09984276, 984276, US 2003/0017500 A1, US 2003/017500 A1, US 20030017500 A1, US 20030017500A1, US 2003017500 A1, US 2003017500A1, US-A1-20030017500, US-A1-2003017500, US2003/0017500A1, US2003/017500A1, US20030017500 A1, US20030017500A1, US2003017500 A1, US2003017500A1
InventorsSteven Ruben, George Komatsoulis, Roxanne Duan, Craig Rosen, Paul Moore, Yanggu Shi, David LaFleur, Reinhard Ebner, Henrik Olsen, Laurie Brewer, Kimberly Florence, Paul Young, Michael Mucenski, Gregory Endress, Daniel Soppet
Original AssigneeHuman Genome Sciences, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Secreted protein HT5GJ57
US 20030017500 A1
Abstract
The present invention relates to novel human secreted proteins and isolated nucleic acids containing the coding regions of the genes encoding such proteins. Also provided are vectors, host cells, antibodies, and recombinant methods for producing human secreted proteins. The invention further relates to diagnostic and therapeutic methods useful for diagnosing and treating diseases, disorders, and/or conditions related to these novel human secreted proteins.
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Claims(74)
What is claimed is:
1. An isolated antibody or portion thereof that specifically binds to a protein whose sequence consists of amino acid residues 26 to 190 of SEQ ID NO:161.
2. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1, wherein said protein specifically bound by said antibody or portion thereof is glycosylated.
3. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is a monoclonal antibody.
4. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is a polyclonal antibody.
5. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is a chimeric antibody.
6. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is a humanized antibody.
7. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is a human antibody.
8. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is a single chain antibody.
9. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is a Fab fragment.
10. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 1 which is labeled.
11. The isolated antibody of claim 10, wherein the label is selected from the group consisting of:
(a) an enzyme label;
(b) a radioisotope; and
(c) a fluorescent label.
12. An isolated cell that produces the isolated antibody of claim 1.
13. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 1.
14. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 3.
15. An isolated antibody produced by immunizing an animal with a protein whose sequence comprises of amino acid residues 26 to 190 of SEQ ID NO: 161, wherein said antibody or portion thereof specifically binds to the protein encoded by the amino acid residues of SEQ ID NO:161.
16. The isolated antibody of claim 15, wherein said protein specifically bound by said antibody is glycosylated.
17. The isolated antibody of claim 15 which is a monoclonal antibody.
18. The isolated antibody of claim 15 which is a polyclonal antibody.
19. The isolated antibody of claim 15 which is labeled.
20. The isolated antibody of claim 19, wherein the label is selected from the group consisting of:
(d) an enzyme label;
(e) a radioisotope; and
(f) a fluorescent label.
21. An isolated cell that produces the isolated antibody of claim 15.
22. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 15.
23. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 17.
24. An isolated antibody or portion thereof that specifically binds to a protein whose sequence consists of amino acid residues 1 to 190 of SEQ ID NO: 161.
25. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24, wherein said protein specifically bound by said antibody or portion thereof is glycosylated.
26. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is a monoclonal antibody.
27. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is a polyclonal antibody.
28. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is a chimeric antibody.
29. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is a humanized antibody.
30. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is a human antibody.
31. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is a single chain antibody.
32. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is a Fab fragment.
33. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 24 which is labeled.
34. The isolated antibody of claim 33, wherein the label is selected from the group consisting of:
(a) an enzyme label;
(b) a radioisotope; and
(c) a fluorescent label.
35. An isolated cell that produces the isolated antibody of claim 24.
36. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 24.
37. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 26.
38. An isolated antibody or portion thereof that specifically binds to a protein whose sequence consists of the amino acid sequence of the secreted polypeptide encoded by the cDNA of HT5GJ57 contained in ATCC Deposit Number 209889.
39. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38, wherein said protein specifically bound by said antibody or portion thereof is glycosylated.
40. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is a monoclonal antibody.
41. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is a polyclonal antibody.
42. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is a chimeric antibody.
43. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is a humanized antibody.
44. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is a human antibody.
45. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is a single chain antibody.
46. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is a Fab fragment.
47. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 38 which is labeled.
48. The isolated antibody of claim 47, wherein the label is selected from the group consisting of:
(a) an enzyme label;
(b) a radioisotope; and
(c) a fluorescent label.
49. An isolated cell that produces the isolated antibody of claim 38.
50. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 38.
51. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 40.
52. An isolated antibody produced by immunizing an animal with a protein whose sequence comprises the amino acid sequence of the secreted polypeptide encoded by the cDNA of HT5GJ57 contained in ATCC Deposit Number 209889, wherein said antibody or portion thereof specifically binds to the polypeptide encoded by the cDNA of HT5GJ57 contained in ATCC Deposit Number 209889.
53. The isolated antibody of claim 52, wherein said protein specifically bound by said antibody is glycosylated.
54. The isolated antibody of claim 52 which is a monoclonal antibody.
55. The isolated antibody of claim 52 which is a polyclonal antibody.
56. The isolated antibody of claim 52 which is labeled.
57. The isolated antibody of claim 56, wherein the label is selected from the group consisting of:
(a) an enzyme label;
(b) a radioisotope; and
(c) a fluorescent label.
58. An isolated cell that produces the isolated antibody of claim 52.
59. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 52.
60. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 54.
61. An isolated antibody or portion thereof that specifically binds to a protein whose sequence consists of the amino acid sequence of the full-length polypeptide encoded by the cDNA of HT5GJ57 contained in ATCC Deposit Number 209889.
62. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61, wherein said protein specifically bound by said antibody or portion thereof is glycosylated.
63. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is a monoclonal antibody.
64. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is a polyclonal antibody.
65. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is a chimeric antibody.
66. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is a humanized antibody.
67. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is a human antibody.
68. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is a single chain antibody.
69. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is a Fab fragment.
70. The isolated antibody or portion thereof of claim 61 which is labeled.
71. The isolated antibody of claim 70 wherein the label is selected from the group consisting of:
(a) an enzyme label;
(b) a radioisotope; and
(c) a fluorescent label.
72. An isolated cell that produces the isolated antibody of claim 61.
73. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 61.
74. A hybridoma that produces the isolated antibody of claim 63.
Description

[0001] This application is a continuation-in-part of, and claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 120 of copending U.S. patent application Ser. No: PCT/US99/15849 filed Jul. 14, 1999, which is hereby incorporated by reference, which claims benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 119(e) based on U.S. Provisional Applications:

Appln Serial No. Filing Date
60/092,921 15 July 1998
60/092,922 15 July 1998
60/092,956 15 July 1998

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

[0002] This invention relates to newly identified polynucleotides and the polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides, uses of such polynucleotides and polypeptides, and their production.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

[0003] Unlike bacterium, which exist as a single compartment surrounded by a membrane, human cells and other eucaryotes are subdivided by membranes into many functionally distinct compartments. Each membrane-bounded compartment, or organelle, contains different proteins essential for the function of the organelle. The cell uses “sorting signals,” which are amino acid motifs located within the protein, to target proteins to particular cellular organelles.

[0004] One type of sorting signal, called a signal sequence, a signal peptide, or a leader sequence, directs a class of proteins to an organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER separates the membrane-bounded proteins from all other types of proteins. Once localized to the ER, both groups of proteins can be further directed to another organelle called the Golgi apparatus. Here, the Golgi distributes the proteins to vesicles, including secretory vesicles, the cell membrane, lysosomes, and the other organelles.

[0005] Proteins targeted to the ER by a signal sequence can be released into the extracellular space as a secreted protein. For example, vesicles containing secreted proteins can fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space—a process called exocytosis. Exocytosis can occur constitutively or after receipt of a triggering signal. In the latter case, the proteins are stored in secretory vesicles (or secretory granules) until exocytosis is triggered. Similarly, proteins residing on the cell membrane can also be secreted into the extracellular space by proteolytic cleavage of a “linker” holding the protein to the membrane.

[0006] Despite the great progress made in recent years, only a small number of genes encoding human secreted proteins have been identified. These secreted proteins include the commercially valuable human insulin, interferon, Factor VIII, human growth hormone, tissue plasminogen activator, and erythropoeitin. Thus, in light of the pervasive role of secreted proteins in human physiology, a need exists for identifying and characterizing novel human secreted proteins and the genes that encode them. This knowledge will allow one to detect, to treat, and to prevent medical diseases, disorders, and/or conditions by using secreted proteins or the genes that encode them.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0007] The present invention relates to novel polynucleotides and the encoded polypeptides. Moreover, the present invention relates to vectors, host cells, antibodies, and recombinant and synthetic methods for producing the polypeptides and polynucleotides. Also provided are diagnostic methods for detecting diseases, disorders, and/or conditions related to the polypeptides and polynucleotides, and therapeutic methods for treating such diseases, disorders, and/or conditions. The invention further relates to screening methods for identifying binding partners of the polypeptides.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0008] Definitions

[0009] The following definitions are provided to facilitate understanding of certain terms used throughout this specification.

[0010] In the present invention, “isolated” refers to material removed from its original environment (e.g., the natural environment if it is naturally occurring), and thus is altered “by the hand of man” from its natural state. For example, an isolated polynucleotide could be part of a vector or a composition of matter, or could be contained within a cell, and still be “isolated” because that vector, composition of matter, or particular cell is not the original environment of the polynucleotide. The term “isolated” does not refer to genomic or cDNA libraries, whole cell total or mRNA preparations, genomic DNA preparations (including those separated by electrophoresis and transferred onto blots), sheared whole cell genomic DNA preparations or other compositions where the art demonstrates no distinguishing features of the polynucleotide/sequences of the present invention.

[0011] In the present invention, a “secreted” protein refers to those proteins capable of being directed to the ER, secretory vesicles, or the extracellular space as a result of a signal sequence, as well as those proteins released into the extracellular space without necessarily containing a signal sequence. If the secreted protein is released into the extracellular space, the secreted protein can undergo extracellular processing to produce a “mature” protein. Release into the extracellular space can occur by many mechanisms, including exocytosis and proteolytic cleavage.

[0012] In specific embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention are at least 15, at least 30, at least 50, at least 100, at least 125, at least 500, or at least 1000 continuous nucleotides but are less than or equal to 300 kb, 200 kb, 100 kb, 50 kb, 15 kb, 10 kb, 7.5 kb, 5 kb, 2.5 kb, 2.0 kb, or 1 kb, in length. In a further embodiment, polynucleotides of the invention comprise a portion of the coding sequences, as disclosed herein, but do not comprise all or a portion of any intron. In another embodiment, the polynucleotides comprising coding sequences do not contain coding sequences of a genomic flanking gene (i.e., 5′ or 3′ to the gene of interest in the genome). In other embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention do not contain the coding sequence of more than 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5, 4, 3, 2, or 1 genomic flanking gene(s).

[0013] As used herein, a “polynucleotide” refers to a molecule having a nucleic acid sequence contained in SEQ ID NO:X or the cDNA contained within the clone deposited with the ATCC. For example, the polynucleotide can contain the nucleotide sequence of the full length cDNA sequence, including the 5′ and 3′ untranslated sequences, the coding region, with or without the signal sequence, the secreted protein coding region, as well as fragments, epitopes, domains, and variants of the nucleic acid sequence. Moreover, as used herein, a “polypeptide” refers to a molecule having the translated amino acid sequence generated from the polynucleotide as broadly defined.

[0014] In the present invention, the full length sequence identified as SEQ ID NO:X was often generated by overlapping sequences contained in multiple clones (contig analysis). A representative clone containing all or most of the sequence for SEQ ID NO:X was deposited with the American Type Culture Collection (“ATCC”). As shown in Table 1, each clone is identified by a cDNA Clone ID (Identifier) and the ATCC Deposit Number. The ATCC is located at 10801 University Boulevard, Manassas, Va. 20110-2209, USA. <The ATCC deposit was made pursuant to the terms of the Budapest Treaty on the international recognition of the deposit of microorganisms for purposes of patent procedure.

[0015] A “polynucleotide” of the present invention also includes those polynucleotides capable of hybridizing, under stringent hybridization conditions, to sequences contained in SEQ ID NO:X, the complement thereof, or the cDNA within the clone deposited with the ATCC. “Stringent hybridization conditions” refers to an overnight incubation at 42 degree C. in a solution comprising 50% formamide, 5× SSC (750 mM NaCl, 75 mM trisodium citrate), 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.6), 5× Denhardt's solution, 10% dextran sulfate, and 20 μg/ml denatured, sheared salmon sperm DNA, followed by washing the filters in 0.1× SSC at about 65 degree C.

[0016] Also contemplated are nucleic acid molecules that hybridize to the polynucleotides of the present invention at lower stringency hybridization conditions. Changes in the stringency of hybridization and signal detection are primarily accomplished through the manipulation of formamide concentration (lower percentages of formamide result in lowered stringency); salt conditions, or temperature. For example, lower stringency conditions include an overnight incubation at 37 degree C. in a solution comprising 6× SSPE (20× SSPE =3M NaCl; 0.2M NaH2PO4; 0.02M EDTA, pH 7.4), 0.5% SDS, 30% formamide, 100 ug/ml salmon sperm blocking DNA; followed by washes at 50 degree C. with 1× SSPE, 0.1% SDS. In addition, to achieve even lower stringency, washes performed following stringent hybridization can be done at higher salt concentrations (e.g. 5× SSC).

[0017] Note that variations in the above conditions may be accomplished through the inclusion and/or substitution of alternate blocking reagents used to suppress background in hybridization experiments. Typical blocking reagents include Denhardt's reagent, BLOTTO, heparin, denatured salmon sperm DNA, and commercially available proprietary formulations. The inclusion of specific blocking reagents may require modification of the hybridization conditions described above, due to problems with compatibility.

[0018] Of course, a polynucleotide which hybridizes only to polyA+ sequences (such as any 3′ terminal polyA+ tract of a cDNA shown in the sequence listing), or to a complementary stretch of T (or U) residues, would not be included in the definition of “polynucleotide,” since such a polynucleotide would hybridize to any nucleic acid molecule containing a poly (A) stretch or the complement thereof (e.g., practically any double-stranded cDNA clone generated using oligo dT as a primer).

[0019] The polynucleotide of the present invention can be composed of any polyribonucleotide or polydeoxribonucleotide, which may be unmodified RNA or DNA or modified RNA or DNA. For example, polynucleotides can be composed of single- and double-stranded DNA, DNA that is a mixture of single- and double-stranded regions, single- and double-stranded RNA, and RNA that is mixture of single- and double-stranded regions, hybrid molecules comprising DNA and RNA that may be single-stranded or, more typically, double-stranded or a mixture of single- and double-stranded regions. In addition, the polynucleotide can be composed of triple-stranded regions comprising RNA or DNA or both RNA and DNA. A polynucleotide may also contain one or more modified bases or DNA or RNA backbones modified for stability or for other reasons. “Modified” bases include, for example, tritylated bases and unusual bases such as inosine. A variety of modifications can be made to DNA and RNA; thus, “polynucleotide” embraces chemically, enzymatically, or metabolically modified forms.

[0020] The polypeptide of the present invention can be composed of amino acids joined to each other by peptide bonds or modified peptide bonds, i.e., peptide isosteres, and may contain amino acids other than the 20 gene-encoded amino acids. The polypeptides may be modified by either natural processes, such as posttranslational processing, or by chemical modification techniques which are well known in the art. Such modifications are well described in basic texts and in more detailed monographs, as well as in a voluminous research literature. Modifications can occur anywhere in a polypeptide, including the peptide backbone, the amino acid side-chains and the amino or carboxyl termini. It will be appreciated that the same type of modification may be present in the same or varying degrees at several sites in a given polypeptide. Also, a given polypeptide may contain many types of modifications. Polypeptides may be branched, for example, as a result of ubiquitination, and they may be cyclic, with or without branching. Cyclic, branched, and branched cyclic polypeptides may result from posttranslation natural processes or may be made by synthetic methods. Modifications include acetylation, acylation, ADP-ribosylation, amidation, covalent attachment of flavin, covalent attachment of a heme moiety, covalent attachment of a nucleotide or nucleotide derivative, covalent attachment of a lipid or lipid derivative, covalent attachment of phosphotidylinositol, cross-linking, cyclization, disulfide bond formation, demethylation, formation of covalent cross-links, formation of cysteine, formation of pyroglutamate, formylation, gamma-carboxylation, glycosylation, GPI anchor formation, hydroxylation, iodination, methylation, myristoylation, oxidation, pegylation, proteolytic processing, phosphorylation, prenylation, racemization, selenoylation, sulfation, transfer-RNA mediated addition of amino acids to proteins such as arginylation, and ubiquitination. (See, for instance, PROTEINS—STRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES, 2nd Ed., T. E. Creighton, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York (1993); POSTTRANSLATIONAL COVALENT MODIFICATION OF PROTEINS, B. C. Johnson, Ed., Academic Press, New York, pgs. 1-12 (1983); Seifter et al., Meth Enzymol 182:626-646 (1990); Rattan et al., Ann NY Acad Sci 663:48-62 (1992).)

[0021] “SEQ ID NO:X” refers to a polynucleotide sequence while “SEQ ID NO:Y” refers to a polypeptide sequence, both sequences identified by an integer specified in Table 1.

[0022] “A polypeptide having biological activity” refers to polypeptides exhibiting activity similar, but not necessarily identical to, an activity of a polypeptide of the present invention, including mature forms, as measured in a particular biological assay, with or without dose dependency. In the case where dose dependency does exist, it need not be identical to that of the polypeptide, but rather substantially similar to the dose-dependence in a given activity as compared to the polypeptide of the present invention (i.e., the candidate polypeptide will exhibit greater activity or not more than about 25-fold less and, preferably, not more than about tenfold less activity, and most preferably, not more than about three-fold less activity relative to the polypeptide of the present invention.)

[0023] Polynucleotides and Polypeptides of the Invention

[0024] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 1

[0025] This gene is expressed primarily in pancreas islet cell tumors.

[0026] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

PFCSGFFPSLWIYLPFIFNVSDLWMGSLSGCALPFCLXVFFLTVSPSAVG
LLXFAGGPLQTLFAWVSPVEAAEQQRLLPVLSSGSFVSEGTCQMPARALL
YEVSVGPYWEIPPSQDTRRSGTYLRRQSDP
(SEQ ID NO: 195).

[0027] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0028] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the pancreas, including cancer and diabetes. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the pancreas, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., endocrine, cancerous, or wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0029] The tissue distribution in tumors of pancreatic islet cells indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis, treatment and intervention of such tumors, in addition to other endocrine or gastrointestinal tumors where expression has been indicated. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0030] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:11 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1099 of SEQ ID NO:11, b is an integer of 15 to 1113, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:11, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0031] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 2

[0032] This gene is expressed equally in hemangiopericytoma cells, breast lymph node tissue, and bone marrow.

[0033] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

HEGSCRAPGFSAHKGRGCPSPRMTLPSRALASLGVGVWGMLRLNQVTVSCG (SEQ ID NO:196).
GSRWSSRVALGAFSWVCGV
ALVLQPSGGGLGLTSPSEGCWEGELALAVLRAPGGSPS

[0034] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0035] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune and hematopoietic disorders, particularly leukemia. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the vascular and immune systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hemolymphoid, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 104 as residues: Gly-29 to Ser-35, Ser-63 to Cys-68. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0036] The tissue distribution in hemangiopericytoma, breast lymph node, and bone marrow indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of hematopoietic related disorders such as anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia or leukemia since stromal cells are important in the production of cells of hematopoietic lineages. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. The uses include bone marrow cell ex vivo culture, bone marrow transplantation, bone marrow reconstitution, radiotherapy or chemotherapy of neoplasia. The gene product may also be involved in lymphopoiesis, therefore, it can be used in immune disorders such as infection, inflammation, allergy, immunodeficiency etc. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0037] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:12 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 969 of SEQ ID NO:12, b is an integer of 15 to 983, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:12, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0038] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 3

[0039] The protein product of this gene shares homology with Drosophila, mouse, and human Slit proteins (See Genbank Accession Numbers (protein) AAD25539 and AAD38940; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated herein by reference; for example Rothberg et al., Genes Dev. 4:2169-87 (1990), Brose K., et al., Cell 1999 Mar 19;96(6):795-806, and Liang Y., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1999 Jun 18;274(25): 17885-92). Slit gene products are secreted proteins that contain both EGF domain and Leucine Rich Repeat domains; and function as ligands for cell-surface receptors. In Drosophilia, Slits are important in the development of midline glia and commissural axon pathways. In vertebrates, Slit family proteins have been shown to function as ligands of receptors in nervous system tissue. Slit proteins are thought to be critical for certain stages of central nervous system histogenesis and to have evolutionarily conserved roles in axon guidance (Brose K., et al., Cell 1999 Mar 19;96(6):795-806 and Liang Y., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1999 Jun 18;274(25):17885-92). Based on the sequence similarity, the translation product of this gene is expected to share at least some biological activities with Slit proteins. Such activities are known in the art, some of which are described elsewhere herein.

[0040] This gene is expressed primarily in human hippocampus.

[0041] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological, and developmental disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the neurological system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neurological, cancerous, or wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0042] The tissue distribution within human hippocampus combined with the homology to the Drosophila slit protein, indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and preception. In addition, the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, sexually-linked disorders, or disorders of the cardiovascular system. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0043] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:13 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 959 of SEQ ID NO:13, b is an integer of 15 to 973, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:13, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0044] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 4

[0045] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

IPLTLPGIFLLIRLFWRLGQSICGPGKLVLWPQFCCGCAVISGHCVPRGMPSSW (SEQ ID NO:197).
LPGCFVLLCLVAVGCQLREWGVGGVSAVGLLALPHLQVLGMRGRGLISGG

[0046] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0047] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 16. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 16.

[0048] This gene is expressed in KMH2 cells, osteoblasts, fetal spleen, Jurkat membrane bound polysomes, breast, and cerebellum.

[0049] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, cancer, immune, and skeletal disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, skeletal, cancerous, or wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0050] The tissue distribution in KMH2 cells, osteoblasts, and fetal spleen indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Expression of this gene product in fetal spleen and T-cells indicates a role in the regulation of the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of potentially all hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g., by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product may be involved in immune functions. Therefore it may be also used as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, scleroderma and tissues. Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0051] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:14 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1444 of SEQ ID NO:14, b is an integer of 15 to 1458, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:14, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0052] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 5

[0053] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with phospholipase A2 which cleaves fatty acids from carbon 2 of glycerol (ref. Prosite pattern documentation for PS2HIS). Many snake venoms contain phospolipase A2, which prevents transmission of nerve impulses to muscles by blocking the release of acetylcholine from the neuron. Therefore, included in this invention as preferred domains are Phospholipase A2 histidine active site domains, which were identified using the ProSite analysis tool (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics). Phospholipase A2 is an enzyme which releases fatty acids from the second carbon group of glycerol. Structurally, PA2's are small and rigid proteins of 120 amino-acid residues that have four to seven disulfide bonds. PA2 binds a calcium ion which is required for activity. The side chains of two conserved residues, a histidine and an aspartic acid, participate in a ‘catalytic network’. Two different signature patterns for PA2's were developed. The first is centered on the active site histidine and contains three cysteines involved in disulfide bonds. The consensus pattern is as follows: C-C-x(2)-H-x(2)-C [H is the active site residue].

[0054] Preferred polypeptides of the invention comprise a Phospholipase A2 histidine active site domain selected from the following amino acid sequences: CCNQHDRC (SEQ ID NO: 199), SLTKCCNQHDRCYET (SEQ ID NO: 200), and/or LTKCCNQHDRCYETCG (SEQ ID NO: 201). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided. Further preferred are polypeptides comprising the Phospholipase A2 histidine active site domain of the sequence listed in Table 1 for this gene, and at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, or 75 additional contiguous amino acid residues of this referenced sequence. The additional contiguous amino acid residues may be N-terminal or C-terminal to the Phospholipase A2 histidine active site domain. Alternatively, the additional contiguous amino acid residues may be both N-terminal and C-terminal to the Phospholipase A2 histidine active site domain, wherein the total N- and C-terminal contiguous amino acid residues equal the specified number. The above preferred polypeptide domain is characteristic of a signature specific to Phospholipase A2 proteins. Based on the sequence similarity, the translation product of this gene is expected to share at least some biological activities with Phospholipase A2 proteins. Such activities are known in the art, some of which are described elsewhere herein, or see, for example, McIntosh, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 270 (8), 3518-3526 (1995), incorporated herein by reference.

[0055] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

GPAGKEAWIWSWLLPSPGPAPLPSASWGLCGDAPRAAARGPVEPGAARMA (SEQ ID NO: 198).
LLSRPALTLLLLLMAAVVRCQEQAQTTDWRATLKTIRNGVHKIDTYLNAAL
DLLGGEDGLCQYKCSDGSKPFPRYGYKPSPPNGCGSPLFGXHLNIGIPSL
TKCCNQHDRCYETCGKSKNDCDEE
FQYCLSKICRDVQKTLGLTQHVQACETTVELLFDSVIHLGCKPYLDSQRA
ACRCHYEEKTDL

[0056] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0057] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 4. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 4.

[0058] This gene is expressed in a diverse variety of cell types.

[0059] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological disorders, or metabolism disorders, specifically phospholipase A2 deficiencies. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the neuromuscular system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., pancreas, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., bile, lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 107 as residues: Gln-23 to Asp-30, Lys-66 to Cys-87. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0060] The ubiquitous tissue distribution and homology to phospholipase A2 indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of neuromuscular disorders. Alternatively, considering the activity of phospholipase A2 as a block for neuro- transmission may suggest that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection/treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and preception. In addition, the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, sexually-linked disorders, or disorders of the cardiovascular system. Alternatively, the homology to Phospholipase A2 proteins may indicate a potential use for the protein product of this gene in diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention of metabolism disorders, specifically deficiencies in Phospholipase A2. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0061] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:15 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1991 of SEQ ID NO:15, b is an integer of 15 to 2005, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:15, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0062] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 6

[0063] In a specific embodiment polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

GTSSAPRGALPGGSAPSAPHGQLPGRAQPAPVSGPPPTSGLCHFDPAAPW (SEQ ID NO: 202).
PLWPGPWQLPPHPQDWPAHPDIPQDWVSFLRSFGQLTLCPRNGTVTGKWR
GSHVVGLLTTLNFGDGPDRNKTRTFQATVLGSQMGLKGSSAGQLVLITAR
VTTERTAGTCLYFSAVPGILPSSQPPISCSEEGAGNATLSPRMGEECVSV
WSHEGLVLTKLLTSEELALCGSRLLVLGSFLLLFCGLLCCVTAMCFHPRR
ESHWSRTRL

[0064] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0065] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

ARAPPGPEGLSPEAQPPLLPMGNCQAGHNLHLCLAHHPPLVCATLILLLL (SEQ ID NO: 203).
GLSGLGLGSFLLTHRTGLRTLTSPRTGSLF

[0066] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0067] This gene is expressed in a wide variety of tissue types including testes, cerebellum, dendritic cells, breast cancer, umbilical vein endothelial cells, epididymus, corpus colosum, chronic synovitis, liver hepatome, normal breast, osteoblasts, melanocytes, B cell lymphomas, and to a lesser extent in other tissues.

[0068] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, cancer, particularly of endothelial tissues. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the reproductive system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., endothelial, cancerous, or wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, seminal fluid, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 108 as residues: Thr-52 to Gly-57. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0069] Expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates that the protein product of this gene may play a role in the regulation of cellular division and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Additionally, the expression in hematopoietic cells and tissues indicates that this protein may play a role in the proliferation, differentiation, and/or survival of hematopoietic cell lineages. In such an event, this gene may be useful in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders, and in the maintenance and differentiation of various hematopoietic lineages from early hematopoietic stem and committed progenitor cells. Similarly, embryonic development also relies on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0070] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:16 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 929 of SEQ ID NO:16, b is an integer of 15 to 943, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:16, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0071] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 7

[0072] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

RFLSVXPQXEVPFLLHPCVCFXGGHPSLLPDPCRAVGGGWEAPRCCLHEA
LCQSLGCKAEEIVSVSESSSAQRCWYLLRGRKAGGRGPASPVLFALMRLE
SLCHLCLACLFFRLPATRTVYCMNEAEIVDVALGILIESRKQXKACEQPA
LAGADNPEHSPPCSVSPHTSSGSSSEEEDSGKQALXPGLSPSQRPGGSSS
ACSRSPEEEEEEDVLKYVREIFFS
(SEQ ID NO: 204).

[0073] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided. Polynucleotides of the invention do not consist of the nucleic acid sequences shown as GeneSeq Accession Nos: V59595 and V59744, which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.

[0074] This gene is expressed primarily in a variety of immune cell types, including stromal cells, dendritic cells, leukocytes, activated T-cells, macrophages, monoctyes, neutrophils and to a lesser extent in a variety of other adult and fetal tissues.

[0075] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, cancer and other proliferative disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, cancerous, or wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0076] The tissue distribution in immune cells indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Expression of this gene product in fetal tissue and various hematopoietic cancers indicates a role in the regulation of the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of potentially all hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g., by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product may be involved in immune functions. Therefore it may be also used as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, scleroderma and tissues.

[0077] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0078] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:17 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1489 of SEQ ID NO:17, b is an integer of 15 to 1503, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:17, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0079] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No:8

[0080] When tested against Jurkat T-cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the NF-kB (Nuclear Factor kB) pathway. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates T-cells through the NF-kB signal transduction pathway. NF-KB is a transcription factor activated by a wide variety of agents, leading to cell activation, differentiation, or apoptosis. Reporter constructs utilizing the NF-kB promoter element are used to screen supernatants for such activity. In a specific embodiment polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

VPGWPRACSPCQADSPRAHPPKLRGILRWAPVPLXCAALCPPLDSGMSMA
ACPEAPEPSFLREVPSSPASTQWHRPCNFRQVEANPRKEPKNLVWRDVSL
GQXSRTPRGSGLELVRVCGGGMQRDKTVVEERVGEERERERERESLGGAG
KHGEMRCVYVRESVGAPGRAGGGGNGVNSVGCVRTVHSGSXPPPSAGVS
(SEQ ID NO: 205).

[0081] Also preferred are the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides.

[0082] This gene is expressed primarily in parts of the brain such as cerebellum and frontal lobe.

[0083] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurodegenerative disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, cancerous, or wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0084] The tissue distribution in cerebellum and frontal lobe indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0085] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:18 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1498 of SEQ ID NO:18, b is an integer of 15 to 1512, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:18, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0086] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 9

[0087] In a specific embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

TRPGKELNLVFGLQLSMARIGSTVNMNLMGWLYSKIEALLGSAGHTTLGI
TLMIGGITCILSLICALALAYLDQRAERILHKEQGKTGEVIKLTDVKDFS
LPLWLIFIICVCYYVAVFPFIGLGKVFFTEKFGFSSQAASAINSVVYVIS
APMSPVFGLLVDKTGKNIIWVLCA
(SEQ ID NO: 206).

[0088] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0089] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 3. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 3.

[0090] This gene is expressed primarily in fetal tissue, and to a lesser extent in a variety of adult human tissues.

[0091] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, fetal abnormalities, particularly developmental disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the reproductive system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., developing, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., amniotic fluid, lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 111 as residues: Lys-30 to Thr-35. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0092] The tissue distribution in fetal tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other proliferative disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates that this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division. Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Additionally, the expression in hematopoietic cells and tissues indicates that this protein may play a role in the proliferation, differentiation, and/or survival of hematopoietic cell lineages. In such an event, this gene may be useful in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders, and in the maintenance and differentiation of various hematopoietic lineages from early hematopoietic stem and committed progenitor cells. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0093] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:19 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1641 of SEQ ID NO:19, b is an integer of 15 to 1655, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:19, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0094] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 10

[0095] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with human histiocyte-secreted factor (HSF) which is a novel cytokine that shows in vivo antitumour activity without the cytotoxicity associated with tumour necrosis factor. Furthermore, the translation product of this gene also shares sequence homology with the human endogenous virus S71 gag polyprotein, the sequence of which is believed to represent a transformation locus for several cancers (See Genbank Accession No. pir|A46312|A46312; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated by reference herein). Similarly, the translation product of this gene also shares homology with B219, a sequence that is expressed in at least four isoforms in very primitive hematopoietic cell populations which may represent a novel hemopoietin receptor (See, e.g., Cioffi, et al. Nat. Med. 2:585-589 (1996), which is hereby incorporated by reference herein). In a preferred embodiment polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence: CKDLCSRVYLLTLSPLLSYDPATSHSPRNTQ (SEQ ID NO: 207). Also preferred are the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides.

[0096] This gene is expressed primarily in tonsil, and colon, and to a lesser extent in a wide variety of human tissues.

[0097] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune, hematopoietic, and gastrointestinal disorders, particularly tumors of the colon and tonsil. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the hematopoietic, digestive and immune systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 112 as residues: Met-1 to Cys-6. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0098] The tissue distribution in tonsil and colon, combined with the homology to human histiocyte growth factor, the human endogenous viral protein, and B219 strongly indicate that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis, treatment and/or prevention, of a variety of hematopoietic and immune system disorders such as anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia or leukemia. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein.

[0099] Expression of this gene product in tonsils indicates a role in the regulation of the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of potentially all hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g., by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product may be involved in immune functions. Therefore it may be also used as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, scleroderma and tissues.

[0100] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0101] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:20 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2511 of SEQ ID NO:20, b is an integer of 15 to 2525, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:20, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0102] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 11

[0103] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 7. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 7.

[0104] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

IICECWBEEECQSCRLKITQPREICRMDFLVLFLFYLASVLMGLVLICVC
SKTHSLKGLARGGAQIFSCIIPECLQRAXHGLLHYLFHTRNHTFIVLHLV
LQGMVYTEYTWEVFGYCQELELSLHYLLLPYLLLGVNLFFFTLTCGTNPG
IITKANELLFLHVYEFDEVMFPKNVRCSTCDLRKPARSKHCSVCNWCVHR
FDHHCVWVNNCIGAWNIRYFLIYVLTLTASAATVAIVSTTFLVHLVVMSD
LYQETYIDDLGHLHVMDTVFLIQYLFLTFPRIVFMLGFVVVLSFLLGGYL
LFVLYLAATNQTTNEWYRGDWAWCQRCPLVAWPPSAEPQVHRNIHSHGLR
SNLQEIFLPAFPCHERKKQE
(SEQ ID NO: 208).

[0105] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0106] This gene is expressed primarily in colon and brain and to some extent in all tissues.

[0107] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological and digestive disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system and digestive system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neurological, gastrointestinal, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0108] The tissue distribution in brain indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment; and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Alternatively, expression of this gene in colon may indicate a role in the detection, prevention and/or treatment of colon disorders such as colon cancer, Crohn's disease, ulcers, and digestive tract disorders in general. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0109] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:21 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1382 of SEQ ID NO:21, b is an integer of 15 to 1396, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:21, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0110] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 12

[0111] When tested against Reh cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS (gamma activation site) pathway. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates B-cells through the Jak-STAT signal transduction pathway. GAS is a promoter element found upstream in many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STATs pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0112] This gene maps to chromosome 7, and therefore, may be used as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 7.

[0113] This gene is expressed primarily in brain, and in the developing embryo.

[0114] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological, behavioral, immune, and developmental disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the nervous and developmental systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, developing, immune, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, amniotic fluid, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 114 as residues: Lys-60 to Asn-67. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0115] The tissue distribution in brain indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, the tissue distribution in developing embryo indicates that the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, sexually-linked disorders, or disorders of the cardiovascular system. Alternatively, the biological activity within B-cells indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Activation of genes within B-cells indicates a role for this protein in the regulation of the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of potentially all hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g., by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product may be involved in immune functions. Therefore it may be also used as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immune deficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, and psoriasis. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0116] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:22 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1055 of SEQ ID NO:22, b is an integer of 15 to 1069, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:22, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0117] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 13

[0118] This gene maps to chromosome 6, and therefore, may be used as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 6.

[0119] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

LLSFKIRGLRTEDAGWAQSSSGGLCVRGDAFWMPSSSSGLGSPSRPPSSFLCL (SEQ ID NO:209).
LLLLLPPAALALLLFFLDFFPPRAAVSPFLPDHCSARQPRVWRRETLNRSASGL
GCWARSTEQGAVGVATGTVLDISLPASCLSLWPPGPSGGI

[0120] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0121] In a specific embodiment polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

QLGLCLTSASLPPASRCGHQAPLGASDLSAHHSAPGFSDSYFTMSCQSSLSRA (SEQ ID NO:210),
EILQCPLVPSVSPPTHLPQGRANKSSRASLPLLPQTHWCLFPSARGWRRGIQSG
LPPGGSCTSPRSPPQTLHQHITLVNHNTSYWQSPST
HQPPCLLPLAVATRPLWGHLTCLPIILHLVSVTLTSPCLANQAFQGQRSYNAL (SEQ ID NO:211).
WCPLFLLLPTSPKGEQTNHPEPACPCFPKLTGVFSLQHVVGAEEFSQVFLLVD
PVPVLDHLLKLFTSTSHLLIIIPHIGKAPAPDSLLEELSLSLATHCKVAVARFT

[0122] Also preferred are the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides.

[0123] Polynucleotides of the invention do not consist of the nucleic acid sequence shown as GeneSeq Accession No. X04377, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference.

[0124] This gene is expressed primarily in brain.

[0125] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, behavioral and neurological disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 115 as residues: Pro-2 to Gly-7, Ser-10 to Ser-16, Pro-52 to Val-62, Arg-64 to Ser-73. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0126] The tissue distribution in brain indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0127] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:23 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1644 of SEQ ID NO:23, b is an integer of 15 to 1658, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:23, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0128] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 14

[0129] The translation product of this gene was shown to have homology to the lysosomal mannosidase alpha-B protein (See Genebank Accession No. P34098) which is thought to be important in protein metabolism. One embodiment of this gene comprises polypeptides of the following amino acid sequence:

MAAEGSRFSSQSPGLVDRQGPKCDPSRLVSPWGRHGLRILQIGHHHGRDGQH (SEQ ID NO:212), and/or
EATHHLLRVLRAPRVGKADEGAVDSDPSTPLQLKHEAAHAEDHAQQVHVVR
RRVVQGRVTFARRGLVPQHFVRPPWVRHIVSGHSESKARSRLFRCRNRSFRRAS
RLVSPWGRHGLRILQIGHHHGRDGQH
EATHHLLRVLRA (SEQ ID NO:213).

[0130] An additional embodiment is the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides.

[0131] This gene maps to chromosome 19, and therefore, may be used as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 19.

[0132] This gene is expressed primarily in brain, placenta, fetal liver, and to a lesser extent in most tissues.

[0133] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological, reproductive, and hepatic disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the nervous system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, hepatic, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., bile, amniotic fluid, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 116 as residues: Asn-34 to Lys-42, Leu-60 to Trp-70. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0134] The tissue distribution predominantly in brain indicates a role in the detection/treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder and panic disorder. Alternatively, the tissue distribution in liver indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection and treatment of liver disorders and cancers (e.g., hepatoblastoma, jaundice, hepatitis, liver metabolic diseases and conditions that are attributable to the differentiation of hepatocyte progenitor cells). In addition the expression in fetus would suggest a useful role for the protein product in developmental abnormalities, fetal deficiencies, pre-natal disorders and various would-healing models and/or tissue trauma.

[0135] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:24 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1063 of SEQ ID NO:24, b is an integer of 15 to 1077, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:24, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0136] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 15

[0137] This gene is expressed primarily in spinal cord, Merkel cells, and adipose tissues.

[0138] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the nervous and immune systems, particularly those disorders relating to the CNS involving lipid metabolism disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the nervous and immune systems and adipose tissue, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, immune, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0139] The tissue distribution in spinal cord, Merkel cells and adipose tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of diseases the nervous systems, such as spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy or obesity. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0140] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:25 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1191 of SEQ ID NO:25, b is an integer of 15 to 1205, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:25, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0141] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 16

[0142] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with the human uncoupling protein-2 which is thought to be important in energy metabolism, obesity, and the predisposition of hyperinsulinemia (See Genbank Accession No. gill 857278). Recently, another group published on this gene, designating it brain mitochondrial carrier protein-1 (BCMP1) (J Biol Chem Dec. 18, 1998;273(51):34611-5). One embodiment of this gene comprises polypeptides of the following amino acid sequence: PTDVLKIRMQAQ (SEQ ID NO: 214), and/or TYEQLKR (SEQ ID NO: 215). An additional embodiment is the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides.

[0143] This gene maps to the X chromosome, and therefore, may be used as a marker in linkage analysis for the X chromosome.

[0144] This gene is expressed primarily in manic depression brain tissue, epileptic frontal cortex, human erythroleukemia cell line, T-helper cells; and to a lesser extent in endothelial and amygdala cells.

[0145] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the central nervous system or hematopoietic/immune disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system or hematopoieticlimmune systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, hemolymphoid, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 118 as residues: Ser-34 to Thr-39, Gln-198 to Leu-205. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0146] The tissue distribution in neural tissues combined with the homology to the human uncoupling protein indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection and/or treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and preception. In addition, the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, sexually-linked disorders, or disorders of the cardiovascular system. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. Alternatively, given the homology to uncoupling proteins, the gene and/or its translation product may also be used in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of thermogenesis disorders such as obesity, cachexia, and hyperinsulinemia. Uncoupling proteins dissipate the proton gradient created from the oxidation of fuels by the electron transport chain, thus releasing stored energy as heat. Dysfunction of thermogenesis can induce disorders such as obesity and cachexia. It is thought that obesity may result from decreased thermogenesis in humans. Alternatively, cachexia is a metabolic state in which energy expenditure exceeds food intake, for example in anorexia nervosa. Uncoupling proteins may be useful for the treatment and/or prevention of diseases and/or disorders involved with aberrant metabolic and thermogenic pathways. The following method provides for the determination of respiration uncoupling activity of the polypeptides of the present invention, including fragments and variants of the full length proteins. Briefly, yeast are transfected with an expression vector expressing polypeptide of the present invention as previously described by Bouillaud et al., EMBO J., 13:1990 (1994) (incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). Rates of growth in liquid medium of transformed yeast are measured in the presence of galactose, which induces expression, as described in International Publication No. WO 98/31396 (incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). Instantaneous generation times are compared between the polypeptide of the present invention and appropriate controls. An in vivo decrease of membrane potential associated with uncoupling of respiration is analyzed by flow cytometry of yeast labeled with the potential sensitive probe DiOC6 (3) (3,3′-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodine, Molecular Probes, Eugene, Oreg.). The ability of a polypeptide of the present invention to influence mitochondrial activity and uncouple respiration is thus determined.

[0147] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:26 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1660 of SEQ ID NO:26, b is an integer of 15 to 1674, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:26, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0148] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 17

[0149] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with 55 kD deglycosylated zona pellucida protein which is known to be important in egg fertilization (See Genebank Accession No.R39356). One embodiment of this gene comprises polypeptides of the following amino acid sequence:

RPRPSASSLARSASLLPAAHGXGVGGAGGGSSXLRSRYQQLQNEEESGEPEQ (SEQ ID NO:216),
AAGDAPPPYSSISAESAHXFDYKDESGFPKPPSYNVATTLPSYDEAERTKAEA
TIPLVPGRDEDFVGRDDFDDADQLRIGNDGIF
RYQQLQNEEESGEPEQAAGD (SEQ ID NO:217), and/or
PGRDEDFVGRDDFDDADQLRIG (SEQ ID NO:218).

[0150] An additional embodiment is the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides.

[0151] Preferred polypeptide fragments of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

MLTFFMAFLFNWIGFFLSFCLTTSAAGRYGAISGFGLSLIKWILIVRFSTYFPGY
FDGQYWLWWVFLVLGFLLFLRGFINYAKVRKMPET FSNLPRTRVLFIY (SEQ ID NO:219).

[0152] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0153] Preferred polypeptide variants of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

MKKSLENLNRLQVMLLHLTAAFLQRAQHXFDYKDESGFPKPPSYNVATTLPS (SEQ ID NO:220),
YDEAERTKAEATIPLVPGRDEDFVGRDDFDDADQLRIGNDGIFMLTFFMAFLF
NWIGFFLSFCLTTSAAGRYGAISGFGLSLIKWILIVRFSTYFPGYFDGQYWLW
WVFLVLGFLLFLRGFINYAKVR KMPETFSNLPRTRVLFIY
MLLHLTAAFLQRAQFSTYFPGYFDGQYWLWWVFLVLGFLLFLRGFINYAKV (SEQ ID NO:221),
RKMPETFSNLPRTRVLFIY
MLTFFMAFLFNWIGFFLSFCLTTSAAGRYGAISGFGLSLIKWILIVRFSTYFPAF (SEQ ID NO:222), and/or
MNSLSRSKRTPAGSESRCRTQRNNHLL
MKKSLENLNRLQVMLLHLTAAFLQRAHXILTTRMSLGFQSPHLTM (SEQ ID NO:223)

[0154] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0155] When tested against U937 cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS (gamma activating sequence) promoter element. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent, other immune and hematopoietic cells and JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. GAS is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0156] This gene is expressed primarily in adult kidney, colon adenocarcinoma, and fetal brain, and to a lesser extent, ubiquitously expression in many tissues.

[0157] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of kidney, colon cancers, and central nervous system. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the renal and neural systems, and cancers, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., renal, neural, urogenital, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 119 as residues: Cys-15 to Gly-36. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0158] The tissue distribution adult kidney, colon adenocarcinoma, and fetal brain indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of kidney diseases, colon cancers, and disorders of the central nervous system. Additionally, the homology to the zona pellucida protein indicates that the gene product may be used for male contraceptive development, and infertility diagnosis etc. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0159] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:27 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1951 of SEQ ID NO:27, b is an integer of 15 to 1965, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:27, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0160] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 18

[0161] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with the chicken transferrin receptor in addition to a human prostate-specific protein homolog (See Genebank Accession Nos.pir|JHO570|JHO570 and gi|2565338 (AF026380), respectively). This gene also shares significant homology with both the murine and the rat hematopoietic lineage switch 2 proteins (See Genbank Accession Nos. g3169729 and g3851632, respectively), which are induced during an erythroid to myeloid lineage switch.

[0162] A preferred polypeptide fragment of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence: MTVMDPKQMNVAAAVWAVVSYVVADMEEML PRS (SEQ ID NO: 224). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0163] This gene is expressed primarily in fetal tissues, such as liver/spleen and brain.

[0164] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, pre-natal disorders, anomalies, deficiencies. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the developing fetus, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., developing, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., amniotic fluid, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 120 as residues: Arg-31 to Lys-37, Lys-58 to Glu-65, Asp-157 to Gly-168, Ile-219 to Gly-225, Ala-260 to Ser-268, Thr-276 to Glu-282. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0165] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treatment and diagnosis of pre-natal disorders, anomalies and deficiencies.

[0166] The homology to the hematopoietic lineage switch 2 proteins also indicates that the translation product of this gene is useful for the detection and/or treatment of immune system disorders. In addition, the homology to the transferrin receptor indicates that the translation product of the present invention may have utility in the regulation of iron metabolism as well as the numerous genes under the stringent control of physiologic iron levels. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0167] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:28 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1849 of SEQ ID NO:28, b is an integer of 15 to 1863, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:28, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0168] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 19

[0169] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

PRVRSREPVAGAPGCGTAGPPAMATLWGGLLRLGSLLSLSCLALSVLLLAHC (SEQ ID NO:225).
QTPPSDCLHVVEPMPVRGPDVEAYCLRCECKYEERSSVTIKVTIIIYLSILGLLL
LYMVYLTLVEPILKRRLFGHAQLIQSDDDIGDHQPFANAHDVLARSRSRANV
LNKVEYAQQRWKLQVQEQRKSVFDRHVVLS

[0170] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0171] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 72-88 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Moreover, a cytoplasmic tail encompassing amino acids 89 to 167 of this protein has also been determined. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type Ia membrane proteins.

[0172] A preferred polypeptide variant of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

MATLWGGLLRLGSLLSLSCLALSVLLLAHCQTPPRISRMSDVNVSALPIKKNS (SEQ ID NO:226).
GHIYNKNISQKDCDCLHVVEPMPVRGPDVEAYCLRCECKYEERSSVTIKVTIII
YLSILGLLLLYMVYLTLVEPILKRRLFGHAQLIQSDDDIGDHQPFANAHDVLA
RSRSRANVLNKVEYGTAALE ASSPRAAKSLSLTGMLSSANWGIEFKVTRK
KQADNWKGTDWVLLGFILIPC

[0173] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0174] This gene is expressed primarily in infant brain tissue, and to a lesser extent in other cell types and tissues.

[0175] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, developmental and neurodegenerative diseases of the brain and nervous system, such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, mania, dementia, paranoia, addictive behavior, sleep disorders, epilepsy, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the brain, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, developmental, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., amniotic fluid, lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 121 as residues: Gln-110 to Pro-120, Val-152 to Val-159. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0176] The tissue distribution in infant brain tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of developmental, degenerative and behavioral conditions of the brain and nervous system. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette Syndrome, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), mania, depression, dementia, paranoia, addictive behavior, obsessive-compulsive disorder and sleep disorders. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0177] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:29 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1612 of SEQ ID NO:29, b is an integer of 15 to 1626, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:29, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0178] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 20

[0179] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with a recently published gene Dysferlin, which is thought to be a skeletal muscle gene that is mutated in Miyoshi myopathy and limb girdle muscular dystrophy (See Genbank Accession No. g3600028, and Nat. Genet. 20 (1), 31-36 (1998); all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated by reference herein.)).

[0180] This gene is expressed primarily in fetal liver, fetal heart tissue, and T-cells.

[0181] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immunodeficiency, tumor necrosis, lymphomas, auto-immunities, cancer, inflammation, anemias (leukemia) and liver disorders, vascular disorders, and cancers (e.g., hepatoblastoma, hepatitis, liver metabolic diseases and conditions that are attributable to the differentiation of hepatocyte progenitor cells). Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the liver and immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., hepatic, developmental, vascular, or cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., amniotic fluid, bile, lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0182] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of immune disorders including: leukemias, lymphomas, auto-immunities, immunodeficiencies (e.g., AIDS), immuno-supressive conditions (transplantation) and hematopoeitic disorders. In addition this gene product may be applicable in conditions of general microbial infection, inflammation or cancer.

[0183] Expression in liver may suggest a role for this gene product in the treatment and detection of liver disorders and cancers (e.g., hepatoblastoma, jaundice, hepatitis, liver metabolic diseases and conditions that are attributable to the differentiation of hepatocyte progenitor cells).

[0184] Alternatively, the tissue distribution in fetal heart tissue indicates that the protein product of this gene is useful for the diagnosis and treatment of conditions and pathologies of the cardiovascular system, such as heart disease, restenosis, atherosclerosis, stoke, angina, thrombosis, and wound healing. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. Additionally, the homology to the dysferlin gene indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diseases related to degenerative myopathies that are characterized by the weakness and atrophy of muscles without neural degradation; such as Duchenne and Becker's muscular dystropies. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0185] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:30 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 591 of SEQ ID NO:30, b is an integer of 15 to 605, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:30, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0186] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 21

[0187] This gene is expressed primarily in haemopoietic cells and tumor cells, such as pancreatic tumor tissue, and to a lesser extent in bladder cells.

[0188] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, haemopoietic disorders, diseases of the renal and pancreatic systems, and cancer. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the haemopoietic, pancreatic, and renal systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., pancreas, renal, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0189] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of disorders of the renal, pancreatic and haemopoietic systems, and cancers thereof. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0190] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:31 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 917 of SEQ ID NO:31, b is an integer of 15 to 931, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:31, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0191] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 22

[0192] This gene is expressed primarily in liver tissue, cancer cells and fetal lung tissue, and to a lesser extent in dendritic cells.

[0193] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, metabolic disorders, diseases of developing systems and cancers. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the fetus, metabolic systems and cancers, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., developing, metabolic, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 124 as residues: His-44 to Gly-49. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0194] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of disorders of the fetus, metabolic systems and cancers.

[0195] The tissue distribution also indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection and treatment of liver disorders and cancers (e.g. hepatoblastoma, jaundice, hepatitis, liver metabolic diseases and conditions that are attributable to the differentiation of hepatocyte progenitor cells). In addition the expression in fetus would suggest a useful role for the protein product in developmental abnormalities, fetal deficiencies, pre-natal disorders and various would-healing models and/or tissue trauma. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0196] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:32 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1393 of SEQ ID NO:32, b is an integer of 15 to 1407, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:32, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0197] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 23

[0198] This gene is expressed primarily in central nervous system tissues and cancers, such as endometrial tumors, and to a lesser extent in other tissues and organs.

[0199] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the CNS and cancers. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system and cancerous tissues, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 125 as residues: Tyr-16 to Ser-22, Asp-209 to Leu-215. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0200] The tissue distribution in central nervous system tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, as well as cancers of tissues where expression of this gene has been observed, such as in endometrial tumors.

[0201] The tissue distribution in central nervous system tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection/treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, or sexually-linked disorders. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0202] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:33 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1512 of SEQ ID NO:33, b is an integer of 15 to 1526, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:33, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0203] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 24

[0204] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with low-density lipoprotein receptor (See, e.g., Genbank Accession No. >dbj|BAA24580.1; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated by reference herein).

[0205] The translation product of this gene also shares sequence homology with a rat homolog of the human CD94 (See, e.g., Genbank Accession No. gb|AAC10220.1; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated by reference herein).

[0206] This gene is expressed primarily in macrophages, eosinophils, neutrophil and other cells of the haemopoietic and immune system.

[0207] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the immune and haemopoietic systems and diseases of the endothelial and vascular system. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune, haemopoietic and vascular system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 126 as residues: Lys-9 to Ala-17, Met-55 to Leu-61, Tyr-105 to Cys-127, Asp-132 to Lys-141, Ser-165 to Tyr-172, Pro-178 to Met-186,His-222 to Gln-227. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0208] The tissue distribution and homology to LDL receptor and rat CD94 homolog indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of disorders of the immune, haemopoietic and vascular systems.

[0209] Moreover, the tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of hematopoietic disorders. This gene product is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and tissues, suggesting that it plays a role in the survival, proliferation, and/or differentiation of hematopoieitic lineages. Expression of this gene product in eosinophils and macrophage also strongly indicates a role for this protein in immune function and immune surveillance. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0210] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:34 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1723 of SEQ ID NO:34, b is an integer of 15 to 1737, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:34, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0211] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 25

[0212] A preferred polypeptide fragment of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence:

MAAAGRLPSSWALFSPLLAGLALLGVGPVPARALHNVTAELFGAEAWGTLA (SEQ ID NO:227).
AFGDLNSDK
QTDLFVLRERNDLIVFLADQNAPYFKPKVKVSFKNHSALITSVVPGDYDGDS
QMDVLLTYLPKNYAKSELGAVIFWGQNQTLDPNNMTILNRTFQDEPLIMDFN
GDLIPDIFGITNESNQPQILLGGNLSWHPALTTTSKMRIPHSHAFIDLTEDFTAD
LFLTTLNATTSTFQFEIWENLDGNFSVSTILEKPQNMMVVGQSAFADFDGDG
HMDHLLPGCEDKNCQKSTIYLVRSGMKQWVPVLQDFSNKGTLWGFVPFVDE
QQPTEIPIPITLHIGDYNMDGYPDALVILKNTSGSNQQAFLLENVPCNNASCEE
ARRMFKVYWELTDLNQIKDAMVATFFDIYEDGILDIVVLSKGYTKNDFAIHT
LKNNFEADAYFVKVIVLSGLCS NDCPRR

[0213] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0214] When tested against U937 cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS (gamma activating sequence) promoter element. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent, other immune and hematopoietic cells and tissue cell types, through the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. GAS is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0215] This gene is expressed primarily in infant brain and placental tissues, and to a lesser extent in several other tissues including cancers.

[0216] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, brain disorders and diseases of developing systems and cancers. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system and fetal systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, developing, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 127 as residues: Leu-56 to Thr-62, Gln-80 to Pro-87, Gly-106 to Gln-113, Pro-122 to Lys-127, Gln-138 to Asn-146. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0217] The tissue distribution in neural tissues and developing tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of disorders of the central nervous system, disorders of developing systems, and cancers. The tissue distribution in infant brain tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection/treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, or sexually-linked disorders.

[0218] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of disorders of the placenta. Specific expression within the placenta indicates that this gene product may play a role in the proper establishment and maintenance of placental function. Alternately, this gene product may be produced by the placenta and then transported to the embryo, where it may play a crucial role in the development and/or survival of the developing embryo or fetus. Expression of this gene product in a vascular-rich tissue such as the placenta also indicates that this gene product may be produced more generally in endothelial cells or within the circulation. In such instances, it may play more generalized roles in vascular function, such as in angiogenesis. It may also be produced in the vasculature and have effects on other cells within the circulation, such as hematopoietic cells. It may serve to promote the proliferation, survival, activation, and/or differentiation of hematopoietic cells, as well as other cells throughout the body. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0219] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:35 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2228 of SEQ ID NO:35, b is an integer of 15 to 2242, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:35, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0220] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 26

[0221] Preferred polypeptides encoded by this gene comprise the following amino acid sequence:

MTKREDGGYTFTATPEDFPKKHKAPVIDIGIANTGKFIMTASSDTTVLIWSLK (SEQ ID NO:228).
GQVLSTINTNQMNNTHAAVSPCGRFVASCGFTPDVKVWEVCFGKKGEFQEV
VRAFELKGHSAAVHSFAFSNDSRRMASVSKDGTWKLWDTXVEYKKKQDPY
LLKTGRFEEAAGAXPCRLALSPNAQVLALASGSSIHLYNTRRGEKEECFERVH
GECIANLSFDITGRFLASCGDRAVRLFHNTPGHRAMVEEMQGHLKRASNEST
RQRLQQQLTQAQETLKSLGALKK

[0222] Polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides are also provided.

[0223] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is thought to reside on chromosome 7.

[0224] Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 7.

[0225] When tested against U937 Myeloid cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS assay. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid cells through the Jak-STAT signal transduction pathway. The gamma activating sequence (GAS) is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0226] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 12-28 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type Ib membrane proteins.

[0227] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

VIRHEGSTNMELSQMSXLMGLSVLLGLLALMATAAVXRGWLRAGEERSGRP (SEQ ID NO:229).
ACQKANGFPPDKSSGSKKQKQYQRIRKEKPQQHNFTHRLLAAALKSHSGNIS
CMDFSSNGKYLATCADDRTIRIWSTKDFLQREHRSMRANVELDHATLVRFSP
DCRAFIVWLANGDTLRVFKMTKREDGGYTFTATPEDFPKKHKAPVIDIGIAN
TGKFIMTASSDTTVLIWSLKGQVLSTINTNQMNNTHAAVSPCGRFVASCGFTP
DVKVWEVCFGKKGEFQEVVRAFELKGHSAAVHSFAFSNDSRRMASVSKDGT
WKLWDTXVEYKKKQDPYLLKTGRFEEAAGAXPCRLALSPNAQVLALASGSS
IHLYNTRRGEKEECFERVHGECIANLSFDITGRFLASCGDRAVRLFHNTPGHR
AMVEEMQGHLKRASNESTRQRLQQQLTQAQETLKSLGALKK

[0228] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0229] This gene is expressed primarily in testes, synovial sarcoma and fetal tissues, and to a lesser extent in several other tissues.

[0230] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the reproductive and developing systems and cancers. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the reproductive and developing systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., reproductive, testicular, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, seminal fluid, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0231] The tissue distribution in testes tissue, synovial sarcoma, and fetal tissues, indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of disorders of the reproductive and developing systems, and cancers.

[0232] The tissue distribution also indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of conditions concerning proper testicular function (e.g. endocrine function, sperm maturation), as well as cancer. Therefore, this gene product is useful in the treatment of male infertility and/or impotence.

[0233] This gene product is also useful in assays designed to identify binding agents, as such agents (antagonists) are useful as male contraceptive agents. Similarly, the protein is believed to be useful in the treatment and/or diagnosis of testicular cancer. The testes are also a site of active gene expression of transcripts that may be expressed, particularly at low levels, in other tissues of the body. Therefore, this gene product may be expressed in other specific tissues or organs where it may play related functional roles in other processes, such as hematopoiesis, inflammation, bone formation, and kidney function, to name a few possible target indications.

[0234] Furthermore, the tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other proliferative disorders.

[0235] Expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates that this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division. Additionally, the expression in hematopoietic cells and tissues indicates that this protein may play a role in the proliferation, differentiation, and/or survival of hematopoietic cell lineages. In such an event, this gene may be useful in the treatment of lymphoproliferative disorders, and in the maintenance and differentiation of various hematopoietic lineages from early hematopoietic stem and committed progenitor cells. Similarly, embryonic development also involves decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Thus this protein may also be involved in apoptosis or tissue differentiation and could again be useful in cancer therapy. This protein is useful for the treatment, detection, and/or prevention of William's disease. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0236] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:36 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2221 of SEQ ID NO:36, b is an integer of 15 to 2235, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:36, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0237] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 27

[0238] Preferred polypeptides encoded by this gene comprise amino acids 1-363, 2-363, 4-363, 5-363, 30-363, 31-363, 32-363, 75-363, 76-363 and 82-363 of the following amino acid sequence:

MSVMVVRKKVTRKWEKLPGRNTFCCDGRVMMARQKGIFYLTLFLILGTCTL (SEQ ID NO:230).
FFAFECRYLAVQLSPAIPVFAAMLFLFSMATLLRTSFSDPGVIPRALPDEAAFIE
MEIEATNGAVPQGQRPPPRIKNFQINNQIVKLKYCYTCKIFRPPRASHCSICDN
CVERFDHHCPWVGNCVGKRNYRYFYLFILSLSLLTIYVFAFNIVYVALKSLKI
GFLETLKETPGTVLEVLICFFTLWSVVGLTGFHTFLVALNQTTNEDIKGSWTG
KNRVQNPYSHGNIVKNCCEVLCGPLPPSVLDRRGILPLEESGSRPPSTQETSSS
LLPQSPAPTELNSNEMPEDSSTPEEMPPPEPPEPPQEAAEAEK

[0239] Polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides are also provided.

[0240] A preferred polypeptide variant of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence:

MLFLFSMATLLRTSFSDPGVIPRALPDEAAFIEMEIEATNGAVPQGQRPPPRIK (SEQ ID NO:231).
NFQINNQIVKLKYCYTCKIFRPPRASHCSICDNCVE
RFDHHCPWVGNCVGKRNYRYFYLFILSLSL
LTIYVFAFNIVYVALKSLKIGFLETLKGNSWNCSRSPHLLLYTLVRRGTDWIS
YFPRGSQPDNQ

[0241] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0242] This gene is expressed primarily in ovarian and endometrial tumors, fetal liver, spleen and brain tissues, and to a lesser extent in several other tissues and organs.

[0243] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the developing systems, and cancers of the female reproductive system. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the developing, female reproductive and fetal systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., reproductive, developing, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 129 as residues: Pro-44 to Lys-54, Cys-88 to His-95, Val-103 to Tyr-108, Gln-181 to Ser-190, Thr-192 to Ile-206, Glu-233 to Ser-245, Ser-252 to Aia-286. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0244] The tissue distribution in developing systems indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of disorders of developing and fetal systems, and cancers. Furthermore, the tissue distribution in ovarian and endometrial tumor tissues indicates that the translation product of this gene is useful for the detection, diagnosis, and/or treatment of cancers of the female reproductive system. Accordingly, preferred are antibodies which specifically bind a portion of the translation product of this gene. Also provided is a kit for detecting these tumors. Such a kit comprises in one embodiment an antibody specific for the translation product of this gene bound to a solid support. Also provided is a method of detecting these tumors in an individual which comprises a step of contacting an antibody specific for the translation product of this gene to a bodily fluid from the individual, preferably serum, and ascertaining whether antibody binds to an antigen found in the bodily fluid. Preferably the antibody is bound to a solid support and the bodily fluid is serum. The above embodiments, as well as other treatments and diagnostic tests (kits and methods), are more particularly described elsewhere herein.

[0245] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:37 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2957 of SEQ ID NO:37, b is an integer of 15 to 2971, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:37, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0246] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 28

[0247] This gene is expressed primarily in normal and cancerous colon tissue, macrophages, endothelial cells and placental tissue, and to a lesser extent in several other tissues and organs.

[0248] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, colon cancer and gastrointestinal disorders, immune disorders, vascular diseases and disorders of developing systems. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune, vascular and developing systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, gastrointestinal, developmental, vascular, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 130 as residues: Thr-27 to Ser-33. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0249] The tissue distribution in macrophage, endothelial and placental tissues, and normal and cancerous colon tissues, indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of immune, gastrointestinal and vascular disorders and diseases. Expression of this gene product in colon tissue indicates involvement in digestion, processing, and elimination of food, as well as a potential role for this gene as a diagnostic marker or causative agent in the development of colon cancer, and cancer in general. Accordingly, preferred are antibodies which specifically bind a portion of the translation product of this gene.

[0250] Also provided is a kit for detecting colon cancer. Such a kit comprises in one embodiment an antibody specific for the translation product of this gene bound to a solid support. Also provided is a method of detecting colon cancer in an individual which comprises a step of contacting an antibody specific for the translation product of this gene to a bodily fluid from the individual, preferably serum, and ascertaining whether antibody binds to an antigen found in the bodily fluid. Preferably the antibody is bound to a solid support and the bodily fluid is serum. The above embodiments, as well as other treatments and diagnostic tests (kits and methods), are more particularly described elsewhere herein.

[0251] Alternatively, the tissue distribution in placental tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of disorders of the placenta. Specific expression within the placenta indicates that this gene product may play a role in the proper establishment and maintenance of placental function. Alternately, this gene product may be produced by the placenta and then transported to the embryo, where it may play a crucial role in the development and/or survival of the developing embryo or fetus. Expression of this gene product in a vascular-rich tissue such as the placenta and endothelial cells also indicates that this gene product may be produced more generally in endothelial cells or within the circulation. In such instances, it may play more generalized roles in vascular function, such as in angiogenesis. It may also be produced in the vasculature and have effects on other cells within the circulation, such as hematopoietic cells. It may serve to promote the proliferation, survival, activation, and/or differentiation of hematopoietic cells, as well as other cells throughout the body.

[0252] Additionally, expression of this gene product in macrophage also strongly indicates a role for this protein in immune function and immune surveillance. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the gene or protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. Therefore it may be also used as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immune deficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, and psoriasis. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0253] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:38 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1149 of SEQ ID NO:38, b is an integer of 15 to 1163, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:38, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0254] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 29

[0255] The translation product of this gene shares homology with HNK-sulfotransferase, which directs glycan synthesis (see, e.g., Genbank Accession no. AF033827; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated by reference herein). This gene is expressed primarily in activated T cells, osteoclastoma, and glioblastoma, and to a lesser extent in various other normal and transformed cell types.

[0256] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, inflammation, immune defects, cancer. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune and hemopoietic systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 131 as residues: Pro-32 to Gly-48, Gln-63 to Thr-69, Pro-77 to Trp-84, Val-88 to Leu-94. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0257] The tissue distribution in T-cells and various types of neoplasms indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, study and/or treatment of inflammatory and general immune defects, and various types of neoplasms. Expression of this gene product in T cells strongly indicates a role for this protein in immune function and immune surveillance. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the gene or protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. Therefore it may be also used as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immune deficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, and psoriasis. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0258] Alternatively, the tissue distribution in various cancerous tissues indicates that the translation product of the gene is useful for the detection, diagnosis, and/or treatment of these cancers, as well as cancers of other tissues where expression has been observed. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0259] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:39 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1918 of SEQ ID NO:39, b is an integer of 15 to 1932, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:39, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0260] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 30

[0261] Preferred polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

LHECLPGSISYLHPRTPWLCLPPQHLSFSTFSPPWQPAMSPVPGTGGPPCGL (SEQ ID NO:232), and/or
MLPLLIICLLPAIEGKNCLRCWPELSALIDYDLQILWVTPGPPTELSQSIHSLFLE (SEQ ID NO:233).
DNNFLK
PWYLDRDHLEEETAKFFTQVHQAIKTLRDDKTVLLEEIYTHKNLFTERLNKIS
DGLKEKGAPPLHECLP
GSISYLHPRTPWLCLPPQHLSFSTFSPPWQPAMSPVPGTGGPPCGL

[0262] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0263] This gene is expressed primarily in infant brain, testes and activated T cells, and to a lesser extent in various other normal and transformed cell types.

[0264] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological, reproductive and inflammatory conditions. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the neural, immune and male reproductive systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, immune, reproductive, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 132 as residues: Gly-41 to Leu-46, Asp-67 to Thr-75, Ile-114 to Ala-123. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0265] The tissue distribution in infant brain tissue, testes tissue, and activated T-cells, indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the study, diagnosis, and/or treatment of neurological, reproductive and immune system disorders. Expression of this gene product in T-cells indicates a role in the regulation of the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of potentially all hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the gene or protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. Therefore it may be also used as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immune deficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, and psoriasis. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell type.

[0266] Alternatively, the tissue distribution in testes tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of conditions concerning proper testicular function (e.g. endocrine function, sperm maturation), as well as cancer. Therefore, this gene product is useful in the treatment of male infertility and/or impotence. This gene product is also useful in assays designed to identify binding agents, as such agents (antagonists) are useful as male contraceptive agents. Similarly, the protein is believed to be useful in the treatment and/or diagnosis of testicular cancer. The testes are also a site of active gene expression of transcripts that may be expressed, particularly at low levels, in other tissues of the body. Therefore, this gene product may be expressed in other specific tissues or organs where it may play related functional roles in other processes, such as hematopoiesis, inflammation, bone formation, and kidney function, to name a few possible target indications. Furthermore, the tissue distribution in infant brain tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection/treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo, or sexually-linked disorders. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0267] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:40 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 867 of SEQ ID NO:40, b is an integer of 15 to 881, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:40, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0268] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 31

[0269] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with some human and rodent melanoma and leukocyte specific antigens (see, for example, Genbank accession nos: gi|189384, gi|205898 and gi|180926).

[0270] In addition, the translation product-of this gene shares sequence homology with Tetraspan protein (see, for example, Genbank accession number: GI 3152703). Therefore, it is likely that the polypeptide of this gene shares some biological functions, such as cell-to-cell signaling, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation with Tetraspan.

[0271] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have two transmembrane domains at about amino acid position 52-68 and 197-213 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type IIIa membrane proteins.

[0272] The transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) or tetraspan superfamily has at least 16 members (including CD9, CD20, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD81, CD82, A15, CO-029, Sm23, RDS, Uro B, Uro A, SAS, Rom-1, PETA3, and YKK8), is the second biggest subfamily among CD antigen superfamily and activation antigen of T-cells. All TM4SF member contains four putative transmembrane domains, two extracellular loops, and two short cytoplasmic tails. They are variously expressed on Immature, early, mature, activated lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, granulocytes, platelets, eosinophils, basophils, certain leukemic and lymphoma cells, and a variety of other cells and tissues. CD9 cell surface protein is expressed by both hematopoietic and neural cells, and may play a role for CD9 in intercellular signaling in the immune and nervous system. CD63 is a 53-Kd lysosomal membrane glycoprotein that has been identified as a platelet activation molecule, which play important role in cell adhesion of platelets and endothelial cells. Increased mRNA for CD63 antigen was found in atherosclerotic lesions of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, suggesting a potential role of CD63 in progression of atherosclerosis. CD63 is also a mast cell marker. CD82 was originally identified as the target of several mAbs inhibitory to syncytium formation induced by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia. Therefore, this gene could be a target for the development of a drug for this leukemia. CD81 is the target of an antiproliferative antibody. A diverse group of human cell lines, including hematolymphoid, neuroectodermal, and mesenchymal cells, express the CD81 protein. Many of the lymphoid cell lines, in particular those derived from large cell lymphomas, were susceptible to the antiproliferative effects of the antibody. CD81 may therefore play an important role in the regulation of lymphoma cell growth. CD9, CD20, CD37, CD63, CD81 and CD82 have been implicated in the regulation of cell growth, adhesion, and signal transduction of B, T lymphocytes and some other non-lymphoid cells. They associate with CD2, CD21, CD4, CD8, MHC Class II molecules, integrins, function as co-receptor for T, B and other lymphoid cells.

[0273] Some TM4SF are leukocyte antigens, highly expressed in activated leukocytes, lymphocytes, are highly specific surface marker for lymphoblastic leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, and neuroblastoma. CD9 has been show to be involved in cell motility and tumor metastasis. These antigen could be a valuable immunogen or target to implement active and passive immunotherapy in patients with cancer. Others have been shown to be involved in inhibition of prostate cancer metastasis. This gene has close homology to C33 antigen (CD82). which is a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TMSF) and activation antigen of T-cells. C33 Ag (CD82 was originally identified as the target of several mAbs inhibitory to syncytium formation induced by human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia. Therefore, this gene could be very important target for developing drug for leukemia. Other members of this family are Sm23, CO-029, R2, TAPA-1, CD9, CD37, CD53, and CD63. CD63 is a 53-Kd lysosomal membrane glycoprotein that has been identified as a platelet activation molecule. There are strong evidence indicating that CD63 and Pltgp40, a platelet membrane glycoprotein are the same molecule and that CD63/Pltgp40 is identical to the well-characterized, stage-specific melanoma-associated antigen ME491. These antigens could be valuable immunogens or target to implement active and passive immunotherapy in patients with cancer.

[0274] This gene is expressed primarily in fetal tissue (kidney, heart, liver, spleen, brain), macrophages, dendritic cells, retina and to a lesser extent in various other tissues, mostly of lymphoid origin or epithelial cell types. In addition This gene is expressed in cancerous tissues (e.g. breast).

[0275] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune and hematopoietic diseases and/or disorders and cancers in a variety of organs and cell types. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., developmental, proliferating, immune, hematopoietic, integumentary, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid, spinal fluid, or amniotic fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 133 as residues: Tyr-123 to Tyr-131, Cys-134 to Ser-145, Tyr-234 to Tyr-244. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0276] The tissue distribution fetal cells and tissues and homology to tumor antigens indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for study, treatment and diagnosis of lymphoid and epithelial disorders and neoplasms. Additionally, tissue distribution in immune cells and other tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting hematopoiesis, including cancers. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0277] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0278] Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0279] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:41 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1918 of SEQ ID NO:41, b is an integer of 15 to 1932, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:41, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0280] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 32

[0281] The translation product of this gene shares limited sequence homology with VEGF which is thought to be important in regulation of endothelial cell growth. Therefore, it is likely that the protein encoded by this gene would share some similar biological functions.

[0282] When tested against U937 Myeloid cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS assay. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent, other immune and hematopoietic cells and tissue cell types, through the Jak-STAT signal transduction pathway. The gamma activating sequence (GAS) is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0283] This gene is expressed in brain.

[0284] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, nervous system disease and/or disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 134 as residues: Thr-25 to Pro-46. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0285] The tissue distribution in brain indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0286] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:42 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1150 of SEQ ID NO:42, b is an integer of 15 to 1164, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:42, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0287] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 33

[0288] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with human pl50 which is thought to be important in signal transduction in neuronal cells. Therefore, it is likely that the protein encoded by this polynucleotide would share some similar biological functions with p150.

[0289] This gene is expressed primarily in whole embryo and cerebellum.

[0290] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological and growth defects/disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the CNS, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0291] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for study and treatment of central nervous system, neurodevelopmental, cognitive, and memory disorders. The tissue distribution also indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0292] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:43 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1091 of SEQ ID NO:43, b is an integer of 15 to 1105, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:43, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0293] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 34

[0294] This gene is expressed primarily in PMA stimulated HL-60 cells and to a lesser extent in 6 week embryo.

[0295] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders affecting cell differentiation, particularly hematopoietic disorders and/or defects. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the metabolic system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 136 as residues: Pro-61 to Asp-68. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0296] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the study of cellular differentiation and for the treatment and diagnosis of hematopoietic related disorders such as anenia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia or leukemia. The tissue distribution also indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses).

[0297] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types Additionally, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent bf cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0298] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:44 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1248 of SEQ ID NO:44, b is an integer of 15 to 1262, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:44, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0299] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 35

[0300] This gene is expressed primarily in colon.

[0301] Therefore, polynucleotides and porypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders and/or defects of the digestive tract including but not limited to cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the digestive system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., gastrointestinal, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0302] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treatment and diagnosis of disorders of the digestive system particularly disorders involving the colon. Further, expression of this gene product in colon tissue indicates involvement in digestion, processing, and elimination of food, as well as a potential role for this gene as a diagnostic marker or causative agent in the development of colon cancer, and cancer in general. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the colon and/or other gastrointestinal tissue including, but not limited to, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum.

[0303] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:45 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 503 of SEQ ID NO:45, b is an integer of 15 to 517, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:45, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0304] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 36

[0305] This gene is expressed primarily in blood cells.

[0306] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune and hematopoietic diseases. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune and hematopoietic system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 138 as residues: Pro-19 to Cys-29, Thr-35 to Glu-44, Val-72 to Lys-78. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0307] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treatment and diagnosis and/or treatment of disorders of the immune and hematopoietic system. Representative uses are described in the “Irmune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses).

[0308] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:46 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 844 of SEQ ID NO:46, b is an integer of 15 to 858, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:46, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0309] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 37

[0310] This gene is expressed in multiple tissue systems such as brain, immune cells, prostate, uterus, testes, placenta, and fetal heart as well as in cancerous tissues such as ovarian tumors.

[0311] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions-which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the immune, reproductive, urogenital, and central nervous system. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system and immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, reproductive, urogenital, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 139 as residues: Tyr-33 to Lys-38. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0312] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treatment and diagnosis of disorders of the immune, urogenital, reproductive, and central nervous systems. The tissue distribution in central nervous system tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, as well as cancers of tissues where expression of this gene has been observed, such as in ovarian tumors.

[0313] The tissue distribution in central nervous system tissues also indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection/treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, the gene or gene product may also play a role in the treatment and/or detection of developmental disorders associated with the developing embryo.

[0314] Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. The tissue distribution in uterus indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treating female infertility. The protein product is likely involved in preparation of the endometrium of implantation and could be administered either topically or orally. Alternatively, this gene could be transfected in gene-replacement treatments into the cells of the endometrium and the protein products could be produced. Similarly, these treatments could be performed during artificial insemination for the purpose of increasing the likelihood of implantation and development of a healthy embryo. In both cases this gene or its gene product could be administered at later stages of pregnancy to promote healthy development of the endometrium. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. The tissue distribution in testes indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of conditions concerning proper testicular function (e.g. endocrine function, sperm maturation), as well as cancer. Therefore, this gene product is useful in the treatment of male infertility and/or impotence. This gene product is also useful in assays designed to identify binding agents, as such agents (antagonists) are useful as male contraceptive agents. Similarly, the protein is believed to be useful in the treatment and/or diagnosis of testicular cancer. The testes are also a site of active gene expression of transcripts that may be expressed, particularly at low levels, in other tissues of the body. Therefore, this gene product may be expressed in other specific tissues or organs where it may play related functional roles in other processes, such as hematopoiesis, inflammation, bone formation, and kidney function, to name a few possible target indications. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0315] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:47 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 6093 of SEQ ID NO:47, b is an integer of 15 to 6107, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:47, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0316] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 38

[0317] This gene is expressed in a wide range of tissue systems such as brain, immune cells, fetal liver, kidney, testes, breast, and pancreas as well as cancerous tissue such as ovarian tumors.

[0318] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders of the central nervous system, immune system, urogenital, and reproductive system. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune and central nervous system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, CNS, urogenital, reproductive, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 140 as residues: Met-1 to Ser-7, Asp-32 to Pro-43, Ser-96 to Arg-102. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0319] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treatment and diagnosis of disorders of the immune, reproductive, urogenital and central nervous systems.

[0320] The tissue distribution in central nervous system tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and/or diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, as well as cancers of tissues where expression of this gene has been observed, such as in ovarian tumors.

[0321] The tissue distribution in central nervous system tissues also indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection/treatment of neurodegenerative disease states and behavioural disorders such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception.

[0322] The tissue distribution indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, i9, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0323] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement.

[0324] Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0325] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:48 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 689 of SEQ ID NO:48, b is an integer of 15 to 703, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:48, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0326] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 39

[0327] This gene is expressed primarily in macrophages and fetal cells and to a lesser extent in cancerous ovarian tissues.

[0328] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune diseases, disorders of developing tissues, and cancer. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the fetal and immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0329] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treatment and diagnosis of developmental abnormalities and disorders of the immune systems.

[0330] The tissue distribution cancerous ovaries indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and intervention of these tumors.

[0331] Expression of this gene product in macrophage cells strongly indicates a role for this protein in immune function and immune surveillance. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). This gene product may have clinical utility in the treatment of immune dysfunction; in the correction of autoimmunity; in immune modulation; and in the control of inflammation.

[0332] The tissue distribution indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0333] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0334] Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation.

[0335] The tissue distribution also indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment, diagnosis, and/or prevention of various skin disorders such as melanomas. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0336] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:49 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 625 of SEQ ID NO:49, b is an integer of 15 to 639, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:49, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0337] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 40

[0338] This gene is expressed primarily in neutrophils, bone marrow, brain, and fetal cells.

[0339] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, hematopoietic disorders, Limbic system dysfunction/defects and disorders of the immune system and developing systems. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune, Limbic system and developing systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 142 as residues: Ala-84 to Gln-93. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0340] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treatment and diagnosis of disorders of the immune, Limbic system, CNS and developing systems. Expression of this gene product in bone marrow, eosinophils, and neutrophils strongly indicates a role for this protein in hematopoiesis and immune surveillance. This gene product may be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes that may also suggest a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). This gene product may have clinical utility in the treatment of immune dysfunction; in the correction of autoimmunity; in immune modulation; and in the control of inflammation.

[0341] The tissue distribution indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0342] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0343] Additionally, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0344] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:50 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 853 of SEQ ID NO:50, b is an integer of 15 to 867, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:50, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0345] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 41

[0346] When tested against MVEC endothelial cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the expression of ICAM-1. Thus, this gene activates signal transduction pathways which upregulate cell-surface expression and/or secretion of ICAM-1. ICAM-1—is found on the cell surface of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. It binds to its ligand, LFA-1, a heterodimer complex that is a member of the leukocyte integrin family of cell adhesion receptors. Inflammatory mediators and cytokines, such as, IL-1, TNFa and IFNg, stimulate ICAM-1 expression on vascular cells, in addition to the aforementioned cells and tissue cell types. Polypeptides which increase ICAM expression are useful in the treatment of cancer, cardiovascular, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and/or disorders.

[0347] This gene is expressed primarily in ovary and to a lesser extent in fetal tissue, colon, and immune cells.

[0348] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, ovarian cancer, gastrointestinal and immune system disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the female reproductive system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., reproductive, gastrointestinal, immune, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 143 as residues: Ile-23 to Ala-29. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0349] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer and related metastases. The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are also useful for treating female infertility. Additionally, the tissue distribution in colon tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of disorders involving the gastrointestinal tract. This may include diseases associated with digestion and food absorption, as well as hematopoietic disorders involving the Peyer's patches of the small intestine, or other hematopoietic cells and tissues within the body. Similarly, expression of this gene product in colon tissue indicates again involvement in digestion, processing, and elimination of food, as well as a potential role for this gene as a diagnostic marker or causative agent in the development of colon cancer, and cancer in general.

[0350] Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0351] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:51 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1555 of SEQ ID NO:51, b is an integer of 15 to 1569, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:51, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0352] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 42

[0353] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with retrovirus-related reverse transcriptase pseudogene. In addition, this gene shares homology with human interferon-beta (Genseq accession number T35524; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated herein by reference), therefore, it is likely that this gene and the protein encoded by this gene shares some similar biological functions with this protein.

[0354] This gene is expressed primarily in frontal cortex.

[0355] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurodegenerative diseases and/or disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0356] The tissue distribution in frontal cortex and homology to retrovirus-related reverse transcriptase pseudogene and human interferon-beta indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases of the brain, particularly of the frontal cortex.

[0357] The tissue distribution indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, multiple sclerosis, cystic fibrosis, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0358] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:52 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1182 of SEQ ID NO:52, b is an integer of 15 to 1196, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:52, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0359] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 43

[0360] This gene is expressed primarily in immune cells, brain, fetal tissue, and cancerous tissues (such as testes, stomach, lung, pancreas, ovaries) and to a lesser extent in other numerous tissues including, but not limited to, testes and kidney.

[0361] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurodegenerative diseases. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system and immune cells expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 145 as residues: Lys-23 to Lys-35, Met-46 to Tyr-52. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0362] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders of the frontal cortex, as well as, cancer or a number of tissues including but not limited to testes, stomach, lung, pancreas, and ovaries.

[0363] The tissue distribution also indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival.

[0364] The tissue distribution indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; inunune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0365] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0366] Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0367] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:53 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 931 of SEQ ID NO:53, b is an integer of 15 to 945, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:53, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0368] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 44

[0369] This gene is expressed primarily in epithelioid sarcoma and to a lesser extent in pancreatic carcinoma, aorta endothelial cells induced with TNF-alpha, and amniotic cells induced with TNF. This gene is also expressed, to a lesser extent, in cancerous lung and ovary tissue and fetal tissue.

[0370] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, epithelioid sarcoma and related cancers. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., amniotic, lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 146 as residues: Tyr-39 to Arg-51. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0371] The tissue distribution indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of certain cancers, including epithelioid sarcoma and pancreatic carcinoma.

[0372] The tissue distribution in tumors of lung, ovary, and pancreas origins indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and intervention of these tumors, in addition to other tumors where expression has been indicated.

[0373] Moreover, the expression within embryonic tissue and other cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation.

[0374] The tissue distribution indicates polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of immune system disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0375] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0376] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:54 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 474 of SEQ ID NO:54, b is an integer of 15 to 488, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:54, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0377] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 45

[0378] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

PPVPPWISLPLTGSPPRPGFVPVSPFCFSPMTNGHQVLLLLLLTSAVAAG
PWPQVHAGQWGWMCLPPGLPSVQARSGLGGLPGGPQWVPGGARGY
(SEQ ID NO:234).

[0379] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0380] This gene is expressed primarily in fetal and infant tissue, particularly infant brain and fetal liver/spleen libraries, and to a lesser extent in breast, ovary tumor, pharynx carcinoma, endometrial stromal cells, thymus, islet cell tumors, and adult cerebellum.

[0381] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, cancer and other proliferative disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the brain and breast, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, developmental, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, amniotic fluid, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0382] The tissue distribution in developing cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of cancer and other proliferative disorders. The expression within cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0383] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:55 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2846 of SEQ ID NO:55, b is an integer of 15 to 2860, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:55, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0384] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 46

[0385] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

IQQWGDSVLGRRCRDLLLQLYLQRPELRVPVPEVLLHSEGAASSSVCKLDGLI (SEQ ID NO: 235)
HRFITLLADTSDSRALENRGADASMACRKLAVAHPLLLLRHLPMIAALLHGR
THLNFQEFRQQNHLSCFLHVLGLLELLQPHVFRSEHQGALWDCLLSFIRLLLN
YRKSSRHLAAFINKFVQFIHKYITYNAPAAISFLQKHADPLHDLSFDNSDLVM
LKSLLAGLSLPSRDDRTDRGLDEEGEEESSAGSLPLVSVSLFTPLTAAEMAPY
MKRLSRGQTVEDLLEVLSDIDEMSRRRPEILSFFSTNLQRLMSSAEECCRNLA
FSLALRSMQNSPSIAAAFLPTFMYCLGSQDFEVVQTALRNLPEYALLCQEHA
AVLLHRAFLVGMYGQMDPSAQISEALRILHMEAVM.

[0386] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0387] This gene is expressed primarily in breast cancer, and to a lesser extent in a variety of other cancers, including uterine cancer, synovial sarcoma, and pharynx carcinoma.

[0388] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, breast cancer; proliferative diseases and/or disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the breast, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., reproductive, breast, proliferative, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, breast milk, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 148 as residues: Glu-35 to His-41, Ser-62 to Ala-67, Pro-145 to Leu-155, Glu-157 to Ser-163, Arg-190 to Val-197, Asp-208 to Pro-215, Ser-247 to Pro-252. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0389] The tissue distribution in breast cancer tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of cancer. Elevated expression of this gene product in cancers, such as breast cancer, suggest that it may be involved in the abnormal proliferation of cells, dedifferentiation, angiogenesis, and other processes that accompany the development of cancer. Thus, therapeutics targeted against this gene product may be useful therapeutic products in and of themselves.

[0390] Alternately, expression of this gene product at elevated levels in breast tissue may be reflective of expression within breast lymph nodes, and may suggest a hematopoietic role for this protein. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0391] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:56 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1545 of SEQ ID NO:56, b is an integer of 15 to 1559, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:56, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0392] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 47

[0393] The translation product of this gene shares limited sequence homology with cytochrome-c oxidase. An alternative embodiment is the polypeptide comprising the following amino acid sequence:

MLLKHLQRMVSVPQVKASALKVVTLTANDKTSVSFSSLPGQGVIYNVIVWD (SEQ ID NO:236)
PFLNTSAAYIPAHTYACSFEAGEGSCASLGRVSSKVFFTLFALLGFFICFFGHR
FWKTELFFIGFIIMGFFFYILITRLTPIKYDVNLILTAVTGSVGGMFLVAVWWR
FGILSICMLCVGLVLGFLISSVTFFTPLGNLKIFHDDGVFWVTFSCIAILIPVVF
MGCLRILNILTCGVIGSYSVVLAIDSYWSTSLSYITLNVLKRALNKDFHRAFTN
VPFQTNDFIILAVWGMLAVSGITLQIRRERGRPFFPPHPYKLWKQERERRVTNI
LDPSYHIPPLRERLYGRLTQIKGLFQKEQPAGERTPLLL.

[0394] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

WARLRGPGAHARTSPQPWRGPSPAQAAMGFLQLLVVXVLXSEHRVAGAAE (SEQ ID NO:237)
VFGNSSEGLIEFSVGKFRYF
ELNRPFPEEAILHDISSNVTFLIFQIHSQYQNTTVSFSPRRRSPTM.

[0395] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided

[0396] This gene is expressed primarily in keratinocytes, brain, and spinal cord and to a lesser extent in hematopoietic cells and tissues.

[0397] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurodegenerative disorders; hematopoietic disorders; integumentary disorders; immune dysfunction; learning disabilities. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune and nervous systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., integumentary, neural, developmental, cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0398] The tissue distribution in brain and spinal cord cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of neurological and hematopoietic disorders. For example, elevated levels of expression of this gene product in brain and spinal cord indicates that it may be involved in neurodegenerative disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Alternately, expression of this gene product in hematopoietic cells indicates that it may be involved in the proliferation, differentiation, survival, and activation of all hematopoietic lineages, including stem and progenitor cells.

[0399] Expression of this gene product in keratinocytes indicates that it may be involved in normal skin function, and could be involved in skin disorders, dermatitis, and fibrosis. The protein is useful in detecting, treating, and/or preventing congenital disorders (i.e. nevi, moles, freckles, Mongolian spots, hemangiomas, port-wine syndrome), integumentary tumors (i.e. keratoses, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, Paget's disease, mycosis fungoides, and Kaposi's sarcoma), injuries and inflammation of the skin (i.e., wounds, rashes, prickly heat disorder, psoriasis, dermatitis), atherosclerosis, uticaria, eczema, photosensitivity, autoimmune disorders (i.e. lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, dermatomyositis, morphea, scleroderma, pemphigoid, and pemphigus), keloids, striae, erythema, petechiae, purpura, and xanthelasma. In addition, such disorders may predispose increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections of the skin (i.e. cold sores, warts, chickenpox, molluscum contagiosum, herpes zoster, boils, cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo, tinea, althletes foot, and ringworm).

[0400] Moreover, the protein product of this gene may also be useful for the treatment or diagnosis of various connective tissue disorders (i.e., arthritis, trauma, tendonitis, chrondomalacia and inflammation, etc.), autoimmune disorders (i.e., rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma, dermatomyositis, etc.), dwarfism, spinal deformation, joint abnormalities, amd chondrodysplasias (i.e. spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, familial osteoarthritis, Atelosteogenesis type II, metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid). Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0401] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:57 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2050 of SEQ ID NO:57, b is an integer of 15 to 2064, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:57, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0402] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 48

[0403] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

PRVRPASPPVRSPARWGSMAGSPLLWGPRAGGVGLLVLLLLGLFRPPPALCA (SEQ ID NO:238).
RPVKEPRGLSAASPPLARLALLAASGGQCPEVRRRGRCRPGAGAGASAGAER
QERARAEAQRLRISRRASWRSCCASGAPPATLIRLW
AWTTTPTRLQRSSLALCSAPALTLPP

[0404] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0405] This gene is expressed primarily in human pituitary and to a lesser extent in pineal gland, and other areas of the brain.

[0406] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, pituitary dysfunction; abnormal growth; neurological defects; insufficient milk secretion; abnormal smooth muscle contraction. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the endocrine and nervous systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., endocrine, developmental, reproductive, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, amniotic fluid, breast milk, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 150 as residues: Pro-36 to Gly-42, Pro-64 to Ala-76, Gly-83 to Ala-90, Ser-100 to Cys-108, Thr-126 to Ser-135. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0407] The tissue distribution primarily in pituitary cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of a variety of disorders, particularly of the endocrine system.

[0408] Elevated expression of this gene product in the pituitary indicates that it may be possibly a hormone-like substance that either controls pituitary development itself, or various processes controlled by the pituitary. These include growth, milk secretion, smooth muscle contraction, diuresis, blood pressure, and homeostasis. Thus, this gene product may have numerous clinical applications.

[0409] Moreover, expression of this gene product in other regions of the brain indicates that it may be involved in normal neurological function, and may be useful in the treatment of a variety of neurological disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Biological Activity”, “Hyperproliferative Disorders”, and “Binding Activity” sections below, in Example 11, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the protein can be used for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Addison's disease, Cushing's Syndrome, and disorders and/or cancers of the pancreas (e.g. diabetes mellitus), adrenal cortex, ovaries, pituitary (e.g., hyper-, hypopituitarism), thyroid (e.g. hyper-, hypothyroidism), parathyroid (e.g. hyper-, hypoparathyroidism), hypothallamus, and testes. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility.

[0410] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:58 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1036 of SEQ ID NO:58, b is an integer of 15 to 1050, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:58, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0411] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 49

[0412] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

PRVRLATPNIWDLSMLFAFISLLVMLPTWWIVSSWLVWGVILFVYLVIRALRL (SEQ ID NO:239).
WRTAKLQVTLKKYSVHLEDMATNSRAFTNLVRKALRLIQETEVISRGFTLVS
AACPFNKAGQHPSQHLIGLRKAVYRTLRANFQAARLATLYMLKNYPLNSES
DNVTNYICVVPFKELGLGLSEEQISEEEAHNFTDGFSLPALKVLFQLWVAQSS
EFFRRLALLLSTANSPPGPLLTPALLPHRILSDVTQGLPHAHSACLEELKRSYE
FYRYFETQHQSVPQCLSKTQQKSRELNNVHTAVRSLQLHLKALLNEVIILEDE
LEKLVCTKETQELVSEAYPILEQKLKLIQPHVQASNNCWEEAISQVDKLLRRN
TDKKGKPEIACENPHCTVSTFEAAYSTHCRQRSNPRGAGIRSLCR

[0413] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0414] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 7-23 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Moreover, a cytoplasmic tail encompassing amino acids 24 to 390 of this protein has also been determined. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type Ib membrane proteins.

[0415] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 12. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 12.

[0416] This gene is expressed primarily in prostate and placenta and to a lesser extent in pancreatic tumors and hematopoietic cells.

[0417] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, prostate cancer; pancreatic cancer; prostate dysfunction; hematopoietic disorders; reproductive diseases and/or disorders, and pancreatitis. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the endocrine and immune systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., reproductive, prostate, pancreas, placental, vascular, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, seminal fluid, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 151 as residues: Pro-85 to Ser-94, Pro-127 to Thr-136, Glu-154 to Glu-160, Phe-240 to Ser-250, Leu-255 to Leu-265, Leu-341 to Lys-351, Thr-372 to Gly-384. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0418] The tissue distribution in prostate and placental cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of a variety of reproductive disorders. Elevated expression of this gene product in the prostate indicates that it may be involved in normal prostate function, and may be a diagnostic marker for prostate cancer.

[0419] Alternately, expression of this gene product in placenta indicates that it may play a role in normal vascular function, and may be involved in such processes as angiogenesis and endothelial cell chemotaxis. Thus, this gene product may be useful in the treatment of myocardial infarction, cancer, ischemia, and diabetic retinopathy. Expression of this gene product in placenta may also be indicative of fetal health and development. Similarly, expression of this gene product in hematopoietic cells indicates that it may be involved in the proliferation, differentiation, survival, or activation of all hematopoietic cell lineages. Finally, expression of this gene product in pancreatic cancers indicates that it may play a role in cancer in general, or in pancreatic function.

[0420] The secreted protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, and as nutritional supplements. It may also have a very wide range of biological activities. Representative uses are described in the “Chemotaxis” and “Binding Activity” sections below, in Examples 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, and 20, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the protein may possess the following activities: cytokine, cell proliferation/differentiation modulating activity or induction of other cytokines; immunostimulating/immunosuppressant activities (e.g. for treating human immunodeficiency virus infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases and allergy); regulation of hematopoiesis (e.g. for treating anemia or as adjunct to chemotherapy); stimulation or growth of bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and/or nerves (e.g. for treating wounds, stimulation of follicle stimulating hormone (for control of fertility); chemotactic and chemokinetic activities (e.g. for treating infections, tumors); hemostatic or thrombolytic activity (e.g. for treating hemophilia, cardiac infarction etc.); anti-inflammatory activity (e.g. for treating septic shock, Crohn's disease); as antimicrobials; for treating psoriasis or other hyperproliferative diseases; for regulation of metabolism, and behavior. Also contemplated is the use of the corresponding nucleic acid in gene therapy procedures. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0421] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:59 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2519 of SEQ ID NO:59, b is an integer of 15 to 2533, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:59, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0422] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 50

[0423] When tested against Jurkat and K562 cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS (gamma activating sequence) and ISRE (interferon-sensitive responsive element) promoter elements, respectively. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid, leukemia, and to a lesser extent, other immune or hematopoietic cells and tissue cell-types, through the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. GAS is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells. ISRE is also a promoter element found upstream in many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the ISRE element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0424] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

AAPHPPLLRPLCLWCPLWPAWPLRGRPRSAWKRWPPLPVGPAKLGCSMTTR (SEQ ID NO:240).
QPTAVSWPCWLMSSSLSTACLAWTLTGSLAREATRRARSLSPTWNCSARQV
PPSPPHSGLGRRGWAHCHLTCLLVTQLFRVGRIHPILSLPLVT

[0425] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0426] This gene is expressed primarily in brain and placenta.

[0427] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, vascular diseases; aberrant angiogenesis; neurological disorders; learning disorders; placental insufficiency; and fetal distress. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the vascular and neurological systems (CNS/PNS), expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, reproductive, vascular, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 152 as residues: Met-1 to Thr-7, Glu-36 to Ser-43, Pro-46 to Gly-63. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0428] The tissue distribution in brain and placental cells and tissues, combined with the detected GAS and ISRE biological activities, indicates that the protein products of this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of a variety of neural, reproductive, and vascular diseases and/or disorders neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Expression of this gene product in placenta indicates that it may play a role in blood vessel development or function, as the placenta is a highly vascularized organ. Thus, this gene product may be involved in such processes as angiogenesis, endothelial cell chemotaxis, and vascular cord formation. Thus, it may be useful in the treatment of such conditions as myocardial infarction; ischemia; and cancer.

[0429] Alternately, expression of this gene product in the brain indicates that it may play a role in the survival, proliferation, or function of neurons, and thus may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of such neurological disorders as ALS, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. It may likewise be involved in learning disorders as well. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0430] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:60 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 885 of SEQ ID NO:60, b is an integer of 15 to 899, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:60, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0431] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 51

[0432] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

LQLASQSAGIKGMSHCARPTFLTLLLASCFWAAAIPNRNVILSVSFRPLHMQFTLSILVFILRILILLRSFL (SEQ ID NO:241).

[0433] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0434] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 40-56 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Moreover, a cytoplasmic tail encompassing amino acids 57 to 60 of this protein has also been determined. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type Ia membrane proteins.

[0435] This gene is expressed primarily in spleen derived from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

[0436] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, chronic lymphocytic leukemia; hematopoietic disorders; impaired immune function; cancer. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0437] The tissue distribution in spleen cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and/or treatment of a variety of hematopoietic disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include bone marrow cell ex-vivo culture, bone marrow transplantation, bone marrow reconstitution, radiotherapy or chemotherapy of neoplasia. The gene product may also be involved in lymphopoiesis, therefore, it can be used in immune disorders such as infection, inflammation, allergy, immunodeficiency etc. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Elevated expression of this protein in the spleens of patients with CLL indicates that it may be a useful marker for this disease. Alternately, it may be associated with the development and/or progression of the disease, and may be a useful target for therapeutic intervention. Additionally, this gene product may play more general roles in hematopoiesis, and may serve to control cellular decisions regarding proliferation, survival, activation, and/or differentiation of all hematopoietic cell lineages. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0438] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:61 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1065 of SEQ ID NO:61, b is an integer of 15 to 1079, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:61, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0439] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 52

[0440] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with a putative protein tyrosine kinase from the Chilo iridescent virus. See, for example, Genbank accession no. gi|2738451 (AF003534). Based on the sequence similarity, the translation product of this gene is expected to share at least some biological activities with tyrosine kinases and signaling proteins. Such activities are known in the art, some of which are described elsewhere herein.

[0441] This gene is expressed in a variety of tissues, including microvascular endothelial cells, dendritic cells, and fetal tissues as well as several tumors.

[0442] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, vascular, immune, and developmental diseases and/or disorders, particularly cancer. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., vascular, immune, developmental, proliferative, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, amniotic fluid, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 154 as residues: Ala-21 to Lys-31, Arg-41 to Cys-56, Thr-92 to Cys-102, Arg-132 to Val-137, Lys-152 to Ile-159, Pro-199 to Ser-205, Arg-210 to Asp-219, Ser-225 to Lys-230, Tyr-236 to Ala-241, Lys-243 to Leu-249, Thr-375 to Asp-381. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0443] The tissue distribution and homology to a tyrosine kinase indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0444] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Alternatively, the protein is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of vascular conditions, which include, but are not limited to, microvascular disease, vascular leak syndrome, aneurysm, stroke, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, or embolism. For example, this gene product may represent a soluble factor produced by smooth muscle that regulates the innervation of organs or regulates the survival of neighboring neurons. Likewise, it is involved in controlling the digestive process, and such actions as peristalsis. Similarly, it is involved in controlling the vasculature in areas where smooth muscle surrounds the endothelium of blood vessels. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0445] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:62 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1914 of SEQ ID NO:62, b is an integer of 15 to 1928, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:62, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0446] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 53

[0447] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 2-18 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type Ib membrane proteins.

[0448] The translation product of this gene shares some homology with IL-6DPB, a nuclear, leucine-zipper containing, transcriptional regulator protein involved in interleukin-6 signal transduction (see e.g., GenBank Accession GI:204918; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated herein by reference); for example, Roll, V. et al., Cell 63, 643-653 (1990). Therefore, this gene product is expected to have at least some biological activities in common with transcriptional regulatory proteins.

[0449] This gene is expressed primarily in neutrophils.

[0450] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune and hematopoietic diseases and/or disorders, particularly cancer and immune suppression. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 155 as residues: Gly-63 to Ser-72. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0451] The tissue distribution in neutrophils indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful as a marker for neutrophil monitoring in cancer and/or immune suppressed patients and/or during chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma. Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0452] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:63 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 767 of SEQ ID NO:63, b is an integer of 15 to 781, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:63, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0453] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 54

[0454] This gene is expressed primarily in IL-1 and LPS induced neutrophils, and to a lesser extent, in fetal brain.

[0455] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune, hematopoietic, and neural diseases and/or disorders, particularly cancer and immune suppression. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, neural, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, amniotic fluid, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 156 as residues: Ile-28 to Trp-37, Ser-68 to Lys-81. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0456] The tissue distribution in neutrophils indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful as a marker in neutrophils to monitor patients who are immune suppressed or cancer patients during chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0457] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0458] Alternatively, polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of neurodegenerative disease states, behavioral disorders, or inflammatory conditions. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0459] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:64 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1180 of SEQ ID NO:64, b is an integer of 15 to 1194, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:64, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0460] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 55

[0461] This gene is expressed primarily in prostate.

[0462] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, urogenital diseases and/or disorders, particularly prostate cancer. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the urogenital system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., urogenital, prostate, renal, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 157 as residues: Arg-30 to Gln-36. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0463] The tissue distribution in prostate cancer cells indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for study, treatment and diagnosis of prostate cancer and other urogenital disorders. Moreover, the expression within cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0464] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:65 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1663 of SEQ ID NO:65, b is an integer of 15 to 1677, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:65, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0465] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 56

[0466] A preferred polypeptide of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence:

MVLVLRHPLCARERAFREPGRGLLTRTGQHDGAPAVTAVPGPLGAVAAEG (SEQ ID NO:242).
RRSAWGAGGSSPPRKVLWGDMRGRRAGVDVLGPALSSEAAGAEARGWGM
PGMGVGVGASETRGALFLGREGVHGPCPMDGLGPWPWGPW

[0467] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0468] This gene is expressed primarily in rejected kidney.

[0469] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, diseases and/or disorders affecting the kidney. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the urinary tract, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., urogenital, renal, kidney, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 158 as residues: Ala-30 to Gly-36, Asp45 to Trp-50, Lys-65 to Cys-71, Pro-80 to Cys-87. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0470] The tissue distribution in kidney indicates the protein product of this gene could be used in the treatment and/or detection of kidney diseases including renal failure, nephritus, renal tubular acidosis, proteinuria, pyuria, edema, pyelonephritis, hydronephritis, nephrotic syndrome, crush syndrome, glomerulonephritis, hematuria, renal colic and kidney stones, in addition to Wilm's Tumor Disease, and congenital kidney abnormalities such as horseshoe kidney, polycystic kidney, and Falconi's syndrome. The protein is useful for modulating the immune response to aberrant proteins, as may exist in proliferating cells and tissues. Such modulation of the immune response would also show utility in inhibiting the rejection of transplanted tissues, particularly of the renal system. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0471] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:66 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1223 of SEQ ID NO:66, b is an integer of 15 to 1237, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:66, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0472] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 57

[0473] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with both human and mouse Fibulin polypeptides which is are extracellular matrix proteins found in heart tissue (See Genbank Accession Nos. emb|CAA57876.1 and emb|CAA53040.1, respectively; all references available through these accessions are hereby incorporated herein by reference; for example, J. Cell Biol. 123 (5), 1269-1277 (1993)).

[0474] Preferred polypeptides encoded by this gene comprise the following amino acid sequence:

MGPAVKMWTNAWKGLDDCHYNQLCENTPGGHRCSCPRGYRMQGPSLPCL (SEQ ID NO:243).
DVNECLQLPKACAYQCHNLQGSYRCLCPPGQTLLRDGKACTSLERNGQNVT
TVSHRGPLLPWLRPWASIPGTSYHAWVSLRPGPMALSSVGRAWCPPGFIRQN
GVCTDLDECRVRNLCQHACRNTEGSYQCLCPAGYRLLPSGKNCQDINECEEE
SIECCPGQMCFNTRGSYQCVDTPCPATYRQGPSPGTCFRRCSQDCGTGGPSTL
QYRLLPLPLGVRAHHDVARLTAFSEVGVPANRTELSMLEPDPRSPFALRPLRA
GLGAVYTRRALTRAGLYRLTVRAAAPRHQSVFVLLIAVSPYPY

[0475] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0476] A preferred polypeptide fragment of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence:

MRVLVVTIAPIYWALARESGEALNGHSLTGGKFRQSHTWSLLQGAAHDDPV (SEQ ID NO:244).
ARGLDPDGLLLLDVVVNGVVPGRAWLTQIFKCRTLKKHYVQTRAWPAVRG
LHTALLPGRPPLVPTLQPQHPVQRGPGPPAPAGAAPAGLSYQLGL

[0477] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0478] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

HASGAFLVVRGEPQGSWGSMTGVINGRKFGVATLNTSVMQEAHSGVSSIH
SSIRHVPANVGPLMRVLVVTIAPIYWALARESGEALNGHSLTGGKFRQES
HVEFATGELLTMTQWPGVWIPMASCSSTWWSMALSPDSLADADLQVQDFE
EHYVQTGPGQLFVGSTQRFFQGGLPSFLRCNHSIQYNAAGPQPQLVQHLR
ASAISSAFDPEAEALRFQLATALQAEENEVGCPEGFELDSQGAFCVDVDE
CAWDAHLCREGQRCVNLLGSYRCLPDCGPGFRVADGAGCEDVDECLEGLD
DCHYNQLCENTPGGHRCSCPRGYRMQGPSLPCLDVNECLQLPKACAYQCH
NLQGSYRCLCPPGQTLLRDGKACTSLERNGQNVTTVSHRGPLLPWLRPWA
SIPGTSYHAWVSLRPGPMALSSVGRAWCPPGFIRQNGVCTDLDECRVRNL
CGHACRNTEGSYQCLCPAGYRLLPSGKNCQDINECEEESIECGPGQMCFN
TRGSYQCVDTPCPATYRQGPSPGTCFRRCSQDCGTGGPSTLQYRLLPLPL
GVRAHHDVARLTAFSEVGVPANRTELSMLEPDPRSPFALRPLRAGLGAVY
TRRALTRAGLYRLRLTVRAAAPRHQSVFVLLIAVSPYPY
(SEQ ID NO: 245).

[0479] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0480] When tested against U937 and Jurkat cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene repeatedly activated the GAS (gamma activating sequence) promoter element. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid, T-cells, and to a lesser extent, other immune and hematopoietic cells and tissue cell types, through the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. GAS is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0481] This gene is expressed primarily in kidney.

[0482] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, diseases and/or disorders affecting the kidney and renal system. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the urinary tract, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., renal, urogenital, kidney, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 159 as residues: Lys-32 to Ser-37,His-89 to Gly-94, Asn-124 to Gln-130, Ala-163 to Val-168, Cys-196 to Arg-201, Gln-244 to Gln-264, His-288 to Tyr-294, Leu-314 to Gln-319, Ala-392 to Ser-399, Pro-412 to Asp-419, Ala-452 to Pro-460, Arg-466 to Thr-473. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0483] The tissue distribution in rejected kidney, the homology to the conserved Fibulin-2 protein, in addition to the detected GAS biological activity, indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting kidneys, particularly proliferative disorders. Representative uses are described here and elsewhere herein.

[0484] The protein product of this gene could be used in the treatment and/or detection of kidney diseases including renal failure, nephritus, renal tubular acidosis, proteinuria, pyuria, edema, pyelonephritis, hydronephritis, nephrotic syndrome, crush syndrome, glomerulonephritis, hematuria, renal colic and kidney stones, in addition to Wilm's Tumor Disease, and congenital kidney abnormalities such as horseshoe kidney, polycystic kidney, and Falconi's syndrome. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0485] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:67 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1920 of SEQ ID NO:67, b is an integer of 15 to 1934, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:67, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0486] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 58

[0487] Preferred polypeptides encoded by this gene comprise the following amino acid sequence:

MGEKFLLLAMKENHPECFCKILKILHCMDPGEWLPQTEHCVHLTPKEFLI
WTMDIASNERSEIQSVALRLASKVISHHMQTCVENRELIAAELKQWVQLV
ILSCEDHLPTESRLAVVEVLTSTTPLFLTNPHPILELQDTLALWKCVLTL
LQSEEQAVRDAATETVTTAMSQENTCQSTEFAFCQVDASIALALALAVLC
DLLQQWDQLAPGLPILLGWLLGESDDLVACVESMHQVEEDYLFEKAEVNF
WAETLIFVKYLCKHLFCLLSKSGWRPPSPEMLCHLQRMVSEQCHLLSQFF
RELPPAAEFVKTVEFTRLRIQEERTLACLRLLAFLEGKEGEDTLVLSVWD
SYAESRQLTLPRTEAAC
(SEQ ID NO: 246).

[0488] Polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides are also provided.

[0489] A preferred polypeptide fragment of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence:

MGEPNRHPSMFLLLLVLERLYASPMDGTSSALSMGPFVPFIMRCGHSPVY
HSREMAARALVPFVMIDHIPNTIRTLLSTLPSCTDQCFRAKPHSWGHFSR
FFHLLQAYSDSKTRNEFRLPARAD
(SEQ ID NO: 247).

[0490] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0491] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

MTGREFFSRFPELYPFLLKQLETVANTVDSDMGEPNRHPSMFLLLLVLER
LYASPMDGTSSALSMGPFVPFIMRCGHSPVYHSREMAARALVPFVMIDHI
PNTIRTLLSTLPSCTDQCFRQNHIHGTLLQVFHLLQAYSDSKHGTNSDFQ
HELTDITVCTKAKLWLAKRQNPCLVTRAVYIDILFLLTCCLNRSAKDNQP
VLESLGFWEEVRGIISGSELITGFPWAFKVPGLPQYLQSLTRLAIAAVWA
AAAKSGERETNVPISFSQLLESAFPEVRSLTLEALLEKFLAAASGLGEKG
VPPLLCNMGEKFLLLAMKENHPECFCKILKILHCMDPGEWLPQTEHCVHL
TPKEFLIWTMDIASNERSEIQSVALRLASKVISHHMQTCVENRELIAAEL
KQWVQLVILSCEDHLPTESRLAVVEVLTSTTPLFLTNPHPILELQDTLAL
WKCVLTLLQSEEQAVRDAATETVTTAMSQENTCQSTEFAFCQVDASIALA
LALAVLCDLLQQWDQLAPGLPILLGWLLGESDDLVACVESMHQVEEDYLF
EKAEVNFWAETLIFVKYLCKHLFCLLSKSGWRPPSPEMLCHLQRMVSEQC
HLLSQFFRELPPAAEFVKTVEFTRLRIQEERTLACLRLLAFLEGKEGEDT
LVLSVWDSYAESRQLTLPRTEAAC
(SEQ ID NO: 248).

[0492] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0493] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have two transmembrane domains at about amino acid position 144-160, and 462-478 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type IIIa membrane proteins.

[0494] Included in this invention as a preferred domain is the formate and nitrite transporters domain, which was identified using the ProSite analysis tool (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics). A number of bacterial and archaebacterial proteins involved in transporting formate or nitrite have been shown [1] to be related:—focA and focB, from Escherichia coli, transporters involved in the bidirectional transport of formate.—fdhc, from Methanobacterium formicicum and thermoformicicum, a probable formate transporter.—nirC, from Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, a probable nitrite transporter.—Bacillus subtilis hypothetical protein yrhG.—Bacillus subtilis hypothetical protein ywcJ (ipa-48R). These transporters are proteins of about 280 residues and seem to contain six transmembrane regions. As signature patterns, we selected two conserved regions. The first one is located in what seems to be a cytoplasmic loop between the second and third transmembrane domains; the second is part of the fourth transmembrane region. The 70 Kd yeast hypothetical protein YHL008c is highly similar, in its N-terminal section, to the prokaryotic members of this family. The concensus pattern is as follows: [LIVMA]-[LIVMY]-x-G-[GSTA]-[DES]-L-[F]-[TN]-[GS].

[0495] Preferred polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence: IISGSELITG (SEQ ID NO: 249). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0496] Further preferred are polypeptides comprising the formate and nitrite transporter domain of the sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene, and at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, or 75 additional contiguous amino acid residues of this referenced sequence. The additional contiguous amino acid residues may be N-terminal or C-terminal to the formate and nitrite transporter domain. Alternatively, the additional contiguous amino acid residues may be both N-terminal and C-terminal to the formate and nitrite transporter domain, wherein the total N- and C-terminal contiguous amino acid residues equal the specified number. The above preferred polypeptide domain is characteristic of a signature specific to formate and nitrite transporter proteins. Based on the sequence similarity, the translation product of this gene is expected to share at least some biological activities with formate and nitrite transporter proteins. Such activities are known in the art, some of which are described elsewhere herein.

[0497] It is believed that this gene maps to chromosome 2. Accordingly, polynucleotides derived from this gene are useful in linkage analysis as markers for chromosome 2.

[0498] This gene is expressed primarily in cells of the immune system, primarily T-cells and to a lesser extent in spleen, liver, thymus, tonsils, and testis.

[0499] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune and hematopoietic diseases and/or disorders, particularly disorders affecting hematopoiesis. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of hematopoetic cells, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 160 as residues: Gly-2 to Pro-8, Ser-82 to His-92, Tyr-107 to Asp-117, Arg-162 to Pro-169, Ser-224 to Thr-229, Leu-310 to His-315, Ser-333 to Glu-338, Glu-381 to Ser-388, Gln-428 to Ala-433, Met-446 to Thr-455, Ser-548 to Ser-554, Gly-613 to Asp-618, Ser-627 to Gln-633. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0500] The tissue distribution in immune cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting hematopoiesis, including cancers. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0501] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0502] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:68 arid may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 3286 of SEQ ID NO:68, b is an integer of 15 to 3300, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:68, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0503] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 59

[0504] This gene is expressed primarily in bone marrow, CD34 positive cells, and immune cells, including, neutrophils, T-cells, B-cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells and to a lesser extent in brain and tonsils.

[0505] In one embodiments, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention may comprise, or alternatively consist of the following amino acid sequence:

VDGIDKLDIEFLQQFLETHSRGPRLHSPGHASQEATPGANMSSGTELLWP
GAALLVLLGVAASLCVRCSRPGAKRSEKIYQQRSLREDQQSFTGSRTYSL
VGQAWPGPLADMAPTRKDKLLQFYPSLEDPASSRYQNFSKGSRHGSEEAY
IDPIAMEYYNWGRFSKPPEDDDANSYENVLICKQKTTETGAQQEGIGGLC
RGDLSLSLALKTGPTSGLCPSASPEEDEGI
(SEQ ID NO: 250).

[0506] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0507] Preferred polypeptide fragments may comprise or alternatively consist of one, two, three, four or more of the following amino acid sequence:

ASSRYQNFSKGSRHGSEEAYIDPIA (SEQ ID NO: 251),
MEYYNWGRFSKPPEDDDANSY (SEQ ID NO: 252),
ENVLICKQKTTETGAQQEGIGGLCRGD (SEQ ID NO: 253),
VRCSRPGAKRSEKIYQQRSLREDQQSFTG (SEQ ID NO: 255) and
SRTYSLVGQAWPGPLADMAPTRKDKLLQF
YPSLEDPASS
LSLSLALKTGPTSGLCPSASPEEDEGI (SEQ ID NO: 254).

[0508] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments (SEQ ID NOS:251, 252, 253, 254, and/or 255), polynucleotides that hybridize to the complementary strand of these polynucleotides (e.g., under the hybridization conditions described herein) are encompassed by the invention, as are the polypeptides encoded by these hybridizing polynucleotides.

[0509] Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise, or alternatively consist of one, two, three, four, five, or m6re of the immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 161 as residues: Ser-29 to Thr-57, Pro-74 to Lys-79, Pro-85 to Glu-107, Tyr-118 to Tyr-136, Gln-144 to Gln-152, Ala-182 to Glu-188. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0510] Also preferred are polypeptides comprising the mature polypeptide which is predicted to consist of residues 26-190 of the foregoing sequence (SEQ ID NO:161), and biologically active fragments of the mature polypeptide (e.g., fragments that stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow CD34+ cells).

[0511] FIGS. 1A-B show the nucleotide (SEQ ID NO:69) and deduced amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:161) of this polypeptide.

[0512]FIG. 2 shows an analysis of the amino acid sequence (SEQ ID NO:161). Alpha, beta, turn and coil regions; hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity; amphipathic regions; flexible regions; antigenic index and surface probability are shown, and all were generated using the default settings. In the “Antigenic Index or Jameson-Wolf” graph, the positive peaks indicate locations of the highly antigenic regions of the protein, i.e., regions from which epitope-bearing peptides of the invention can be obtained. The domains defined by these graphs are contemplated by the present invention.

[0513] The data presented in FIG. 2 are also represented in tabular form in Table 3. The columns are labeled with the headings “Res”, “Position”, and Roman Numerals I-XIV. The column headings refer to the following features of the amino acid sequence presented in FIG. 2, and Table 3: “Res”: amino acid residue of SEQ ID NO:161 and FIGS. 1A and 1B; “Position”: position of the corresponding residue within SEQ ID NO: 161 and FIGS. 1A and 1B; I: Alpha, Regions—Garnier-Robson; II: Alpha, Regions—Chou-Fasman; III: Beta, Regions—Garnier-Robson; IV: Beta, Regions—Chou-Fasman; V: Turn, Regions—Garnier-Robson; VI: Turn, Regions—Chou-Fasman; VII: Coil, Regions—Garnier-Robson; VIII: Hydrophilicity Plot—Kyte-Doolittle; IX: Hydrophobicity Plot—Hopp-Woods; X: Alpha, Amphipathic Regions—Eisenberg; XI: Beta, Amphipathic Regions—Eisenberg; XII: Flexible Regions—Karplus-Schulz; XIII: Antigenic Index—Jameson-Wolf; and XIV: Surface Probability Plot—Emini.

[0514] Preferred embodiments of the invention in this regard include fragments that comprise alpha-helix and alpha-helix forming regions (“alpha-regions”), beta-sheet and beta-sheet forming regions (“beta-regions”), turn and turn-forming regions (“turn-regions”), coil and coil-forming regions (“coil-regions”), hydrophilic regions, hydrophobic regions, alpha amphipathic regions, beta amphipathic regions, flexible regions, surface-forming regions and high antigenic index regions. The data representing the structural or functional attributes of the protein set forth in FIG. 2 and/or Table 3, as described above, was generated using the various modules and algorithms of the DNA*STAR set on default parameters. In a preferred embodiment, the data presented in columns VIII, IX, XIII, and XIV of Table 3 can be used to determine regions of the protein which exhibit a high degree of potential for antigenicity. Regions of high antigenicity are determined from the data presented in columns VIII, IX, XIII, and/or XIV by choosing values which represent regions of the polypeptide which are likely to be exposed on the surface of the polypeptide in an environment in which antigen recognition may occur in the process of initiation of an immune response.

[0515] Certain preferred regions in these regards are set out in FIG. 2, but may, as shown in Table 3, be represented or identified by using tabular representations of the data presented in FIG. 2. The DNA*STAR computer algorithm used to generate FIG. 2 (set on the original default parameters) was used to present the data in FIG. 2 in a tabular format (See Table 3). The tabular format of the data in FIG. 2 is used to easily determine specific boundaries of a preferred region. The above-mentioned preferred regions set out in FIG. 2 and in Table 3 include, but are not limited to, regions of the aforementioned types identified by analysis of the amino acid sequence set out in FIGS. 1A-B (SEQ ID NO:161). As set out in FIG. 2 and in Table 3, such preferred regions include Garnier-Robson alpha-regions, beta-regions, turn-regions, and coil-regions, Chou-Fasman alpha-regions, beta-regions, and turn-regions, Kyte-Doolittle hydrophilic regions and Hopp-Woods hydrophobic regions, Eisenberg alpha- and beta-amphipathic regions, Karplus-Schulz flexible regions, Jameson-Wolf regions of high antigenic index and Emini surface-forming regions.

[0516] The present invention is further directed to fragments of the isolated nucleic acid molecules described herein. By a fragment of an isolated DNA molecule having the nucleotide sequence of the deposited cDNA or the nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:69 is intended DNA fragments at least about 15nt, and more preferably at least about 20 nt, still more preferably at least about 30 nt, and even more preferably, at least about 40 nt in length which are useful as diagnostic probes and primers as discussed herein. Of course, larger fragments 50-1500 nt in length are also useful according to the present invention, as are fragments corresponding to most, if not all, of the nucleotide sequence of the deposited cDNA or as shown in SEQ ID NO:69. By a fragment at least 20 nt in length, for example, is intended fragments which include 20 or more contiguous bases from the nucleotide sequence of the deposited cDNA or the nucleotide sequence as shown in SEQ ID NO:69. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited size, larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. Representative examples of polynucleotide fragments of the invention include, for example, fragments that comprise, or alternatively, consist of, a sequence from about nucleotide 1 to about 50, from about 51 to about 100, from about 101 to about 150, from about 151 to about 200, from about 201 to about 250, from about 251 to about 300, from about 301 to about 350, from about 351 to about 400, from about 401 to about 450, from about 451 to about 500, and from about 501 to about 550, and from about 551 to about 600, and from about 601 to about 650, and from about 651 to about 700, and from about 701 to about 750, and from about 751 to about 800, and from about 801 to about 850, and from about 851 to about 900, and from about 901 to about 950, and from about 951 to about 1000, and from about 1001 to about 1050, and from about and from about 1051 to about 1100, and from about 1101 to about 1150, and from about 1151 to about 1200, and from about 1201 to about 1250, and from about 1251 to about 1300, and from about 1301 to about 1350, and from about 1351 to about 1400, and from about 1401 to about 1450, and from about 1451 to about 1500, and from about 1501 to about 1551, and from about 1551 to about 1600, and from about 1601 to about 1650, and from about 1651 to about 1700, and from about 1701 to about 1750, and from about 1751 to about 1797 of SEQ ID NO:69, or the complementary strand thereto, or the cDNA contained in the deposited gene. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited ranges, larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. In additional embodiments, the polynucleotides of the invention encode functional attributes of the corresponding protein.

[0517] Preferred polypeptide fragments include the secreted protein as well as the mature form. Further preferred polypeptide fragments include the secreted protein or the mature form having a continuous series of deleted residues from the amino or the carboxy terminus, or both. For example, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-60, can be deleted from the amino terminus of either the secreted polypeptide or the mature form. Similarly, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-30, can be deleted from the carboxy terminus of the secreted protein or mature form. Furthermore, any combination of the above amino and carboxy terminus deletions are preferred. Similarly, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments are also preferred.

[0518] Preferably, the polynucleotide fragments of the invention encode a polypeptide which demonstrates a functional activity. By a polypeptide demonstrating a “functional activity” is meant to be a polypeptide capable of displaying one or more known functional activities associated with a full-length (complete) or mature-form of the protein. Such functional activities include, but are not limited to, biological activity (e.g., ability to regulate (e.g., stimulate) hematopoiesis in vitro or in vivo), antigenicity, and immunogenicity. The functional activity of polypeptides of the invention, and fragments, variants derivatives, and analogs thereof, can be assayed by various methods described herein.

[0519] In addition, assays described herein and otherwise known in the art may routinely be applied to measure biological activity of polypeptides and fragments of the invention, variants derivatives and analogs thereof (e.g., to regulate (e.g., to stimulate or inhibit) hematopoiesis in vitro or in vivo). For example, techniques known in the art (such as for example assaying for thymidine incorporation), may be applied or routinely modified to assay for the ability of the compositions of the invention to inhibit proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Other methods will be known to the skilled artisan and are within the scope of the invention.

[0520] Even if deletion of one or more amino acids from the N-terminus of a protein results in modification of loss of one or more biological functions of the protein, other functional activities (e.g., biological activities, ability to multimerize, etc.) may still be retained. For example, the ability of shortened muteins to induce and/or bind to antibodies which recognize the complete or mature forms of the polypeptides generally will be retained when less than the majority of the residues of the complete or mature polypeptide are removed from the N-terminus. Whether a particular polypeptide lacking N-terminal residues of a complete polypeptide retains such immunologic activities can readily be determined by routine methods described herein and otherwise known in the art. It is not unlikely that a mutein with a large number of deleted N-terminal amino acid residues may retain some biological or immunogenic activities. In fact, peptides composed of as few as six amino acid residues may often evoke an immune response.

[0521] Accordingly, the present invention further provides polypeptides having one or more residues deleted from the amino terminus of the amino acid sequence shown in FIG. 1 (i.e., SEQ ID NO:69), up to the Glu residue at position number 185 and polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides.

[0522] Particularly, N-terminal deletions of the polypeptide can be described by the general formula m-190, where m is an integer from 2 to 184, where m corresponds to the position of the amino acid residue identified in SEQ ID NO:161. More in particular, the invention provides polynucleotides encoding polypeptides comprising, or alternatively consisting of, an amino acid sequence selected from the group: V-26 to I-190; R-27 to I-190; C-28 to I-190; S-29 to I-190; R-30 to I-190; P-31 to I-190; G-32 to I-190; A-33 to I-190; K-34 to I-190; R-35 to I-190; S-36 to I-190; E-37 to I-190; K-38 to I-190; I-39 to I-190; Y-40 to I-190; Q-41 to I-190; Q-42 to I-190; R-43 to I-190; S-44 to I-190; L-45 to I-190; R-46 to I-190; E-47 to I-190; D-48 to I-190; Q-49 to I-190; Q-50 to I-190; S-51 to I-190; F-52 to I-190; T-53 to I-190; G-54 to I-190; S-55 to I-190; R-56 to I-190; T-57 to I-190; Y-58 to I-190; S-59 to I-190; L-60 to I-190; V-61 to I-190; G-62 to I-190; Q-63 to I-190; A-64 to I-190; W-65 to I-190; P-66 to I-190; G-67 to I-190; P-68 to I-190; L-69 to I-190; A-70 to I-190; D-71 to I-190; M-72 to I-190; A-73 to I-190; P-74 to I-190; T-75 to I-190; R-76 to I-190; K-77 to I-190; D-78 to I-190; K-79 to I-190; L-80 to I-190; L-81 to I-190; Q-82 to I-190; F-83 to I-190; Y-84 to I-190; P-85 to I-190; S-86 to I-190; L-87 to I-190; E-88 to I-190; D-89 to I-190; P-90 to I-190; A-91 to I-190; S-92 to I-190; S-93 to I-190; R-94 to I-190; Y-95 to I-190; Q-96 to I-190; N-97 to I-190; F-98 to I-190; S-99 to I-190; K-100 to I-190; G-101 to I-190; S-102 to I-190; R-103 to I-190; H-104 to I-190; G-105 to I-190; S-106 to 1-190; E-107 to I-190; E-108 to I-190; A-109 to I-190; Y-110 to I-190; I-111 to I-190; D-112 to I-190; P-113 to I-190; I-114 to I-190; A-115 to I-190; M-116 to I-190; E-117 to I-190; Y-118 to I-190; Y-119 to I-190; N-120 to I-190; W-121 to I-190; G-122 to I-190; R-123 to I-190; F-124 to I-190; S-125 to I-190; K-126 to I-190; P-127 to I-190; P-128 to I-190; E-129 to I-190; D-130 to I-190; D-131 to I-190; D-132 to I-190; A-133 to I-190; N-134 to I-190; S-135 to I-190; Y-136 to I-190; E-137 to I-190; N-138 to I-190; V-139 to I-190; L-140 to I-190; I-141 to I-190; C-142 to I-190; K-143 to I-190; Q-144 to I-190; K-145 to I-190; T-146 to I-190; T-147 to I-190; E-148 to I-190; T-149 to I-190; G-150 to I-190; A-151 to I-190; Q-152 to I-190; Q-153 to I-190; E-154 to I-190; G-155 to I-190; I-156 to I-190; G-157 to I-190; G-158 to I-190; L-159 to I-190; C-160 to I-190; R-161 to I-190; G-162 to I-190; D-163 to I-190; L-164 to I-190; S-165 to I-190; L-166 to I-190; S-167 to I-190; L-168 to I-190; A-169 to I-190; L-170 to I-190; K-171 to I-190; T-172 to I-190; G-173 to I-190; P-174 to I-190; T-175 to I-190; S-176 to I-190; G-177 to I-190; L-178 to I-190; C-179 to I-190; P-180 to I-190; S-181 to I-190; A-182 to I-190; S-183 to I-190; P-184 to I-190; and E-185 to I-190, of SEQ ID NO:161. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0523] Also as mentioned above, even if deletion of one or more amino acids from the C-terminus of a protein results in modification of loss of one or more biological functions of the protein, other functional activities (e.g., biological activities, ability to multimerize, ability to bind ligand) may still be retained. For example the ability of the shortened mutein to induce and/or bind to antibodies which recognize the complete or mature forms of the polypeptide generally will be retained when less than the majority of the residues of the complete or mature polypeptide are removed from the C-terminus. Whether a particular polypeptide lacking C-terminal residues of-a complete polypeptide retains such immunologic activities can readily be determined by routine methods described herein and otherwise known in the art. It is not unlikely that an mutein with a large number of deleted C-terminal amino acid residues may retain some biological or immunogenic activities. In fact, peptides composed of as few as six amino acid residues may often evoke an immune response.

[0524] Accordingly, the present invention further provides polypeptides having one or more residues deleted from the carboxy terminus of the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide shown in FIG. 1A-B (SEQ ID NO:161), as described by the general formula 1-n, where n is an integer from 6 to 184 where n corresponds to the position of amino acid residue identified in SEQ ID NO:161. More in particular, the invention provides polynucleotides encoding polypeptides comprising, or alternatively consisting of, an amino acid sequence selected from the group: V-26 to G-189; V-26 to E-188; V-26 to D-187; V-26 to E-186; V-26 to E-185; V-26 to P-184; V-26 to S-183; V-26 to A-182; V-26 to S-181; V-26 to P-180; V-26 to C-179; V-26 to L-178; V-26 to G-177; V-26 to S-176; V-26 to T-175; V-26 to P-174; V-26 to G-173; V-26 to T-172; V-26 to K-171; V-26 to L-170; V-26 to A-169; V-26 to L-168; V-26 to S-167; V-26 to L-166; V-26 to S-165; V-26 to L-164; V-26 to D-163; V-26 to G-162; V-26 to R-161; V-26 to C-160; V-26 to L-159; V-26 to G-158; V-26 to G-157; V-26 to I-156; V-26 to G-155; V-26 to E-154; V-26 to Q-153; V-26 to Q-152; V-26 to A-151; V-26 to G-150; V-26 to T-149; V-26 to E-148; V-26 to T 147; V-26 to T-146; V-26 to K-145; V-26 to Q-144; V-26 to K-143; V-26 to C-142; V-26 to 1-141; V-26 to L-140; V-26 to V-139; V-26 to N-138; V-26 to E-137; V-26 to Y-136; V-26 to S-135; V-26 to N-134; V-26 to A-133; V-26 to D-132; V-26 to D-131; V-26 to D-130; V-26 to E-129; V-26 to P-128; V-26 to P-127; V-26 to K-126; V-26 to S-125; V-26 to F-124; V-26 to R-123; V-26 to G-122; V-26 to W-121; V-26 to N-120; V-26 to Y-119; V-26 to Y-118; V-26 to E-117; V-26 to M-116; V-26 to A-115; V-26 to I-114; V-26 to P-113; V-26 to D-112; V-26 to I-111; V-26 to Y-110; V-26 to A-109; V-26 to E-108; V-26 to E-107; V-26 to S-106; V-26 to G-105; V-26 to H-104; V-26 to R-103; V-26 to S-102; V-26 to G-101; V-26 to K-100; V-26 to S-99; V-26 to F-98; V-26 to N-97; V-26 to Q-96; V-26 to Y-95; V-26 to R-94; V-26 to S-93; V-26 to S-92; V-26 to A-91; V-26 to P-90; V-26 to D-89; V-26 to E-88; V-26 to L-87; V-26 to S-86; V-26 to P-85; V-26 to Y-84; V-26 to F-83; V-26 to Q-82; V-26 to L-81; V-26 to L-80; V-26 to K-79; V-26 to D-78; V-26 to K-77; V-26 to R-76; V-26 to T-75; V-26 to P-74; V-26 to A-73; V-26 to M-72; V-26 to D-71; V-26 to A-70; V-26 to L-69; V-26 to P-68; V-26 to G-67; V-26 to P-66; V-26 to W-65; V-26 to A-64; V-26 to Q-63; V-26 to G-62; V-26 to V-61; V-26 to L-60; V-26 to S-59; V-26 to Y-58; V-26 to T-57; V-26 to R-56; V-26 to S-55; V-26 to G-54; V-26 to T-53; V-26 to F-52; V-26 to S-51; V-26 to Q-50; V-26 to Q-49; V-26 to D-48; V-26 to E-47; V-26 to R-46; V-26 to L-45; V-26 to S-44; V-26 to R-43; V-26 to Q-42; V-26 to Q-41; V-26 to Y-40; V-26 to I-39; V-26 to K-38; V-26 to E-37; V-26 to S-36; V-26 to R-35; V-26 to K-34; V-26 to A-33; V-26 to G-32; and V-26 to P-31 of SEQ ID NO:161. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0525] In addition, any of the above listed N- or C-terminal deletions can be combined to produce a N- and C-terminal deleted polypeptide. The invention also provides polypeptides having one or more amino acids deleted from both the amino and the carboxyl termini, which may be described generally as having residues m-n of SEQ ID NO:161, where n and m are integers as described above. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0526] Also included are a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide consisting of a portion of the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA clone contained in ATCC Deposit No.209889, where this portion excludes any integer of amino acid residues from 1 to about 180 amino acids from the amino terminus of the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA clone contained in ATCC Deposit No. 209889, or any integer of amino acid residues from 1 to about 180 amino acids from the carboxy terminus, or any combination of the above amino terminal and carboxy terminal deletions, of the complete amino acid sequence encoded by the cDNA clone contained in ATCC Deposit No. 209889. Polynucleotides encoding all of the above deletion mutant polypeptide forms also are provided.

[0527] The present application is also directed to proteins containing polypeptides at least 90%, 92%, 93%, 94%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to the polypeptide sequence set forth herein m-n. In preferred embodiments, the application is directed to proteins containing polypeptides at least 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to polypeptides having the amino acid sequence of the specific N- and C-terminal deletions recited herein. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0528] Polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, disorders affecting the immune and hematopoietic systems, particularly hematopoiesis. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system and hematopoeitic system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0529] This gene has been found to stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow CD34+ cells. This assay which is described in Example 53 herein is based on the ability of human CD34+ to proliferate in presence of hematopoietic growth factors and evaluates the ability of the polypeptides of the invention, and agonists and antagonists thereof, to stimulate or inihibit this proliferation.

[0530] The tissue distribution in immune and hematopoietic cells and tissues and the ability to stimulate the proliferation of bone marrow CD34+ cells indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the immune system and hematopoiesis. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. Moreover, the protein represents a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0531] The polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonists and/or antagonists thereof, can also be employed to inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells and therefore may be employed to protect bone marrow stem cells from chemotherapeutic agents during chemotherapy. This antiproliferative effect may allow administration of higher doses of chemotherapeutic agents and, therefore, more effective chemotherapeutic treatment.

[0532] The polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention and/or agonists and/or antagonists thereof, may also be employed for the expansion of immature hematopoeitic progenitor cells, for example, granulocytes, macrophages or monocytes, by temporarily preventing their differentiation. These bone marrow cells may be cultured in vitro. Thus, polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention, or agonists or antagonists thereof, may be useful as a modulator of hematopoietic stem cells in vitro for the purpose of bone marrow transplantation and/or gene therapy. Since stem cells are rare and are most useful for introducing genes into for gene therapy, polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention can be used to isolate enriched populations of stem cells. Stem cells can be enriched by culturing cells in the presence of cytotoxins, such as 5-Fu, which kills rapidly dividing cells, where as the stem cells will be protected by polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention. These stem cells can be returned to a bone marrow transplant patient or can then be used for transfection of the desired gene for gene therapy. In addition, this gene can be injected into animals which results in the release of stem cells from the bone marrow of the animal into the peripheral blood. These stem cells can be isolated for the purpose of autologous bone marrow transplantation or manipulation for gene therapy. After the patient has finished chemotherapy or radiation treatment, the isolated stem cells can be returned to the patient.

[0533] Polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of hematopoietic related disorders such as anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia or leukemia since stromal cells are important in the production of cells of hematopoietic lineages. The uses include bone marrow cell ex-vivo culture, bone marrow transplantation, bone marrow reconstitution, radiotherapy or chemotherapy of neoplasia.

[0534] This gene product may also be involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0535] This gene may also have a very wide range of biological activities. Representative uses are described in the “Chemotaxis” and “Binding Activity” sections below, in Examples 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, and 20, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the protein may possess the following activities: cytokine, cell proliferation/differentiation modulating activity or induction of other cytokines; immunostimulating/immunosuppressant activities (e.g. for treating human immunodeficiency virus infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases and allergy); regulation of hematopoiesis (e.g. for treating anemia or as adjunct to chemotherapy); stimulation or growth of bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and/or nerves (e.g. for treating wounds, stimulation of follicle stimulating hormone (for control of fertility); chemotactic and chemokinetic activities (e.g. for treating infections, tumors); hemostatic or thrombolytic activity (e.g. for treating hemophilia, cardiac infarction etc.); anti-inflammatory activity (e.g. for treating septic shock, Crohn's disease); as antimicrobials; for treating psoriasis or other hyperproliferative diseases; for regulation of metabolism, and behavior. Also contemplated is the use of the corresponding nucleic acid in gene therapy procedures. Based upon the proteins immune cell specific message distribution, it may be involved in many aspects of the immune response, especially its initial stages, inflammation, allograft rejection, infectious disease response etc. It is frequently found in the hematopoietic cell cDNA libraries. Thus, this factor could be involved in the control of hematopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and function. Based on this one can postulate its use in the management of anemias, leukemias, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, autoimmune diseases, blood tissue engraftment, and poikilothromerythromatosis. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0536] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 7. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 7.

[0537] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:69 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1783 of SEQ ID NO:69, b is an integer of 15 to 1797, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:69, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0538] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 60

[0539] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

VLWREASALVLSNRLSSGLLHDLLLQPAIHSRLFPRRSRGLSEGEGSSVS
LQRSRVLSAMKHVLNLYLLGVVLTLLSIFVRVMESLEGLLESPSPGTSWT
TRSQLANTEPTKGLPDHPSRSM   (SEQ ID NO: 256).

[0540] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0541] This gene is expressed primarily in immune cells including activated T cells, macrophages, jurkat cells, bone marrow cells, and osteoblasts and to a lesser extent in kidney cortex, brain, placenta and lung.

[0542] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune and hematopoietic diseases and/or disorders, particularly inflammation and diseases related to inflammatory activity. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 162 as residues: Pro-34 to Met-63. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0543] The tissue distribution in immune cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treating or diagnosing disease related to the normal or abnormal activation of T cells. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma.

[0544] Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0545] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:70 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1359 of SEQ ID NO:70, b is an integer of 15 to 1373, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:70, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0546] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 61

[0547] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

YTFHTQIFLDFPMIFLTVLPLAFLFLHSGFYHYISFSCLFSLSLALFFFL (SEQ ID NO: 257).
DVATFRRPGQLFCERSVLFDMFHFGFVSLFLHEWIQAKHFWAGLFIVLPS
DVFFSVHHLEAPDGSFPNIAKLSLILLR

[0548] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0549] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have two transmembrane domains at about amino acid position 2-18 and 22-38 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type IIIa membrane proteins.

[0550] This gene is expressed in many tissues including brain, liver, prostate, testes, cartilage, gall bladder. Expression is also seen in a number of tumors including colon carcinoma, pancreas tumor, osteoclastoma, ovarian cancer, B cell lymphoma and acute lymphocytic leukemias. Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, tumors of various organs including the pancreas, colon, and bone. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the major organs, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, hepatic, metabolic, reproductive, testicular, skeletal, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, amniotic fluid, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0551] The tissue distribution in tumors and proliferative tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for treating or diagnosing tumors of several major organs including the pancreas and large intestine. This protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0552] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:71 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1565 of SEQ ID NO:71, b is an integer of 15 to 1579, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:71, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0553] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 62

[0554] This gene is expressed primarily in dendritic cells and fetal liver/spleen and to a lesser extent in many tissues including tonsils, fetal lung, stromal cell lines, bone marrow cell lines, placenta and tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreas tumor and osteosarcoma.

[0555] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, diseases and/or disorders of the immune and hematopoietic system. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0556] The tissue distribution in dendritic-cells and fetal liver/spleen indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosing and treating disorders of the immune system particularly related to the control and generation of precursor cells. Polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of hematopoietic related disorders such as anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia or leukemia since stromal cells are important in the production of cells of hematopoietic lineages. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include bone marrow cell ex-vivo culture, bone marrow transplantation, bone marrow reconstitution, radiotherapy or chemotherapy of neoplasia. The gene product may also be involved in lymphopoiesis, therefore, it can be used in immune disorders such as infection, inflammation, allergy, immunodeficiency etc. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0557] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:72 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1014 of SEQ ID NO:72, b is an integer of 15 to 1028, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:72, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0558] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 63

[0559] This gene is expressed primarily in adrenal gland tumor and endothelial cells.

[0560] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, endocrine and vascular diseases and/or disorders, particularly diseases associated with the vascular endothelium. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the vascular system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., endocrine, vascular, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0561] The tissue distribution in endothelial cells indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for diagnosing and treating disorders that involve the vascular system including diseases such as athersclerosis, neoangiogenesis associated with tumor growth and conditions associated with inflammation. Moreover, the protein is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of a variety of vascular disorders and conditions, which include, but are not limited to miscrovascular disease, vascular leak syndrome, aneurysm, stroke, embolism, thrombosis, coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, and/or atherosclerosis. Alternatively, the protein is useful in the treatment, detection, and/or prevention of metabolic disorders, particularly lethargy and depression. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0562] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:73 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 3660 of SEQ ID NO:73, b is an integer of 15 to 3674, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:73, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0563] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 64

[0564] The translation product of this gene is related to bovine PAM precursor (See, e.g., Genbank accession gi|163482 incorporated herein by reference and also see the following patent publications, which are also incorporated herein by reference in their entirety: J04311386 and WO8902460). Many bioactive peptides terminate with an amino acid alpha-amide at their COOH terminus. The enzyme responsible for this essential posttranslational modification is known as peptidyl-glycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase or PAM. An NH2-terminal signal sequence and short propeptide precede the NH2 terminus of purified PAM. The sequences of several PAM cyanogen bromide peptides were localized in the NH2-terminal half of the predicted protein. The forms of PAM purified from bovine neurointermediate pituitary may be generated by endoproteolytic cleavage at a subset of the 10 pairs of basic amino acids in the precursor. High levels of PAM mRNA have been found in bovine pituitary and cerebral cortex. In corticotropic tumor cells, levels of PAM mRNA and pro-ACTH/endorphin mRNA are known to be regulated in parallel by glucocorticoids and CRF.

[0565] This gene is expressed primarily in endometrial tumors, dendritic cells, a multiple sclerosis library, kidney, hematopoietic cells, melanocytes, osteoblasts, the spleen, colon, ovary, stromal cells, fetal and adult brain, heart, and in tissues undergoing wound repair.

[0566] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, endometriosis, endometrial cancer, multiple sclerosis, hematopoietic diseases, bone disease, and wound healing. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly the hematopoietic system and female reproduction expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., reproductive, immune, hematopoieticm integumentary, skeletal, gastrointestinal, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, amniotic fluid, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0567] The tissue distribution in dendritic and hematopoietic cells and tissues indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful as a therapeutic or diagnostic agent is diseases of hematopoietic origin as well as the female reproductive track due to the gene's primary pattern of expression. Polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of hematopoietic related disorders such as anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia or leukemia since stromal cells are important in the production of cells of hematopoietic lineages. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include bone marrow cell ex-vivo culture, bone marrow transplantation, bone marrow reconstitution, radiotherapy or chemotherapy of neoplasia. The gene product may also be involved in lymphopoiesis, therefore, it can be used in immune disorders such as infection, inflammation, allergy, immunodeficiency etc. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0568] The protein may also have a very wide range of biological activities. Representative uses are described in the “Chemotaxis” and “Binding Activity” sections below, in Examples 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, and 20, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the protein may possess the following activities: cytokine, cell proliferation/differentiation modulating activity or induction of other cytokines; immunostimulating/immunosuppressant activities (e.g. for treating human immunodeficiency virus infection, cancer, autoimmune diseases and allergy); regulation of hematopoiesis (e.g. for treating anemia or as adjunct to chemotherapy); stimulation or growth of bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments and/or nerves (e.g. for treating wounds, stimulation of follicle stimulating hormone (for control of fertility); chemotactic and chemokinetic activities (e.g. for treating infections, tumors); hemostatic or thrombolytic activity (e.g. for treating hemophilia, cardiac infarction etc.); anti-inflammatory activity (e.g. for treating septic shock, Crohn's disease); as antimicrobials; for treating psoriasis or other hyperproliferative diseases; for regulation of metabolism, and behavior. Also contemplated is the use of the corresponding nucleic acid in gene therapy procedures. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0569] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:74 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2783 of SEQ ID NO:74, b is an integer of 15 to 2797, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:74, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0570] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 65

[0571] The translation product of this gene shares sequence similarity with several G-protein coupled receptors (See Genbank Accession No. gb|AAC77910.1| (AF061443); all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated herein by reference; for example, Mol. Endocrinol. 12, 1830-1845 (1998)). G-protein coupled receptors are well known in the are and affect a variety of functions.

[0572] In particular, the translation product of this gene shares similarity with Follical Stimulating Hormone Receptor. Preferred polypeptides encoded by this gene comprise the following amino acid sequence:

GTRFPTGETPSLGFTVTLVLLNSLAFLLMAVIYTKLYCNLEKEDLSENSQSSMI (SEQ ID NO: 258).
KHVAWLIFTNCIFFCPVAFFSFAPLITAISISPEIMKSVTLIFFP

[0573] Polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides are also provided.

[0574] A preferred polypeptide fragment of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence: MIKHVAWLIFTNCIFFCP VAFFSFAPLITAISISPEIMKSVTLIFFPCLLA (SEQ ID NO: 259). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0575] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

GTRFPTGETPSLGFTVTLVLLNSLAFLLMAVIYTKLYCNLEKEDLSENSQSSMI (SEQ ID NO: 260).
KHVAWLIFTNCIFFCP
VAFFSFAPLITAISISPEIMKSVTLIFFPLPACLNPVLYVFFNPKFKEDWKLLKRR
VTKKSGSVSVSISSQGGCLEQDFYYDCGMYSHLQGNLTVCDCCESFLLTKPV
SCKHLIKSHSCPALAVASCQRPEGYWSDCGTQSAHSDYADEEDSFVSDSSDQ
VQACGRACFYQSRGFPLVRYAYNLPRVKD

[0576] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0577] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 43-59 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Moreover, a cytoplasmic tail encompassing amino acids 60 to 207 of this protein has also been determined. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type Ia membrane proteins.

[0578] Included in this invention as preferred domains are Zinc finger, C2H2 type domains, which were identified using the ProSite analysis tool (Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics). ‘Zinc finger’ domains [1-5] are nucleic acid-binding protein structures first identified in the Xenopus transcription factor TFIIIA. These domains have since been found in numerous nucleic acid-binding proteins.

[0579] A zinc finger domain is composed of 25 to 30 amino-acid residues. There are two cysteine or histidine residues at both extremities of the domain, which are involved in the tetrahedral coordination of a zinc atom. It has been proposed that such a domain interacts with about five nucleotides. A schematic representation of a zinc finger domain is shown below:

[0580] Many classes of zinc fingers are characterized according to the number and positions of the histidine and cysteine residues involved in the zinc atom coordination. In the first class to be characterized, called C2H2, the first pair of zinc coordinating residues are cysteines, while the second pair are histidines. A number of experimental reports have demonstrated the zinc-dependent DNA or RNA binding property of some members of this class. Some of the proteins known to include C2H2-type zinc fingers are listed below. We have indicated, between brackets, the number of zinc finger regions found in each of these proteins; a ‘+’ symbol indicates that only partial sequence data is available and that additional finger domains may be present. In addition to the conserved zinc ligand residues it has been shown that a number of other positions are also important for the structural integrity of the C2H2 zinc fingers. The best conserved position is found four residues after the second cysteine; it is generally an aromatic or aliphatic residue. The concensus pattern is as follows: C-x(2,4)-C-x(3)-[LIVNIFYWC]-x(8)-H-x(3,5)-H.

[0581] Preferred polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence: CDCCESFLLTKPVSCKHLIKSH (SEQ ID NO: 261). Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0582] Further preferred are polypeptides comprising the Zinc finger, C2H2 type domain of the sequence referenced in Table for this gene, and at least 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 50, or 75 additional contiguous amino acid residues of this referenced sequence. The additional contiguous amino acid residues may be N-terminal or C-terminal to the Zinc finger, C2H2 type domain. Alternatively, the additional contiguous amino acid residues may be both N-terminal and C-terminal to the Zinc finger, C2H2 type domain, wherein the total N- and C-terminal contiguous amino acid residues equal the specified number. The above preferred polypeptide domain is characteristic of a signature specific to zinc finger proteins. Based on the sequence similarity, the translation product of this gene is expected to share at least some biological activities with G-coupled proteins, their receptors, and zinc finger proteins. Such activities are known in the art, some of which are described elsewhere herein.

[0583] This gene is expressed primarily in adult and fetal liver, human placenta, colon carcinoma cell lines and fibroblasts and to a lesser extent in the fetal and adult brain, the developing nervous system, lung, pancreas, salivary gland, breast tissue, and dendritic cells.

[0584] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, diseases of the liver, developmental abnormalities, neurologic diseases, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and colon cancer. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the neurological and hepatic origin, as well as the proliferation and/or differentiation of numerous types of tissues expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., hepatic, immune, hematopoietic, neural, gastrointestinal, reproductive, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, amniotic fluid, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 167 as residues: Pro-62 to Asp-67, Arg-74 to Gly-80, Gln-146 to Glu-168. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0585] The tissue distribution in fetal liver indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for a diagnostic marker or therapeutic in a wide variety of disease states. Polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for the treatment and diagnosis of hematopoietic related disorders such as anemia, pancytopenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia or leukemia since stromal cells are important in the production of cells of hematopoietic lineages. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include bone marrow cell ex-vivo culture, bone marrow transplantation, bone marrow reconstitution, radiotherapy or chemotherapy of neoplasia. The gene product may also be involved in lymphopoiesis, therefore, it can be used in immune disorders such as infection, inflammation, allergy, immunodeficiency etc. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types.

[0586] Alternatively, the protein expression in placental and brain tissue indicates the protein is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of vascular conditions, which include, but are not limited to, microvascular disease, vascular leak syndrome, aneurysm, stroke, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, or embolism. For example, this gene product may represent a soluble factor produced by smooth muscle that regulates the innervation of organs or regulates the survival of neighboring neurons. Likewise, it is involved in controlling the digestive process, and such actions as peristalsis. Similarly, it is involved in controlling the vasculature in areas where smooth muscle surrounds the endothelium of blood vessels. The protein is useful in the treatment, detection, and/or prevention of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections, particularly infections caused by HIV-1 or HIV-2; pain; cancers; anorexia; bulimia; asthma; Parkinson's disease; acute heart failure; hypotension; hypertension; urinary retention; osteoporosis; angina pectoris; myocardial infarction; ulcers; allergies; benign prostatic hypertrophy; and psychotic and neurological disorders, including anxiety, schizophrenia, manic depression, delirium, severe mental retardation and dyskinesias, such as Huntington's disease or Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0587] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:75 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2689 of SEQ ID NO:75, b is an integer of 15 to 2703, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:75, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0588] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 66

[0589] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

ALENSGSPGLQDSARAHFNXSLRSFSFLRNQMYIFELSLYLEGTSFVVVLLFLLISVSLDSPPTTKGWDS VLHIWVPLIVQ (SEQ ID NO: 262).

[0590] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0591] This gene is expressed primarily in placenta and in hematopoietic cells, especially those of T-cell and monocyte origin and to a lesser extent in the brain, endothelial cells, and the lungs.

[0592] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, hematopoietic, vascular, and developmental diseases and/or disorders. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., vascular, immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 168 as residues: Ser-30 to Trp-37. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0593] The tissue distribution in hematopoietic cells indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for therapeutic and/or diagnostic intervention in hematopoietic and developmental disorders. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include bone marrow cell ex-vivo culture, bone marrow transplantation, bone marrow reconstitution, radiotherapy or chemotherapy of neoplasia. The gene product may also be involved in lymphopoiesis, therefore, it can be used in immune disorders such as infection, inflammation, allergy, immunodeficiency etc. In addition, this gene product may have commercial utility in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Alternatively, the protein is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of vascular conditions, which include, but are not limited to, microvascular disease, vascular leak syndrome, aneurysm, stroke, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, or embolism. For example, this gene product may represent a soluble factor produced by smooth muscle that regulates the innervation of organs or regulates the survival of neighboring neurons. Likewise, it is involved in controlling the digestive process, and such actions as peristalsis. Similarly, it is involved in controlling the vasculature in areas where smooth muscle surrounds the endothelium of blood vessels. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0594] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:76 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 728 of SEQ ID NO:76, b is an integer of 15 to 742, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:76, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0595] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 67

[0596] This gene is expressed primarily in the prostate and to a lesser extent in human B-cell lymphomas.

[0597] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, prostate cancer and diseases of hematopoietic origin, particularly of B-cells. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the prostate and immune systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., prostate, reproductive, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, seminal fluid, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 169 as residues: Asp-33 to Lys-42. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0598] The tissue distribution in prostate tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful as a therapeutic or diagnostic marker for prostate cancer and disorders involving hematopoietic cells, especially those of B-cell origin. Moreover, the expression within cellular sources marked by proliferating cells indicates this protein may play a role in the regulation of cellular division, and may show utility in the diagnosis, treatment, and/or prevention of developmental diseases and disorders, including cancer, and other proliferative conditions. Representative uses are described in the “Hyperproliferative Disorders” and “Regeneration” sections below and elsewhere herein. Briefly, developmental tissues rely on decisions involving cell differentiation and/or apoptosis in pattern formation. Dysregulation of apoptosis can result in inappropriate suppression of cell death, as occurs in the development of some cancers, or in failure to control the extent of cell death, as is believed to occur in acquired immunodeficiency and certain neurodegenerative disorders, such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Because of potential roles in proliferation and differentiation, this gene product may have applications in the adult for tissue regeneration and the treatment of cancers. It may also act as a morphogen to control cell and tissue type specification. Therefore, the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention are useful in treating, detecting, and/or preventing said disorders and conditions, in addition to other types of degenerative conditions. Thus this protein may modulate apoptosis or tissue differentiation and is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of degenerative or proliferative conditions and diseases. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant polypeptides, as may exist in proliferating and cancerous cells and tissues. The protein can also be used to gain new insight into the regulation of cellular growth and proliferation. The protein is useful in modulating the immune response to aberrant proteins and polypeptides, as may exist in rapidly proliferating cells and tissues. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0599] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:77 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1811 of SEQ ID NO:77, b is an integer of 15 to 1825, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:77, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0600] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 68

[0601] When tested against U937 cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS (gamma activating sequence) promoter element. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid cells through the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. GAS is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0602] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

GHESICGSCRSWIYFSIRCRRRMRPWWSLLLEACATCAQTGPTRSTSCTQ
EVSHSSSTAYPAPMRRRCCL PSPRSCT
(SEQ ID NO: 263).

[0603] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0604] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 17. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 17.

[0605] This gene is expressed primarily in the brain and the developing embryo and to a lesser extent in the heart, colon, adipose tissue, kidney, mammary tissue, activated T-cells and dendritic cells.

[0606] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, neurological diseases, developmental conditions, colon cancer, and hematopoietic diseases, especially of T-cell origin. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the central nervous system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., neural, developmental, cardiovascular, adipose, immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 170 as residues: Thr-18 to Cys-26, Glu-29 to Thr-36, Ser-50 to Thr-55. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0607] The tissue distribution in brain, combined with the detected GAS biological activity, indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful for therapeutic and/or diagnostic agents in neurological diseases, developmental abnormalities, colon cancer, and hematopoietic diseases, especially those of T-cell origin. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0608] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:78 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1660 of SEQ ID NO:78, b is an integer of 15 to 1674, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:78, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0609] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 69

[0610] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 2-18 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type II membrane proteins.

[0611] In another embodiment, polypeptides comprising the amino acid sequence of the open reading frame upstream of the predicted signal peptide are contemplated by the present invention. Specifically, polypeptides of the invention comprise the following amino acid sequence:

KRAGVEVGGLVMALAGSVFVLGGVLVLCVERNGEGEMGWPQHLPKSQPLS
PPVAVRRCSFERSWIDLLVETSSSMVTCRQQVGTPNGMEGRGGGPKTTFP
IRLQLSGACAVRPEIQWEV
(SEQ ID NO: 264).

[0612] Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0613] This gene is expressed primarily in activated monocytes, dendritic cells, and in the tonsils.

[0614] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, immune and hematopoietic diseases and/or disorders, particularly leukemia, lymphomas, tumors of hematopoietic origin. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the hematopoietic system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 171 as residues: Gln-30 to Leu-38, Asn-75 to Thr-86. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also provided.

[0615] The tissue distribution in activated monocytes, dendritic cells, and tonsils indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful as a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent for leukemias, lymphomas, and other diseases associated with cells of hematopoietic origin. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma. Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0616] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:79 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 2177 of SEQ ID NO:79, b is an integer of 15 to 2191, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:79, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0617] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 70

[0618] When tested against U937 cell lines, supernatants removed from cells containing this gene activated the GAS (gamma activating sequence) promoter element. Thus, it is likely that this gene activates myeloid cells, and to a lesser extent, other immune cells and tissue cell types, through the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. GAS is a promoter element found upstream of many genes which are involved in the Jak-STAT pathway. The Jak-STAT pathway is a large, signal transduction pathway involved in the differentiation and proliferation of cells. Therefore, activation of the Jak-STAT pathway, reflected by the binding of the GAS element, can be used to indicate proteins involved in the proliferation and differentiation of cells.

[0619] The gene encoding the disclosed cDNA is believed to reside on chromosome 12. Accordingly, polynucleotides related to this invention are useful as a marker in linkage analysis for chromosome 12.

[0620] This gene is expressed primarily in the placenta, brain, and liver and to a lesser extent in most other tissues.

[0621] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, hematopoietic, neurological, vascular, and developmental diseases and/or disorders, particularly cancers. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune and nervous systems, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., hematopoietic, neurological, vascular, developmental, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, amniotic fluid, bile, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder.

[0622] The tissue distribution in brain tissue indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent in a multitude of disease states, particularly those involving the immune and neurologic systems. Representative uses are described in the “Regeneration” and “Hyperproliferative Disorders” sections below, in Example 11, 15, and 18, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the uses include, but are not limited to the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Tourette Syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, demyelinating diseases, peripheral neuropathies, neoplasia, trauma, congenital malformations, spinal cord injuries, ischemia and infarction, aneurysms, hemorrhages, schizophrenia, mania, dementia, paranoia, obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, panic disorder, learning disabilities, ALS, psychoses, autism, and altered behaviors, including disorders in feeding, sleep patterns, balance, and perception. In addition, elevated expression of this gene product in regions of the brain indicates it plays a role in normal neural function. Potentially, this gene product is involved in synapse formation, neurotransmission, learning, cognition, homeostasis, or neuronal differentiation or survival. Moreover, the protein is useful in the detection, treatment, and/or prevention of a variety of vascular disorders and conditions, which include, but are not limited to miscrovascular disease, vascular leak syndrome, aneurysm, stroke, embolism, thrombosis, coronary artery disease, arteriosclerosis, and/or atherosclerosis. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, to raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0623] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:80 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1321 of SEQ ID NO:80, b is an integer of 15 to 1335, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:80, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

[0624] Features of Protein Encoded by Gene No: 71

[0625] The translation product of this gene shares sequence homology with the murine FIG. 1 (interleukin-four induced gene 1) (See Genbank Accession No AAB51353; all references available through this accession are hereby incorporated herein by reference; for example Chu, C. C. and Paul, W. E., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (6), 2507-2512 (1997)). which shares homology to the monoamine oxidases, particularly in domains responsible for FAD binding.

[0626] Preferred polypeptides encoded by this gene comprise the following amino acid sequence:

QDWKAERSQDPFEKCMQDPDYEQLLKVTILEADNRIGGRIFTYRDQXTGW
IGELGAMRMPSSHRILHKLCQGLGLNLTKFTQYDKNTWTEVHEXKLRNYV
VEKVPEKLGYALRPQEKGHSPEDIYQMALNQALKDLKALGCRKAMKKFER
HTLLEYLLGEGNLSRPAVQLLGDVMSEDGFFYLSFAEALRAXSCLSDRLQ
YSRIVGGWDLLPRALLSSLSGLVLLNAPVVAMTQGPHDVHVQIETSPPAR
NLKVLKADVVLLTASGPAVKRITFS
(SEQ ID NO: 265), and/or
LPRHMQEALRRLHYVPATKVFLSFRRPFWREEHIEGGHSNTDRPSRMIFY
PPPREGALLLASYTWSDAAAAFAGLSREEALRLALDDVAALHGPVVRQLW
DGTGVVKRWAEDQHSQGGFVVQXPALWQTEKDDWTVPYGRIYFAGEHTAY
PHGWVETAVKSALRAAIKINSRKGPASDTASPEGHASDMEGQGHVHGVAS
SPSHDLAKEEGS
(SEQ ID NO: 266).

[0627] Polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides are also provided.

[0628] A preferred polypeptide fragment of the invention comprises the following amino acid sequence:

MAPLALHLLVLVPILLSLVASQDWKAERSQDPFEKCMQDPDYEQLLKVTI
LEADNRIGGRIFTYRDQXTGWIGELGAMRMPSSHRILHKLCQGLGLNLTK
FTQYDKNTWTEVHEXKLRNYVVEKVPEKLGYALRPQEKGHSPEDIYQMAL
NQALKDLKALGCRKAMKKFERHTLLEYLLGEGNLSRPAVQLLGDVMSEDG
FFYLSFAEALRAXSCLSDRLQYSRIVGGWDLLPRALLSSLSGLVLLNAPV
VAMTQGPHDVHVQIETSPPARNLKVLKADVVLLTASGPAVKRITFSPRCP
ATCRRRCGGCTTCRPPRCS
(SEQ ID NO: 267).

[0629] Based on the sequence similarity, the translation product of this gene is expected to share at least some biological activities with monoamine oxidases, disintegrins, metalloproteinases, and apoptosis modulating proteins. Such activities are known in the art, some of which are described elsewhere herein. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also provided.

[0630] The polypeptide of this gene has been determined to have a transmembrane domain at about amino acid position 235-251 of the amino acid sequence referenced in Table 1 for this gene. Moreover, a cytoplasmic tail encompassing amino acids 252 to 319 of this protein has also been determined. Based upon these characteristics, it is believed that the protein product of this gene shares structural features to type Ia membrane proteins.

[0631] This gene is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells, particularly in dendritic cells, and activated monocytes and to a lesser extent in T-cells, endothelial cells, and cells associated with ulcerative colitis.

[0632] Therefore, polynucleotides and polypeptides of the invention are useful as reagents for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s) present in a biological sample and for diagnosis of diseases and conditions which include, but are not limited to, leukemias, lymphomas, and diseases associated with antigen presenting cells, in addition to apoptosis dependant events. Similarly, polypeptides and antibodies directed to these polypeptides are useful in providing immunological probes for differential identification of the tissue(s) or cell type(s). For a number of disorders of the above tissues or cells, particularly of the immune system, expression of this gene at significantly higher or lower levels may be routinely detected in certain tissues or cell types (e.g., immune, hematopoietic, and cancerous and wounded tissues) or bodily fluids (e.g., lymph, serum, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) or another tissue or cell sample taken from an individual having such a disorder, relative to the standard gene expression level, i.e., the expression level in healthy tissue or bodily fluid from an individual not having the disorder. Preferred polypeptides of the present invention comprise immunogenic epitopes shown in SEQ ID NO: 173 as residues: Gln-22 to Gln-44, Ala-90 to Gly-95, Lys-137 to Trp-146, Arg-171 to Asp-181, Glu-370 to Ser-380, Asp-447 to Gly-452, Gln-463 to Trp-469, Asn-504 to Ala-510, Asp-512 to His-519, Ala-541 to Val-550, Asn-558 to His-566. Polynucleotides encoding said polypeptides are also-provided.

[0633] The tissue distribution immune and hematopoietic cells and tissues, combined with the homology to the murine FIG. 1 gene indicates that polynucleotides and polypeptides corresponding to this gene are useful as a therapeutic and/or diagnostic agent for hematopoietic diseases, especially those associated with antigen presenting cells. Representative uses are described in the “Immune Activity” and “Infectious Disease” sections below, in Example 11, 13, 14, 16, 18, 19, 20, and 27, and elsewhere herein. Briefly, the expression of this gene product indicates a role in regulating the proliferation; survival; differentiation; and/or activation of hematopoietic cell lineages, including blood stem cells. This gene product is involved in the regulation of cytokine production, antigen presentation, or other processes suggesting a usefulness in the treatment of cancer (e.g. by boosting immune responses). Since the gene is expressed in cells of lymphoid origin, the natural gene product is involved in immune functions. Therefore it is also useful as an agent for immunological disorders including arthritis, asthma, immunodeficiency diseases such as AIDS, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatous disease, inflammatory bowel disease, sepsis, acne, neutropenia, neutrophilia, psoriasis, hypersensitivities, such as T-cell mediated cytotoxicity; immune reactions to transplanted organs and tissues, such as host-versus-graft and graft-versus-host diseases, or autoimmunity disorders, such as autoimmune infertility, lense tissue injury, demyelination, systemic lupus erythematosis, drug induced hemolytic anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren's disease, and scleroderma. Moreover, the protein may represent a secreted factor that influences the differentiation or behavior of other blood cells, or that recruits hematopoietic cells to sites of injury. Thus, this gene product is thought to be useful in the expansion of stem cells and committed progenitors of various blood lineages, and in the differentiation and/or proliferation of various cell types. Furthermore, the protein may also be used to determine biological activity, raise antibodies, as tissue markers, to isolate cognate ligands or receptors, to identify agents that modulate their interactions, in addition to its use as a nutritional supplement. Protein, as well as, antibodies directed against the protein may show utility as a tumor marker and/or immunotherapy targets for the above listed tissues.

[0634] Many polynucleotide sequences, such as EST sequences, are publicly available and accessible through sequence databases. Some of these sequences are related to SEQ ID NO:81 and may have been publicly available prior to conception of the present invention. Preferably, such related polynucleotides are specifically excluded from the scope of the present invention. To list every related sequence is cumbersome. Accordingly, preferably excluded from the present invention are one or more polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence described by the general formula of a-b, where a is any integer between 1 to 1853 of SEQ ID NO:81, b is an integer of 15 to 1867, where both a and b correspond to the positions of nucleotide residues shown in SEQ ID NO:81, and where b is greater than or equal to a +14.

TABLE 1
5′ NT
ATCC NT of AA First Last
Deposit SEQ 5′ NT 3′ NT 5′ NT First SEQ AA AA First Last
No:Z ID Total of of of AA of ID of of AA of AA
Gene cDNA and NO: NT Clone Clone Start Signal NO: Sig Sig Secreted of
No. Clone ID Date Vector X Seq. Seq. Seq. Codon Pep Y Pep Pep Portion ORF
 1 HISCN02 209878 pSport1  11 1113  1 1113 232 232 103 1 26 27 106
05/18/98
 2 HHGDM70 209878 Lambda ZAP  12  983 102  983  69  69 104 1 57 58  86
05/18/98 II
 3 HHPGO40 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  13  973  1  973  68  68 105 1 37 38 302
05/18/98
 3 HHPGO40 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  82  984  1  984  74  74 174 1 37 38 224
05/18/98
 4 HAMGG68 209878 pCMVSport  14 1458  1 1458 312 312 106 1 20 21  55
05/18/98 3.0
 5 HAPOM49 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  15 2005  1 2005 251 251 107 1 22 23 189
05/18/98
 5 HAPOM49 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  83 2664  1 2664 448 448 175 1  1  2 123
05/18/98
 6 HBGBA69 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  16  943  1  933  62  62 108 1 38 39  60
05/18/98
 7 HBJFJ26 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  17 1503 588 1480 290 290 109 1 26 27 128
05/18/98
 7 HBJFJ26 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  84 1328 413 1305 591 591 176 1 20 21  59
05/18/98
 8 HCEDH38 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  18 1512  1 1438 222 222 110 1 26 27  68
05/18/98
 9 HDPOJ08 209878 pCMVSport  19 1655  1 1655 159 159 111 1 18 19 122
05/18/98 3.0
10 HDPRX82 209878 pCMVSport  20 2525  1 2525 128 128 112 1 32 33  82
05/18/98 3.0
11 HELGK31 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  21 1396  25 1334 209 209 113 1 29 30 344
05/18/98
11 HCNUA40 97898 pBluescript  85 1342 949 1237 960 960 177 1 33 34 105
02/26/97
209044
05/15/97
12 HFPCX64 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  22 1069  1 1069 181 181 114 1 28 29 181
05/18/98
12 HFPCX64 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  86 1154  84 1154 257 257 178 1 28 29  87
05/18/98
12 HCEBW71 209225 Uni-ZAP XR  87 1197 141 1197 257 257 179 1 28 29  87
08/28/97
13 HFXDO60 209878 Lambda ZAP  23 1658  1 1658 131 131 115 1 46 47 115
05/18/98 II
14 HHEPG41 209878 pCMVSport  24 1077 385 1043 514 514 116 1 35 36  70
05/18/98 3.0
14 HAUAI83 209072 Uni-ZAP XR  88  910  1  886 253 253 180 1 37 38  49
02/12/98
14 HJPAZ83 209072 Uni-ZAP XR  89 1076 398 1076 575 181 1 11 12  23
02/12/98
15 HKGAH42 209878 pSport1  25 1205  1 1205 143 143 117 1 21 22  63
05/18/98
16 HMIAP86 209878 Uni-ZAP XR  26 1674  13 1674 182 182 118 1 19 20 334
05/18/98
17 HMUAP70 209878 pCMVSport  27 1965 531 1914 183 183 119 1 16 17 221
05/18/98 3.0
17 HMUAP70 209878 pCMVSport  90 1842 407 1783 413 413 182 1 25 26 103
05/18/98 3.0
17 HAGFY16 97923 Uni-ZAP XR  91 1963 209 1922 251 251 183 1 28 29 198
03/07/97
209071
05/22/97
17 HBMCF37 209683 pBluescript  92 1487  79 1487 170 170 184 1 44 45  70
03/20/98
17 HFLQB16 209641 Uni-ZAP XR  93 1653 394 1637 413 413 185 1 25 26  82
02/25/98
17 HAGFY16 97923 Uni-ZAP XR  94 1830  87 1786 128 128 186 1 26 27  45
03/07/97
209071
05/22/97
18 HRACJ35 209878 pCMVSport  28 1863  8 1863  99  99 120 1 24 25 472
05/18/98 3.0
18 HAWAZ34 209141 pBluescript  95 1134 472 1132 687 687 187 1  33
07/09/97 SK-
19 HTWDE26 209878 pSport1  29 1626  1 1626  68  68 121 1 30 31 167
05/18/98
19 HMHBN40 97901 Uni-ZAP XR  96 1772  69 1772 129 129 188 1 30 31 231
02/26/97
209047
05/15/97
20 HUSIB13 209878 pSport1  30  605  1  605 172 172 122 1 32 33  46
05/18/98
21 HBAFA02 209877 pSport1  31  931 359  931  46  46 123 1 21 22 108
5/18/98
22 H2CBT75 209877 pBluescript  32 1407  1 1407  32  32 124 1 23 24  60
5/18/98 SK-
23 HAGDQ42 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  33 1526  1 1526 126 126 125 1 18 19 248
5/18/98
24 HBMCJ42 209877 pBluescript  34 1737  41 1580 244 244 126 1 44 45 248
5/18/98
25 HDPBQ71 209877 pCMVSport  35 2242  6 2242  24  24 127 1 33 34 612
5/18/98 3.0
25 HDPFQ90 PTA-499 pCMVSport  97 2381 162 2381 165 165 189 1 33 34 456
8/11/99 3.0
26 HCEJG71 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  36 2235  2 2235  28  28 128 1 25 26 447
5/18/98
27 HELHL48 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  37 2971 560 2557 629 629 129 1 16 17 291
5/18/98
27 HSKCT36 209580 Uni-ZAP XR  98 1955  1 1955  31  31 190 1 18 19 184
1/14/98
28 HISAQ04 209877 pSport1  38 1163  1 1163  61  61 130 1 21 22  78
5/18/98
29 HJACB89 209877 pBluescript  39 1932  28 1930  95  95 131 1 23 24 333
5/18/98 SK-
30 HTECC05 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  40  881  1  881  27  27 132 1 15 16 164
5/18/98
31 HBJLF01 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  41 1932 201 1931 217 217 133 1 46 47 244
5/18/98
32 HBXGP60 209877 ZAP Express  42 1164  1 1164 143 143 134 1 22 23  55
5/18/98
33 HCE5B20 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  43 1105  1 1105 237 237 135 1 25 26  54
5/18/98
34 HCMSQ56 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  44 1262  1 1262 148 148 136 1 19 20  88
5/18/98
35 HCNAH57 209877 Lambda ZAP  45  517  1  517  35  35 137 1 33 34  61
5/18/98 II
36 HCUEP91 209877 ZAP Express  46  858  2  858 266 266 138 1 20 21 105
5/18/98
37 HDPCJ91 209877 pCMVSport  47 6107  1 6107 131 131 139 1 28 29  51
5/18/98 3.0
38 HDPGK25 209877 pCMVSport  48  703  1  703 345 345 140 1 33 34 119
5/18/98 3.0
39 HE2DY70 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  49  639  1  639 137 137 141 1 45 46  58
5/18/98
40 HE2NV57 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  50  867  1  867  99  99 142 1 36 37  99
5/18/98
41 HETBR16 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  51 1569  1 1569 161 161 143 1 21 22  64
5/18/98
42 HFXDG13 209877 Lambda ZAP  52 1196  1 1196  43  43 144 1 37 38  66
5/18/98 II
43 HFXKY27 209877 Lambda ZAP  53  945  1  945  44  44 145 1 19 20  58
5/18/98 II
44 HHPEC09 209877 Uni-ZAP XR  54  488  1  488  71  71 146 1 19 20  55
5/18/98
45 HISAD54 209877 pSport1  55 2860  1 2860 172 172 147 1 19 20  65
5/18/98
46 HJBCY35 209877 pBluescript  56 1559  93 1272 232 232 148 1 23 24 327
5/18/98 SK-
47 HKAEA19 209877 pCMVSport  57 2064  1 1909  83  83 149 1 21 22  89
5/18/98 2.0
48 HKGDL36 209877 pSport1  58 1050  1 1050  55  55 150 1 33 34 148
5/18/98
49 HLDBS43 209877 pCMVSport  59 2533  1 2533  73  73 151 1 26 27 390
5/18/98 3.0
50 HLWAD92 209877 pCMVSport  60  899  1  899 197 197 152 1 34 35  98
5/18/98 3.0
51 HLYBI15 209877 pSport1  61 1079  1 1079  92  92 153 1 22 23  60
5/18/98
52 HMEJE05 209889 Lambda ZAP  62 1928  1 1928  25  25 154 1 30 31 392
05/22/98 II
53 HNGIX55 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  63  781  1  781 121 121 155 1 19 20  74
05/22/98
54 HNHEX30 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  64 1194  1 1194 138 138 156 1 15 16  81
05/22/98
55 HPJBI33 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  65 1677  1 1677 236 236 157 1 31 32  53
05/22/98
56 HRABA80 209889 pCMVSport  66 1237  1 1237 130 130 158 1 28 29 102
05/22/98 3.0
57 HRACD80 209889 pCMVSport  67 1934  1 1934 191 191 159 1 16 17 575
05/22/98 3.0
57 HRACD80 209889 pCMVSport  99 1958  1 1958 191 191 191 1 16 17 146
05/22/98 3.0
58 HSLCX03 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  68 3300 984 2729 677 677 160 1 22 23 643
05/22/98
58 HSLCX03 209889 Uni-ZAP XR 100 2444  1 2444 392 392 192 1 22 23 124
05/22/98
59 HT5GJ57 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  69 1797  92 1797 122 122 161 1 25 26 190
05/22/98
60 HTACS42 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  70 1373  1 1373 213 213 162 1 29 30  63
05/22/98
61 HTEKE40 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  71 1579  1 1579 173 173 163 1 47 48 117
05/22/98
62 HTOBX69 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  72 1028  1 1028  28  28 164 1 20 21  42
05/22/98
63 HUVEO77 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  73 3674  1 3674  55  55 165 1 27 28  47
05/22/98
64 H2CBG48 209889 pBluescript  74 2797  1 2797 125 125 166 1 25 26  45
05/22/98 SK-
65 H2CBU83 209889 pBluescript  75 2703  1 2703 157 157 167 1 30 31 207
05/22/98 SK-
65 H2CBU83 209889 pBluescript 101 2709  1 2709 157 157 193 1 30 31  51
05/22/98 SK-
66 HAPNY94 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  76  742  1  742  94  94 168 1 29 30  50
05/22/98
67 HBJHZ58 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  77 1825  1 1825 102 102 169 1 29 30  42
05/22/98
68 HCE2B33 209889 Uni-ZAP XR  78 1674  1 1668  67  67 170 1 18 19  55
05/22/98
69 HDPBQ02 209889 pCMVSport  79 2191 291 2191 460 460 171 1 24 25 108
05/22/98 3.0
70 HFIYI70 209889 pSport1  80 1335  1 1335  43  43 172 1 15 16  50
05/22/98
71 HDPOZ56 209889 pCMVSport  81 1867 415 1867 103 103 173 1 21 22 566
05/22/98 3.0
71 HDPOZ56 209889 pCMVSport 102 1722  1 1722  59  59 194 1 21 22 319
05/22/98 3.0

[0635] Table 1 summarizes the information corresponding to each “Gene No.” described above. The nucleotide sequence identified as “NT SEQ ID NO:X” was assembled from partially homologous (“overlapping”) sequences obtained from the “cDNA clone ID” identified in Table 1 and, in some cases, from additional related DNA clones. The overlapping sequences were assembled into a single contiguous sequence of high redundancy (usually three to five overlapping sequences at each nucleotide position), resulting in a final sequence identified as SEQ ID NO:X.

[0636] The cDNA Clone ID was deposited on the date and given the corresponding deposit number listed in “ATCC Deposit No:Z and Date.” Some of the deposits contain multiple different clones corresponding to the same gene. “Vector” refers to the type of vector contained in the cDNA Clone ID.

[0637] “Total NT Seq.” refers to the total number of nucleotides in the contig identified by “Gene No.” The deposited clone may contain all or most of these sequences, reflected by the nucleotide position indicated as “5′ NT of Clone Seq.” and the “3′ NT of Clone Seq.” of SEQ ID NO:X. The nucleotide position of SEQ ID NO:X of the putative start codon (methionine) is identified as “5′ NT of Start Codon.” Similarly, the nucleotide position of SEQ ID NO:X of the predicted signal sequence is identified as “5′ NT of First AA of Signal Pep.”

[0638] The translated amino acid sequence, beginning with the methionine, is identified as “AA SEQ ID NO:Y,” although other reading frames can also be easily translated using known molecular biology techniques. The polypeptides produced by these alternative open reading frames are specifically contemplated by the present invention.

[0639] The first and last amino acid position of SEQ ID NO:Y of the predicted signal peptide is identified as “First AA of Sig Pep” and “Last AA of Sig Pep.” The predicted first amino acid position of SEQ ID NO:Y of the secreted portion is identified as “Predicted First AA of Secreted Portion.” Finally, the amino acid position of SEQ ID NO:Y of the last amino acid in the open reading frame is identified as “Last AA of ORF.”

[0640] SEQ ID NO:X (where X may be any of the polynucleotide sequences disclosed in the sequence listing) and the translated SEQ ID NO:Y (where Y may be any of the polypeptide sequences disclosed in the sequence listing) are sufficiently accurate and otherwise suitable for a variety of uses well known in the art and described further below. For instance, SEQ ID NO:X is useful for designing nucleic acid hybridization probes that will detect nucleic acid sequences contained in SEQ ID NO:X or the cDNA contained in the deposited clone. These probes will also hybridize to nucleic acid molecules in biological samples, thereby enabling a variety of forensic and diagnostic methods of the invention. Similarly, polypeptides identified from SEQ ID NO:Y may be used, for example, to generate antibodies which bind specifically to proteins containing the polypeptides and the secreted proteins encoded by the cDNA clones identified in Table 1.

[0641] Nevertheless, DNA sequences generated by sequencing reactions can contain sequencing errors. The errors exist as misidentified nucleotides, or as insertions or deletions of nucleotides in the generated DNA sequence. The erroneously inserted or deleted nucleotides cause frame shifts in the reading frames of the predicted amino acid sequence. In these cases, the predicted amino acid sequence diverges from the actual amino acid sequence, even though the generated DNA sequence may be greater than 99.9% identical to the actual DNA sequence (for example, one base insertion or deletion in an open reading frame of over 1000 bases).

[0642] Accordingly, for those applications requiring precision in the nucleotide sequence or the amino acid sequence, the present invention provides not only the generated nucleotide sequence identified as SEQ ID NO:X and the predicted translated amino acid sequence identified as SEQ ID NO:Y, but also a sample of plasmid DNA containing a human cDNA of the invention deposited with the ATCC, as set forth in Table 1. The nucleotide sequence of each deposited clone can readily be determined by sequencing the deposited clone in accordance with known methods. The predicted amino acid sequence can then be verified from such deposits. Moreover, the amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by a particular clone can also be directly determined by peptide sequencing or by expressing the protein in a suitable host cell containing the deposited human cDNA, collecting the protein, and determining its sequence.

[0643] The present invention also relates to the genes corresponding to SEQ ID NO:X, SEQ ID NO:Y, or the deposited clone. The corresponding gene can be isolated in accordance with known methods using the sequence information disclosed herein. Such methods include preparing probes or primers from the disclosed sequence and identifying or amplifying the corresponding gene from appropriate sources of genomic material.

[0644] Also provided in the present invention are allelic variants, orthologs, and/or species homologs. Procedures known in the art can be used to obtain full-length genes, allelic variants, splice variants, full-length coding portions, orthologs, and/or species homologs of genes corresponding to SEQ ID NO:X, SEQ ID NO:Y, or a deposited clone, using information from the sequences disclosed herein or the clones deposited with the ATCC. For example, allelic variants and/or species homologs may be isolated and identified by making suitable probes or primers from the sequences provided herein and screening a suitable nucleic acid source for allelic variants and/or the desired homologue.

[0645] The polypeptides of the invention can be prepared in any suitable manner. Such polypeptides include isolated naturally occurring polypeptides, recombinantly produced polypeptides, synthetically produced polypeptides, or polypeptides produced by a combination of these methods. Means for preparing such polypeptides are well understood in the art.

[0646] The polypeptides may be in the form of the secreted protein, including the mature form, or may be a part of a larger protein, such as a fusion protein (see below). It is often advantageous to include an additional amino acid sequence which contains secretory or leader sequences, pro-sequences, sequences which aid in purification, such as multiple histidine residues, or an additional sequence for stability during recombinant production.

[0647] The polypeptides of the present invention are preferably provided in an isolated form, and preferably are substantially purified. A recombinantly produced version of a polypeptide, including the secreted polypeptide, can be substantially purified using techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art, such as, for example, by the one-step method described in Smith and Johnson, Gene 67:31-40 (1988). Polypeptides of the invention also can be purified from natural, synthetic or recombinant sources using techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art, such as, for example, antibodies of the invention raised against the secreted protein.

[0648] The present invention provides a polynucleotide comprising, or alternatively consisting of, the nucleic acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:X, and/or a cDNA contained in ATCC deposit Z. The present invention also provides a polypeptide comprising, or alternatively, consisting of, the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y and/or a polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in ATCC deposit Z. Polynucleotides encoding a polypeptide comprising, or alternatively consisting of the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y and/or a polypeptide sequence encoded by the cDNA contained in ATCC deposit Z are also encompassed by the invention.

[0649] Signal Sequences

[0650] The present invention also encompasses mature forms of the polypeptide having the polypeptide sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y and/or the polypeptide sequence encoded by the cDNA in a deposited clone. Polynucleotides encoding the mature forms (such as, for example, the polynucleotide sequence in SEQ ID NO:X and/or the polynucleotide sequence contained in the cDNA of a deposited clone) are also encompassed by the invention. According to the signal hypothesis, proteins secreted by mammalian cells have a signal or secretary leader sequence which is cleaved from the mature protein once export of the growing protein chain across the rough endoplasmic reticulum has been initiated. Most mammalian cells and even insect cells cleave secreted proteins with the same specificity. However, in some cases, cleavage of a secreted protein is not entirely uniform, which results in two or more mature species of the protein. Further, it has long been known that cleavage specificity of a secreted protein is ultimately determined by the primary structure of the complete protein, that is, it is inherent in the amino acid sequence of the polypeptide.

[0651] Methods for predicting whether a protein has a signal sequence, as well as the cleavage point for that sequence, are available. For instance, the method of McGeoch, Virus Res. 3:271-286 (1985), uses the information from a short N-terminal charged region and a subsequent uncharged region of the complete (uncleaved) protein. The method of von Heinje, Nucleic Acids Res. 14:4683-4690 (1986) uses the information from the residues surrounding the cleavage site, typically residues −13 to +2, where +1 indicates the amino terminus of the secreted protein. The accuracy of predicting the cleavage points of known mammalian secretory proteins for each of these methods is in the range of 75-80%. (von Heinje, supra.) However, the two methods do not always produce the same predicted cleavage point(s) for a given protein.

[0652] In the present case, the deduced amino acid sequence of the secreted polypeptide was analyzed by a computer program called SignalP (Henrik Nielsen et al., Protein Engineering 10:1-6 (1997)), which predicts the cellular location of a protein based on the amino acid sequence. As part of this computational prediction of localization, the methods of McGeoch and von Heinje are incorporated. The analysis of the amino acid sequences of the secreted proteins described herein by this program provided the results shown in Table 1.

[0653] As one of ordinary skill would appreciate, however, cleavage sites sometimes vary from organism to organism and cannot be predicted with absolute certainty. Accordingly, the present invention provides secreted polypeptides having a sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:Y which have an N-terminus beginning within 5 residues (i.e., + or −5 residues) of the predicted cleavage point. Similarly, it is also recognized that in some cases, cleavage of the signal sequence from a secreted protein is not entirely uniform, resulting in more than one secreted species. These polypeptides, and the polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides, are contemplated by the present invention.

[0654] Moreover, the signal sequence identified by the above analysis may not necessarily predict the naturally occurring signal sequence. For example, the naturally occurring signal sequence may be further upstream from the predicted signal sequence. However, it is likely that the predicted signal sequence will be capable of directing the secreted protein to the ER. Nonetheless, the present invention provides the mature protein produced by expression of the polynucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X and/or the polynucleotide sequence contained in the cDNA of a deposited clone, in a mammalian cell (e.g., COS cells, as desribed below). These polypeptides, and the polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides, are contemplated by the present invention.

[0655] Polynucleotide and Polypeptide Variants

[0656] The present invention is directed to variants of the polynucleotide sequence disclosed in SEQ ID NO:X, the complementary strand thereto, and/or the cDNA sequence contained in a deposited clone.

[0657] The present invention also encompasses variants of the polypeptide sequence disclosed in SEQ ID NO:Y and/or encoded by a deposited clone. “Variant” refers to a polynucleotide or polypeptide differing from the polynucleotide or polypeptide of the present invention, but retaining essential properties thereof. Generally, variants are overall closely similar, and, in many regions, identical to the polynucleotide or polypeptide of the present invention.

[0658] The present invention is also directed to nucleic acid molecules which comprise, or alternatively consist of, a nucleotide sequence which is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to, for example, the nucleotide coding sequence in SEQ ID NO:X or the complementary strand thereto, the nucleotide coding sequence contained in a deposited cDNA clone or the complementary strand thereto, a nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO:Y, a nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide encoded by the cDNA contained in a deposited clone, and/or polynucleotide fragments of any of these nucleic acid molecules (e.g., those fragments described herein). Polynucleotides which hybridize to these nucleic acid molecules under stringent hybridization conditions or lower stringency conditions are also encompassed by the invention, as are polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides.

[0659] The present invention is also directed to polypeptides which comprise, or alternatively consist of, an amino acid sequence which is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98%, 99% identical to, for example, the polypeptide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:Y, the polypeptide sequence encoded by the cDNA contained in a deposited clone, and/or polypeptide fragments of any of these polypeptides (e.g., those fragments described herein).

[0660] By a nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence at least, for example, 95% “identical” to a reference nucleotide sequence of the present invention, it is intended that the nucleotide sequence of the nucleic acid is identical to the reference sequence except that the nucleotide sequence may include up to five point mutations per each 100 nucleotides of the reference nucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide. In other words, to obtain a nucleic acid having a nucleotide sequence at least 95% identical to a reference nucleotide sequence, up to 5% of the nucleotides in the reference sequence may be deleted or substituted with another nucleotide, or a number of nucleotides up to 5% of the total nucleotides in the reference sequence may be inserted into the reference sequence. The query sequence may be an entire sequence shown in Table 1, the ORF (open reading frame), or any fragment specified as described herein.

[0661] As a practical matter, whether any particular nucleic acid molecule or polypeptide is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to a nucleotide sequence of the presence invention can be determined conventionally using known computer programs. A preferred method for determining the best overall match between a query sequence (a sequence of the present invention) and a subject sequence, also referred to as a global sequence alignment, can be determined using the FASTDB computer program based on the algorithm of Brutlag et al. (Comp. App. Biosci. 6:237-245(1990)). In a sequence alignment the query and subject sequences are both DNA sequences. An RNA sequence can be compared by converting U's to T's. The result of said global sequence alignment is in percent identity. Preferred parameters used in a FASTDB alignment of DNA sequences to calculate percent identiy are: Matrix=Unitary, k-tuple=4, Mismatch Penalty=1, Joining Penalty=30, Randomization Group Length=0, Cutoff Score=1, Gap Penalty=5, Gap Size Penalty 0.05, Window Size=500 or the lenght of the subject nucleotide sequence, whichever is shorter.

[0662] If the subject sequence is shorter than the query sequence because of 5′ or 3′ deletions, not because of internal deletions, a manual correction must be made to the results. This is because the FASTDB program does not account for 5′ and 3′ truncations of the subject sequence when calculating percent identity. For subject sequences truncated at the 5′ or 3′ ends, relative to the query sequence, the percent identity is corrected by calculating the number of bases of the query sequence that are 5′ and 3′ of the subject sequence, which are not matched/aligned, as a percent of the total bases of the query sequence. Whether a nucleotide is matched/aligned is determined by results of the FASTDB sequence alignment. This percentage is then subtracted from the percent identity, calculated by the above FASTDB program using the specified parameters, to arrive at a final percent identity score. This corrected score is what is used for the purposes of the present invention. Only bases outside the 5′ and 3′ bases of the subject sequence, as displayed by the FASTDB alignment, which are not matched/aligned with the query sequence, are calculated for the purposes of manually adjusting the percent identity score.

[0663] For example, a 90 base subject sequence is aligned to a 100 base query sequence to determine percent identity. The deletions occur at the 5′ end of the subject sequence and therefore, the FASTDB alignment does not show a matched/alignment of the first 10 bases at 5′ end. The 10 unpaired bases represent 10% of the sequence (number of bases at the 5′ and 3′ ends not matched/total number of bases in the query sequence) so 10% is subtracted from the percent identity score calculated by the FASTDB program. If the remaining 90 bases were perfectly matched the final percent identity would be 90%. In another example, a 90 base subject sequence is compared with a 100 base query sequence. This time the deletions are internal deletions so that there are no bases on the 5′ or 3′ of the subject sequence which are not matched/aligned with the query. In this case the percent identity calculated by FASTDB is not manually corrected. Once again, only bases 5′ and 3′ of the subject sequence which are not matched/aligned with the query sequence are manually corrected for. No other manual corrections are to made for the purposes of the present invention.

[0664] By a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence at least, for example, 95% “identical” to a query amino acid sequence of the present invention, it is intended that the amino acid sequence of the subject polypeptide is identical to the query sequence except that the subject polypeptide sequence may include up to five amino acid alterations per each 100 amino acids of the query amino acid sequence. In other words, to obtain a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a query amino acid sequence, up to 5% of the amino acid residues in the subject sequence may be inserted, deleted, (indels) or substituted with another amino acid. These alterations of the reference sequence may occur at the amino or carboxy terminal positions of the reference amino acid sequence or anywhere between those terminal positions, interspersed either individually among residues in the reference sequence or in one or more contiguous groups within the reference sequence.

[0665] As a practical matter, whether any particular polypeptide is at least 80%, 85%, 90%, 95%, 96%, 97%, 98% or 99% identical to, for instance, an amino acid sequences shown in Table 1 (SEQ ID NO:Y) or to the amino acid sequence encoded by cDNA contained in a deposited clone can be determined conventionally using known computer programs. A preferred method for determing the best overall match between a query sequence (a sequence of the present invention) and a subject sequence, also referred to as a global sequence alignment, can be determined using the FASTDB computer program based on the algorithm of Brutlag et al. (Comp. App. Biosci. 6:237-245(1990)). In a sequence alignment the query and subject sequences are either both nucleotide sequences or both amino acid sequences. The result of said global sequence alignment is in percent identity. Preferred parameters used in a FASTDB amino acid alignment are: Matrix=PAM 0, k-tuple=2, Mismatch Penalty=1, Joining Penalty=20, Randomization Group Length=0, Cutoff Score=1, Window Size=sequence length, Gap Penalty=5, Gap Size Penalty=0.05, Window Size=500 or the length of the subject amino acid sequence, whichever is shorter.

[0666] If the subject sequence is shorter than the query sequence due to N- or C-terminal deletions, not because of internal-deletions, a manual correction must be made to the results. This is because the FASTDB program does not account for N- and C-terminal truncations of the subject sequence when calculating global percent identity. For subject sequences truncated at the N- and C-termini, relative to the query sequence, the percent identity is corrected by calculating the number of residues of the query sequence that are N- and C-terminal of the subject sequence, which are not matched/aligned with a corresponding subject residue, as a percent of the total bases of the query sequence. Whether a residue is matched/aligned is determined by results of the FASTDB sequence alignment. This percentage is then subtracted from the percent identity, calculated by the above FASTDB program using the specified parameters, to arrive at a final percent identity score. This final percent identity score is what is used for the purposes of the present invention. Only residues to the N- and C-termini of the subject sequence, which are not matched/aligned with the query sequence, are considered for the purposes of manually adjusting the percent identity score. That is, only query residue positions outside the farthest N- and C-terminal residues of the subject sequence.

[0667] For example, a 90 amino acid residue subject sequence is aligned with a 100 residue query sequence to determine percent identity. The deletion occurs at the N-terminus of the subject sequence and therefore, the FASTDB alignment does not show a matching/alignment of the first 10 residues at the N-terminus. The 10 unpaired residues represent 10% of the sequence (number of residues at the N- and C-termini not matched/total number of residues in the query sequence) so 10% is subtracted from the percent identity score calculated by the FASTDB program. If the remaining 90 residues were perfectly matched the final percent identity would be 90%. In another example, a 90 residue subject sequence is compared with a 100 residue query sequence. This time the deletions are internal deletions so there are no residues at the N- or C-termini of the subject sequence which are not matched/aligned with the query. In this case the percent identity calculated by FASTDB is not manually corrected. Once again, only residue positions outside the N- and C-terminal ends of the subject sequence, as displayed in the FASTDB alignment, which are not matched/aligned with the query sequnce are manually corrected for. No other manual corrections are to made for the purposes of the present invention.

[0668] The variants may contain alterations in the coding regions, non-coding regions, or both. Especially preferred are polynucleotide variants containing alterations which produce silent substitutions, additions, or deletions, but do not alter the properties or activities of the encoded polypeptide. Nucleotide variants produced by silent substitutions due to the degeneracy of the genetic code are preferred. Moreover, variants in which 5-10, 1-5, or 1-2 amino acids are substituted, deleted, or added in any combination are also preferred. Polynucleotide variants can be produced for a variety of reasons, e.g., to optimize codon expression for a particular host (change codons in the human mRNA to those preferred by a bacterial host such as E. coli).

[0669] Naturally occurring variants are called “allelic variants,” and refer to one of several alternate forms of a gene occupying a given locus on a chromosome of an organism. (Genes II, Lewin, B., ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York (1985).) These allelic variants can vary at either the polynucleotide and/or polypeptide level and are included in the present invention. Alternatively, non-naturally occurring variants may be produced by mutagenesis techniques or by direct synthesis.

[0670] Using known methods of protein engineering and recombinant DNA technology, variants may be generated to improve or alter the characteristics of the polypeptides of the present invention. For instance, one or more amino acids can be deleted from the N-terminus or C-terminus of the secreted protein without substantial loss of biological function. The authors of Ron et al., J. Biol. Chem. 268: 2984-2988 (1993), reported variant KGF proteins having heparin binding activity even after deleting 3, 8, or 27 amino-terminal amino acid residues. Similarly, Interferon gamma exhibited up to ten times higher activity after deleting 8-10 amino acid residues from the carboxy terminus of this protein. (Dobeli et al., J. Biotechnology 7:199-216 (1988).)

[0671] Moreover, ample evidence demonstrates that variants often retain a biological activity similar to that of the naturally occurring protein. For example, Gayle and coworkers (J. Biol. Chem 268:22105-22111 (1993)) conducted extensive mutational analysis of human cytokine IL-1a. They used random mutagenesis to generate over 3,500 individual IL-1a mutants that averaged 2.5 amino acid changes per variant over the entire length of the molecule. Multiple mutations were examined at every possible amino acid position. The investigators found that “[m]ost of the molecule could be altered with little effect on either [binding or biological activity].” (See, Abstract.) In fact, only 23 unique amino acid sequences, out of more than 3,500 nucleotide sequences examined, produced a protein that significantly differed in activity from wild-type.

[0672] Furthermore, even if deleting one or more amino acids from the N-terminus or C-terminus of a polypeptide results in modification or loss of one or more biological functions, other biological activities may still be retained. For example, the ability of a deletion variant to induce and/or to bind antibodies which recognize the secreted form will likely be retained when less than the majority of the residues of the secreted form are removed from the N-terminus or C-terminus. Whether a particular polypeptide lacking N- or C-terminal residues of a protein retains such immunogenic activities can readily be determined by routine methods described herein and otherwise known in the art.

[0673] Thus, the invention further includes polypeptide variants which show substantial biological activity. Such variants include deletions, insertions, inversions, repeats, and substitutions selected according to general rules known in the art so as have little effect on activity. For example, guidance concerning how to make phenotypically silent amino acid substitutions is provided in Bowie et al., Science 247:1306-1310 (1990), wherein the authors indicate that there are two main strategies for studying the tolerance of an amino acid sequence to change.

[0674] The first strategy exploits the tolerance of amino acid substitutions by natural selection during the process of evolution. By comparing amino acid sequences in different species, conserved amino acids can be identified. These conserved amino acids are likely important for protein function. In contrast, the amino acid positions where substitutions have been tolerated by natural selection indicates that these positions are not critical for protein function. Thus, positions tolerating amino acid substitution could be modified while still maintaining biological activity of the protein.

[0675] The second strategy uses genetic engineering to introduce amino acid changes at specific positions of a cloned gene to identify regions critical for protein function. For example, site directed mutagenesis or alanine-scanning mutagenesis (introduction of single alanine mutations at every residue in the molecule) can be used. (Cunningham and Wells, Science 244:1081-1085 (1989).) The resulting mutant molecules can then be tested for biological activity.

[0676] As the authors state, these two strategies have revealed that proteins are surprisingly tolerant of amino acid substitutions. The authors further indicate which amino acid changes are likely to be permissive at certain amino acid positions in the protein. For example, most buried (within the tertiary structure of the protein) amino acid residues require nonpolar side chains, whereas few features of surface side chains are generally conserved. Moreover, tolerated conservative amino acid substitutions involve replacement of the aliphatic or hydrophobic amino acids Ala, Val, Leu and Ile; replacement of the hydroxyl residues Ser and Thr; replacement of the acidic residues Asp and Glu; replacement of the amide residues Asn and Gln, replacement of the basic residues Lys, Arg, and His; replacement of the aromatic residues Phe, Tyr, and Trp, and replacement of the small-sized amino acids Ala, Ser, Thr, Met, and Gly.

[0677] Besides conservative amino acid substitution, variants of the present invention include (i) substitutions with one or more of the non-conserved amino acid residues, where the substituted amino acid residues may or may not be one encoded by the genetic code, or (ii) substitution with one or more of amino acid residues having a substituent group, or (iii) fusion of the mature polypeptide with another compound, such as a compound to increase the stability and/or solubility of the polypeptide (for example, polyethylene glycol), or (iv) fusion of the polypeptide with additional amino acids, such as, for example, an IgG Fc fusion region peptide, or leader or secretory sequence, or a sequence facilitating purification. Such variant polypeptides are deemed to be within the scope of those skilled in the art from the teachings herein.

[0678] For example, polypeptide variants containing amino acid substitutions of charged amino acids with other charged or neutral amino acids may produce proteins with improved characteristics, such as less aggregation. Aggregation of pharmaceutical formulations both reduces activity and increases clearance due to the aggregate's immunogenic activity. (Pinckard et al., Clin. Exp. Immunol. 2:331-340 (1967); Robbins et al., Diabetes 36: 838-845 (1987); Cleland et al., Crit. Rev. Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems 10:307-377 (1993).)

[0679] A further embodiment of the invention relates to a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence of the present invention having an amino acid sequence which contains at least one amino acid substitution, but not more than 50 amino acid substitutions, even more preferably, not more than 40 amino acid substitutions, still more preferably, not more than 30 amino acid substitutions, and still even more preferably, not more than 20 amino acid substitutions. Of course, in order of ever-increasing preference, it is highly preferable for a peptide or polypeptide to have an amino acid sequence which comprises the amino acid sequence of the present invention, which contains at least one, but not more than 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 or 1 amino acid substitutions. In specific embodiments, the number of additions, substitutions, and/or deletions in the amino acid sequence of the present invention or fragments thereof (e.g., the mature form and/or other fragments described herein), is 1-5, 5-10, 5-25, 5-50, 10-50 or 50-150, conservative amino acid substitutions are preferable.

[0680] Polynucleotide and Polypeptide Fragments

[0681] The present invention is also directed to polynucleotide fragments of the polynucleotides of the invention.

[0682] In the present invention, a “polynucleotide fragment” refers to a short polynucleotide having a nucleic acid sequence which: is a portion of that contained in a deposited clone, or encoding the polypeptide encoded by the cDNA in a deposited clone; is a portion of that shown in SEQ ID NO:X or the complementary strand thereto, or is a portion of a polynucleotide sequence encoding the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO:Y. The nucleotide fragments of the invention are preferably at least about 15 nt, and more preferably at least about 20 nt, still more preferably at least about 30 nt, and even more preferably, at least about 40 nt, at least about 50 nt, at least about 75 nt, or at least about 150 nt in length. A fragment “at least 20 nt in length,” for example, is intended to include 20 or more contiguous bases from the cDNA sequence contained in a deposited clone or the nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO:X. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited value, a value larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. These nucleotide fragments have uses that include, but are not limited to, as diagnostic probes and primers as discussed herein. Of course, larger fragments (e.g., 50, 150, 500, 600, 2000 nucleotides) are preferred.

[0683] Moreover, representative examples of polynucleotide fragments of the invention, include, for example, fragments comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a sequence from about nucleotide number 1-50, 51-100, 101-150, 151-200, 201-250, 251-300, 301-350, 351-400, 401-450, 451-500, 501-550, 551-600, 651-700, 701-750, 751-800, 800-850, 851-900, 901-950, 951-1000, 1001-1050, 1051-1100, 1101-1150, 1151-1200, 1201-1250, 1251-1300, 1301-1350, 1351-1400, 1401-1450, 1451-1500, 1501-1550, 1551-1600, 1601-1650, 1651-1700, 1701-1750, 1751-1800, 1801-1850, 1851-1900, 1901-1950, 1951-2000, or 2001 to the end of SEQ ID NO:X, or the complementary strand thereto, or the cDNA contained in a deposited clone. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited ranges, and ranges larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) nucleotides, at either terminus or at both termini. Preferably, these fragments encode a polypeptide which has biological activity. More preferably, these polynucleotides can be used as probes or primers as discussed herein. Polynucleotides which hybridize to these nucleic acid molecules under stringent hybridization conditions or lower stringency conditions are also encompassed by the invention, as are polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides.

[0684] In the present invention, a “polypeptide fragment” refers to an amino acid sequence which is a portion of that contained in SEQ ID NO:Y or encoded by the cDNA contained in a deposited clone. Protein (polypeptide) fragments may be “free-standing,” or comprised within a larger polypeptide of which the fragment forms a part or region, most preferably as a single continuous region. Representative examples of polypeptide fragments of the invention, include, for example, fragments comprising, or alternatively consisting of, from about amino acid number 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, 81-100, 102-120, 121-140, 141-160, or 161 to the end of the coding region. Moreover, polypeptide fragments can be about 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, 140, or 150 amino acids in length. In this context “about” includes the particularly recited ranges or values, and ranges or values larger or smaller by several (5, 4, 3, 2, or 1) amino acids, at either extreme or at both extremes. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides are also encompassed by the invention.

[0685] Preferred polypeptide fragments include the secreted protein as well as the mature form. Further preferred polypeptide fragments include the secreted protein or the mature form having a continuous series of deleted residues from the amino or the carboxy terminus, or both. For example, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-60, can be deleted from the amino terminus of either the secreted polypeptide or the mature form. Similarly, any number of amino acids, ranging from 1-30, can be deleted from the carboxy terminus of the secreted protein or mature form. Furthermore, any combination of the above amino and carboxy terminus deletions are preferred. Similarly, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments are also preferred.

[0686] Also preferred are polypeptide and polynucleotide fragments characterized by structural or functional domains, such as fragments that comprise alpha-helix and alpha-helix forming regions, beta-sheet and beta-sheet-forming regions, turn and turn-forming regions, coil and coil-forming regions, hydrophilic regions, hydrophobic regions, alpha amphipathic regions, beta amphipathic regions, flexible regions, surface-forming regions, substrate binding region, and high antigenic index regions. Polypeptide fragments of SEQ ID NO:Y falling within conserved domains are specifically contemplated by the present invention. Moreover, polynucleotides encoding these domains are also contemplated.

[0687] Other preferred polypeptide fragments are biologically active fragments. Biologically active fragments are those exhibiting activity similar, but not necessarily identical, to an activity of the polypeptide of the present invention. The biological activity of the fragments may include an improved desired activity, or a decreased undesirable activity. Polynucleotides encoding these polypeptide fragments are also encompassed by the invention.

[0688] Preferably, the polynucleotide fragments of the invention encode a polypeptide which demonstrates a functional activity. By a polypeptide demonstrating a “functional activity” is meant, a polypeptide capable of displaying one or more known functional activities associated with a full-length (complete) polypeptide of invention protein. Such functional activities include, but are not limited to, biological activity, antigenicity [ability to bind (or compete with a polypeptide of the invention for binding) to an antibody to the polypeptide of the invention], immunogenicity (ability to generate antibody which binds to a polypeptide of the invention), ability to form multimers with polypeptides of the invention, and ability to bind to a receptor or ligand for a polypeptide of the invention.

[0689] The functional activity of polypeptides of the invention, and fragments, variants derivatives, and analogs thereof, can be assayed by various methods.

[0690] For example, in one embodiment where one is assaying for the ability to bind or compete with full-length polypeptide of the invention for binding to an antibody of the polypeptide of the invention, various immunoassays known in the art can be used, including but not limited to, competitive and non-competitive assay systems using techniques such as radioimmunoassays, ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), “sandwich” immunoassays, immunoradiometric assays, gel diffusion precipitation reactions, immunodiffusion assays, in situ immunoassays (using colloidal gold, enzyme or radioisotope labels, for example), western blots, precipitation reactions, agglutination assays (e.g., gel agglutination assays, hemagglutination assays), complement fixation assays, immunofluorescence assays, protein A assays, and immunoelectrophoresis assays, etc. In one embodiment, antibody binding is detected by detecting a label on the primary antibody. In another embodiment, the primary antibody is detected by detecting binding of a secondary antibody or reagent to the primary antibody. In a further embodiment, the secondary antibody is labeled. Many means are known in the art for detecting binding in an immunoassay and are within the scope of the present invention.

[0691] In another embodiment, where a ligand for a polypeptide of the invention identified, or the ability of a polypeptide fragment, variant or derivative of the invention to multimerize is being evaluated, binding can be assayed, e.g., by means well-known in the art, such as, for example, reducing and non-reducing gel chromatography, protein affinity chromatography, and affinity blotting. See generally, Phizicky, E., et al., 1995, Microbiol. Rev. 59:94-123. In another embodiment, physiological correlates of binding of a polypeptide of the invention to its substrates (signal transduction) can be assayed.

[0692] In addition, assays described herein (see Examples) and otherwise known in the art may routinely be applied to measure the ability of polypeptides of the invention and fragments, variants derivatives and analogs thereof to elicit related biological activity related to that of the polypeptide of the invention (either in vitro or in vivo). Other methods will be known to the skilled artisan and are within the scope of the invention.

Epitopes and Antibodies

[0693] The present invention encompasses polypeptides comprising, or alternatively consisting of, an epitope of the polypeptide having an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y, or an epitope of the polypeptide sequence encoded by a polynucleotide sequence contained in ATCC deposit No. Z or encoded by a polynucleotide that hybridizes to the complement of the sequence of SEQ ID NO:X or contained in ATCC deposit No. Z under stringent hybridization conditions or lower stringency hybridization conditions as defined supra. The present invention further encompasses polynucleotide sequences encoding an epitope of a polypeptide sequence of the invention (such as, for example, the sequence disclosed in SEQ ID NO:X), polynucleotide sequences of the complementary strand of a polynucleotide sequence encoding an epitope of the invention, and polynucleotide sequences which hybridize to the complementary strand under stringent hybridization conditions or lower stringency hybridization conditions defined supra.

[0694] The term “epitopes,” as used herein, refers to portions of a polypeptide having antigenic or immunogenic activity in an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably in a human. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention encompasses a polypeptide comprising an epitope, as well as the polynucleotide encoding this polypeptide. An “immunogenic epitope,” as used herein, is defined as a portion of a protein that elicits an antibody response in an animal, as determined by any method known in the art, for example, by the methods for generating antibodies described infra. (See, for example, Geysen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:3998-4002 (1983)). The term “antigenic epitope,” as used herein, is defined as a portion of a protein to which an antibody can immunospecifically bind its antigen as determined by any method well known in the art, for example, by the immunoassays described herein. Immunospecific binding excludes non-specific binding but does not necessarily exclude cross-reactivity with other antigens. Antigenic epitopes need not necessarily be immunogenic.

[0695] Fragments which function as epitopes may be produced by any conventional means. (See, e.g., Houghten, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:5131-5135 (1985), further described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,631,211).

[0696] In the present invention, antigenic epitopes preferably contain a sequence of at least 4, at least 5, at least 6, at least 7, more preferably at least 8, at least 9, at least 10, at least 11, at least 12, at least 13, at least 14, at least 15, at least 20, at least 25, at least 30, at least 40, at least 50, and, most preferably, between about 15 to about 30 amino acids. Preferred polypeptides comprising immunogenic or antigenic epitopes are at least 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, 85, 90, 95, or 100 amino acid residues in length. Additional non-exclusive preferred antigenic epitopes include the antigenic epitopes disclosed herein, as well as portions thereof. Antigenic epitopes are useful, for example, to raise antibodies, including monoclonal antibodies, that specifically bind the epitope. Preferred antigenic epitopes include the antigenic epitopes disclosed herein, as well as any combination of two, three, four, five or more of these antigenic epitopes. Antigenic epitopes can be used as the target molecules in immunoassays. (See, for instance, Wilson et al., Cell 37:767-778 (1984); Sutcliffe et al., Science 219:660-666 (1983)).

[0697] Similarly, immunogenic epitopes can be used, for example, to induce antibodies according to methods well known in the art. (See, for instance, Sutcliffe et al., supra; Wilson et al., supra; Chow et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:910-914; and Bittle et al., J. Gen. Virol. 66:2347-2354 (1985). Preferred immunogenic epitopes include the immunogenic epitopes disclosed herein, as well as any combination of two, three, four, five or more of these immunogenic epitopes. The polypeptides comprising one or more immunogenic epitopes may be presented for eliciting an antibody response together with a carrier protein, such as an albumin, to an animal system (such as rabbit or mouse), or, if the polypeptide is of sufficient length (at least about 25 amino acids), the polypeptide may be presented without a carrier. However, immunogenic epitopes comprising as few as 8 to 10 amino acids have been shown to be sufficient to raise antibodies capable of binding to, at the very least, linear epitopes in a denatured polypeptide (e.g., in Western blotting).

[0698] Epitope-bearing polypeptides of the present invention may be used to induce antibodies according to methods well known in the art including, but not limited to, in vivo immunization, in vitro immunization, and phage display methods. See, e.g., Sutcliffe et al., supra; Wilson et al., supra, and Bittle et al., J. Gen. Virol., 66:2347-2354 (1985). If in vivo immunization is used, animals may be immunized with free peptide; however, anti-peptide antibody titer may be boosted by coupling the peptide to a macromolecular carrier, such as keyhole limpet hemacyanin (KLH) or tetanus toxoid. For instance, peptides containing cysteine residues may be coupled to a carrier using a linker such as maleimidobenzoyl-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (MBS), while other peptides may be coupled to carriers using a more general linking agent such as glutaraldehyde. Animals such as rabbits, rats and mice are immunized with either free or carrier-coupled peptides, for instance, by intraperitoneal and/or intradermal injection of emulsions containing about 100 μg of peptide or carrier protein and Freund's adjuvant or any other adjuvant known for stimulating an immune response. Several booster injections may be needed, for instance, at intervals of about two weeks, to provide a useful titer of anti-peptide antibody which can be detected, for example, by ELISA assay using free peptide adsorbed to a solid surface. The titer of anti-peptide antibodies in serum from an immunized animal may be increased by selection of anti-peptide antibodies, for instance, by adsorption to the peptide on a solid support and elution of the selected antibodies according to methods well known in the art.

[0699] As one of skill in the art will appreciate, and as discussed above, the polypeptides of the present invention comprising an immunogenic or antigenic epitope can be fused to other polypeptide sequences. For example, the polypeptides of the present invention may be fused with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM), or portions thereof (CH1, CH2, CH3, or any combination thereof and portions thereof) resulting in chimeric polypeptides. Such fusion proteins may facilitate purification and may increase half-life in vivo. This has been shown for chimeric proteins consisting of the first two domains of the human CD4-polypeptide and various domains of the constant regions of the heavy or light chains of mammalian immunoglobulins. See, e.g., EP 394,827; Traunecker et al., Nature, 331:84-86 (1988). Enhanced delivery of an antigen across the epithelial barrier to the immune system has been demonstrated for antigens (e.g., insulin) conjugated to an FcRn binding partner such as IgG or Fc fragments (see, e.g., PCT Publications WO 96/22024 and WO 99/04813). IgG Fusion proteins that have a disulfide-linked dimeric structure due to the IgG portion desulfide bonds have also been found to be more efficient in binding and neutralizing other molecules than monomeric polypeptides or fragments thereof alone. See, e.g., Fountoulakis et al., J. Biochem., 270:3958-3964 (1995). Nucleic acids encoding the above epitopes can also be recombined with a gene of interest as an epitope tag (e.g., the hemagglutinin (“HA”) tag or flag tag) to aid in detection and purification of the expressed polypeptide. For example, a system described by Janknecht et al. allows for the ready purification of non-denatured fusion proteins expressed in human cell lines (Janknecht et al., 1991, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:8972-897). In this system, the gene of interest is subcloned into a vaccinia recombination plasmid such that the open reading frame of the gene is translationally fused to an amino-terminal tag consisting of six histidine residues. The tag serves as a matrix binding domain for the fusion protein. Extracts from cells infected with the recombinant vaccinia virus are loaded onto Ni2+ nitriloacetic acid-agarose column and histidine-tagged proteins can be selectively eluted with imidazole-containing buffers.

[0700] Additional fusion proteins of the invention may be generated through the techniques of gene-shuffling, motif-shuffling, exon-shuffling, and/or codon-shuffling (collectively referred to as “DNA shuffling”). DNA shuffling may be employed to modulate the activities of polypeptides of the invention, such methods can be used to generate polypeptides with altered activity, as well as agonists and antagonists of the polypeptides. See, generally, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,605,793; 5,811,238; 5,830,721; 5,834,252; and 5,837,458, and Patten et al., Curr. Opinion Biotechnol. 8:724-33 (1997); Harayama, Trends Biotechnol. 16(2):76-82 (1998); Hansson, et al., J. Mol. Biol. 287:265-76 (1999); and Lorenzo and Blasco, Biotechniques 24(2):308-13 (1998) (each of these patents and publications are hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety). In one embodiment, alteration of polynucleotides corresponding to SEQ ID NO:X and the polypeptides encoded by these polynucleotides may be achieved by DNA shuffling. DNA shuffling involves the assembly of two or more DNA segments by homologous or site-specific recombination to generate variation in the polynucleotide sequence. In another embodiment, polynucleotides of the invention, or the encoded polypeptides, may be altered by being subjected to random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, random nucleotide insertion or other methods prior to recombination. In another embodiment, one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc., of a polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of the invention may be recombined with one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc. of one or more heterologous molecules.

[0701] Antibodies

[0702] Further polypeptides of the invention relate to antibodies and T-cell antigen receptors (TCR) which immunospecifically bind a polypeptide, polypeptide fragment, or variant of SEQ ID NO:Y, and/or an epitope, of the present invention (as determined by immunoassays well known in the art for assaying specific antibody-antigen binding). Antibodies of the invention include, but are not limited to, polyclonal, monoclonal, multispecific, human, humanized or chimeric antibodies, single chain antibodies, Fab fragments, F(ab′) fragments, fragments produced by a Fab expression library, anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) antibodies (including, e.g., anti-Id antibodies to antibodies of the invention), and epitope-binding fragments of any of the above. The term “antibody,” as used herein, refers to immunoglobulin molecules and immunologically active portions of immunoglobulin molecules, i.e., molecules that contain an antigen binding site that immunospecifically binds an antigen. The immunoglobulin molecules of the invention can be of any type (e.g., IgG, IgE, IgM, IgD, IgA and IgY), class (e.g., IgGI, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgA1 and IgA2) or subclass of immunoglobulin molecule.

[0703] Most preferably the antibodies are human antigen-binding antibody fragments of the present invention and include, but are not limited to, Fab, Fab′ and F(ab′)2, Fd, single-chain Fvs (scFv), single-chain antibodies, disulfide-linked Fvs (sdFv) and fragments comprising either a VL or VH domain. Antigen-binding antibody fragments, including single-chain antibodies, may comprise the variable region(s) alone or in combination with the entirety or a portion of the following: hinge region, CH1, CH2, and CH3 domains. Also included in the invention are antigen-binding fragments also comprising any combination of variable region(s) with a hinge region, CH1, CH2, and CH3 domains. The antibodies of the invention may be from any animal origin including birds and mammals. Preferably, the antibodies are human, murine (e.g., mouse and rat), donkey, ship rabbit, goat, guinea pig, camel, horse, or chicken. As used herein, “human” antibodies include antibodies having the amino acid sequence of a human immunoglobulin and include antibodies isolated from human immunoglobulin libraries or from animals transgenic for one or more human immunoglobulin and that do not express endogenous immunoglobulins, as described infra and, for example in, U.S. Pat. No. 5,939,598 by Kucherlapati et al.

[0704] The antibodies of the present invention may be monospecific, bispecific, trispecific or of greater multispecificity. Multispecific antibodies may be specific for different epitopes of a polypeptide of the present invention or may be specific for both a polypeptide of the present invention as well as for a heterologous epitope, such as a heterologous polypeptide or solid support material. See, e.g., PCT publications WO 93/17715; WO 92/08802; WO 91/00360; WO 92/05793; Tutt, et al., J. Immunol. 147:60-69 (1991); U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,474,893; 4,714,681; 4,925,648; 5,573,920; 5,601,819; Kostelny et al., J. lmmunol. 148:1547-1553 (1992).

[0705] Antibodies of the present invention may be described or specified in terms of the epitope(s) or portion(s) of a polypeptide of the present invention which they recognize or specifically bind. The epitope(s) or polypeptide portion(s) may be specified as described herein, e.g., by N-terminal and C-terminal positions, by size in contiguous amino acid residues, or listed in the Tables and Figures. Antibodies which specifically bind any epitope or polypeptide of the present invention may also be excluded. Therefore, the present invention includes antibodies that specifically bind polypeptides of the present invention, and allows for the exclusion of the same.

[0706] Antibodies of the present invention may also be described or specified in terms of their cross-reactivity. Antibodies that do not bind any other analog, ortholog, or homolog of a polypeptide of the present invention are included. Antibodies that bind polypeptides with at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 65%, at least 60%, at least 55%, and at least 50% identity (as calculated using methods known in the art and described herein) to a polypeptide of the present invention are also included in the present invention. In specific embodiments, antibodies of the present invention cross-react with murine, rat and/or rabbit homologs of human proteins and the corresponding epitopes thereof. Antibodies that do not bind polypeptides with less than 95%, less than 90%, less than 85%, less than 80%, less than 75%, less than 70%, less than 65%, less than 60%, less than 55%, and less than 50% identity (as calculated using methods known in the art and described herein) to a polypeptide of the present invention are also included in the present invention. In a specific embodiment, the above-described cross-reactivity is with respect to any single specific antigenic or immunogenic polypeptide, or combination(s) of 2, 3, 4, 5, or more of the specific antigenic and/or immunogenic polypeptides disclosed herein. Further included in the present invention are antibodies which bind polypeptides encoded by polynucleotides which hybridize to a polynucleotide of the present invention under stringent hybridization conditions (as described herein). Antibodies of the present invention may also be described or specified in terms of their binding affinity to a polypeptide of the invention. Preferred binding affinities include those with a dissociation constant or Kd less than 5×10−2 M, 10−2 M, 5×10−3 M, 10−3 M, 5×10−4 M, 10−4 M, 5×10−5 M, 10−5 M, 5×10−6 M, 10−6 M, 5×10−7 M, 107 M, 5×10−8 M, 10−8 M, 5×10−9 M, 10−9 M, 5×10−10 M, 10−10 M, 5×10−11 M, 10−11 M, 5×10−12 M, 10−12 M, 5×10−13 M, 10−13 M, 5×10−14 M, 10−14 M, 5×10−15 M, or 10−15 M.

[0707] The invention also provides antibodies that competitively inhibit binding of an antibody to an epitope of the invention as determined by any method known in the art for determining competitive binding, for example, the immunoassays described herein. In preferred embodiments, the antibody competitively inhibits binding to the epitope by at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, or at least 50%.

[0708] Antibodies of the present invention may act as agonists or antagonists of the polypeptides of the present invention. For example, the present invention includes antibodies which disrupt the receptor/ligand interactions with the polypeptides of the invention either partially or fully. Preferrably, antibodies of the present invention bind an antigenic epitope disclosed herein, or a portion thereof. The invention features both receptor-specific antibodies and ligand-specific antibodies. The invention also features receptor-specific antibodies which do not prevent ligand binding but prevent receptor activation. Receptor activation (i.e., signaling) may be determined by techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art. For example, receptor activation can be determined by detecting the phosphorylation (e.g., tyrosine or serine/threonine) of the receptor or its substrate by immunoprecipitation followed by western blot analysis (for example, as described supra). In specific embodiments, antibodies are provided that inhibit ligand activity or receptor activity by at least 95%, at least 90%, at least 85%, at least 80%, at least 75%, at least 70%, at least 60%, or at least 50% of the activity in absence of the antibody.

[0709] The invention also features receptor-specific antibodies which both prevent ligand binding and receptor activation as well as antibodies that recognize the receptor-ligand complex, and, preferably, do not specifically recognize the unbound receptor or the unbound ligand. Likewise, included in the invention are neutralizing antibodies which bind the ligand and prevent binding of the ligand to the receptor, as well as antibodies which bind the ligand, thereby preventing receptor activation, but do not prevent the ligand from binding the receptor. Further included in the invention are antibodies which activate the receptor. These antibodies may act as receptor agonists, i.e., potentiate or activate either all or a subset of the biological activities of the ligand-mediated receptor activation, for example, by inducing dimerization of the receptor. The antibodies may be specified as agonists, antagonists or inverse agonists for biological activities comprising the specific biological activities of the peptides of the invention disclosed herein. The above antibody agonists can be made using methods known in the art. See, e.g., PCT publication WO 96/40281; U.S. Pat. No. 5,811,097; Deng et al., Blood 92(6):1981-1988 (1998); Chen et al., Cancer Res. 58(16):3668-3678 (1998); Harrop et al., J. Immunol. 161(4):1786-1794 (1998); Zhu et al., Cancer Res. 58(15):3209-3214 (1998); Yoon et al., J. Immunol. 160(7):3170-3179 (1998); Prat et al., J. Cell. Sci. 111 (Pt2):237-247 (1998); Pitard et al., J. Immunol. Methods 205(2):177-190 (1997); Liautard et al., Cytokine 9(4):233-241 (1997); Carlson et al., J. Biol. Chem. 272(17):11295-11301 (1997); Taryman et al., Neuron 14(4):755-762 (1995); Muller et al., Structure 6(9):1153-1167 (1998); Bartunek et al., Cytokine 8(1):14-20 (1996) (which are all incorporated by reference herein in their entireties).

[0710] Antibodies of the present invention may be used, for example, but not limited to, to purify, detect, and target the polypeptides of the present invention, including both in vitro and in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic methods. For example, the antibodies have use in immunoassays for qualitatively and quantitatively measuring levels of the polypeptides of the present invention in biological samples. See, e.g., Harlow et al., Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2nd ed. 1988) (incorporated by reference herein in its entirety).

[0711] As discussed in more detail below, the antibodies of the present invention may be used either alone or in combination with other compositions. The antibodies may further be recombinantly fused to a heterologous polypeptide at the N- or C-terminus or chemically conjugated (including covalently and non-covalently conjugations) to polypeptides or other compositions. For example, antibodies of the present invention may be recombinantly fused or conjugated to molecules useful as labels in detection assays and effector molecules such as heterologous polypeptides, drugs, radionuclides, or toxins. See, e.g., PCT publications WO 92/08495; WO 91/14438; WO 89/12624; U.S. Pat. No. 5,314,995; and EP 396,387.

[0712] The antibodies of the invention include derivatives that are modified, i.e, by the covalent attachment of any type of molecule to the antibody such that covalent attachment does not prevent the antibody from generating an anti-idiotypic response. For example, but not by way of limitation, the antibody derivatives include antibodies that have been modified, e.g., by glycosylation, acetylation, pegylation, phosphylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to a cellular ligand or other protein, etc. Any of numerous chemical modifications may be carried out by known techniques, including, but not limited to specific chemical cleavage, acetylation, formylation, metabolic synthesis of tunicamycin, etc. Additionally, the derivative may contain one or more non-classical amino acids.

[0713] The antibodies of the present invention may be generated by any suitable method known in the art. Polyclonal antibodies to an antigen-of-interest can be produced by various procedures well known in the art. For example, a polypeptide of the invention can be administered to various host animals including, but not limited to, rabbits, mice, rats, etc. to induce the production of sera containing polyclonal antibodies specific for the antigen. Various adjuvants may be used to increase the immunological response, depending on the host species, and include but are not limited to, Freund's (complete and incomplete), mineral gels such as aluminum hydroxide, surface active substances such as lysolecithin, pluronic polyols, polyanions, peptides, oil emulsions, keyhole limpet hemocyanins, dinitrophenol, and potentially useful human adjuvants such as BCG (bacille Calmette-Guerin) and corynebacterium parvum. Such adjuvants are also well known in the art.

[0714] Monoclonal antibodies can be prepared using a wide variety of techniques known in the art including the use of hybridoma, recombinant, and phage display technologies, or a combination thereof. For example, monoclonal antibodies can be produced using hybridoma techniques including those known in the art and taught, for example, in Harlow et al., Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual, (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2nd ed. 1988); Hammerling, et al., in: Monoclonal Antibodies and T-Cell Hybridomas 563-681 (Elsevier, N.Y., 1981) (said references incorporated by reference in their entireties). The term “monoclonal antibody” as used herein is not limited to antibodies produced through hybridoma technology. The term “monoclonal antibody” refers to an antibody that is derived from a single clone, including any eukaryotic, prokaryotic, or phage clone, and not the method by which it is produced.

[0715] Methods for producing and screening for specific antibodies using hybridoma technology are routine and well known in the art and are discussed in detail in the Examples (e.g., Example 16). In a non-limiting example, mice can be immunized with a polypeptide of the invention or a cell expressing such peptide. Once an immune response is detected, e.g., antibodies specific for the antigen are detected in the mouse serum, the mouse spleen is harvested and splenocytes isolated. The splenocytes are then fused by well known techniques to any suitable myeloma cells, for example cells from cell line SP20 available from the ATCC. Hybridomas are selected and cloned by limited dilution. The hybridoma clones are then assayed by methods known in the art for cells that secrete antibodies capable of binding a polypeptide of the invention. Ascites fluid, which generally contains high levels of antibodies, can be generated by immunizing mice with positive hybridoma clones.

[0716] Accordingly, the present invention provides methods of generating monoclonal antibodies as well as antibodies produced by the method comprising culturing a hybridoma cell secreting an antibody of the invention wherein, preferably, the hybridoma is generated by fusing splenocytes isolated from a mouse immunized with an antigen of the invention with myeloma cells and then screening the hybridomas resulting from the fusion for hybridoma clones that secrete an antibody able to bind a polypeptide of the invention.

[0717] Antibody fragments which recognize specific epitopes may be generated by known techniques. For example, Fab and F(ab′)2 fragments of the invention may be produced by proteolytic cleavage of immunoglobulin molecules, using enzymes such as papain (to produce Fab fragments) or pepsin (to produce F(ab′)2 fragments). F(ab′)2 fragments contain the variable region, the light chain constant region and the CH1 domain of the heavy chain.

[0718] For example, the antibodies of the present invention can also be generated using various phage display methods known in the art. In phage display methods, functional antibody domains are displayed on the surface of phage particles which carry the polynucleotide sequences encoding them. In a particular embodiment, such phage can be utilized to display antigen binding domains expressed from a repertoire or combinatorial antibody library (e.g., human or murine). Phage expressing an antigen binding domain that binds the antigen of interest can be selected or identified with antigen, e.g., using labeled antigen or antigen bound or captured to a solid surface or bead. Phage used in these methods are typically filamentous phage including fd and M13 binding domains expressed from phage with Fab, Fv or disulfide stabilized Fv antibody domains recombinantly fused to either the phage gene III or gene VIII protein. Examples of phage display methods that can be used to make the antibodies of the present invention include those disclosed in Brinkman et al., J. Immunol. Methods 182:41-50 (1995); Ames et al., J. Immunol. Methods 184:177-186 (1995); Kettleborough et al., Eur. J. Immunol. 24:952-958 (1994); Persic et al., Gene 187 9-18 (1997); Burton et al., Advances in Immunology 57:191-280 (1994); PCT application No. PCT/GB91/01134; PCT publications WO 90/02809; WO 91/10737; WO 92/01047; WO 92/18619; WO 93/11236; WO 95/15982; WO 95/20401; and U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,698,426; 5,223,409; 5,403,484; 5,580,717; 5,427,908; 5,750,753; 5,821,047; 5,571,698; 5,427,908; 5,516,637; 5,780,225; 5,658,727; 5,733,743 and 5,969,108; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0719] As described in the above references, after phage selection, the antibody coding regions from the phage can be isolated and used to generate whole antibodies, including human antibodies, or any other desired antigen binding fragment, and expressed in any desired host, including mammalian cells, insect cells, plant cells, yeast, and bacteria, e.g., as described in detail below. For example, techniques to recombinantly produce Fab, Fab′ and F(ab′)2 fragments can also be employed using methods known in the art such as those disclosed in PCT publication WO 92/22324; Mullinax et al., BioTechniques 12(6):864-869 (1992); and Sawai et al., AJRI 34:26-34 (1995); and Better et al., Science 240:1041-1043 (1988) (said references incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[0720] Examples of techniques which can be used to produce single-chain Fvs and antibodies include those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,946,778 and 5,258,498;Huston et al., Methods in Enzymology 203:46-88 (1991); Shu et al., PNAS 90:7995-7999 (1993); and Skerra et al., Science 240:1038-1040 (1988). For some uses, including in vivo use of antibodies in humans and in vitro detection assays, it may be preferable to use chimeric, humanized, or human antibodies. A chimeric antibody is a molecule in which different portions of the antibody are derived from different animal species, such as antibodies having a variable region derived from a murine monoclonal antibody and a human immunoglobulin constant region. Methods for producing chimeric antibodies are known in the art. See e.g., Morrison, Science 229:1202 (1985); Oi et al., BioTechniques 4:214 (1986); Gillies et al., (1989) J. Immunol. Methods 125:191-202; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,807,715; 4,816,567; and 4,816397, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. Humanized antibodies are antibody molecules from non-human species antibody that binds the desired antigen having one or more complementarity determining regions (CDRs) from the non-human species and a framework regions from a human immunoglobulin molecule. Often, framework residues in the human framework regions will be substituted with the corresponding residue from the CDR donor antibody to alter, preferably improve, antigen binding. These framework substitutions are identified by methods well known in the art, e.g., by modeling of the interactions of the CDR and framework residues to identify framework residues important for antigen binding and sequence comparison to identify unusual framework residues at particular positions. (See, e.g., Queen et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,585,089; Riechmann et al., Nature 332:323 (1988), which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties.) Antibodies can be humanized using a variety of techniques known in the art including, for example, CDR-grafting (EP 239,400; PCT publication WO 91/09967; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,225,539; 5,530,101; and 5,585,089), veneering or resurfacing (EP 592,106; EP 519,596; Padlan, Molecular Immunology 28(4/5):489-498 (1991); Studnicka et al., Protein Engineering 7(6):805-814 (1994); Roguska. et al., PNAS 91:969-973 (1994)), and chain shuffling (U.S. Pat. No. 5,565,332).

[0721] Completely human antibodies are particularly desirable for therapeutic treatment of human patients. Human antibodies can be made by a variety of methods known in the art including phage display methods described above using antibody libraries derived from human immunoglobulin sequences. See also, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,444,887 and 4,716,111; and PCT publications WO 98/46645, WO 98/50433, WO 98/24893, WO 98/16654, WO 96/34096, WO 96/33735, and WO 91/10741; each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0722] Human antibodies can also be produced using transgenic mice which are incapable of expressing functional endogenous immunoglobulins, but which can express human immunoglobulin genes. For example, the human heavy and light chain immunoglobulin gene complexes may be introduced randomly or by homologous recombination into mouse embryonic stem cells. Alternatively, the human variable region, constant region, and diversity region may be introduced into mouse embryonic stem cells in addition to the human heavy and light chain genes. The mouse heavy and light chain immunoglobulin genes may be rendered non-functional separately or simultaneously with the introduction of human immunoglobulin loci by homologous recombination. In particular, homozygous deletion of the JH region prevents endogenous antibody production. The modified embryonic stem cells are expanded and microinjected into blastocysts to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to produce homozygous offspring which express human antibodies. The transgenic mice are immunized in the normal fashion with a selected antigen, e.g., all or a portion of a polypeptide of the invention. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the antigen can be obtained from the immunized, transgenic mice using conventional hybridoma technology. The human immunoglobulin transgenes harbored by the transgenic mice rearrange during B cell differentiation, and subsequently undergo class switching and somatic mutation. Thus, using such a technique, it is possible to produce therapeutically useful IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE antibodies. For an overview of this technology for producing human antibodies, see Lonberg and Huszar, Int. Rev. Immunol. 13:65-93 (1995). For a detailed discussion of this technology for producing human antibodies and human monoclonal antibodies and protocols for producing such antibodies, see, e.g., PCT publications WO 98/24893; WO 92/01047; WO 96/34096; WO 96/33735; European Patent No. 0 598 877; U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,413,923; 5,625,126; 5,633,425; 5,569,825; 5,661,016; 5,545,806; 5,814,318; 5,885,793; 5,916,771; and 5,939,598, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety. In addition, companies such as Abgenix, Inc. (Freemont, Calif.) and Genpharm (San Jose, Calif.) can be engaged to provide human antibodies directed against a selected antigen using technology similar to that described above.

[0723] Completely human antibodies which recognize a selected epitope can be generated using a technique referred to as “guided selection.” In this approach a selected non-human monoclonal antibody, e.g., a mouse antibody, is used to guide the selection of a completely human antibody recognizing the same epitope. (Jespers et al., Bio/technology 12:899-903 (1988)).

[0724] Further, antibodies to the polypeptides of the invention can, in turn, be utilized to generate anti-idiotype antibodies that “mimic” polypeptides of the invention using techniques well known to those skilled in the art. (See, e.g., Greenspan & Bona, FASEB J. 7(5):437-444; (1989) and Nissinoff, J. Immunol. 147(8):2429-2438 (1991)). For example, antibodies which bind to and competitively inhibit polypeptide multimerization and/or binding of a polypeptide of the invention to a ligand can be used to generate anti-idiotypes that “mimic” the polypeptide multimerization and/or binding domain and, as a consequence, bind to and neutralize polypeptide and/or its ligand. Such neutralizing anti-idiotypes or Fab fragments of such anti-idiotypes can be used in therapeutic regimens to neutralize polypeptide ligand. For example, such anti-idiotypic antibodies can be used to bind a polypeptide of the invention and/or to bind its ligands/receptors, and thereby block its biological activity.

[0725] Polynucleotides Encoding Antibodies

[0726] The invention further provides polynucleotides comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an antibody of the invention and fragments thereof. The invention also encompasses polynucleotides that hybridize under stringent or lower stringency hybridization conditions, e.g., as defined supra, to polynucleotides that encode an antibody, preferably, that specifically binds to a polypeptide of the invention, preferably, an antibody that binds to a polypeptide having the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y.

[0727] The polynucleotides may be obtained, and the nucleotide sequence of the polynucleotides determined, by any method known in the art. For example, if the nucleotide sequence of the antibody is known, a polynucleotide encoding the antibody may be assembled from chemically synthesized oligonucleotides (e.g., as described in Kutmeier et al., BioTechniques 17:242 (1994)), which, briefly, involves the synthesis of overlapping oligonucleotides containing portions of the sequence encoding the antibody, annealing and ligating of those oligonucleotides, and then amplification of the ligated oligonucleotides by PCR.

[0728] Alternatively, a polynucleotide encoding an antibody may be generated from nucleic acid from a suitable source. If a clone containing a nucleic acid encoding a particular antibody is not available, but the sequence of the antibody molecule is known, a nucleic acid encoding the immunoglobulin may be chemically synthesized or obtained from a suitable source (e.g., an antibody cDNA library, or a cDNA library generated from, or nucleic acid, preferably poly A+RNA, isolated from, any tissue or cells expressing the antibody, such as hybridoma cells selected to express an antibody of the invention) by PCR amplification using synthetic primers hybridizable to the 3′ and 5′ ends of the sequence or by cloning using an oligonucleotide probe specific for the particular gene sequence to identify, e.g., a cDNA clone from a cDNA library that encodes the antibody. Amplified nucleic acids generated by PCR may then be cloned into replicable cloning vectors using any method well known in the art.

[0729] Once the nucleotide sequence and corresponding amino acid sequence of the antibody is determined, the nucleotide sequence of the antibody may be manipulated using methods well known in the art for the manipulation of nucleotide sequences, e.g., recombinant DNA techniques, site directed mutagenesis, PCR, etc. (see, for example, the techniques described in Sambrook et al., 1990, Molecular Cloning, A Laboratory Manual, 2d Ed., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY and Ausubel et al., eds., 1998, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, NY, which are both incorporated by reference herein in their entireties), to generate antibodies having a different amino acid sequence, for example to create amino acid substitutions, deletions, and/or insertions.

[0730] In a specific embodiment, the amino acid sequence of the heavy and/or light chain variable domains may be inspected to identify the sequences of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) by methods that are well know in the art, e.g., by comparison to known amino acid sequences of other heavy and light chain variable regions to determine the regions of sequence hypervariability. Using routine recombinant DNA techniques, one or more of the CDRs may be inserted within framework regions, e.g., into human framework regions to humanize a non-human antibody, as described supra. The framework regions may be naturally occurring or consensus framework regions, and preferably human framework regions (see, e.g., Chothia et al., J. Mol. Biol. 278: 457-479 (1998) for a listing of human framework regions). Preferably, the polynucleotide generated by the combination of the framework regions and CDRs encodes an antibody that specifically binds a polypeptide of the invention. Preferably, as discussed supra, one or more amino acid substitutions may be made within the framework regions, and, preferably, the amino acid substitutions improve binding of the antibody to its antigen. Additionally, such methods may be used to make amino acid substitutions or deletions of one or more variable region cysteine residues participating in an intrachain disulfide bond to generate antibody molecules lacking one or more intrachain disulfide bonds. Other alterations to the polynucleotide are encompassed by the present invention and within the skill of the art.

[0731] In addition, techniques developed for the production of “chimeric antibodies” (Morrison et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 81:851-855 (1984); Neuberger et al., Nature 312:604-608 (1984); Takeda et al., Nature 314:452-454 (1985)) by splicing genes from a mouse antibody molecule of appropriate antigen specificity together with genes from a human antibody molecule of appropriate biological activity can be used. As described supra, a chimeric antibody is a molecule in which different portions are derived from different animal species, such as those having a variable region derived from a murine mAb and a human immunoglobulin constant region, e.g., humanized antibodies.

[0732] Alternatively, techniques described for the production of single chain antibodies (U.S. Pat. No. 4,946,778; Bird, Science 242:423-42 (1988); Huston et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:5879-5883 (1988); and Ward et al., Nature 334:544-54 (1989)) can be adapted to produce single chain antibodies. Single chain antibodies are formed by linking the heavy and light chain fragments of the Fv region via an amino acid bridge, resulting in a single chain polypeptide. Techniques for the assembly of functional Fv fragments in E. coli may also be used (Skerra et al., Science 242:1038-1041 (1988)).

[0733] Methods of Producing Antibodies

[0734] The antibodies of the invention can be produced by any method known in the art for the synthesis of antibodies, in particular, by chemical synthesis or preferably, by recombinant expression techniques.

[0735] Recombinant expression of an antibody of the invention, or fragment, derivative or analog thereof, (e.g., a heavy or light chain of an antibody of the invention or a single chain antibody of the invention), requires construction of an expression vector containing a polynucleotide that encodes the antibody. Once a polynucleotide encoding an antibody molecule or a heavy or light chain of an antibody, or portion thereof (preferably containing the heavy or light chain variable domain), of the invention has been obtained, the vector for the production of the antibody molecule may be produced by recombinant DNA technology using techniques well known in the art. Thus, methods for preparing a protein by expressing a polynucleotide containing an antibody encoding nucleotide sequence are described herein. Methods which are well known to those skilled in the art can be used to construct expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences and appropriate transcriptional and translational control signals. These methods include, for example, in vitro recombinant DNA techniques, synthetic techniques, and in vivo genetic recombination. The invention, thus, provides replicable vectors comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding an antibody molecule of the invention, or a heavy or light chain thereof, or a heavy or light chain variable domain, operably linked to a promoter. Such vectors may include the nucleotide sequence encoding the constant region of the antibody molecule (see, e.g., PCT Publication WO 86/05807; PCT Publication WO 89/01036; and U.S. Pat. No. 5,122,464) and the variable domain of the antibody may be cloned into such a vector for expression of the entire heavy or light chain.

[0736] The expression vector is transferred to a host cell by conventional techniques and the transfected cells are then cultured by conventional techniques to produce an antibody of the invention. Thus, the invention includes host cells containing a polynucleotide encoding an antibody of the invention, or a heavy or light chain thereof, or a single chain antibody of the invention, operably linked to a heterologous promoter. In preferred embodiments for the expression of double-chained antibodies, vectors encoding both the heavy and light chains may be co-expressed in the host cell for expression of the entire immunoglobulin molecule, as detailed below.

[0737] A variety of host-expression vector systems may be utilized to express the antibody molecules of the invention. Such host-expression systems represent vehicles by which the coding sequences of interest may be produced and subsequently purified, but also represent cells which may, when transformed or transfected with the appropriate nucleotide coding sequences, express an antibody molecule of the invention in situ. These include but are not limited to microorganisms such as bacteria (e.g., E. coli, B. subtilis) transformed with recombinant bacteriophage DNA, plasmid DNA or cosmid DNA expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences; yeast (e.g., Saccharomyces, Pichia) transformed with recombinant yeast expression vectors containing antibody coding sequences; insect cell systems infected with recombinant virus expression vectors (e.g., baculovirus) containing antibody coding sequences; plant cell systems infected with recombinant virus expression vectors (e.g., cauliflower mosaic virus, CaMV; tobacco mosaic virus, TMV) or transformed with recombinant plasmid expression vectors (e.g., Ti plasmid) containing antibody coding sequences; or mammalian cell systems (e.g., COS, CHO, BHK, 293, 3T3 cells) harboring recombinant expression constructs containing promoters derived from the genome of mammalian cells (e.g., metallothionein promoter) or from mammalian viruses (e.g., the adenovirus late promoter; the vaccinia virus 7.5K promoter). Preferably, bacterial cells such as Escherichia coli, and more preferably, eukaryotic cells, especially for the expression of whole recombinant antibody molecule, are used for the expression of a recombinant antibody molecule. For example, mammalian cells such as Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO), in conjunction with a vector such as the major intermediate early gene promoter element from human cytomegalovirus is an effective expression system for antibodies (Foecking et al., Gene 45:101 (1986); Cockett et al., Bio/Technology 8:2 (1990)).

[0738] In bacterial systems, a number of expression vectors may be advantageously selected depending upon the use intended for the antibody molecule being expressed. For example, when a large quantity of such a protein is to be produced, for the generation of pharmaceutical compositions of an antibody molecule, vectors which direct the expression of high levels of fusion protein products that are readily purified may be desirable. Such vectors include, but are not limited, to the E. coli expression vector pUR278 (Ruther et al., EMBO J. 2:1791 (1983)), in which the antibody coding sequence may be ligated individually into the vector in frame with the lac Z coding region so that a fusion protein is produced; pIN vectors (Inouye & Inouye, Nucleic Acids Res. 13:3101-3109 (1985); Van Heeke & Schuster, J. Biol. Chem. 24:5503-5509 (1989)); and the like. pGEX vectors may also be used to express foreign polypeptides as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST). In general, such fusion proteins are soluble and can easily be purified from lysed cells by adsorption and binding to matrix glutathione-agarose beads followed by elution in the presence of free glutathione. The pGEX vectors are designed to include thrombin or factor Xa protease cleavage sites so that the cloned target gene product can be released from the GST moiety.

[0739] In an insect system, Autographa califomica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) is used as a vector to express foreign genes. The virus grows in Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The antibody coding sequence may be cloned individually into non-essential regions (for example the polyhedrin gene) of the virus and placed under control of an AcNPV promoter (for example the polyhedrin promoter).

[0740] In mammalian host cells, a number of viral-based expression systems may be utilized. In cases where an adenovirus is used as an expression vector, the antibody coding sequence of interest may be ligated to an adenovirus transcription/translation control complex, e.g., the late promoter and tripartite leader sequence. This chimeric gene may then be inserted in the adenovirus genome by in vitro or in vivo recombination. Insertion in a non-essential region of the viral genome (e.g., region E1 or E3) will result in a recombinant virus that is viable and capable of expressing the antibody molecule in infected hosts. (e.g., see Logan & Shenk, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:355-359 (1984)). Specific initiation signals may also be required for efficient translation of inserted antibody coding sequences. These signals include the ATG initiation codon and adjacent sequences. Furthermore, the initiation codon must be in phase with the reading frame of the desired coding sequence to ensure translation of the entire insert. These exogenous translational control signals and initiation codons can be of a variety of origins, both natural and synthetic. The efficiency of expression may be enhanced by the inclusion of appropriate transcription enhancer elements, transcription terminators, etc. (see Bittner et al., Methods in Enzymol. 153:51-544 (1987)).

[0741] In addition, a host cell strain may be chosen which modulates the expression of the inserted sequences, or modifies and processes the gene product in the specific fashion desired. Such modifications (e.g., glycosylation) and processing (e.g., cleavage) of protein products may be important for the function of the protein. Different host cells have characteristic and specific mechanisms for the post-translational processing and modification of proteins and gene products. Appropriate cell lines or host systems can be chosen to ensure the correct modification and processing of the foreign protein expressed. To this end, eukaryotic host cells which possess the cellular machinery for proper processing of the primary transcript, glycosylation, and phosphorylation of the gene product may be used. Such mammalian host cells include but are not limited to CHO, VERY, BHK, Hela, COS, MDCK, 293, 3T3, W138, and in particular, breast cancer cell lines such as, for example, BT483,Hs578T, HTB2, BT20 and T47D, and normal mammary gland cell line such as, for example, CRL7030 and Hs578Bst.

[0742] For long-term, high-yield production of recombinant proteins, stable expression is preferred. For example, cell lines which stably express the antibody molecule may be engineered. Rather than using expression vectors which contain viral origins of replication, host cells can be transformed with DNA controlled by appropriate expression control elements (e.g., promoter, enhancer, sequences, transcription terminators, polyadenylation sites, etc.), and a selectable marker. Following the introduction of the foreign DNA, engineered cells may be allowed to grow for 1-2 days in an enriched media, and then are switched to a selective media. The selectable marker in the recombinant plasmid confers resistance to the selection and allows cells to stably integrate the plasmid into their chromosomes and grow to form foci which in turn can be cloned and expanded into cell lines. This method may advantageously be used to engineer cell lines which express the antibody molecule. Such engineered cell lines may be particularly useful in screening and evaluation of compounds that interact directly or indirectly with the antibody molecule.

[0743] A number of selection systems may be used, including but not limited to the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (Wigler et al., Cell 11:223 (1977)), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (Szybalska & Szybalski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 48:202 (1992)), and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (Lowy et al., Cell 22:817 (1980)) genes can be employed in tk-, hgprt- or aprt-cells, respectively. Also, antimetabolite resistance can be used as the basis of selection for the following genes: dhfr, which confers resistance to methotrexate (Wigler et al., Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:357 (1980); O'Hare et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:1527 (1981)); gpt, which confers resistance to mycophenolic acid (Mulligan & Berg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:2072 (1981)); neo, which confers resistance to the aminoglycoside G-418 Clinical Pharmacy 12:488-505; Wu and Wu, Biotherapy 3:87-95 (1991); Tolstoshev, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32:573-596 (1993); Mulligan, Science 260:926-932 (1993); and Morgan and Anderson, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 62:191-217 (1993); May, 1993, TIB TECH 11(5):155-215); and hygro, which confers resistance to hygromycin (Santerre et al., Gene 30:147 (1984)). Methods commonly known in the art of recombinant DNA technology may be routinely applied to select the desired recombinant clone, and such methods are described, for example, in Ausubel et al. (eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1993); Kriegler, Gene Transfer and Expression, A Laboratory Manual, Stockton Press, NY (1990); and in Chapters 12 and 13, Dracopoli et al. (eds), Current Protocols in Human Genetics, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1994); Colberre-Garapin et al., J. Mol. Biol. 150:1 (1981), which are incorporated by reference herein in their entireties.

[0744] The expression levels of an antibody molecule can be increased by vector amplification (for a review, see Bebbington and Hentschel, The use of vectors based on gene amplification for the expression of cloned genes in mammalian cells in DNA cloning, Vol.3. (Academic Press, New York, 1987)). When a marker in the vector system expressing antibody is amplifiable, increase in the level of inhibitor present in culture of host cell will increase the number of copies of the marker gene. Since the amplified region is associated with the antibody gene, production of the antibody will also increase (Crouse et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 3:257 (1983)).

[0745] The host cell may be co-transfected with two expression vectors of the invention, the first vector encoding a heavy chain derived polypeptide and the second vector encoding a light chain derived polypeptide. The two vectors may contain identical selectable markers which enable equal expression of heavy and light chain polypeptides. Alternatively, a single vector may be used which encodes, and is capable of expressing, both heavy and light chain polypeptides. In such situations, the light chain should be placed before the heavy chain to avoid an excess of toxic free heavy chain (Proudfoot, Nature 322:52 (1986); Kohler, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:2197 (1980)). The coding sequences for the heavy and light chains may comprise cDNA or genomic DNA.

[0746] Once an antibody molecule of the invention has been produced by an animal, chemically synthesized, or recombinantly expressed, it may be purified by any method known in the art for purification of an immunoglobulin molecule, for example, by chromatography (e.g., ion exchange, affinity, particularly by affinity for the specific antigen after Protein A, and sizing column chromatography), centrifugation, differential solubility, or by any other standard technique for the purification of proteins. In addition, the antibodies of the present invention or fragments thereof can be fused to heterologous polypeptide sequences described herein or otherwise known in the art, to facilitate purification.

[0747] The present invention encompasses antibodies recombinantly fused or chemically conjugated (including both covalently and non-covalently conjugations) to a polypeptide (or portion thereof, preferably at least 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100 amino acids of the polypeptide) of the present invention to generate fusion proteins. The fusion does not necessarily need to be direct, but may occur through linker sequences. The antibodies may be specific for antigens other than polypeptides (or portion thereof, preferably at least 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 or 100 amino acids of the polypeptide) of the present invention. For example, antibodies may be used to target the polypeptides of the present invention to particular cell types, either in vitro or in vivo, by fusing or conjugating the polypeptides of the present invention to antibodies specific for particular cell surface receptors. Antibodies fused or conjugated to the polypeptides of the present invention may also be used in in vitro immunoassays and purification methods using methods known in the art. See e.g., Harbor et al., supra, and PCT publication WO 93/21232; EP 439,095; Naramura et al., Immunol. Lett. 39:91-99 (1994); U.S. Pat. No. 5,474,981; Gillies et al., PNAS 89:1428-1432 (1992); Fell et al., J. Immunol. 146:2446-2452(1991), which are incorporated by reference in their entireties.

[0748] The present invention further includes compositions comprising the polypeptides of the present invention fused or conjugated to antibody domains other than the variable regions. For example, the polypeptides of the present invention may be fused or conjugated to an antibody Fc region, or portion thereof. The antibody portion fused to a polypeptide of the present invention may comprise the constant region, hinge region, CH1 domain, CH2 domain, and CH3 domain or any combination of whole domains or portions thereof. The polypeptides may also be fused or conjugated to the above antibody portions to form multimers. For example, Fc portions fused to the polypeptides of the present invention can form dimers through disulfide bonding between the Fc portions. Higher multimeric forms can be made by fusing the polypeptides to portions of IgA and IgM. Methods for fusing or conjugating the polypeptides of the present invention to antibody portions are known in the art. See, e.g., U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,336,603; 5,622,929; 5,359,046; 5,349,053; 5,447,851; 5,112,946; EP 307,434; EP 367,166; PCT publications WO 96/04388; WO 91/06570; Ashkenazi et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:10535-10539 (1991); Zheng et al., J. Immunol. 154:5590-5600 (1995); and Vil et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:11337-11341(1992) (said references incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[0749] As discussed, supra, the polypeptides corresponding to a polypeptide, polypeptide fragment, or a variant of SEQ ID NO:Y may be fused or conjugated to the above antibody portions to increase the in vivo half life of the polypeptides or for use in immunoassays using methods known in the art. Further, the polypeptides corresponding to SEQ ID NO:Y may be fused or conjugated to the above antibody portions to facilitate purification. One reported example describes chimeric proteins consisting of the first two domains of the human CD4-polypeptide and various domains of the constant regions of the heavy or light chains of mammalian immunoglobulins. (EP 394,827; Traunecker et al., Nature 331:84-86 (1988). The polypeptides of the present invention fused or conjugated to an antibody having disulfide-linked dimeric structures (due to the IgG) may also be more efficient in binding and neutralizing other molecules, than the monomeric secreted protein or protein fragment alone. (Fountoulakis et al., J. Biochem. 270:3958-3964 (1995)). In many cases, the Fc part in a fusion protein is beneficial in therapy and diagnosis, and thus can result in, for example, improved pharmacokinetic properties. (EP A 232,262). Alternatively, deleting the Fc part after the fusion protein has been expressed, detected, and purified, would be desired. For example, the Fc portion may hinder therapy and diagnosis if the fusion protein is used as an antigen for immunizations. In drug discovery, for example, human proteins, such as hIL-5, have been fused with Fc portions for the purpose of high-throughput screening assays to identify antagonists of hIL-5. (See, Bennett et al., J. Molecular Recognition 8:52-58 (1995); Johanson et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270:9459-9471 (1995). Moreover, the antibodies or fragments thereof of the present invention can be fused to marker sequences, such as a peptide to facilitate purification. In preferred embodiments, the marker amino acid sequence is a hexa-histidine peptide, such as the tag provided in a pQE vector (QIAGEN, Inc., 9259 Eton Avenue, Chatsworth, CA, 91311), among others, many of which are-commercially available. As described in Gentz et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:821-824 (1989), for instance, hexa-histidine provides for convenient purification of the fusion protein. Other peptide tags useful for purification include, but are not limited to, the “HA” tag, which corresponds to an epitope derived from the influenza hemagglutinin protein (Wilson et al., Cell 37:767 (1984)) and the “flag” tag.

[0750] The present invention further encompasses antibodies or fragments thereof conjugated to a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. The antibodies can be used diagnostically to, for example, monitor the development or progression of a tumor as part of a clinical testing procedure to, e.g., determine the efficacy of a given treatment regimen. Detection can be facilitated by coupling the antibody to a detectable substance. Examples of detectable substances include various enzymes, prosthetic groups, fluorescent materials, luminescent materials, bioluminescent materials, radioactive materials, positron emitting metals using various positron emission tomographies, and nonradioactive paramagnetic metal ions. The detectable substance may be coupled or conjugated either directly to the antibody (or fragment thereof) or indirectly, through an intermediate (such as, for example, a linker known in the art) using techniques known in the art. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,741,900 for metal ions which can be conjugated to antibodies for use as diagnostics according to the present invention. Examples of suitable enzymes include horseradish peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase, beta-galactosidase, or acetylcholinesterase; examples of suitable prosthetic group complexes include streptavidin/biotin and avidin/biotin; examples of suitable fluorescent materials include umbelliferone, fluorescein, fluorescein isothiocyanate, rhodamine, dichlorotriazinylamine fluorescein, dansyl chloride or phycoerythrin; an example of a luminescent material includes luminol; examples of bioluminescent materials include luciferase, luciferin, and aequorin; and examples of suitable radioactive material include 125I, 131I, 111In or 99Tc.

[0751] Further, an antibody or fragment thereof may be conjugated to a therapeutic moiety such as a cytotoxin, e.g., a cytostatic or cytocidal agent, a therapeutic agent or a radioactive metal ion, e.g., alpha-emitters such as, for example, 213Bi. A cytotoxin or cytotoxic agent includes any agent that is detrimental to cells. Examples include paclitaxol, cytochalasin B, gramicidin D, ethidium bromide, emetine, mitomycin, etoposide, tenoposide, vincristine, vinblastine, colchicin, doxorubicin, daunorubicin, dihydroxy anthracin dione, mitoxantrone, mithramycin, actinomycin D, 1-dehydrotestosterone, glucocorticoids, procaine, tetracaine, lidocaine, propranolol, and puromycin and analogs or homologs thereof. Therapeutic agents include, but are not limited to, antimetabolites (e.g., methotrexate, 6-mercaptopurine, 6-thioguanine, cytarabine, 5-fluorouracil decarbazine), alkylating agents (e.g., mechlorethamine, thioepa chlorambucil, melphalan, carmustine (BSNU) and lomustine (CCNU), cyclothosphamide, busulfan, dibromomannitol, streptozotocin, mitomycin C, and cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (II) (DDP) cisplatin), anthracyclines (e.g., daunorubicin (formerly daunomycin) and doxorubicin), antibiotics (e.g., dactinomycin (formerly actinomycin), bleomycin, mithramycin, and anthramycin (AMC)), and anti-mitotic agents (e.g., vincristine and vinblastine).

[0752] The conjugates of the invention can be used for modifying a given biological response, the therapeutic agent or drug moiety is not to be construed as limited to classical chemical therapeutic agents. For example, the drug moiety may be a protein or polypeptide possessing a desired biological activity. Such proteins may include, for example, a toxin such as abrin, ricin A, pseudomonas exotoxin, or diphtheria toxin; a protein such as tumor necrosis factor, a-interferon, B-interferon, nerve growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, tissue plasminogen activator, an apoptotic agent, e.g., TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, AIM I (See, International Publication No. WO 97/33899), AIM II (See, International Publication No. WO 97/34911), Fas Ligand (Takahashi et al., Int. Immunol., 6:1567-1574 (1994)), VEGI (See, International Publication No. WO 99/23105), a thrombotic agent or an anti-angiogenic agent, e.g., angiostatin or endostatin; or, biological response modifiers such as, for example, lymphokines, interleukin-1 (“IL-1”), interleukin-2 (“IL-2”), interleukin-6 (“IL-6”), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (“GM-CSF”), granulocyte colony stimulating factor (“G-CSF”), or other growth factors.

[0753] Antibodies may also be attached to solid supports, which are particularly useful for immunoassays or purification of the target antigen. Such solid supports include, but are not limited to, glass, cellulose, polyacrylamide, nylon, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene.

[0754] Techniques for conjugating such therapeutic moiety to antibodies are well known, see, e.g., Arnon et al., “Monoclonal Antibodies For Immunotargeting Of Drugs In Cancer Therapy”, in Monoclonal Antibodies And Cancer Therapy, Reisfeld et al. (eds.), pp. 243-56 (Alan R. Liss, Inc. 1985); Hellstrom et al., “Antibodies For Drug Delivery”, in Controlled Drug Delivery (2nd Ed.), Robinson et al. (eds.), pp. 623-53 (Marcel Dekker, Inc. 1987); Thorpe, “Antibody Carriers Of Cytotoxic Agents In Cancer Therapy: A Review”, in Monoclonal Antibodies '84: Biological And Clinical Applications, Pinchera et al. (eds.), pp. 475-506 (1985); “Analysis, Results, And Future Prospective Of The Therapeutic Use Of Radiolabeled Antibody In Cancer Therapy”, in Monoclonal Antibodies For Cancer Detection And Therapy, Baldwin et al. (eds.), pp. 303-16 (Academic Press 1985), and Thorpe et al., “The Preparation And Cytotoxic Properties Of Antibody-Toxin Conjugates”, Immunol. Rev. 62:119-58 (1982).

[0755] Alternatively, an antibody can be conjugated to a second antibody to form an antibody heteroconjugate as described by Segal in U.S. Pat. No. 4,676,980, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

[0756] An antibody, with or without a therapeutic moiety conjugated to it, administered alone or in combination with cytotoxic factor(s) and/or cytokine(s) can be used as a therapeutic.

[0757] Immunophenotyping

[0758] The antibodies of the invention may be utilized for immunophenotyping of cell lines and biological samples. The translation product of the gene of the present invention may be useful as a cell specific marker, or more specifically as a cellular marker that is differentially expressed at various stages of differentiation and/or maturation of particular cell types. Monoclonal antibodies directed against a specific epitope, or combination of epitopes, will allow for the screening of cellular populations expressing the marker. Various techniques can be utilized using monoclonal antibodies to screen for cellular populations expressing the marker(s), and include magnetic separation using antibody-coated magnetic beads, “panning” with antibody attached to a solid matrix (i.e., plate), and flow cytometry (See, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,985,660; and Morrison et al., Cell, 96:737-49 (1999)).

[0759] These techniques allow for the screening of particular populations of cells, such as might be found with hematological malignancies (i.e. minimal residual disease (MRD) in acute leukemic patients) and “non-self” cells in transplantations to prevent Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD). Alternatively, these techniques allow for the screening of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells capable of undergoing proliferation and/or differentiation, as might be found in human umbilical cord blood.

[0760] Assays For Antibody Binding

[0761] The antibodies of the invention may be assayed for immunospecific binding by any method known in the art. The immunoassays which can be used include but are not limited to competitive and non-competitive assay systems using techniques such as western blots, radioimmunoassays, ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), “sandwich” immunoassays, immunoprecipitation assays, precipitin reactions, gel diffusion precipitin reactions, immunodiffusion assays, agglutination assays, complement-fixation assays, immunoradiometric assays, fluorescent immunoassays, protein A immunoassays, to name but a few. Such assays are routine and well known in the art (see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, which is incorporated by reference herein in its entirety). Exemplary immunoassays are described briefly below (but are not intended by way of limitation).

[0762] Immunoprecipitation protocols generally comprise lysing a population of cells in a lysis buffer such as RIPA buffer (1% NP-40 or Triton X-100, 1% sodium deoxycholate, 0.1% SDS, 0.15 M NaCl, 0.01 M sodium phosphate at pH 7.2, 1% Trasylol) supplemented with protein phosphatase and/or protease inhibitors (e.g., EDTA, PMSF, aprotinin, sodium vanadate), adding the antibody of interest to the cell lysate, incubating for a period of time (e.g., 14 hours) at 4° C., adding protein A and/or protein G sepharose beads to the cell lysate, incubating for about an hour or more at 4° C., washing the beads in lysis buffer and resuspending the beads in SDS/sample buffer. The ability of the antibody of interest to immunoprecipitate a particular antigen can be assessed by, e.g., western blot analysis. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the binding of the antibody to an antigen and decrease the background (e.g., pre-clearing the cell lysate with sepharose beads). For further discussion regarding immunoprecipitation protocols see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 10.16.1.

[0763] Western blot analysis generally comprises preparing protein samples, electrophoresis of the protein samples in a polyacrylamide gel (e.g., 8%-20% SDS-PAGE depending on the molecular weight of the antigen), transferring the protein sample from the polyacrylamide gel to a membrane such as nitrocellulose, PVDF or nylon, blocking the membrane in blocking solution (e.g., PBS with 3% BSA or non-fat milk), washing the membrane in washing buffer (e.g., PBS-Tween 20), blocking the membrane with primary antibody (the antibody of interest) diluted in blocking buffer, washing the membrane in washing buffer, blocking the membrane with a secondary antibody (which recognizes the primary antibody, e.g., an anti-human antibody) conjugated to an enzymatic substrate (e.g., horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase) or radioactive molecule (e.g., 32P or 125I) diluted in blocking buffer, washing the membrane in wash buffer, and detecting the presence of the antigen. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the signal detected and to reduce the background noise. For further discussion regarding western blot protocols see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 10.8.1.

[0764] ELISAs comprise preparing antigen, coating the well of a 96 well microtiter plate with the antigen, adding the antibody of interest conjugated to a detectable compound such as an enzymatic substrate (e.g., horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase) to the well and incubating for a period of time, and detecting the presence of the antigen. In ELISAs the antibody of interest does not have to be conjugated to a detectable compound; instead, a second antibody (which recognizes the antibody of interest) conjugated to a detectable compound may be added to the well. Further, instead of coating the well with the antigen, the antibody may be coated to the well. In this case, a second antibody conjugated to a detectable compound may be added following the addition of the antigen of interest to the coated well. One of skill in the art would be knowledgeable as to the parameters that can be modified to increase the signal detected as well as other variations of ELISAs known in the art. For further discussion regarding ELISAs see, e.g., Ausubel et al, eds, 1994, Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York at 11.2.1.

[0765] The binding affinity of an antibody to an antigen and the off-rate of an antibody-antigen interaction can be determined by competitive binding assays. One example of a competitive binding assay is a radioimmunoassay comprising the incubation of labeled antigen (e.g., 3H or 125I) with the antibody of interest in the presence of increasing amounts of unlabeled antigen, and the detection of the antibody bound to the labeled antigen. The affinity of the antibody of interest for a particular antigen and the binding off-rates can be determined from the data by scatchard plot analysis. Competition with a second antibody can also be determined using radioimmunoassays. In this case, the antigen is incubated with antibody of interest conjugated to a labeled compound (e.g., 3H or 125I) in the presence of increasing amounts of an unlabeled second antibody.

[0766] Therapeutic Uses

[0767] The present invention is further directed to antibody-based therapies which involve administering antibodies of the invention to an animal, preferably a mammal, and most preferably a human, patient for treating one or more of the disclosed diseases, disorders, or conditions. Therapeutic compounds of the invention include, but are not limited to, antibodies of the invention (including fragments, analogs and derivatives thereof as described herein) and nucleic acids encoding antibodies of the invention (including fragments, analogs and derivatives thereof and anti-idiotypic antibodies as described herein). The antibodies of the invention can be used to treat, inhibit or prevent diseases, disorders or conditions associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention, including, but not limited to, any one or more of the diseases, disorders, or conditions described herein. The treatment and/or prevention of diseases, disorders, or conditions associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention includes, but is not limited to, alleviating symptoms associated with those diseases, disorders or conditions. Antibodies of the invention may be provided in pharmaceutically acceptable compositions as known in the art or as described herein.

[0768] A summary of the ways in which the antibodies of the present invention may be used therapeutically includes binding polynucleotides or polypeptides of the present invention locally or systemically in the body or by direct cytotoxicity of the antibody, e.g. as mediated by complement (CDC) or by effector cells (ADCC). Some of these approaches are described in more detail below. Armed with the teachings provided herein, one of ordinary skill in the art will know how to use the antibodies of the present invention for diagnostic, monitoring or therapeutic purposes without undue experimentation.

[0769] The antibodies of this invention may be advantageously utilized in combination with other monoclonal or chimeric antibodies, or with lymphokines or hematopoietic growth factors (such as, e.g., IL-2, IL-3 and IL-7), for example, which serve to increase the number or activity of effector cells which interact with the antibodies.

[0770] The antibodies of the invention may be administered alone or in combination with other types of treatments (e.g., radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immunotherapy and anti-tumor agents). Generally, administration of products of a species origin or species reactivity (in the case of antibodies) that is the same species as that of the patient is preferred. Thus, in a preferred embodiment, human antibodies, fragments derivatives, analogs, or nucleic acids, are administered to a human patient for therapy or prophylaxis.

[0771] It is preferred to use high affinity and/or potent in vivo inhibiting and/or neutralizing antibodies against polypeptides or polynucleotides of the present invention, fragments or regions thereof, for both immunoassays directed to and therapy of disorders related to polynucleotides or polypeptides, including fragments thereof, of the present invention. Such antibodies, fragments, or regions, will preferably have an affinity for polynucleotides or polypeptides of the invention, including fragments thereof. Preferred binding affinities include those with a dissociation constant or Kd less than 5×10−2 M, 10−2 M, 5×10−3 M, 10−3 M, 5×10−4 M, 10−4 M, 5×10−5 M, 10 −5 M, 5×10−6 M, 10−6 M, 5×10−7 M, 10−7 M, 5×10−8 M, 10−8 M, 5×10−9 M, 10−9 M, 5×10−10 M, 10−10 M, 5×10−11 M, 10−11 M, 5×10−12 M, 10−12 M, 5×10−13 M, 10−13 M, 5×10−14 M, 10−14 M, 5×10−15 M, and 10−15 M.

[0772] Gene Therapy

[0773] In a specific embodiment, nucleic acids comprising sequences encoding antibodies or functional derivatives thereof, are administered to treat, inhibit or prevent a disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention, by way of gene therapy. Gene therapy refers to therapy performed by the administration to a subject of an expressed or expressible nucleic acid. In this embodiment of the invention, the nucleic acids produce their encoded protein that mediates a therapeutic effect.

[0774] Any of the methods for gene therapy available in the art can be used according to the present invention. Exemplary methods are described below.

[0775] For general reviews of the methods of gene therapy, see Goldspiel et al., Clinical Pharmacy 12:488-505 (1993); Wu and Wu, Biotherapy 3:87-95 (1991); Tolstoshev, Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32:573-596 (1993); Mulligan, Science 260:926-932 (1993); and Morgan and Anderson, Ann. Rev. Biochem. 62:191-217 (1993); May, TIBTECH 11(5):155-215 (1993). Methods commonly known in the art of recombinant DNA technology which can be used are described in Ausubel et al. (eds.), Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, John Wiley & Sons, NY (1993); and Kriegler, Gene Transfer and Expression, A Laboratory Manual, Stockton Press, NY (1990).

[0776] In a preferred aspect, the compound comprises nucleic acid sequences encoding an antibody, said nucleic acid sequences being part of expression vectors that express the antibody or fragments or chimeric proteins or heavy or light chains thereof in a suitable host. In particular, such nucleic acid sequences have promoters operably linked to the antibody coding region, said promoter being inducible or constitutive, and, optionally, tissue-specific. In another particular embodiment, nucleic acid molecules are used in which the antibody coding sequences and any other desired sequences are flanked by regions that promote homologous recombination at a desired site in the genome, thus providing for intrachromosomal expression of the antibody encoding nucleic acids (Koller and Srnithies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:8932-8935 (1989); Zijlstra et al., Nature 342:435-438 (1989). In specific embodiments, the expressed antibody molecule is a single chain antibody; alternatively, the nucleic acid sequences include sequences encoding both the heavy and light chains, or fragments thereof, of the antibody.

[0777] Delivery of the nucleic acids into a patient may be either direct, in which case the patient is directly exposed to the nucleic acid or nucleic acid-carrying vectors, or indirect, in which case, cells are first transformed with the nucleic acids in vitro, then transplanted into the patient. These two approaches are known, respectively, as in vivo or ex vivo gene therapy.

[0778] In a specific embodiment, the nucleic acid sequences are directly administered in vivo, where it is expressed to produce the encoded product. This can be accomplished by any of numerous methods known in the art, e.g., by constructing them as part of an appropriate nucleic acid expression vector and administering it so that they become intracellular, e.g., by infection using defective or attenuated retrovirals or other viral vectors (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,980,286), or by direct injection of naked DNA, or by use of microparticle bombardment (e.g., a gene gun; Biolistic, Dupont), or coating with lipids or cell-surface receptors or transfecting agents, encapsulation in liposomes, microparticles, or microcapsules, or by administering them in linkage to a peptide which is known to enter the nucleus, by administering it in linkage to a ligand subject to receptor-mediated endocytosis (see, e.g., Wu and Wu, J. Biol. Chem. 262:4429-4432 (1987)) (which can be used to target cell types specifically expressing the receptors), etc. In another embodiment, nucleic acid-ligand complexes can be formed in which the ligand comprises a fusogenic viral peptide to disrupt endosomes, allowing the nucleic acid to avoid lysosomal degradation. In yet another embodiment, the nucleic acid can be targeted in vivo for cell specific uptake and expression, by targeting a specific receptor (see, e.g., PCT Publications WO 92/06180; WO 92/22635; WO92/20316; WO93/14188, WO 93/20221). Alternatively, the nucleic acid can be introduced intracellularly and incorporated within host cell DNA for expression, by homologous recombination (Koller and Smithies, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:8932-8935 (1989); Zijlstra et al., Nature 342:435-438 (1989)).

[0779] In a specific embodiment, viral vectors that contains nucleic acid sequences encoding an antibody of the invention are used. For example, a retroviral vector can be used (see Miller et al., Meth. Enzymol. 217:581-599 (1993)). These retroviral vectors contain the components necessary for the correct packaging of the viral genome and integration into the host cell DNA. The nucleic acid sequences encoding the antibody to be used in gene therapy are cloned into one or more vectors, which facilitates delivery of the gene into a patient. More detail about retroviral vectors can be found in Boesen et al., Biotherapy 6:291-302 (1994), which describes the use of a retroviral vector to deliver the mdr1 gene to hematopoietic stem cells in order to make the stem cells more resistant to chemotherapy. Other references illustrating the use of retroviral vectors in gene therapy are: Clowes et al., J. Clin. Invest. 93:644-651 (1994); Kiem et al., Blood 83:1467-1473 (1994); Salmons and Gunzberg, Human Gene Therapy 4:129-141 (1993); and Grossman and Wilson, Curr. Opin. in Genetics and Devel. 3:110-114 (1993).

[0780] Adenoviruses are other viral vectors that can be used in gene therapy. Adenoviruses are especially attractive vehicles for delivering genes to respiratory epithelia. Adenoviruses naturally infect respiratory epithelia where they cause a mild disease. Other targets for adenovirus-based delivery systems are liver, the central nervous system, endothelial cells, and muscle. Adenoviruses have the advantage of being capable of infecting non-dividing cells. Kozarsky and Wilson, Current Opinion in Genetics and Development 3:499-503 (1993) present a review of adenovirus-based gene therapy. Bout et al., Human Gene Therapy 5:3-10 (1994) demonstrated the use of adenovirus vectors to transfer genes to the respiratory epithelia of rhesus monkeys. Other instances of the use of adenoviruses in gene therapy can be found in Rosenfeld et al., Science 252:431-434 (1991); Rosenfeld et al., Cell 68:143-155 (1992); Mastrangeli et al., J. Clin. Invest. 91:225-234 (1993); PCT Publication WO94/12649; and Wang, et al., Gene Therapy 2:775-783 (1995). In a preferred embodiment, adenovirus vectors are used.

[0781] Adeno-associated virus (AAV) has also been proposed for use in gene therapy (Walsh et al., Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 204:289-300 (1993); U.S. Pat. No. 5,436,146).

[0782] Another approach to gene therapy involves transferring a gene to cells in tissue culture by such methods as electroporation, lipofection, calcium phosphate mediated transfection, or viral infection. Usually, the method of transfer includes the transfer of a selectable marker to the cells. The cells are then placed under selection to isolate those cells that have taken up and are expressing the transferred gene. Those cells are then delivered to a patient.

[0783] In this embodiment, the nucleic acid is introduced into a cell prior to administration in vivo of the resulting recombinant cell. Such introduction can be carried out by any method known in the art, including but not limited to transfection, electroporation, microinjection, infection with a viral or bacteriophage vector containing the nucleic acid sequences, cell fusion, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, microcell-mediated gene transfer, spheroplast fusion, etc. Numerous techniques are known in the art for the introduction of foreign genes into cells (see, e.g., Loeffler and Behr, Meth. Enzymol. 217:599-618 (1993); Cohen et al., Meth. Enzymol. 217:618-644 (1993); Cline, Pharmac. Ther. 29:69-92m (1985) and may be used in accordance with the present invention, provided that the necessary developmental and physiological functions of the recipient cells are not disrupted. The technique should provide for the stable transfer of the nucleic acid to the cell, so that the nucleic acid is expressible by the cell and preferably heritable and expressible by its cell progeny.

[0784] The resulting recombinant cells can be delivered to a patient by various methods known in the art. Recombinant blood cells (e.g., hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells) are preferably administered intravenously. The amount of cells envisioned for use depends on the desired effect, patient state, etc., and can be determined by one skilled in the art.

[0785] Cells into which a nucleic acid can be introduced for purposes of gene therapy encompass any desired, available cell type, and include but are not limited to epithelial cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, muscle cells, hepatocytes; blood cells such as Tlymphocytes, Blymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, megakaryocytes, granulocytes; various stem or progenitor cells, in particular hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, e.g., as obtained from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, peripheral blood, fetal liver, etc.

[0786] In a preferred embodiment, the cell used for gene therapy is autologous to the patient.

[0787] In an embodiment in which recombinant cells are used in gene therapy, nucleic acid sequences encoding an antibody are introduced into the cells such that they are expressible by the cells or their progeny, and the recombinant cells are then administered in vivo for therapeutic effect. In a specific embodiment, stem or progenitor cells are used. Any stem and/or progenitor cells which can be isolated and maintained in vitro can potentially be used in accordance with this embodiment of the present invention (see e.g. PCT Publication WO 94/08598; Stemple and Anderson, Cell 71:973-985 (1992); Rheinwald, Meth. Cell Bio. 21A:229 (1980); and Pittelkow and Scott, Mayo Clinic Proc. 61:771 (1986)).

[0788] In a specific embodiment, the nucleic acid to be introduced for purposes of gene therapy comprises an inducible promoter operably linked to the coding region, such that expression of the nucleic acid is controllable by controlling the presence or absence of the appropriate inducer of transcription. Demonstration of Therapeutic or Prophylactic Activity.

[0789] The compounds or pharmaceutical compositions of the invention are preferably tested in vitro, and then in vivo for the desired therapeutic or prophylactic activity, prior to use in humans. For example, in vitro assays to demonstrate the therapeutic or prophylactic utility of a compound or pharmaceutical composition include, the effect of a compound on a cell line or a patient tissue sample. The effect of the compound or composition on the cell line and/or tissue sample can be determined utilizing techniques known to those of skill in the art including, but not limited to, rosette formation assays and cell lysis assays. In accordance with the invention, in vitro assays which can be used to determine whether administration of a specific compound is indicated, include in vitro cell culture assays in which a patient tissue sample is grown in culture, and exposed to or otherwise administered a compound, and the effect of such compound upon the tissue sample is observed.

[0790] Therapeutic/Prophylactic Administration and Composition

[0791] The invention provides methods of treatment, inhibition and prophylaxis by administration to a subject of an effective amount of a compound or pharmaceutical composition of the invention, preferably an antibody of the invention. In a preferred aspect, the compound is substantially purified (e.g., substantially free from substances that limit its effect or produce undesired side-effects). The subject is preferably an animal, including but not limited to animals such as cows, pigs, horses, chickens, cats, dogs, etc., and is preferably a mammal, and most preferably human.

[0792] Formulations and methods of administration that can be employed when the compound comprises a nucleic acid or an immunoglobulin are described above; additional appropriate formulations and routes of administration can be selected from among those described herein below.

[0793] Various delivery systems are known and can be used to administer a compound of the invention, e.g., encapsulation in liposomes, microparticles, microcapsules, recombinant cells capable of expressing the compound, receptor-mediated endocytosis (see, e.g., Wu and Wu, J. Biol. Chem. 262:4429-4432 (1987)), construction of a nucleic acid as part of a retroviral or other vector, etc. Methods of introduction include but are not limited to intradermal, intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, epidural, and oral routes. The compounds or compositions may be administered by any convenient route, for example by infusion or bolus injection, by absorption through epithelial or mucocutaneous linings (e.g., oral mucosa, rectal and intestinal mucosa, etc.) and may be administered together with other biologically active agents. Administration can be systemic or local. In addition, it may be desirable to introduce the pharmaceutical compounds or compositions of the invention into the central nervous system by any suitable route, including intraventricular and intrathecal injection; intraventricular injection may be facilitated by an intraventricular catheter, for example, attached to a reservoir, such as an Ommaya reservoir. Pulmonary administration can also be employed, e.g., by use of an inhaler or nebulizer, and formulation with an aerosolizing agent.

[0794] In a specific embodiment, it may be desirable to administer the pharmaceutical compounds or compositions of the invention locally to the area in need of treatment; this may be achieved by, for example, and not by way of limitation, local infusion during surgery, topical application, e.g., in conjunction with a wound dressing after surgery, by injection, by means of a catheter, by means of a suppository, or by means of an implant, said implant being of a porous, non-porous, or gelatinous material, including membranes, such as sialastic membranes, or fibers. Preferably, when administering a protein, including an antibody, of the invention, care must be taken to use materials to which the protein does not absorb.

[0795] In another embodiment, the compound or composition can be delivered in a vesicle, in particular a liposome (see Langer, Science 249:1527-1533 (1990); Treat et al., in Liposomes in the Therapy of Infectious Disease and Cancer, Lopez-Berestein and Fidler (eds.), Liss, New York, pp. 353-365 (1989); Lopez-Berestein, ibid., pp. 317-327; see generally ibid.)

[0796] In yet another embodiment, the compound or composition can be delivered in a controlled release system. In one embodiment, a pump may be used (see Langer, supra; Sefton, CRC Crit. Ref. Biomed. Eng. 14:201 (1987); Buchwald et al., Surgery 88:507 (1980); Saudek et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 321:574 (1989)). In another embodiment, polymeric materials can be used (see Medical Applications of Controlled Release, Langer and Wise (eds.), CRC Pres., Boca Raton, Fla. (1974); Controlled Drug Bioavailability, Drug Product Design and Performance, Smolen and Ball (eds.), Wiley, N.Y. (1984); Ranger and Peppas, J., Macromol. Sci. Rev. Macromol. Chem. 23.61 (1983); see also Levy et al., Science 228:190 (1985); During et al., Ann. Neurol. 25:351 (1989); Howard et al., J. Neurosurg. 71:105 (1989)). In yet another embodiment, a controlled release system can be placed in proximity of the therapeutic target, i.e., the brain, thus requiring only a fraction of the systemic dose (see, e.g., Goodson, in Medical Applications of Controlled Release, supra, vol. 2, pp. 115-138 (1984)).

[0797] Other controlled release systems are discussed in the review by Langer (Science 249:1527-1533 (1990)).

[0798] In a specific embodiment where the compound of the invention is a nucleic acid encoding a protein, the nucleic acid can be administered in vivo to promote expression of its encoded protein, by constructing it as part of an appropriate nucleic acid expression vector and administering it so that it becomes intracellular, e.g., by use of a retroviral vector (see U.S. Pat. No. 4,980,286), or by direct injection, or by use of microparticle bombardment (e.g., a gene gun; Biolistic, Dupont), or coating with lipids or cell-surface receptors or transfecting agents, or by administering it in linkage to a homeobox-like peptide which is known to enter the nucleus (see e.g., Joliot et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:1864-1868 (1991)), etc. Alternatively, a nucleic acid can be introduced intracellularly and incorporated within host cell DNA for expression, by homologous recombination.

[0799] The present invention also provides pharmaceutical compositions. Such compositions comprise a therapeutically effective amount of a compound, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. In a specific embodiment, the term “pharmaceutically acceptable” means approved by a regulatory agency of the Federal or a state government or listed in the U.S. Pharmacopeia or other generally recognized pharmacopeia for use in animals, and more particularly in humans. The term “carrier” refers to a diluent, adjuvant, excipient, or vehicle with which the therapeutic is administered. Such pharmaceutical carriers can be sterile liquids, such as water and oils, including those of petroleum, animal, vegetable or synthetic origin, such as peanut oil, soybean oil, mineral oil, sesame oil and the like. Water is a preferred carrier when the pharmaceutical composition is administered intravenously. Saline solutions and aqueous dextrose and glycerol solutions can also be employed as liquid carriers, particularly for injectable solutions. Suitable pharmaceutical excipients include starch, glucose, lactose, sucrose, gelatin, malt, rice, flour, chalk, silica gel, sodium stearate, glycerol monostearate, talc, sodium chloride, dried skim milk, glycerol, propylene, glycol, water, ethanol and the like. The composition, if desired, can also contain minor amounts of wetting or emulsifying agents, or pH buffering agents. These compositions can take the form of solutions, suspensions, emulsion, tablets, pills, capsules, powders, sustained-release formulations and the like. The composition can be formulated as a suppository, with traditional binders and carriers such as triglycerides. Oral formulation can include standard carriers such as pharmaceutical grades of mannitol, lactose, starch, magnesium stearate, sodium saccharine, cellulose, magnesium carbonate, etc. Examples of suitable pharmaceutical carriers are described in “Remington's Pharmaceutical Sciences” by E. W. Martin. Such compositions will contain a therapeutically effective amount of the compound, preferably in purified form, together with a suitable amount of carrier so as to provide the form for proper administration to the patient. The formulation should suit the mode of administration.

[0800] In a preferred embodiment, the composition is formulated in accordance with routine procedures as a pharmaceutical composition adapted for intravenous administration to human beings. Typically, compositions for intravenous administration are solutions in sterile isotonic aqueous buffer. Where necessary, the composition may also include a solubilizing agent and a local anesthetic such as lignocaine to ease pain at the site of the injection. Generally, the ingredients are supplied either separately or mixed together in unit dosage form, for example, as a dry lyophilized powder or water free concentrate in a hermetically sealed container such as an ampoule or sachette indicating the quantity of active agent. Where the composition is to be administered by infusion, it can be dispensed with an infusion bottle containing sterile pharmaceutical grade water or saline. Where the composition is administered by injection, an ampoule of sterile water for injection or saline can be provided so that the ingredients may be mixed prior to administration.

[0801] The compounds of the invention can be formulated as neutral or salt forms. Pharmaceutically acceptable salts include those formed with anions such as those derived from hydrochloric, phosphoric, acetic, oxalic, tartaric acids, etc., and those formed with cations such as those derived from sodium, potassium, ammonium, calcium, ferric hydroxides, isopropylamine, triethylamine, 2-ethylamino ethanol, histidine, procaine, etc.

[0802] The amount of the compound of the invention which will be effective in the treatment, inhibition and prevention of a disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention can be determined by standard clinical techniques. In addition, in vitro assays may optionally be employed to help identify optimal dosage ranges. The precise dose to be employed in the formulation will also depend on the route of administration, and the seriousness of the disease or disorder, and should be decided according to the judgment of the practitioner and each patient's circumstances. Effective doses may be extrapolated from dose-response curves derived from in vitro or animal model test systems.

[0803] For antibodies, the dosage administered to a patient is typically 0.1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg of the patient's body weight. Preferably, the dosage administered to a patient is between 0.1 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of the patient's body weight, more preferably 1 mg/kg to 10 mg/kg of the patient's body weight. Generally, human antibodies have a longer half-life within the human body than antibodies from other species due to the immune response to the foreign polypeptides. Thus, lower dosages of human antibodies and less frequent administration is often possible. Further, the dosage and frequency of administration of antibodies of the invention may be reduced by enhancing uptake and tissue penetration (e.g., into the brain) of the antibodies by modifications such as, for example, lipidation.

[0804] The invention also provides a pharmaceutical pack or kit comprising one or more containers filled with one or more of the ingredients of the pharmaceutical compositions of the invention. Optionally associated with such container(s) can be a notice in the form prescribed by a governmental agency regulating the manufacture, use or sale of pharmaceuticals or biological products, which notice reflects approval by the agency of manufacture, use or sale for human administration. Diagnosis and Imaging

[0805] Labeled antibodies, and derivatives and analogs thereof, which specifically bind to a polypeptide of interest can be used for diagnostic purposes to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disorders, and/or conditions associated with the aberrant expression and/or activity of a polypeptide of the invention. The invention provides for the detection of aberrant expression of a polypeptide of interest, comprising (a) assaying the expression of the polypeptide of interest in cells or body fluid of an individual using one or more antibodies specific to the polypeptide interest and (b) comparing the level of gene expression with a standard gene expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed polypeptide gene expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of aberrant expression.

[0806] The invention provides a diagnostic assay for diagnosing a disorder, comprising (a) assaying the expression of the polypeptide of interest in cells or body fluid of an individual using one or more antibodies specific to the polypeptide interest and (b) comparing the level of gene expression with a standard gene expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed polypeptide gene expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of a particular disorder. With respect to cancer, the presence of a relatively high amount of transcript in biopsied tissue from an individual may indicate a predisposition for the development of the disease, or may provide a means for detecting the disease prior to the appearance of actual clinical symptoms. A more definitive diagnosis of this type may allow health professionals to employ preventative measures or aggressive treatment earlier thereby preventing the development or further progression of the cancer.

[0807] Antibodies of the invention can be used to assay protein levels in a biological sample using classical immunohistological methods known to those of skill in the art (e.g., see Jalkanen, et al., J. Cell. Biol. 101:976-985 (1985); Jalkanen, et al., J. Cell. Biol. 105:3087-3096 (1987)). Other antibody-based methods useful for detecting protein gene expression include immunoassays, such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the radioimmunoassay (RIA). Suitable antibody assay labels are known in the art and include enzyme labels, such as, glucose oxidase; radioisotopes, such as iodine (125I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulfur (35S), tritium (3H), indium (112In), and technetium (99Tc); luminescent labels, such as luminol; and fluorescent labels, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and biotin.

[0808] One aspect of the invention is the detection and diagnosis of a disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression of a polypeptide of interest in an animal, preferably a mammal and most preferably a human. In one embodiment, diagnosis comprises: a) administering (for example, parenterally, subcutaneously, or intraperitoneally) to a subject an effective amount of a labeled molecule which specifically binds to the polypeptide of interest; b) waiting for a time interval following the administering for permitting the labeled molecule to preferentially concentrate at sites in the subject where the polypeptide is expressed (and for unbound labeled molecule to be cleared to background level); c) determining background level; and d) detecting the labeled molecule in the subject, such that detection of labeled molecule above the background level indicates that the subject has a particular disease or disorder associated with aberrant expression of the polypeptide of interest. Background level can be determined by various methods including, comparing the amount of labeled molecule detected to a standard value previously determined for a particular system.

[0809] It will be understood in the art that the size of the subject and the imaging system used will determine the quantity of imaging moiety needed to produce diagnostic images. In the case of a radioisotope moiety, for a human subject, the quantity of radioactivity injected will normally range from about 5 to 20 millicuries of 99mTc. The labeled antibody or antibody fragment will then preferentially accumulate at the location of cells which contain the specific protein. In vivo tumor imaging is described in S. W. Burchiel et al., “Immunopharmacokinetics of Radiolabeled Antibodies and Their Fragments.” (Chapter 13 in Tumor Imaging: The Radiochemical Detection of Cancer, S. W. Burchiel and B. A. Rhodes, eds., Masson Publishing Inc. (1982).

[0810] Depending on several variables, including the type of label used and the mode of administration, the time interval following the administration for permitting the labeled molecule to preferentially concentrate at sites in the subject and for unbound labeled molecule to be cleared to background level is 6 to 48 hours or 6 to 24 hours or 6 to 12 hours. In another embodiment the time interval following administration is 5 to 20 days or 5 to 10 days.

[0811] In an embodiment, monitoring of the disease or disorder is carried out by repeating the method for diagnosing the disease or disease, for example, one month after initial diagnosis, six months after initial diagnosis, one year after initial diagnosis, etc.

[0812] Presence of the labeled molecule can be detected in the patient using methods known in the art for in vivo scanning. These methods depend upon the type of label used. Skilled artisans will be able to determine the appropriate method for detecting a particular label. Methods and devices that may be used in the diagnostic methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, computed tomography (CT), whole body scan such as position emission tomography (PET), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sonography.

[0813] In a specific embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a radioisotope and is detected in the patient using a radiation responsive surgical instrument (Thurston et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,441,050). In another embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a fluorescent compound and is detected in the patient using a fluorescence responsive scanning instrument. In another embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a positron emitting metal and is detected in the patent using positron emission-tomography. In yet another embodiment, the molecule is labeled with a paramagnetic label and is detected in a patient using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

[0814] Kits

[0815] The present invention provides kits that can be used in the above methods. In one embodiment, a kit comprises an antibody of the invention, preferably a purified antibody, in one or more containers. In a specific embodiment, the kits of the present invention contain a substantially isolated polypeptide comprising an epitope which is specifically immunoreactive with an antibody included in the kit. Preferably, the kits of the present invention further comprise a control antibody which does not react with the polypeptide of interest. In another specific embodiment, the kits of the present invention contain a means for detecting the binding of an antibody to a polypeptide of interest (e.g., the antibody may be conjugated to a detectable substrate such as a fluorescent compound, an enzymatic substrate, a radioactive compound or a luminescent compound, or a second antibody which recognizes the first antibody may be conjugated to a detectable substrate).

[0816] In another specific embodiment of the present invention, the kit is a diagnostic kit for use in screening serum containing antibodies specific against proliferative and/or cancerous polynucleotides and polypeptides. Such a kit may include a control antibody that does not react with the polypeptide of interest. Such a kit may include a substantially isolated polypeptide antigen comprising an epitope which is specifically immunoreactive with at least one anti-polypeptide antigen antibody. Further, such a kit includes means for detecting the binding of said antibody to the antigen (e.g., the antibody may be conjugated to a fluorescent compound such as fluorescein or rhodamine which can be detected by flow cytometry). In specific embodiments, the kit may include a recombinantly produced or chemically synthesized polypeptide antigen. The polypeptide antigen of the kit may also be attached to a solid support.

[0817] In a more specific embodiment the detecting means of the above-described kit includes a solid support to which said polypeptide antigen is attached. Such a kit may also include a non-attached reporter-labeled anti-human antibody. In this embodiment, binding of the antibody to the polypeptide antigen can be detected by binding of the said reporter-labeled antibody.

[0818] In an additional embodiment, the invention includes a diagnostic kit for use in screening serum containing antigens of the polypeptide of the invention. The diagnostic kit includes a substantially isolated antibody specifically immunoreactive with polypeptide or polynucleotide antigens, and means for detecting the binding of the polynucleotide or polypeptide antigen to the antibody. In one embodiment, the antibody is attached to a solid support. In a specific embodiment, the antibody may be a monoclonal antibody. The detecting means of the kit may include a second, labeled monoclonal antibody. Alternatively, or in addition, the detecting means may include a labeled, competing antigen.

[0819] In one diagnostic configuration, test serum is reacted with a solid phase reagent having a surface-bound antigen obtained by the methods of the present invention. After binding with specific antigen antibody to the reagent and removing unbound serum components by washing, the reagent is reacted with reporter-labeled anti-human antibody to bind reporter to the reagent in proportion to the amount of bound anti-antigen antibody on the solid support. The reagent is again washed to remove unbound labeled antibody, and the amount of reporter associated with the reagent is determined. Typically, the reporter is an enzyme which is detected by incubating the solid phase in the presence of a suitable fluorometric, luminescent or calorimetric substrate (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo.).

[0820] The solid surface reagent in the above assay is prepared by known techniques for attaching protein material to solid support material, such as polymeric beads, dip sticks, 96-well plate or filter material. These attachment methods generally include non-specific adsorption of the protein to the support or covalent attachment of the protein, typically through a free amine group, to a chemically reactive group on the solid support, such as an activated carboxyl, hydroxyl, or aldehyde group. Alternatively, streptavidin coated plates can be used in conjunction with biotinylated antigen(s).

[0821] Thus, the invention provides an assay system or kit for carrying out this diagnostic method. The kit generally includes a support with surface-bound recombinant antigens, and a reporter-labeled anti-human antibody for detecting surface-bound anti-antigen antibody.

[0822] Fusion Proteins

[0823] Any polypeptide of the present invention can be used to generate fusion proteins. For example, the polypeptide of the present invention, when fused to a second protein, can be used as an antigenic tag. Antibodies raised against the polypeptide of the present invention can be used to indirectly detect the second protein by binding to the polypeptide. Moreover, because secreted proteins target cellular locations based on trafficking signals, the polypeptides of the present invention can be used as targeting molecules once fused to other proteins.

[0824] Examples of domains that can be fused to polypeptides of the present invention include not only heterologous signal sequences, but also other heterologous functional regions. The fusion does not necessarily need to be direct, but may occur through linker sequences.

[0825] Moreover, fusion proteins may also be engineered to improve characteristics of the polypeptide of the present invention. For instance, a region of additional amino acids, particularly charged amino acids, may be added to the N-terminus of the polypeptide to improve stability and persistence during purification from the host cell or subsequent handling and storage. Also, peptide moieties may be added to the polypeptide to facilitate purification. Such regions may be removed prior to final preparation of the polypeptide. The addition of peptide moieties to facilitate handling of polypeptides are familiar and routine techniques in the art.

[0826] Moreover, polypeptides of the present invention, including fragments, and specifically epitopes, can be combined with parts of the constant domain of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM) or portions thereof (CH1, CH2, CH3, and any combination thereof, including both entire domains and portions thereof), resulting in chimeric polypeptides. These fusion proteins facilitate purification and show an increased half-life in vivo. One reported example describes chimeric proteins consisting of the first two domains of the human CD4-polypeptide and various domains of the constant regions of the heavy or light chains of mammalian immunoglobulins. (EP A 394,827; Traunecker et al., Nature 331:84-86 (1988).) Fusion proteins having disulfide-linked dimeric structures (due to the IgG) can also be more efficient in binding and neutralizing other molecules, than the monomeric secreted protein or protein fragment alone. (Fountoulakis et al., J. Biochem. 270:3958-3964 (1995).)

[0827] Similarly, EP-A-O 464 533 (Canadian counterpart 2045869) discloses fusion proteins comprising various portions of constant region of immunoglobulin molecules together with another human protein or part thereof. In many cases, the Fc part in a fusion protein is beneficial in therapy and diagnosis, and thus can result in, for example, improved pharmacokinetic properties. (EP-A 0232 262.) Alternatively, deleting the Fc part after the fusion protein has been expressed, detected, and purified, would be desired. For example, the Fc portion may hinder therapy and diagnosis if the fusion protein is used as an antigen for immunizations. In drug discovery, for example, human proteins, such as hIL-5, have been fused with Fc portions for the purpose of high-throughput screening assays to identify antagonists of hIL-5. (See, D. Bennett et al., J. Molecular Recognition 8:52-58 (1995); K. Johanson et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270:9459-9471 (1995).)

[0828] Moreover, the polypeptides of the present invention can be fused to marker sequences, such as a peptide which facilitates purification of the fused polypeptide. In preferred embodiments, the marker amino acid sequence is a hexa-histidine peptide, such as the tag provided in a pQE vector (QIAGEN, Inc., 9259 Eton Avenue, Chatsworth, CA, 91311), among others, many of which are commercially available. As described in Gentz et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:821-824 (1989), for instance, hexa-histidine provides for convenient purification of the fusion protein. Another peptide tag useful for purification, the “HA” tag, corresponds to an epitope derived from the influenza hemagglutinin protein. (Wilson et al., Cell 37:767 (1984).)

[0829] Thus, any of these above fusions can be engineered using the polynucleotides or the polypeptides of the present invention.

[0830] Vectors, Host Cells, and Protein Production

[0831] The present invention also relates to vectors containing the polynucleotide of the present invention, host cells, and the production of polypeptides by recombinant techniques. The vector may be, for example, a phage, plasmid, viral, or retroviral vector. Retroviral vectors may be replication competent or replication defective. In the latter case, viral propagation generally will occur only in complementing host cells.

[0832] The polynucleotides may be joined to a vector containing a selectable marker for propagation in a host. Generally, a plasmid vector is introduced in a precipitate, such as a calcium phosphate precipitate, or in a complex with a charged lipid. If the vector is a virus, it may be packaged in vitro using an appropriate packaging cell line and then transduced into host cells.

[0833] The polynucleotide insert should be operatively linked to an appropriate promoter, such as the phage lambda PL promoter, the E. coli lac, trp, phoA and tac promoters, the SV40 early and late promoters and promoters of retroviral LTRs, to name a few. Other suitable promoters will be known to the skilled artisan. The expression constructs will further contain sites for transcription initiation, termination, and, in the transcribed region, a ribosome binding site for translation. The coding portion of the transcripts expressed by the constructs will preferably include a translation initiating codon at the beginning and a termination codon (UAA, UGA or UAG) appropriately positioned at the end of the polypeptide to be translated.

[0834] As indicated, the expression vectors will preferably include at least one selectable marker. Such markers include dihydrofolate reductase, G418 or neomycin resistance for eukaryotic cell culture and tetracycline, kanamycin or ampicillin resistance genes for culturing in E. coli and other bacteria. Representative examples of appropriate hosts include, but are not limited to, bacterial cells, such as E. coli, Streptomyces and Salmonella typhimurium cells; fungal cells, such as yeast cells (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Pichia pastoris (ATCC Accession No. 201178)); insect cells such as Drosophila S2 and Spodoptera Sf9 cells; animal cells such as CHO, COS, 293, and Bowes melanoma cells; and plant cells. Appropriate culture mediums and conditions for the above-described host cells are known in the art.

[0835] Among vectors preferred for use in bacteria include pQE70, pQE60 and pQE-9, available from QIAGEN, Inc.; pBluescript vectors, Phagescript vectors, pNH8A, pNH16a, pNH18A, pNH46A, available from Stratagene Cloning Systems, Inc.; and ptrc99a, pKK223-3, pKK233-3, pDR540, pRIT5 available from Pharmacia Biotech, Inc. Among preferred eukaryotic vectors are pWLNEO, pSV2CAT, pOG44, pXT1 and pSG available from Stratagene; and pSVK3, pBPV, pMSG and pSVL available from Pharmacia. Preferred expression vectors for use in yeast systems include, but are not limited to pYES2, pYD1, pTEF1/Zeo, pYES2/GS, pPICZ,pGAPZ, pGAPZalph, pPIC9, pPIC3.5, pHIL-D2, pHIL-S1, pPIC3.5K, pPIC9K, and PA0815 (all available from Invitrogen, Carlbad, Calif.). Other suitable vectors will be readily apparent to the skilled artisan.

[0836] Introduction of the construct into the host cell can be effected by calcium phosphate transfection, DEAE-dextran mediated transfection, cationic lipid-mediated transfection, electroporation, transduction, infection, or other methods. Such methods are described in many standard laboratory manuals, such as Davis et al., Basic ivIethods In Molecular Biology (1986). It is specifically contemplated that tne polypeptides of the present invention may in fact be expressed by a host cell lacking a recombinant vector.

[0837] A polypeptide of this invention can be recovered and purified from recombinant cell cultures by well-known methods including ammonium sulfate or ethanol precipitation, acid extraction, anion or cation exchange chromatography, phosphocellulose chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, affinity chromatography, hydroxylapatite chromatography and lectin chromatography. Most preferably, high performance liquid chromatography (“HPLC”) is employed for purification.

[0838] Polypeptides of the present invention, and preferably the secreted form, can also be recovered from: products purified from natural sources, including bodily fluids, tissues and cells, whether directly isolated or cultured; products of chemical synthetic procedures; and products produced by recombinant techniques from a prokaryotic or eukaryotic host, including, for example, bacterial, yeast, higher plant, insect, and mammalian cells. Depending upon the host employed in a recombinant production procedure, the polypeptides of the present invention may be glycosylated or may be non-glycosylated. In addition, polypeptides of the invention may also include an initial modified methionine residue, in some cases as a result of host-mediated processes. Thus, it is well known in the art that the N-terminal methionine encoded by the translation initiation codon generally is removed with high efficiency from any protein after translation in all eukaryotic cells. While the N-terminal methionine on most proteins also is efficiently removed in most prokaryotes, for some proteins, this prokaryotic removal process is inefficient, depending on the nature of the amino acid to which the N-terminal methionine is covalently linked.

[0839] In one embodiment, the yeast Pichia pastoris is used to express the polypeptide of the present invention in a eukaryotic system. Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast which can metabolize methanol as its sole carbon source. A main step in the methanol metabolization pathway is the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde using O2. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme alcohol oxidase. In order to metabolize methanol as its sole carbon source, Pichia pastoris must generate high levels of alcohol oxidase due, in part, to the relatively low affinity of alcohol oxidase for O2. Consequently, in a growth medium depending on methanol as a main carbon source, the promoter region of one of the two alcohol oxidase genes (AOX1) is highly active. In the presence of methanol, alcohol oxidase produced from the AOX1 gene comprises up to approximately 30% of the total soluble protein in Pichia pastoris. See, Ellis, S. B., et. al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 5:1111-21 (1985); Koutz, P. J, et al., Yeast 5:167-77 (1989); Tschopp, J. F., et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 15:3859-76 (1987). Thus, a heterologous coding sequence, such as, for example, a polynucleotide of the present invention, under the transcriptional regulation of all or part of the AOX1 regulatory sequence is expressed at exceptionally high levels in Pichia yeast grown in the presence of methanol.

[0840] In one example, the plasmid vector pPIC9K is used to express DNA encoding a polypeptide of the invention, as set forth herein, in a Pichea yeast system essentially as described in “Pichia Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology,” D. R. Higgins and J. Cregg, eds. The Humana Press, Totowa, N.J., 1998. This expression vector allows expression and secretion of a protein of the invention by virtue of the strong AOX1 promoter linked to the Pichia pastoris alkaline phosphatase (PHO) secretory signal peptide (i.e., leader) located upstream of a multiple cloning site.

[0841] Many other yeast vectors could be used in place of pPIC9K, such as, pYES2, pYD1, pTEF1/Zeo, pYES2/GS, pPICZ, pGAPZ, pGAPZalpha, pPIC9, pPIC3.5, pHIL-D2, pHIL-S 1, pPIC3.5K, and PAO815, as one skilled in the art would readily appreciate, as long as the proposed expression construct provides appropriately located signals for transcription, translation, secretion (if desired), and the like, including an in-frame AUG as required.

[0842] In another embodiment, high-level expression of a heterologous coding sequence, such as, for example, a polynucleotide of the present invention, may be achieved by cloning the heterologous polynucleotide of the invention into an expression vector such as, for example, pGAPZ or pGAPZalpha, and growing the yeast culture in the absence of methanol.

[0843] In addition to encompassing host cells containing the vector constructs discussed herein, the invention also encompasses primary, secondary, and immortalized host cells of vertebrate origin, particularly mammalian origin, that have been engineered to delete or replace endogenous genetic material (e.g., coding sequence), and/or to include genetic material (e.g., heterologous polynucleotide sequences) that is operably associated with the polynucleotides of the invention, and which activates, alters, and/or amplifies endogenous polynucleotides. For example, techniques known in the art may be used to operably associate heterologous control regions (e.g., promoter and/or enhancer) and endogenous polynucleotide sequences via homologous recombination, resulting in the formation of a new transcription unit (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,641,670, issued Jun. 24, 1997; U.S. Pat. No. 5,733,761, issued Mar. 31, 1998; International Publication No. WO 96/29411, published Sep. 26, 1996; International Publication No. WO 94/12650, published Aug. 4, 1994; Koller et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:8932-8935 (1989); and Zijilstra et al., Nature 342:435-438 (1989), the disclosures of each of which are incorporated by reference in their entireties).

[0844] In addition, polypeptides of the invention can be chemically synthesized using techniques known in the art (e.g., see Creighton, 1983, Proteins: Structures and Molecular Principles, W.H. Freeman & Co., N.Y., and Hunkapiller et al., Nature, 310:105-111 (1984)). For example, a polypeptide corresponding to a fragment of a polypeptide sequence of the invention can be synthesized by use of a peptide synthesizer. Furthermore, if desired, nonclassical amino acids or chemical amino acid analogs can be introduced as a substitution or addition into the polypeptide sequence. Non-classical amino acids include, but are not limited to, to the D-isomers of the common amino acids, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, a-amino isobutyric acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, Abu, 2-amino butyric acid, g-Abu, e-Ahx, 6-amino hexanoic acid, Aib, 2-amino isobutyric acid, 3-amino propionic acid, ornithine, norleucine, norvaline, hydroxyproline, sarcosine, citrulline, homocitrulline, cysteic acid, t-butylglycine, t-butylalanine, phenylglycine, cyclohexylalanine, b-alanine, fluoro-amino acids, designer amino acids such as b-methyl amino acids, Ca-methyl amino acids, Na-methyl amino acids, and amino acid analogs in general. Furthermore, the amino acid can be D (dextrorotary) or L (levorotary).

[0845] The invention encompasses polypeptides which are differentially modified during or after translation, e.g., by glycosylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, amidation, derivatization by known protecting/blocking groups, proteolytic cleavage, linkage to an antibody molecule or other cellular ligand, etc. Any of numerous chemical modifications may be carried out by known techniques, including but not limited, to specific chemical cleavage by cyanogen bromide, trypsin, chymotrypsin, papain, V8 protease, NaBH4; acetylation, formylation, oxidation, reduction; metabolic synthesis in the presence of tunicamycin; etc.

[0846] Additional post-translational modifications encompassed by the invention include, for example, e.g., N-linked or O-linked carbohydrate chains, processing of N-terminal or C-terminal ends), attachment of chemical moieties to the amino acid backbone, chemical modifications of N-linked or O-linked carbohydrate chains, and addition or deletion of an N-terminal methionine residue as a result of procaryotic host cell expression. The polypeptides may also be modified with a detectable label, such as an enzymatic, fluorescent, isotopic or affinity label to allow for detection and isolation of the protein.

[0847] Also provided by the invention are chemically modified derivatives of the polypeptides of the invention which may provide additional advantages such as increased solubility, stability and circulating time of the polypeptide, or decreased immunogenicity (see U.S. Pat. No: 4,179,337). The chemical moieties for derivitization may be selected from water soluble polymers such as polyethylene glycol, ethylene glycol/propylene glycol copolymers, carboxymethylcellulose, dextran, polyvinyl alcohol and the like. The polypeptides may be modified at random positions within the molecule, or at predetermined positions within the molecule and may include one, two, three or more attached chemical moieties.

[0848] The polymer may be of any molecular weight, and may be branched or unbranched. For polyethylene glycol, the preferred molecular weight is between about 1 kDa and about 100 kDa (the term “about” indicating that in preparations of polyethylene glycol, some molecules will weigh more, some less, than the stated molecular weight) for ease in handling and manufacturing. Other sizes may be used, depending on the desired therapeutic profile (e.g., the duration of sustained release desired, the effects, if any on biological activity, the ease in handling, the degree or lack of antigenicity and other known effects of the polyethylene glycol to a therapeutic protein or analog).

[0849] The polyethylene glycol molecules (or other chemical moieties) should be attached to the protein with consideration of effects on functional or antigenic domains of the protein. There are a number of attachment methods available to those skilled in the art, e.g., EP 0 401 384, herein incorporated by reference (coupling PEG to G-CSF), see also Malik et al., Exp. Hematol. 20:1028-1035 (1992) (reporting pegylation of GM-CSF using tresyl chloride). For example, polyethylene glycol may be covalently bound through amino acid residues via a reactive group, such as, a free amino or carboxyl group. Reactive groups are those to which an activated polyethylene glycol molecule may be bound. The amino acid residues having a free amino group may include lysine residues and the N-terminal amino acid residues; those having a free carboxyl group may include aspartic acid residues glutamic acid residues and the C-terminal amino acid residue. Sulfhydryl groups may also be used as a reactive group for attaching the polyethylene glycol molecules. Preferred for therapeutic purposes is attachment at an amino group, such as attachment at the N-terminus or lysine group.

[0850] One may specifically desire proteins chemically modified at the N-terminus. Using polyethylene glycol as an illustration of the present composition, one may select from a variety of polyethylene glycol molecules (by molecular weight, branching, etc.), the proportion of polyethylene glycol molecules to protein (polypeptide) molecules in the reaction mix, the type of pegylation reaction to be performed, and the method of obtaining the selected N-terminally pegylated protein. The method of obtaining the N-terminally pegylated preparation (i.e., separating this moiety from other monopegylated moieties if necessary) may be by purification of the N-terminally pegylated material from a population of pegylated protein molecules. Selective proteins chemically modified at the N-terminus modification may be accomplished by reductive alkylation which exploits differential reactivity of different types of primary amino groups (lysine versus the N-terminal) available for derivatization in a particular protein. Under the appropriate reaction conditions, substantially selective derivatization of the protein at the N-terminus with a carbonyl group containing polymer is achieved.

[0851] The polypeptides of the invention may be in monomers or multimers (i.e., dimers, trimers, tetramers and higher multimers). Accordingly, the present invention relates to monomers and multimers of the polypeptides of the invention, their preparation, and compositions (preferably, Therapeutics) containing them. In specific embodiments, the polypeptides of the invention are monomers, dimers, trimers or tetramers. In additional embodiments, the multimers of the invention are at least dimers, at least trimers, or at least tetramers.

[0852] Multimers encompassed by the invention may be homomers or heteromers. As used herein, the term homomer, refers to a multimer containing only polypeptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y or encoded by the cDNA contained in a deposited clone (including fragments, variants, splice variants, and fusion proteins, corresponding to these polypeptides as described herein). These homomers may contain polypeptides having identical or different amino acid sequences. In a specific embodiment, a homomer of the invention is a multimer containing only polypeptides having an identical amino acid sequence. In another specific embodiment, a homomer of the invention is a multimer containing polypeptides having different amino acid sequences. In specific embodiments, the multimer of the invention is a homodimer (e.g., containing polypeptides having identical or different amino acid sequences) or a homotrimer (e.g., containing polypeptides having identical and/or different amino acid sequences). In additional embodiments, the homomeric multimer of the invention is at least a homodimer, at least a homotrimer, or at least a homotetramer.

[0853] As used herein, the term heteromer refers to a multimer containing one or more heterologous polypeptides (i.e., polypeptides of different proteins) in addition to the polypeptides of the invention. In a specific embodiment, the multimer of the invention is a heterodimer, a heterotrimer, or a heterotetramer. In additional embodiments, the heteromeric multimer of the invention is at least a heterodimer, at least a heterotrimer, or at least a heterotetramer.

[0854] Multimers of the invention may be the result of hydrophobic, hydrophilic, ionic and/or covalent associations and/or may be indirectly linked, by for example, liposome formation. Thus, in one embodiment, multimers of the invention, such as, for example, homodimers or homotrimers, are formed when polypeptides of the invention contact one another in solution. In another embodiment, heteromultimers of the invention, such as, for example, heterotrimers or heterotetramers, are formed when polypeptides of the invention contact antibodies to the polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies to the heterologous polypeptide sequence in a fusion protein of the invention) in solution. In other embodiments, multimers of the invention are formed by covalent associations with and/or between the polypeptides of the invention. Such covalent associations may involve one or more amino acid residues contained in the polypeptide sequence (e.g., that recited in the sequence listing, or contained in the polypeptide encoded by a deposited clone). In one instance, the covalent associations are cross-linking between cysteine residues located within the polypeptide sequences which interact in the native (i.e., naturally occurring) polypeptide. In another instance, the covalent associations are the consequence of chemical or recombinant manipulation. Alternatively, such covalent associations may involve one or more amino acid residues contained in the heterologous polypeptide sequence in a fusion protein of the invention.

[0855] In one example, covalent associations are between the heterologous sequence contained in a fusion protein of the invention (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925). In a specific example, the covalent associations are between the heterologous sequence contained in an Fc fusion protein of the invention (as described herein). In another specific example, covalent associations of fusion proteins of the invention are between heterologous polypeptide sequence from another protein that is capable of forming covalently associated multimers, such as for example, oseteoprotegerin (see, e.g., International Publication NO: WO 98/49305, the contents of which are herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, two or more polypeptides of the invention are joined through peptide linkers. Examples include those peptide linkers described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,073,627 (hereby incorporated by reference). Proteins comprising multiple polypeptides of the invention separated by peptide linkers may be produced using conventional recombinant DNA technology.

[0856] Another method for preparing multimer polypeptides of the invention involves use of polypeptides of the invention fused to a leucine zipper or isoleucine zipper polypeptide sequence. Leucine zipper and isoleucine zipper domains are polypeptides that promote multimerization of the proteins in which they are found. Leucine zippers were originally identified in several DNA-binding proteins (Landschulz et al., Science 240:1759, (1988)), and have since been found in a variety of different proteins. Among the known leucine zippers are naturally occurring peptides and derivatives thereof that dimerize or trimerize. Examples of leucine zipper domains suitable for producing soluble multimeric proteins of the invention are those described in PCT application WO 94/10308, hereby incorporated by reference. Recombinant fusion proteins comprising a polypeptide of the invention fused to a polypeptide sequence that dimerizes or trimerizes in solution are expressed in suitable host cells, and the resulting soluble multimeric fusion protein is recovered from the culture supernatant using techniques known in the art.

[0857] Trimeric polypeptides of the invention may offer the advantage of enhanced biological activity. Preferred leucine zipper moieties and isoleucine moieties are those that preferentially form trimers. One example is a leucine zipper derived from lung surfactant protein D (SPD), as described in Hoppe et al. (FEBS Letters 344:191, (1994)) and in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/446,922, hereby incorporated by reference. Other peptides derived from naturally occurring trimeric proteins may be employed in preparing trimeric polypeptides of the invention.

[0858] In another example, proteins of the invention are associated by interactions between Flag® polypeptide sequence contained in fusion proteins of the invention containing Flag® polypeptide seuqence. In a further embodiment, associations proteins of the invention are associated by interactions between heterologous polypeptide sequence contained in Flag® fusion proteins of the invention and anti-Flag® antibody.

[0859] The multimers of the invention may be generated using chemical techniques known in the art. For example, polypeptides desired to be contained in the multimers of the invention may be chemically cross-linked using linker molecules and linker molecule length optimization techniques known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Additionally, multimers of the invention may be generated using techniques known in the art to form one or more inter-molecule cross-links between the cysteine residues located within the sequence of the polypeptides desired to be contained in the multimer (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Further, polypeptides of the invention may be routinely modified by the addition of cysteine or biotin to the C terminus or N-terminus of the polypeptide and techniques known in the art may be applied to generate multimers containing one or more of these modified polypeptides (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). Additionally, techniques known in the art may be applied to generate liposomes containing the polypeptide components desired to be contained in the multimer of the invention (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0860] Alternatively, multimers of the invention may be generated using genetic engineering techniques known in the art. In one embodiment, polypeptides contained in multimers of the invention are produced recombinantly using fusion protein technology described herein or otherwise known in the art (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In a specific embodiment, polynucleotides coding for a homodimer of the invention are generated by ligating a polynucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide of the invention to a sequence encoding a linker polypeptide and then further to a synthetic polynucleotide encoding the translated product of the polypeptide in the reverse orientation from the original C-terminus to the N-terminus (lacking the leader sequence) (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety). In another embodiment, recombinant techniques described herein or otherwise known in the art are applied to generate recombinant polypeptides of the invention which contain a transmembrane domain (or hyrophobic or signal peptide) and which can be incorporated by membrane reconstitution techniques into liposomes (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5;478,925, which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety).

[0861] Uses of the Polynucleotides

[0862] Each of the polynucleotides identified herein can be used in numerous ways as reagents. The following description should be considered exemplary and utilizes known techniques.

[0863] The polynucleotides of the present invention are useful for chromosome identification. There exists an ongoing need to identify new chromosome markers, since few chromosome marking reagents, based on actual sequence data (repeat polymorphisms), are presently available. Each polynucleotide of the present invention can be used as a chromosome marker.

[0864] Briefly, sequences can be mapped to chromosomes by preparing PCR primers (preferably 15-25 bp) from the sequences shown in SEQ ID NO:X. Primers can be selected using computer analysis so that primers do not span more than one predicted exon in the genomic DNA. These primers are then used for PCR screening of somatic cell hybrids containing individual human chromosomes. Only those hybrids containing the human gene corresponding to the SEQ ID NO:X will yield an amplified fragment.

[0865] Similarly, somatic hybrids provide a rapid method of PCR mapping the polynucleotides to particular chromosomes. Three or more clones can be assigned per day using a single thermal cycler. Moreover, sublocalization of the polynucleotides can be achieved with panels of specific chromosome fragments. Other gene mapping strategies that can be used include in situ hybridization, prescreening with labeled flow-sorted chromosomes, and preselection by hybridization to construct chromosome specific-cDNA libraries.

[0866] Precise chromosomal location of the polynucleotides can also be achieved using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of a metaphase chromosomal spread. This technique uses polynucleotides as short as 500 or 600 bases; however, polynucleotides 2,000-4,000 bp are preferred. For a review of this technique, see Verma et al., “Human Chromosomes: a Manual of Basic Techniques,” Pergamon Press, New York (1988).

[0867] For chromosome mapping, the polynucleotides can be used individually (to mark a single chromosome or a single site on that chromosome) or in panels (for marking multiple sites and/or multiple chromosomes). Preferred polynucleotides correspond to the noncoding regions of the cDNAs because the coding sequences are more likely conserved within gene families, thus increasing the chance of cross hybridization during chromosomal mapping.

[0868] Once a polynucleotide has been mapped to a precise chromosomal location, the physical position of the polynucleotide can be used in linkage analysis. Linkage analysis establishes coinheritance between a chromosomal location and presentation of a particular disease. (Disease mapping data are found, for example, in V. McKusick, Mendelian Inheritance in Man (available on line through Johns Hopkins University Welch Medical Library).) Assuming 1 megabase mapping resolution and one gene per 20 kb, a cDNA precisely localized to a chromosomal region associated with the disease could be one of 50-500 potential causative genes.

[0869] Thus, once coinheritance is established, differences in the polynucleotide and the corresponding gene between affected and unaffected individuals can be examined. First, visible structural alterations in the chromosomes, such as deletions or translocations, are examined in chromosome spreads or by PCR. If no structural alterations exist, the presence of point mutations are ascertained. Mutations observed in some or all affected individuals, but not in normal individuals, indicates that the mutation may cause the disease. However, complete sequencing of the polypeptide and the corresponding gene from several normal individuals is required to distinguish the mutation from a polymorphism. If a new polymorphism is identified, this polymorphic polypeptide can be used for further linkage analysis.

[0870] Furthermore, increased or decreased expression of the gene in affected individuals as compared to unaffected individuals can be assessed using polynucleotides of the present invention. Any of these alterations (altered expression, chromosomal rearrangement, or mutation) can be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker.

[0871] Thus, the invention also provides a diagnostic method useful during diagnosis of a disorder, involving measuring the expression level of polynucleotides of the present invention in cells or body fluid from an individual and comparing the measured gene expression level with a standard level of polynucleotide expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the gene expression level compared to the standard is indicative of a disorder.

[0872] In still another embodiment, the invention includes a kit for analyzing samples for the presence of proliferative and/or cancerous polynucleotides derived from a test subject. In a general embodiment, the kit includes at least one polynucleotide probe containing a nucleotide sequence that will specifically hybridize with a polynucleotide of the present invention and a suitable container. In a specific embodiment, the kit includes two polynucleotide probes defining an internal region of the polynucleotide of the present invention, where each probe has one strand containing a 31′mer-end internal to the region. In a further embodiment, the probes may be useful as primers for polymerase chain reaction amplification.

[0873] Where a diagnosis of a disorder, has already been made according to conventional methods, the present invention is useful as a prognostic indicator, whereby patients exhibiting enhanced or depressed polynucleotide of the present invention expression will experience a worse clinical outcome relative to patients expressing the gene at a level nearer the standard level.

[0874] By “measuring the expression level of polynucleotide of the present invention” is intended qualitatively or quantitatively measuring or estimating the level of the polypeptide of the present invention or the level of the mRNA encoding the polypeptide in a first biological sample either directly (e.g., by determining or estimating absolute protein level or mRNA level) or relatively (e.g., by comparing to the polypeptide level or mRNA level in a second biological sample). Preferably, the polypeptide level or mRNA level in the first biological sample is measured or estimated and compared to a standard polypeptide level or mRNA level, the standard being taken from a second biological sample obtained from an individual not having the disorder or being determined by averaging levels from a population of individuals not having a disorder. As will be appreciated in the art, once a standard polypeptide level or mRNA level is known, it can be used repeatedly as a standard for comparison.

[0875] By “biological sample” is intended any biological sample obtained from an individual, body fluid, cell line, tissue culture, or other source which contains the polypeptide of the present invention or mRNA. As indicated, biological samples include body fluids (such as semen, lymph, sera, plasma, urine, synovial fluid and spinal fluid) which contain the polypeptide of the present invention, and other tissue sources found to express the polypeptide of the present invention. Methods for obtaining tissue biopsies and body fluids from mammals are well known in the art. Where the biological sample is to include mRNA, a tissue biopsy is the preferred source.

[0876] The method(s) provided above may preferrably be applied in a diagnostic method and/or kits in which polynucleotides and/or polypeptides are attached to a solid support. In one exemplary method, the support may be a “gene chip” or a “biological chip” as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,837,832, 5,874,219, and 5,856,174. Further, such a gene chip with polynucleotides of the present invention attached may be used to identify polymorphisms between the polynucleotide sequences, with polynucleotides isolated from a test subject. The knowledge of such polymorphisms (i.e. their location, as well as, their existence) would be beneficial in identifying disease loci for many disorders, including cancerous diseases and conditions. Such a method is described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,858,659 and 5,856,104. The US Patents referenced supra are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety herein.

[0877] The present invention encompasses polynucleotides of the present invention that are chemically synthesized, or reproduced as peptide nucleic acids (PNA), or according to other methods known in the art. The use of PNAs would serve as the preferred form if the polynucleotides are incorporated onto a solid support, or gene chip. For the purposes of the present invention, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) is a polyamide type of DNA analog and the monomeric units for adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine are available commercially (Perceptive Biosystems). Certain components of DNA, such as phosphorus, phosphorus oxides, or deoxyribose derivatives, are not present in PNAs. As disclosed by P. E. Nielsen, M. Egholm, R. H. Berg and O. Buchardt, Science 254, 1497 (1991); and M. Egholm, O. Buchardt, L. Christensen, C. Behrens, S. M. Freier, D. A. Driver, R. H. Berg, S. K. Kim, B. Norden, and P. E. Nielsen, Nature 365, 666 (1993), PNAs bind specifically and tightly to complementary DNA strands and are not degraded by nucleases. In fact, PNA binds more strongly to DNA than DNA itself does. This is probably because there is no electrostatic repulsion between the two strands, and also the polyamide backbone is more flexible. Because of this, PNA/DNA duplexes bind under a wider range of stringency conditions than DNA/DNA duplexes, making it easier to perform multiplex hybridization. Smaller probes can be used than with DNA due to the strong binding. In addition, it is more likely that single base mismatches can be determined with PNA/DNA hybridization because a single mismatch in a PNAIDNA 15-mer lowers the melting point (T.sub.m) by 8°-20° C., vs. 4°-16° C. for the DNA/DNA 15-mer duplex. Also, the absence of charge groups in PNA means that hybridization can be done at low ionic strengths and reduce possible interference by salt during the analysis.

[0878] The present invention is useful for detecting cancer in mammals. In particular the invention is useful during diagnosis of pathological cell proliferative neoplasias which include, but are not limited to: acute myelogenous leukemias including acute monocytic leukemia, acute myeloblastic leukemia, acute promyelocytic leukemia, acute myelomonocytic leukemia, acute erythroleukemia, acute megakaryocytic leukemia, and acute undifferentiated leukemia, etc.; and chronic myelogenous leukemias including chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, etc. Preferred mammals include monkeys, apes, cats, dogs, cows, pigs, horses, rabbits and humans. Particularly preferred are humans.

[0879] Pathological cell proliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions are often associated with inappropriate activation of proto-oncogenes. (Gelmann, E. P. et al., “The Etiology of Acute Leukemia: Molecular Genetics and Viral Oncology,” in Neoplastic Diseases of the Blood, Vol 1., Wiernik, P. H. et al. eds., 161-182 (1985)). Neoplasias are now believed to result from the qualitative alteration of a normal cellular gene product, or from the quantitative modification of gene expression by insertion into the chromosome of a viral sequence, by chromosomal translocation of a gene to a more actively transcribed region, or by some other mechanism. (Gelmann et al., supra) It is likely that mutated or altered expression of specific genes is involved in the pathogenesis of some leukemias, among other tissues and cell types. (Gelmann et al., supra) Indeed, the human counterparts of the oncogenes involved in some animal neoplasias have been amplified or translocated in some cases of human leukemia and carcinoma. (Gelmann et al., supra) For example, c-myc expression is highly amplified in the non-lymphocytic leukemia cell line HL-60. When HL-60 cells are chemically induced to stop proliferation, the level of c-myc is found to be downregulated. (International Publication Number WO 91/15580) However, it has been shown that exposure of HL-60 cells to a DNA construct that is complementary to the 5′ end of c-myc or c-myb blocks translation of the corresponding mRNAs which downregulates expression of the c-myc or c-myb proteins and causes arrest of cell proliferation and differentiation of the treated cells. (International Publication Number WO 91/15580; Wickstrom et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 85:1028 (1988); Anfossi et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 86:3379 (1989)). However, the skilled artisan would appreciate the present invention's usefulness would not be limited to treatment of proliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions of hematopoietic cells and tissues, in light of the numerous cells and cell types of varying origins which are known to exhibit proliferative phenotypes.

[0880] In addition to the foregoing, a polynucleotide can be used to control gene expression through triple helix formation or antisense DNA or RNA. Antisense techniques are discussed, for example, in Okano, J. Neurochem. 56: 560 (1991); “Oligodeoxynucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRCPress, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988). Triple helix formation is discussed in, for instance Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Research 6: 3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science 241: 456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science 251: 1360 (1991). Both methods rely on binding of the polynucleotide to a complementary DNA or RNA. For these techniques, preferred polynucleotides are usually oligonucleotides 20 to 40 bases in length and complementary to either the region of the gene involved in transcription (triple helix—see Lee et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 6:3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science 241:456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science 251:1360 (1991)) or to the mRNA itself (antisense—Okano, J. Neurochem. 56:560 (1991); Oligodeoxy-nucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988).) Triple helix formation optimally results in a shut-off of RNA transcription from DNA, while antisense RNA hybridization blocks translation of an mRNA molecule into polypeptide. Both techniques are effective in model systems, and the information disclosed herein can be used to design antisense or triple helix polynucleotides in an effort to treat or prevent disease.

[0881] Polynucleotides of the present invention are also useful in gene therapy. One goal of gene therapy is to insert a normal gene into an organism having a defective gene, in an effort to correct the genetic defect. The polynucleotides disclosed in the present invention offer a means of targeting such genetic defects in a highly accurate manner. Another goal is to insert a new gene that was not present in the host genome, thereby producing a new trait in the host cell.

[0882] The polynucleotides are also useful for identifying individuals from minute biological samples. The United States military, for example, is considering the use of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for identification of its personnel. In this technique, an individual's genomic DNA is digested with one or more restriction enzymes, and probed on a Southern blot to yield unique bands for identifying personnel. This method does not suffer from the current limitations of “Dog Tags” which can be lost, switched, or stolen, making positive identification difficult. The polynucleotides of the present invention can be used as additional DNA markers for RFLP.

[0883] The polynucleotides of the present invention can also be used as an alternative to RFLP, by determining the actual base-by-base DNA sequence of selected portions of an individual's genome. These sequences can be used to prepare PCR primers for amplifying and isolating such selected DNA, which can then be sequenced. Using this technique, individuals can be identified because each individual will have a unique set of DNA sequences. Once an unique ID database is established for an individual, positive identification of that individual, living or dead, can be made from extremely small tissue samples.

[0884] Forensic biology also benefits from using DNA-based identification techniques as disclosed herein. DNA sequences taken from very small biological samples such as tissues, e.g., hair or skin, or body fluids, e.g., blood, saliva, semen, synovial fluid, amniotic fluid, breast milk, lymph, pulmonary sputum or surfactant,urine,fecal matter, etc., can be amplified using PCR. In one prior art technique, gene sequences amplified from polymorphic loci, such as DQa class II HLA gene, are used in forensic biology to identify individuals. (Erlich, H., PCR Technology, Freeman and Co. (1992).) Once these specific polymorphic loci are amplified, they are digested with one or more restriction enzymes, yielding an identifying set of bands on a Southern blot probed with DNA corresponding to the DQa class II HLA gene. Similarly, polynucleotides of the present invention can be used as polymorphic markers for forensic purposes.

[0885] There is also a need for reagents capable of identifying the source of a particular tissue. Such need arises, for example, in forensics when presented with tissue of unknown origin. Appropriate reagents can comprise, for example, DNA probes or primers specific to particular tissue prepared from the sequences of the present invention. Panels of such reagents can identify tissue by species and/or by organ type. In a similar fashion, these reagents can be used to screen tissue cultures for contamination.

[0886] In the very least, the polynucleotides of the present invention can be used as molecular weight markers on Southern gels, as diagnostic probes for the presence of a specific mRNA in a particular cell type, as a probe to “subtract-out” known sequences in the process of discovering novel polynucleotides, for selecting and making oligomers for attachment to a “gene chip” or other support, to raise anti-DNA antibodies using DNA immunization techniques, and as an antigen to elicit an immune response.

[0887] Uses of the Polypeptides

[0888] Each of the polypeptides identified herein can be used in numerous ways. The following description should be considered exemplary and utilizes known techniques.

[0889] A polypeptide of the present invention can be used to assay protein levels in a biological sample using antibody-based techniques. For example, protein expression in tissues can be studied with classical immunohistological methods. (Jalkanen, M., et al., J. Cell. Biol. 101:976-985 (1985); Jalkanen, M., et al., J. Cell. Biol. 105:3087-3096 (1987).) Other antibody-based methods useful for detecting protein gene expression include immunoassays, such as the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the radioimmunoassay (RIA). Suitable antibody assay labels are known in the art and include enzyme labels, such as, glucose oxidase, and radioisotopes, such as iodine (125I, 121I), carbon (14C), sulfur (35S), tritium (3H), indium (112In), and technetium (99mTc), and fluorescent labels, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, and biotin.

[0890] In addition to assaying secreted protein levels in a biological sample, proteins can also be detected in vivo by imaging. Antibody labels or markers for in vivo imaging of protein include those detectable by X-radiography, NMR or ESR. For X-radiography, suitable labels include radioisotopes such as barium or cesium, which emit detectable radiation but are not overtly harmful to the subject. Suitable markers for NMR and ESR include those with a detectable characteristic spin, such as deuterium, which may be incorporated into the antibody by labeling of nutrients for the relevant hybridoma.

[0891] A protein-specific antibody or antibody fragment which has been labeled with an appropriate detectable imaging moiety, such as a radioisotope (for example, 131I, 112In, 99mTc), a radio-opaque substance, or a material detectable by nuclear magnetic resonance, is introduced (for example, parenterally, subcutaneously, or intraperitoneally) into the mammal. It will be understood in the art that the size of the subject and the imaging system used will determine the quantity of imaging moiety needed to produce diagnostic images. In the case of a radioisotope moiety, for a human subject, the quantity of radioactivity injected will normally range from about 5 to 20 millicuries of 99mTc. The labeled antibody or antibody fragment will then preferentially accumulate at the location of cells which contain the specific protein. In vivo tumor imaging is described in S. W. Burchiel et al., “Immunopharmacokinetics of Radiolabeled Antibodies and Their Fragments.” (Chapter 13 in Tumor Imaging: The Radiochemical Detection of Cancer, S. W. Burchiel and B. A. Rhodes, eds., Masson Publishing Inc. (1982).)

[0892] Thus, the invention provides a diagnostic method of a disorder, which involves (a) assaying the expression of a polypeptide of the present invention in cells or body fluid of an individual; (b) comparing the level of gene expression with a standard gene expression level, whereby an increase or decrease in the assayed polypeptide gene expression level compared to the standard expression level is indicative of a disorder. With respect to cancer, the presence of a relatively high amount of transcript in biopsied tissue from an individual may indicate a predisposition for the development of the disease, or may provide a means for detecting the disease prior to the appearance of actual clinical symptoms. A more definitive diagnosis of this type may allow health professionals to employ preventative measures or aggressive treatment earlier thereby preventing the development or further progression of the cancer.

[0893] Moreover, polypeptides of the present invention can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose disease. For example, patients can be administered a polypeptide of the present invention in an effort to replace absent or decreased levels of the polypeptide (e.g., insulin), to supplement absent or decreased levels of a different polypeptide (e.g., hemoglobin S for hemoglobin B, SOD, catalase, DNA repair proteins), to inhibit the activity of a polypeptide (e.g., an oncogene or tumor supressor), to activate the activity of a polypeptide (e.g., by binding to a receptor), to reduce the activity of a membrane bound receptor by competing with it for free ligand (e.g., soluble TNF receptors used in reducing inflammation), or to bring about a desired response (e.g., blood vessel growth inhibition, enhancement of the immune response to proliferative cells or tissues).

[0894] Similarly, antibodies directed to a polypeptide of the present invention can also be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose disease. For example, administration of an antibody directed to a polypeptide of the present invention can bind and reduce overproduction of the polypeptide. Similarly, administration of an antibody can activate the polypeptide, such as by binding to a polypeptide bound to a membrane (receptor).

[0895] At the very least, the polypeptides of the present invention can be used as molecular weight markers on SDS-PAGE gels or on molecular sieve gel filtration columns using methods well known to those of skill in the art. Polypeptides can also be used to raise antibodies, which in turn are used to measure protein expression from a recombinant cell, as a way of assessing transformation of the host cell. Moreover, the polypeptides of the present invention can be used to test the following biological activities.

[0896] Gene Therapy Methods

[0897] Another aspect of the present invention is to gene therapy methods for treatingor preventing disorders, diseases and conditions. The gene therapy methods relate to the introduction of nucleic acid (DNA, RNA and antisense DNA or RNA) sequences into an animal to achieve expression of a polypeptide of the present invention. This method requires a polynucleotide which codes for a polypeptide of the invention that operatively linked to a promoter and any other genetic elements necessary for the expression of the polypeptide by the target tissue. Such gene therapy and delivery techniques are known in the art, see, for example, WO90/11092, which is herein incorporated by reference.

[0898] Thus, for example, cells from a patient may be engineered with a polynucleotide (DNA or RNA) comprising a promoter operably linked to a polynucleotide of the invention ex vivo, with the engineered cells then being provided to a patient to be treated with the polypeptide. Such methods are well-known in the art. For example, see Belldegrun et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 85:207-216 (1993); Ferrantini et al., Cancer Research, 53:107-1112 (1993); Ferrantini et al., J. Immunology 153: 4604-4615 (1994); Kaido, T., et al., Int. J. Cancer 60: 221-229 (1995); Ogura et al., Cancer Research 50: 5102-5106 (1990); Santodonato, et al., Human Gene Therapy 7:1-10 (1996); Santodonato, et al., Gene Therapy 4:1246-1255 (1997); and Zhang, et al., Cancer Gene Therapy 3: 31-38 (1996)), which are herein incorporated by reference. In one embodiment, the cells which are engineered are arterial cells. The arterial cells may be reintroduced into the patient through direct injection to the artery, the tissues surrounding the artery, or through catheter injection.

[0899] As discussed in more detail below, the polynucleotide constructs can be delivered by any method that delivers injectable materials to the cells of an animal, such as, injection into the interstitial space of tissues (heart, muscle, skin, lung, liver, and the like). The polynucleotide constructs may be delivered in a pharmaceutically acceptable liquid or aqueous carrier.

[0900] In one embodiment, the polynucleotide of the invention is delivered as a naked polynucleotide. The term “naked” polynucleotide, DNA or RNA refers to sequences that are free from any delivery vehicle that acts to assist, promote or facilitate entry into the cell, including viral sequences, viral particles, liposome formulations, lipofectin or precipitating agents and the like. However, the polynucleotides of the invention can also be delivered in liposome formulations and lipofectin formulations and the like can be prepared by methods well known to those skilled in the art. Such methods are described, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,593,972, 5,589,466, and 5,580,859, which are herein incorporated by reference.

[0901] The polynucleotide vector constructs of the invention used in the gene therapy method are preferably constructs that will not integrate into the host genome nor will they contain sequences that allow for replication. Appropriate vectors include pWLNEO, pSV2CAT, pOG44, pXT1 and pSG available from Stratagene; pSVK3, pBPV, pMSG and pSVL available from Pharmacia; and pEF1/V5, pcDNA3.1, and pRc/CMV2 available from Invitrogen. Other suitable vectors will be readily apparent to the skilled artisan.

[0902] Any strong promoter known to those skilled in the art can be used for driving the expression of polynucleotide sequence of the invention. Suitable promoters include adenoviral promoters, such as the adenoviral major late promoter; or heterologous promoters, such as the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter; the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) promoter; inducible promoters, such as the MMT promoter, the metallothionein promoter; heat shock promoters; the albumin promoter; the ApoAI promoter; human globin promoters; viral thymidine kinase promoters, such as the Herpes Simplex thymidine kinase promoter; retroviral LTRs; the b-actin promoter; and human growth hormone promoters. The promoter also may be the native promoter for the polynucleotides of the invention.

[0903] Unlike other gene therapy techniques, one major advantage of introducing naked nucleic acid sequences into target cells is the transitory nature of the polynucleotide synthesis in the cells. Studies have shown that non-replicating DNA sequences can be introduced into cells to provide production of the desired polypeptide for periods of up to six months.

[0904] The polynucleotide construct of the invention can be delivered to the interstitial space of tissues within the an animal, including of muscle, skin, brain, lung, liver, spleen, bone marrow, thymus, heart, lymph, blood, bone, cartilage, pancreas, kidney, gall bladder, stomach, intestine, testis, ovary, uterus, rectum, nervous system, eye, gland, and connective tissue. Interstitial space of the tissues comprises the intercellular, fluid, mucopolysaccharide matrix among the reticular fibers of organ tissues, elastic fibers in the walls of vessels or chambers, collagen fibers of fibrous tissues, or that same matrix within connective tissue ensheathing muscle cells or in the lacunae of bone. It is similarly the space occupied by the plasma of the circulation and the lymph fluid of the lymphatic channels. Delivery to the interstitial space of muscle tissue is preferred for the reasons discussed below. They may be conveniently delivered by injection into the tissues comprising these cells. They are preferably delivered to and expressed in persistent, non-dividing cells which are differentiated, although delivery and expression may be achieved in non-differentiated or less completely differentiated cells, such as, for example, stem cells of blood or skin fibroblasts. In vivo muscle cells are particularly competent in their ability to take up and express polynucleotides.

[0905] For the naked nucleic acid sequence injection, an effective dosage amount of DNA or RNA will be in the range of from about 0.05 mg/kg body weight to about 50 mg/kg body weight. Preferably the dosage will be from about 0.005 mg/kg to about 20 mg/kg and more preferably from about 0.05 mg/kg to about 5 mg/kg. Of course, as the artisan of ordinary skill will appreciate, this dosage will vary according to the tissue site of injection. The appropriate and effective dosage of nucleic acid sequence can readily be determined by those of ordinary skill in the art and may depend on the condition being treated and the route of administration.

[0906] The preferred route of administration is by the parenteral route of injection into the interstitial space of tissues. However, other parenteral routes may also be used, such as, inhalation of an aerosol formulation particularly for delivery to lungs or bronchial tissues, throat or mucous membranes of the nose. In addition, naked DNA constructs can be delivered to arteries during angioplasty by the catheter used in the procedure.

[0907] The naked polynucleotides are delivered by any method known in the art, including, but not limited to, direct needle injection at the delivery site, intravenous injection, topical administration, catheter infusion, and so-called “gene guns”. These delivery methods are known in the art.

[0908] The constructs may also be delivered with delivery vehicles such as viral sequences, viral particles, liposome formulations, lipofectin, precipitating agents, etc. Such methods of delivery are known in the art.

[0909] In certain embodiments, the polynucleotide constructs of the invention are complexed in a liposome preparation. Liposomal preparations for use in the instant invention include cationic (positively charged), anionic (negatively charged) and neutral preparations. However, cationic liposomes are particularly preferred because a tight charge complex can be formed between the cationic liposome and the polyanionic nucleic acid. Cationic liposomes have been shown to mediate intracellular delivery of plasmid DNA (Felgner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84:7413-7416 (1987), which is herein incorporated by reference); mRNA (Malone et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86:6077-6081 (1989), which is herein incorporated by reference); and purified transcription factors (Debs et al., J. Biol. Chem., 265:10189-10192 (1990), which is herein incorporated by reference), in functional form.

[0910] Cationic liposomes are readily available. For example, N[1-2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-triethylammonium (DOTMA) liposomes are particularly useful and are available under the trademark Lipofectin, from GIBCO BRL, Grand Island, N.Y. (See, also, Felgner et al., Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 84:7413-7416 (1987), which is herein incorporated by reference). Other commercially available liposomes include transfectace (DDAB/DOPE) and DOTAP/DOPE (Boehringer).

[0911] Other cationic liposomes can be prepared from readily available materials using techniques well known in the art. See, e.g. PCT Publication NO: WO 90/11092 (which is herein incorporated by reference) for a description of the synthesis of DOTAP (1,2-bis(oleoyloxy)-3-(trimethylammonio)propane) liposomes. Preparation of DOTMA liposomes is explained in the literature, see, e.g., Felgner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 84:7413-7417, which is herein incorporated by reference. Similar methods can be used to prepare liposomes from other cationic lipid materials.

[0912] Similarly, anionic and neutral liposomes are readily available, such as from Avanti Polar Lipids (Birmingham, Ala.), or can be easily prepared using readily available materials. Such materials include phosphatidyl, choline, cholesterol, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, dioleoylphosphatidyl choline (DOPC), dioleoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DOPG), dioleoylphoshatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE), among others. These materials can also be mixed with the DOTMA and DOTAP starting materials in appropriate ratios. Methods for making liposomes using these materials are well known in the art.

[0913] For example, commercially dioleoylphosphatidyl choline (DOPC), dioleoylphosphatidyl glycerol (DOPG), and dioleoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) can be used in various combinations to make conventional liposomes, with or without the addition of cholesterol. Thus, for example, DOPG/DOPC vesicles can be prepared by drying 50 mg each of DOPG and DOPC under a stream of nitrogen gas into a sonication vial. The sample is placed under a vacuum pump overnight and is hydrated the following day with deionized water. The sample is then sonicated for 2 hours in a capped vial, using a Heat Systems model 350 sonicator equipped with an inverted cup (bath type) probe at the maximum setting while the bath is circulated at 15EC. Alternatively, negatively charged vesicles can be prepared without sonication to produce multilamellar vesicles or by extrusion through nucleopore membranes to produce unilamellar vesicles of discrete size. Other methods are known and available to those of skill in the art.

[0914] The liposomes can comprise multilamellar vesicles (MLVs), small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs), or large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), with SUVs being preferred. The various liposome-nucleic acid complexes are prepared using methods well known in the art. See, e.g., Straubinger et al., Methods of Immunology, 101:512-527 (1983), which is herein incorporated by reference. For example, MLVs containing nucleic acid can be prepared by depositing a thin film of phospholipid on the walls of a glass tube and subsequently hydrating with a solution of the material to be encapsulated. SUVs are prepared by extended sonication of MLVs to produce a homogeneous population of unilamellar liposomes. The material to be entrapped is added to a suspension of preformed MLVs and then sonicated. When using liposomes containing cationic lipids, the dried lipid film is resuspended in an appropriate solution such as sterile water or an isotonic buffer solution such as 10 mM Tris/NaCl, sonicated, and then the preformed liposomes are mixed directly with the DNA. The liposome and DNA form a very stable complex due to binding of the positively charged liposomes to the cationic DNA. SUVs find use with small nucleic acid fragments. LUVs are prepared by a number of methods, well known in the art. Commonly used methods include Ca2+-EDTA chelation (Papahadjopoulos et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 394:483 (1975); Wilson et al., Cell, 17:77 (1979)); ether injection (Deamer et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 443:629 (1976); Ostro et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 76:836 (1977); Fraley et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76:3348 (1979)); detergent dialysis (Enoch et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76:145 (1979)); and reverse-phase evaporation (REV) (Fraley et al., J. Biol. Chem., 255:10431 (1980); Szoka et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 75:145 (1978); Schaefer-Ridder et al., Science, 215:166 (1982)), which are herein incorporated by reference.

[0915] Generally, the ratio of DNA to liposomes will be from about 10:1 to about 1:10. Preferably, the ration will be from about 5:1 to about 1:5. More preferably, the ration will be about 3:1 to about 1:3. Still more preferably, the ratio will be about 1:1.

[0916] U.S. Pat. No: 5,676,954 (which is herein incorporated by reference) reports on the injection of genetic material, complexed with cationic liposomes carriers, into mice. U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,897,355, 4,946,787, 5,049,386, 5,459,127, 5,589,466, 5,693,622, 5,580,859, 5,703,055, and international publication NO: WO 94/9469 (which are herein incorporated by reference) provide cationic lipids for use in transfecting DNA into cells and mammals. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,589,466, 5,693,622, 5,580,859, 5,703,055, and international publication NO: WO 94/9469 (which are herein incorporated by reference) provide methods for delivering DNA-cationic lipid complexes to mammals.

[0917] In certain embodiments, cells are engineered, ex vivo or in vivo, using a retroviral particle containing RNA which comprises a sequence encoding polypeptides of the invention. Retroviruses from which the retroviral plasmid vectors may be derived include, but are not limited to, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, spleen necrosis virus, Rous sarcoma Virus, Harvey Sarcoma Virus, avian leukosis virus, gibbon ape leukemia virus, human immunodeficiency virus, Myeloproliferative Sarcoma Virus, and mammary tumor virus.

[0918] The retroviral plasmid vector is employed to transduce packaging cell lines to form producer cell lines. Examples of packaging cells which may be transfected include, but are not limited to, the PE501, PA317, R-2, R-AM, PA12, T19-14X, VT-19-17-H2, RCRE, RCRIP, GP+E-86, GP+envAm12, and DAN cell lines as described in Miller, Human Gene Therapy, 1:5-14 (1990), which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The vector may transduce the packaging cells through any means known in the art. Such means include, but are not limited to, electroporation, the use of liposomes, and CaPO4 precipitation. In one alternative, the retroviral plasmid vector may be encapsulated into a liposome, or coupled to a lipid, and then administered to a host.

[0919] The producer cell line generates infectious retroviral vector particles which include polynucleotide encoding polypeptides of the invention. Such retroviral vector particles then may be employed, to transduce eukaryotic cells, either in vitro or in vivo. The transduced eukaryotic cells will express polypeptides of the invention.

[0920] In certain other embodiments, cells are engineered, ex vivo or in vivo, with polynucleotides of the invention contained in an adenovirus vector. Adenovirus can be manipulated such that it encodes and expresses polypeptides of the invention, and at the same time is inactivated in terms of its ability to replicate in a normal lytic viral life cycle. Adenovirus expression is achieved without integration of the viral DNA into the host cell chromosome, thereby alleviating concerns about insertional mutagenesis. Furthermore, adenoviruses have been used as live enteric vaccines for many years with an excellent safety profile (Schwartzet al., Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 109:233-238 (1974)). Finally, adenovirus mediated gene transfer has been demonstrated in a number of instances including transfer of alpha-1-antitrypsin and CFTR to the lungs of cotton rats (Rosenfeld et al., Science, 252:431-434 (1991); Rosenfeld et al., Cell, 68:143-155 (1992)). Furthermore, extensive studies to attempt to establish adenovirus as a causative agent in human cancer were uniformly negative (Green et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 76:6606 (1979)).

[0921] Suitable adenoviral vectors useful in the present invention are described, for example, in Kozarsky and Wilson, Curr. Opin. Genet. Devel., 3:499-503 (1993); Rosenfeld et al., Cell, 68:143-155 (1992); Engelhardt et al., Human Genet. Ther., 4:759-769 (1993); Yang et al., Nature Genet., 7:362-369 (1994); Wilson et al., Nature, 365:691-692 (1993); and U.S. Pat. No: 5,652,224, which are herein incorporated by reference. For example, the adenovirus vector Ad2 is useful and can be grown in human 293 cells. These cells contain the E1 region of adenovirus and constitutively express E1a and E1b, which complement the defective adenoviruses by providing the products of the genes deleted from the vector. In addition to Ad2, other varieties of adenovirus (e.g., Ad3, Ad5, and Ad7) are also useful in the present invention.

[0922] Preferably, the adenoviruses used in the present invention are replication deficient. Replication deficient adenoviruses require the aid of a helper virus and/or packaging cell line to form infectious particles. The resulting virus is capable of infecting cells and can express a polynucleotide of interest which is operably linked to a promoter, but cannot replicate in most cells. Replication deficient adenoviruses may be deleted in one or more of all or a portion of the following genes: E1a, E1b, E3, E4, E2a, or L1 through L5.

[0923] In certain other embodiments, the cells are engineered, ex vivo or in vivo, using an adeno-associated virus (AAV). AAVs are naturally occurring defective viruses that require helper viruses to produce infectious particles (Muzyczka, Curr. Topics in Microbiol. Immunol., 158:97 (1992)). It is also one of the few viruses that may integrate its DNA into non-dividing cells. Vectors containing as little as 300 base pairs of AAV can be packaged and can integrate, but space for exogenous DNA is limited to about 4.5 kb. Methods for producing and using such AAVs are known in the art. See, for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,139,941, 5,173,414, 5,354,678, 5,436,146, 5,474,935, 5,478,745, and 5,589,377.

[0924] For example, an appropriate AAV vector for use in the present invention will include all the sequences necessary for DNA replication, encapsidation, and host-cell integration. The polynucleotide construct containing polynucleotides of the invention is inserted into the AAV vector using standard cloning methods, such as those found in Sambrook et al., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Press (1989). The recombinant AAV vector is then transfected into packaging cells which are infected with a helper virus, using any standard technique, including lipofection, electroporation, calcium phosphate precipitation, etc. Appropriate helper viruses include adenoviruses, cytomegaloviruses, vaccinia viruses, or herpes viruses. Once the packaging cells are transfected and infected, they will produce infectious AAV viral particles which contain the polynucleotide construct of the invention. These viral particles are then used to transduce eukaryotic cells, either ex vivo or in vivo. The transduced cells will contain the polynucleotide construct integrated into its genome, and will express the desired gene product.

[0925] Another method of gene therapy involves operably associating heterologous control regions and endogenous polynucleotide sequences (e.g. encoding the polypeptide sequence of interest) via homologous recombination (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No.: 5,641,670, issued Jun. 24, 1997; International Publication NO: WO 96/29411, published Sep. 26, 1996; International Publication NO: WO 94/12650, published Aug. 4, 1994; Koller et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86:8932-8935 (1989); and Zijlstra et al., Nature, 342:435-438 (1989). This method involves the activation of a gene which is present in the target cells, but which is not normally expressed in the cells, or is expressed at a lower level than desired.

[0926] Polynucleotide constructs are made, using standard techniques known in the art, which contain the promoter with targeting sequences flanking the promoter. Suitable promoters are described herein. The targeting sequence is sufficiently complementary to an endogenous sequence to permit homologous recombination of the promoter-targeting sequence with the endogenous sequence. The targeting sequence will be sufficiently near the 5′ end of the desired endogenous polynucleotide sequence so the promoter will be operably linked to the endogenous sequence upon homologous recombination.

[0927] The promoter and the targeting sequences can be amplified using PCR. Preferably, the amplified promoter contains distinct restriction enzyme sites on the 5′ and 3′ ends. Preferably, the 3′ end of the first targeting sequence contains the same restriction enzyme site as the 5′ end of the amplified promoter and the 5′ end of the second targeting sequence contains the same restriction site as the 3′ end of the amplified promoter. The amplified promoter and targeting sequences are digested and ligated together.

[0928] The promoter-targeting sequence construct is delivered to the cells, either as naked polynucleotide, or in conjunction with transfection-facilitating agents, such as liposomes, viral sequences, viral particles, whole viruses, lipofection, precipitating agents, etc., described in more detail above. The P promoter-targeting sequence can be delivered by any method, included direct needle injection, intravenous injection, topical administration, catheter infusion, particle accelerators, etc. The methods are described in more detail below.

[0929] The promoter-targeting sequence construct is taken up by cells. Homologous recombination between the construct and the endogenous sequence takes place, such that an endogenous sequence is placed under the control of the promoter. The promoter then drives the expression of the endogenous sequence.

[0930] The polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of the present invention may be administered along with other polynucleotides encoding other angiongenic proteins. Angiogenic proteins include, but are not limited to, acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors, VEGF-1, VEGF-2 (VEGF-C), VEGF-3 (VEGF-B), epidermal growth factor alpha and beta, platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, hepatocyte growth factor, insulin like growth factor, colony stimulating factor, macrophage colony stimulating factor, granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor, and nitric oxide synthase.

[0931] Preferably, the polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide of the invention contains a secretory signal sequence that facilitates secretion of the protein. Typically, the signal sequence is positioned in the coding region of the polynucleotide to be expressed towards or at the 5′ end of the coding region. The signal sequence may be homologous or heterologous to the polynucleotide of interest and may be homologous or heterologous to the cells to be transfected. Additionally, the signal sequence may be chemically synthesized using methods known in the art.

[0932] Any mode of administration of any of the above-described polynucleotides constructs can be used so long as the mode results in the expression of one or more molecules in an amount sufficient to provide a therapeutic effect. This includes direct needle injection, systemic injection, catheter infusion, biolistic injectors, particle accelerators (i.e., “gene guns”), gelfoam sponge depots, other commercially available depot materials, osmotic pumps (e.g., Alza minipumps), oral or suppositorial solid (tablet or pill) pharmaceutical formulations, and decanting or topical applications during surgery. For example, direct injection of naked calcium phosphate-precipitated plasmid into rat liver and rat spleen or a protein-coated plasmid into the portal vein has resulted in gene expression of the foreign gene in the rat livers. (Kaneda et al., Science, 243:375 (1989)).

[0933] A preferred method of local administration is by direct injection. Preferably, a recombinant molecule of the present invention complexed with a delivery vehicle is administered by direct injection into or locally within the area of arteries. Administration of a composition locally within the area of arteries refers to injecting the composition centimeters and preferably, millimeters within arteries.

[0934] Another method of local administration is to contact a polynucleotide construct of the present invention in or around a surgical wound. For example, a patient can undergo surgery and the polynucleotide construct can be coated on the surface of tissue inside the wound or the construct can be injected into areas of tissue inside the wound.

[0935] Therapeutic compositions useful in systemic administration, include recombinant molecules of the present invention complexed to a targeted delivery vehicle of the present invention. Suitable delivery vehicles for use with systemic administration comprise liposomes comprising ligands for targeting the vehicle to a particular site.

[0936] Preferred methods of systemic administration, include intravenous injection, aerosol, oral and percutaneous (topical) delivery. Intravenous injections can be performed using methods standard in the art. Aerosol delivery can also be performed using methods standard in the art (see, for example, Stribling et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 189:11277-11281 (1992), which is incorporated herein by reference). Oral delivery can be performed by complexing a polynucleotide construct of the present invention to a carrier capable of withstanding degradation by digestive enzymes in the gut of an animal. Examples of such carriers, include plastic capsules or tablets, such as those known in the art. Topical delivery can be performed by mixing a polynucleotide construct of the present invention with a lipophilic reagent (e.g., DMSO) that is capable of passing into the skin.

[0937] Determining an effective amount of substance to be delivered can depend upon a number of factors including, for example, the chemical structure and biological activity of the substance, the age and weight of the animal, the precise condition requiring treatment and its severity, and the route of administration. The frequency of treatments depends upon a number of factors, such as the amount of polynucleotide constructs administered per dose, as well as the health and history of the subject. The precise amount, number of doses, and timing of doses will be determined by the attending physician or veterinarian. Therapeutic compositions of the present invention can be administered to any animal, preferably to mammals and birds. Preferred mammals include humans, dogs, cats, mice, rats, rabbits sheep, cattle, horses and pigs, with humans being particularly

[0938] Biological Activities

[0939] The polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used in assays to test for one or more biological activities. If these polynucleotides and polypeptides do exhibit activity in a particular assay, it is likely that these molecules may be involved in the diseases associated with the biological activity. Thus, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists could be used to treat the associated disease.

[0940] Immune Activity

[0941] The polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing diseases, disorders, and/or conditions of the immune system, by activating or inhibiting the proliferation, differentiation, or mobilization (chemotaxis) of immune cells. Immune cells develop through a process called hematopoiesis, producing myeloid (platelets, red blood cells, neutrophils, and macrophages) and lymphoid (B and T lymphocytes) cells from pluripotent stem cells. The etiology of these immune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions may be genetic, somatic, such as cancer or some autoimmune diseases, disorders,and/or conditions, acquired (e.g., by chemotherapy or toxins), or infectious. Moreover, a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention can be used as a marker or detector of a particular immune system disease or disorder.

[0942] A polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing diseases, disorders, and/or conditions of hematopoietic cells. A polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention could be used to increase differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells, including the pluripotent stem cells, in an effort to treat or prevent those diseases, disorders, and/or conditions associated with a decrease in certain (or many) types hematopoietic cells. Examples of immunologic deficiency syndromes include, but are not limited to: blood protein diseases, disorders, and/or conditions (e.g. agammaglobulinemia, dysgammaglobulinemia), ataxia telangiectasia, common variable immunodeficiency, Digeorge Syndrome, HIV infection, HTLV-BLV infection, leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome, lymphopenia, phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCIDs), Wiskott-Aldrich Disorder, anemia, thrombocytopenia, or hemoglobinuria.

[0943] Moreover, a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention could also be used to modulate hemostatic (the stopping of bleeding) or thromboiytic activity (clot formation). For example, by increasing hemostatic or thrombolytic activity, a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention could be used to treat or prevent blood coagulation diseases, disorders, and/or conditions (e.g., afibrinogenemia, factor deficiencies), blood platelet diseases, disorders, and/or conditions (e.g. thrombocytopenia), or wounds resulting from trauma, surgery, or other causes. Alternatively, a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention that can decrease hemostatic or thrombolytic activity could be used to inhibit or dissolve clotting. These molecules could be important in the treatment or prevention of heart attacks (infarction), strokes, or scarring.

[0944] A polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing autoimmune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions. Many autoimmune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions result from inappropriate recognition of self as foreign material by immune cells. This inappropriate recognition results in an immune response leading to the destruction of the host tissue. Therefore, the administration of a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention that inhibits an immune response, particularly the proliferation, differentiation, or chemotaxis of T-cells, may be an effective therapy in preventing autoimmune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions.

[0945] Examples of autoimmune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions that can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed or detected by the present invention include, but are not limited to: Addison's Disease, hemolytic anemia, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatitis, allergic encephalomyelitis, glomerulonephritis, Goodpasture's Syndrome, Graves' Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Myasthenia Gravis, Neuritis, Ophthalmia, Bullous Pemphigoid, Pemphigus, Polyendocrinopathies, Purpura, Reiter's Disease, Stiff-Man Syndrome, Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Autoimmune Pulmonary Inflammation, Guillain-Barre Syndrome, insulin dependent diabetes mellitis, and autoimmune inflammatory eye disease.

[0946] Similarly, allergic reactions and conditions, such as asthma (particularly allergic asthma) or other respiratory problems, may also be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention. Moreover, these molecules can be used to treat anaphylaxis, hypersensitivity to an antigenic molecule, or blood group incompatibility.

[0947] A polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose organ rejection or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Organ rejection occurs by host immune cell destruction of the transplanted tissue through an immune response. Similarly, an immune response is also involved in GVHD, but, in this case, the foreign transplanted immune cells destroy the host tissues. The administration of a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention that inhibits an immune response, particularly the proliferation, differentiation, or chemotaxis of T-cells, may be an effective therapy in preventing organ rejection or GVHD.

[0948] Similarly, a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may also be used to modulate inflammation. For example, the polypeptide or polynucleotide or agonists or antagonist may inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of cells involved in an inflammatory response. These molecules can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose inflammatory conditions, both chronic and acute conditions, including chronic prostatitis, granulomatous prostatitis and malacoplakia, inflammation associated with infection (e.g., septic shock, sepsis, or systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)), ischemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxin lethality, arthritis, complement-mediated hyperacute rejection, nephritis, cytokine or chemokine induced lung injury, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, or resulting from over production of cytokines (e.g., TNF or IL-1.)

[0949] Hyperproliferative Disorders

[0950] A polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose hyperproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, including neoplasms. A polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may inhibit the proliferation of the disorder through direct or indirect interactions. Alternatively, a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention may proliferate other cells which can inhibit the hyperproliferative disorder.

[0951] For example, by increasing an immune response, particularly increasing antigenic qualities of the hyperproliferative disorder or by proliferating, differentiating, or mobilizing T-cells, hyperproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed. This immune response may be increased by either enhancing an existing immune response, or by initiating a new immune response. Alternatively, decreasing an immune response may also be a method of treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing hyperproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, such as a chemotherapeutic agent.

[0952] Examples of hyperproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions that can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention include, but are not limited to neoplasms located in the: colon, abdomen, bone, breast, digestive system, liver, pancreas, peritoneum, endocrine glands (adrenal, parathyroid, pituitary, testicles, ovary, thymus, thyroid), eye, head and neck, nervous (central and peripheral), lymphatic system, pelvic, skin, soft tissue, spleen, thoracic, and urogenital.

[0953] Similarly, other hyperproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions can also be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by a polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the present invention. Examples of such hyperproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions include, but are not limited to: hypergammaglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, paraproteinemias, purpura, sarcoidosis, Sezary Syndrome, Waldenstron's Macroglobulinemia, Gaucher's Disease, histiocytosis, and any other hyperproliferative disease, besides neoplasia, located in an organ system listed above.

[0954] One preferred embodiment utilizes polynucleotides of the present invention to inhibit aberrant cellular division, by gene therapy using the present invention, and/or protein fusions or fragments thereof.

[0955] Thus, the present invention provides a method for treating or preventing cell proliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions by inserting into an abnormally proliferating cell a polynucleotide of the present invention, wherein said polynucleotide represses said expression.

[0956] Another embodiment of the present invention provides a method of treating or preventing cell-proliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions in individuals comprising administration of one or more active gene copies of the present invention to an abnormally proliferating cell or cells. In a preferred embodiment, polynucleotides of the present invention is a DNA construct comprising a recombinant expression vector effective in expressing a DNA sequence encoding said polynucleotides. In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, the DNA construct encoding the poynucleotides of the present invention is inserted into cells to be treated utilizing a retrovirus, or more preferrably an adenoviral vector (See G J. Nabel, et. al., PNAS 1999 96: 324-326, which is hereby incorporated by reference). In a most preferred embodiment, the viral vector is defective and will not transform non-proliferating cells, only proliferating cells. Moreover, in a preferred embodiment, the polynucleotides of the present invention inserted into proliferating cells either alone, or in combination with or fused to other polynucleotides, can then be modulated via an external stimulus (i.e. magnetic, specific small molecule, chemical, or drug administration, etc.), which acts upon the promoter upstream of said polynucleotides to induce expression of the encoded protein product. As such the beneficial therapeutic affect of the present invention may be expressly modulated (i.e. to increase, decrease, or inhibit expression of the present invention) based upon said external stimulus.

[0957] Polynucleotides of the present invention may be useful in repressing expression of oncogenic genes or antigens. By “repressing expression of the oncogenic genes” is intended the suppression of the transcription of the gene, the degradation of the gene transcript (pre-message RNA), the inhibition of splicing, the destruction of the messenger RNA, the prevention of the post-translational modifications of the protein, the destruction of the protein, or the inhibition of the normal function of the protein.

[0958] For local administration to abnormally proliferating cells, polynucleotides of the present invention may be administered by any method known to those of skill in the art including, but not limited to transfection, electroporation, microinjection of cells, or in vehicles such as liposomes, lipofectin, or as naked polynucleotides, or any other method described throughout the specification. The polynucleotide of the present invention may be delivered by known gene delivery systems such as, but not limited to, retroviral vectors (Gilboa, J. Virology 44:845 (1982); Hocke, Nature 320:275 (1986); Wilson, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85:3014), vaccinia virus system (Chakrabarty et al., Mol. Cell Biol. 5:3403 (1985) or other efficient DNA delivery systems (Yates et al., Nature 313:812 (1985)) known to those skilled in the art. These references are exemplary only and are hereby incorporated by reference. In order to specifically deliver or transfect cells which are abnormally proliferating and spare non-dividing cells, it is preferable to utilize a retrovirus, or adenoviral (as described in the art and elsewhere herein) delivery system known to those of skill in the art. Since host DNA replication is required for retroviral DNA to integrate and the retrovirus will be unable to self replicate due to the lack of the retrovirus genes needed for its life cycle. Utilizing such a retroviral delivery system for polynucleotides of the present invention will target said gene and constructs to abnormally proliferating cells and will spare the non-dividing normal cells.

[0959] The polynucleotides of the present invention may be delivered directly to cell proliferative disorder/disease sites in internal organs, body cavities and the like by use of imaging devices used to guide an injecting needle directly to the disease site. The polynucleotides of the present invention may also be administered to disease sites at the time of surgical intervention.

[0960] By “cell proliferative disease” is meant any human or animal disease or disorder, affecting any one or any combination of organs, cavities, or body parts, which is characterized by single or multiple local abnormal proliferations of cells, groups of cells, or tissues, whether benign or malignant.

[0961] Any amount of the polynucleotides of the present invention may be administered as long as it has a biologically inhibiting effect on the proliferation of the treated cells. Moreover, it is possible to administer more than one of the polynucleotide of the present invention simultaneously to the same site. By “biologically inhibiting” is meant partial or total growth inhibition as well as decreases in the rate of proliferation or growth of the cells. The biologically inhibitory dose may be determined by assessing the effects of the polynucleotides of the present invention on target malignant or abnormally proliferating cell growth in tissue culture, tumor growth in animals and cell cultures, or any other method known to one of ordinary skill in the art.

[0962] The present invention is further directed to antibody-based therapies which involve administering of anti-polypeptides and anti-polynucleotide antibodies to a mammalian, preferably human, patient for treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing one or more of the described diseases, disorders, and/or conditions. Methods for producing anti-polypeptides and anti-polynucleotide antibodies polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies are described in detail elsewhere herein. Such antibodies may be provided in pharmaceutically acceptable compositions as known in the art or as described herein.

[0963] A summary of the ways in which the antibodies of the present invention may be used therapeutically includes binding polynucleotides or polypeptides of the present invention locally or systemically in the body or by direct cytotoxicity of the antibody, e.g. as mediated by complement (CDC) or by effector cells (ADCC). Some of these approaches are described in more detail below. Armed with the teachings provided herein, one of ordinary skill in the art will know how to use the antibodies of the present invention for diagnostic, monitoring or therapeutic purposes without undue experimentation.

[0964] In particular, the antibodies, fragments and derivatives of the present invention are useful for treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing a subject having or developing cell proliferative and/or differentiation diseases, disorders, and/or conditions as described herein. Such treatment comprises administering a single or multiple doses of the antibody, or a fragment, derivative, or a conjugate thereof.

[0965] The antibodies of this invention may be advantageously utilized in combination with other monoclonal or chimeric antibodies, or with lymphokines or hematopoietic growth factors, for example, which serve to increase the number or activity of effector cells which interact with the antibodies.

[0966] It is preferred to use high affinity and/or potent in vivo inhibiting and/or neutralizing antibodies against polypeptides or polynucleotides of the present invention, fragments or regions thereof, for both immunoassays directed to and therapy of diseases, disorders, and/or conditions related to polynucleotides or polypeptides, including fragements thereof, of the present invention. Such antibodies, fragments, or regions, will preferably have an affinity for polynucleotides or polypeptides, including fragements thereof. Preferred binding affinities include those with a dissociation constant or Kd less than 5×10−6M, 10−6M, 5×10−7M, 10−7M, 5×10−8M, 10−8M, 5×10−9M, 10−9M 5×10−10M, 10−10M, 5×10−11M, 10−11M, 5×10−12M, 10−12M, 5×10−13M, 10−13M, 5×10−14M, 10−14M, 5×10−15M, and 10−15M.

[0967] Moreover, polypeptides of the present invention are useful in inhibiting the angiogenesis of proliferative cells or tissues, either alone, as a protein fusion, or in combination with other polypeptides directly or indirectly, as described elsewhere herein. In a most preferred embodiment, said anti-angiogenesis effect may be achieved indirectly, for example, through the inhibition of hematopoietic, tumor-specific cells, such as tumor-associated macrophages (See Joseph IB, et al. J Natl Cancer Inst, 90(21):1648-53 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference). Antibodies directed to polypeptides or polynucleotides of the present invention may also result in inhibition of angiogenesis directly, or indirectly (See Witte L, et al., Cancer Metastasis Rev. 17(2):155-61 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference)).

[0968] Polypeptides, including protein fusions, of the present invention, or fragments thereof may be useful in inhibiting proliferative cells or tissues through the induction of apoptosis. Said polypeptides may act either directly, or indirectly to induce apoptosis of proliferative cells and tissues, for example in the activation of a death-domain receptor, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-1, CD95 (Fas/APO-1), TNF-receptor-related apoptosis-mediated protein (TRAMP) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor-1 and -2 (See Schulze-Osthoff K, et. al., Eur J Biochem 254(3):439-59 (1998), which is hereby incorporated by reference). Moreover, in another preferred embodiment of the present invention, said polypeptides may induce apoptosis through other mechanisms, such as in the activation of other proteins which will activate apoptosis, or through stimulating the expression of said proteins, either alone or in combination with small molecule drugs or adjuviants, such as apoptonin, galectins, thioredoxins, antiinflammatory proteins (See for example, Mutat Res 400(1-2):447-55 (1998), Med Hypotheses.50(5):423-33 (1998), Chem Biol Interact. Apr 24;111-112:23-34 (1998), J Mol Med.76(6):402-12 (1998), Int J Tissue React;20(1):3-15 (1998), which are all hereby incorporated by reference).

[0969] Polypeptides, including protein fusions to, or fragments thereof, of the present invention are useful in inhibiting the metastasis of proliferative cells or tissues. Inhibition may occur as a direct result of administering polypeptides, or antibodies directed to said polypeptides as described elsewere herein, or indirectly, such as activating the expression of proteins known to inhibit metastasis, for example alpha 4 integrins, (See, e.g., Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1998;231:125-41, which is hereby incorporated by reference). Such thereapeutic affects of the present invention may be achieved either alone, or in combination with small molecule drugs or adjuvants.

[0970] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of delivering compositions containing the polypeptides of the invention (e.g., compositions containing polypeptides or polypeptide antibodes associated with heterologous polypeptides, heterologous nucleic acids, toxins, or prodrugs) to targeted cells expressing the polypeptide of the present invention. Polypeptides or polypeptide antibodes of the invention may be associated with with heterologous polypeptides, heterologous nucleic acids, toxins, or prodrugs via hydrophobic, hydrophilic, ionic and/or covalent interactions. Polypeptides, protein fusions to, or fragments thereof, of the present invention are useful in enhancing the immunogenicity and/or antigenicity of proliferating cells or tissues, either directly, such as would occur if the polypeptides of the present invention ‘vaccinated’ the immune response to respond to proliferative antigens and immunogens, or indirectly, such as in activating the expression of proteins known to enhance the immune response (e.g. chemokines), to said antigens and immunogens.

[0971] Cardiovascular Disorders

[0972] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention may be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose cardiovascular diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, including peripheral artery disease, such as limb ischemia.

[0973] Cardiovascular diseases, disorders, and/or conditions include cardiovascular abnormalities, such as arterio-arterial fistula, arteriovenous fistula, cerebral arteriovenous malformations, congenital heart defects, pulmonary atresia, and Scimitar Syndrome. Congenital heart defects include aortic coarctation, cor triatriatum, coronary vessel anomalies, crisscross heart, dextrocardia, patent ductus arteriosus, Ebstein's anomaly, Eisenmenger complex, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, levocardia, tetralogy of fallot, transposition of great vessels, double outlet right ventricle, tricuspid atresia, persistent truncus arteriosus, and heart septal defects, such as aortopulmonary septal defect, endocardial cushion defects, Lutembacher's Syndrome, trilogy of Fallot, ventricular heart septal defects.

[0974] Cardiovascular diseases, disorders, and/or conditions also include heart disease, such as arrhythmias, carcinoid heart disease, high cardiac output, low cardiac output, cardiac tamponade, endocarditis (including bacterial), heart aneurysm, cardiac arrest, congestive heart failure, congestive cardiomyopathy, paroxysmal dyspnea, cardiac edema, heart hypertrophy, congestive cardiomyopathy, left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy, post-infarction heart rupture, ventricular septal rupture, heart valve diseases, myocardial diseases, myocardial ischemia, pericardial effusion, pericarditis (including constrictive and tuberculous), pneumopericardium, postpericardiotomy syndrome, pulmonary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, ventricular dysfunction, hyperemia, cardiovascular pregnancy complications, Scimitar Syndrome, cardiovascular syphilis, and cardiovascular tuberculosis.

[0975] Arrhythmias include sinus arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, bradycardia, extrasystole, Adams-Stokes Syndrome, bundle-branch block, sinoatrial block, long QT syndrome, parasystole, Lown-Ganong-Levine Syndrome, Mahaim-type pre-excitation syndrome, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, sick sinus syndrome, tachycardias, and ventricular fibrillation. Tachycardias include paroxysmal tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, accelerated idioventricular rhythm, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, ectopic atrial tachycardia, ectopic junctional tachycardia, sinoatrial nodal reentry tachycardia, sinus tachycardia, Torsades de Pointes, and ventricular tachycardia.

[0976] Heart valve disease include aortic valve insufficiency, aortic valve stenosis, hear murmurs, aortic valve prolapse, mitral valve prolapse, tricuspid valve prolapse, mitral valve insufficiency, mitral valve stenosis, pulmonary atresia, pulmonary valve insufficiency, pulmonary valve stenosis, tricuspid atresia, tricuspid valve insufficiency, and tricuspid valve stenosis.

[0977] Myocardial diseases include alcoholic cardiomyopathy, congestive cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic subvalvular stenosis, pulmonary subvalvular stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, Chagas cardiomyopathy, endocardial fibroelastosis, endomyocardial fibrosis, Kearns Syndrome, myocardial reperfusion injury, and myocarditis.

[0978] Myocardial ischemias include coronary disease, such as angina pectoris, coronary aneurysm, coronary arteriosclerosis, coronary thrombosis, coronary vasospasm, myocardial infarction and myocardial stunning.

[0979] Cardiovascular diseases also include vascular diseases such as aneurysms, angiodysplasia, angiomatosis, bacillary angiomatosis, Hippel-Lindau Disease, Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome, Sturge-Weber Syndrome, angioneurotic edema, aortic diseases, Takayasu's Arteritis, aortitis, Leriche's Syndrome, arterial occlusive diseases, arteritis, enarteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, cerebrovascular diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, diabetic angiopathies, diabetic retinopathy, embolisms, thrombosis, erythromelalgia, hemorrhoids, hepatic veno-occlusive disease, hypertension, hypotension, ischemia, peripheral vascular diseases, phlebitis, pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, Raynaud's disease, CREST syndrome, retinal vein occlusion, Scimitar syndrome, superior vena cava syndrome, telangiectasia, atacia telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, varicocele, varicose veins, varicose ulcer, vasculitis, and venous insufficiency.

[0980] Aneurysms include dissecting aneurysms, false aneurysms, infected aneurysms, ruptured aneurysms, aortic aneurysms, cerebral aneurysms, coronary aneurysms, heart aneurysms, and iliac aneurysms.

[0981] Arterial occlusive diseases include arteriosclerosis, intermittent claudication, carotid stenosis, fibromuscular dysplasias, mesenteric vascular occlusion, Moyamoya disease, renal artery obstruction, retinal artery occlusion, and thromboangiitis obliterans.

[0982] Cerebrovascular diseases, disorders, and/or conditions include carotid artery diseases, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, cerebral aneurysm, cerebral anoxia, cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral arteriovenous malformation, cerebral artery diseases, cerebral embolism and thrombosis, carotid artery thrombosis, sinus thrombosis, Wallenberg's syndrome, cerebral hemorrhage, epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, subaraxhnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia (including transient), subclavian steal syndrome, periventricular leukomalacia, vascular headache, cluster headache, migraine, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency.

[0983] Embolisms include air embolisms, amniotic fluid embolisms, cholesterol embolisms, blue toe syndrome, fat embolisms, pulmonary embolisms, and thromoboembolisms. Thrombosis include coronary thrombosis, hepatic vein thrombosis, retinal vein occlusion, carotid artery thrombosis, sinus thrombosis, Wallenberg's syndrome, and thrombophlebitis.

[0984] Ischemia includes cerebral ischemia, ischemic colitis, compartment syndromes, anterior compartment syndrome, myocardial ischemia, reperfusion injuries, and peripheral limb ischemia. Vasculitis includes aortitis, arteritis, Behcet's Syndrome, Churg-Strauss Syndrome, mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, thromboangiitis obliterans, hypersensitivity vasculitis, Schoenlein-Henoch purpura, allergic cutaneous vasculitis, and Wegener's granulomatosis.

[0985] Polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, are especially effective for the treatment of critical limb ischemia and coronary disease.

[0986] Polypeptides may be administered using any method known in the art, including, but not limited to, direct needle injection at the delivery site, intravenous injection, topical administration, catheter infusion, biolistic injectors, particle accelerators, gelfoam sponge depots, other commercially available depot materials, osmotic pumps, oral or suppositorial solid pharmaceutical formulations, decanting or topical applications during surgery, aerosol delivery. Such methods are known in the art. Polypeptides of the invention may be administered as part of a Therapeutic, described in more detail below. Methods of delivering polynucleotides of the invention are described in more detail herein.

[0987] Anti-angiogenesis Activity

[0988] The naturally occurring balance between endogenous stimulators and inhibitors of angiogenesis is one in which inhibitory influences predominate. Rastinejad et al., Cell 56:345-355 (1989). In those rare instances in which neovascularization occurs under normal physiological conditions, such as wound healing, organ regeneration, embryonic development, and female reproductive processes, angiogenesis is stringently regulated and spatially and temporally delimited. Under conditions of pathological angiogenesis such as that characterizing solid tumor growth, these regulatory controls fail. Unregulated angiogenesis becomes pathologic and sustains progression of many neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. A number of serious diseases are dominated by abnormal neovascularization including solid tumor growth and metastases, arthritis, some types of eye diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, and psoriasis. See, e.g., reviews by Moses et al., Biotech. 9:630-634 (1991); Folkman et al., N. Engl. J. Med., 333:1757-1763 (1995); Auerbach et al., J. Microvasc. Res. 29:401-411 (1985); Folkman, Advances in Cancer Research, eds. Klein and Weinhouse, Academic Press, New York, pp. 175-203 (1985); Patz, Am. J. Opthalmol. 94:715-743 (1982); and Folkman et al., Science 221:719-725 (1983). In a number of pathological conditions, the process of angiogenesis contributes to the disease state. For example, significant data have accumulated which suggest that the growth of solid tumors is dependent on angiogenesis. Folkman and Klagsbrun, Science 235:442-447 (1987).

[0989] The present invention provides for treatment of diseases, disorders, and/or conditions associated with neovascularization by administration of the polynucleotides and/or polypeptides of the invention, as well as agonists or antagonists of the present invention. Malignant and metastatic conditions which can be treated with the polynucleotides and polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention include, but are not limited to, malignancies, solid tumors, and cancers described herein and otherwise known in the art (for a review of such disorders, see Fishman et al., Medicine, 2d Ed., J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia (1985)). Thus, the present invention provides a method of treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing an angiogenesis-related disease and/or disorder, comprising administering to an individual in need thereof a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist of the invention. For example, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be utilized in a variety of additional methods in order to therapeutically treator prevent a cancer or tumor. Cancers which may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists include, but are not limited to solid tumors, including prostate, lung, breast, ovarian, stomach, pancreas, larynx, esophagus, testes, liver, parotid, biliary tract, colon, rectum, cervix, uterus, endometrium, kidney, bladder, thyroid cancer; primary tumors and metastases; melanomas; glioblastoma; Kaposi's sarcoma; leiomyosarcoma; non-small cell lung cancer; colorectal cancer; advanced malignancies; and blood born tumors such as leukemias. For example, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be delivered topically, in order to treat or prevent cancers such as skin cancer, head and neck tumors, breast tumors, and Kaposi's sarcoma.

[0990] Within yet other aspects, polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be utilized to treat superficial forms of bladder cancer by, for example, intravesical administration. Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be delivered directly into the tumor, or near the tumor site, via injection or a catheter. Of course, as the artisan of ordinary skill will appreciate, the appropriate mode of administration will vary according to the cancer to be treated. Other modes of delivery are discussed herein.

[0991] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists may be useful in treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing other diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, besides cancers, which involve angiogenesis. These diseases, disorders, and/or conditions include, but are not limited to: benign tumors, for example hemangiomas, acoustic neuromas, neurofibromas, trachomas, and pyogenic granulomas; artheroscleric plaques; ocular angiogenic diseases, for example, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, macular degeneration, corneal graft rejection, neovascular glaucoma, retrolental fibroplasia, rubebsis, retinoblastoma, uvietis and Pterygia (abnormal blood vessel growth) of the eye; rheumatoid arthritis; psoriasis; delayed wound healing; endometriosis; vasculogenesis; granulations; hypertrophic scars (keloids); nonunion fractures; scleroderma; trachoma; vascular adhesions; myocardial angiogenesis; coronary collaterals; cerebral collaterals; arteriovenous malformations; ischemic limb angiogenesis; Osler-Webber Syndrome; plaque neovascularization; telangiectasia; hemophiliac joints; angiofibroma; fibromuscular dysplasia; wound granulation; Crohn's disease; and atherosclerosis.

[0992] For example, within one aspect of the present invention methods are provided for treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing hypertrophic scars and keloids, comprising the step of administering a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist of the invention to a hypertrophic scar or keloid.

[0993] Within one embodiment of the present invention polynucleotides, polypeptides, antagonists and/or agonists are directly injected into a hypertrophic scar or keloid, in order to prevent the progression of these lesions. This therapy is of particular value in the prophylactic treatment of conditions which are known to result in the development of hypertrophic scars and keloids (e.g., burns), and is preferably initiated after the proliferative phase has had time to progress (approximately 14 days after the initial injury), but before hypertrophic scar or keloid development. As noted above, the present invention also provides methods for treating, preventing, and/or diagnosing neovascular diseases of the eye, including for example, corneal neovascularization, neovascular glaucoma, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, retrolental fibroplasia and macular degeneration.

[0994] Moreover, Ocular diseases, disorders, and/or conditions associated with neovascularization which can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with the polynucleotides and polypeptides of the present invention (including agonists and/or antagonists) include, but are not limited to: neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinoblastoma, retrolental fibroplasia, uveitis, retinopathy of prematurity macular degeneration, corneal graft neovascularization, as well as other eye inflammatory diseases, ocular tumors and diseases associated with choroidal or iris neovascularization. See, e.g., reviews by Waltman et al., Am. J. Ophthal. 85:704-710 (1978) and Gartner et al., Surv. Ophthal. 22:291-312 (1978).

[0995] Thus, within one aspect of the present invention methods are provided for treating or preventing neovascular diseases of the eye such as corneal neovascularization (including corneal graft neovascularization), comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a compound (as described above) to the cornea, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited. Briefly, the cornea is a tissue which normally lacks blood vessels. In certain pathological conditions however, capillaries may extend into the cornea from the pericorneal vascular plexus of the limbus. When the cornea becomes vascularized, it also becomes clouded, resulting in a decline in the patient's visual acuity. Visual loss may become complete if the cornea completely opacitates. A wide variety of diseases, disorders, and/or conditions can result in corneal neovascularization, including for example, corneal infections (e.g., trachoma, herpes simplex keratitis, leishmaniasis and onchocerciasis), immunological processes (e.g., graft rejection and Stevens-Johnson's syndrome), alkali burns, trauma, inflammation (of any cause), toxic and nutritional deficiency states, and as a complication of wearing contact lenses.

[0996] Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, may be prepared for topical administration in saline (combined with any of the preservatives and antimicrobial agents commonly used in ocular preparations), and administered in eyedrop form. The solution or suspension may be prepared in its pure form and administered several times daily. Alternatively, anti-angiogenic compositions, prepared as described above, may also be administered directly to the cornea. Within preferred embodiments, the anti-angiogenic composition is prepared with a muco-adhesive polymer which binds to cornea. Within further embodiments, the anti-angiogenic factors or anti-angiogenic compositions may be utilized as an adjunct to conventional steroid therapy. Topical therapy may also be useful prophylactically in corneal lesions which are known to have a high probability of inducing an angiogenic response (such as chemical burns). In these instances the treatment, likely in combination with steroids, may be instituted immediately to help prevent subsequent complications.

[0997] Within other embodiments, the compounds described above may be injected directly into the corneal stroma by an ophthalmologist under microscopic guidance. The preferred site of injection may vary with the morphology of the individual lesion, but the goal of the administration would be to place the composition at the advancing front of the vasculature (i.e., interspersed between the blood vessels and the normal cornea). In most cases this would involve perilimbic corneal injection to “protect” the cornea from the advancing blood vessels. This method may also be utilized shortly after a corneal insult in order to prophylactically prevent corneal neovascularization. In this situation the material could be injected in the perilimbic cornea interspersed between the corneal lesion and its undesired potential limbic blood supply. Such methods may also be utilized in a similar fashion to prevent capillary invasion of transplanted corneas. In a sustained-release form injections might only be required 2-3 times per year. A steroid could also be added to the injection solution to reduce inflammation resulting from the injection itself.

[0998] Within another aspect of the present invention, methods are provided for treating or preventing neovascular glaucoma, comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist to the eye, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited. In one embodiment, the compound may be administered topically to the eye in order to treat or prevent early forms of neovascular glaucoma. Within other embodiments, the compound may be implanted by injection into the region of the anterior chamber angle. Within other embodiments, the compound may also be placed in any location such that the compound is continuously released into the aqueous humor. Within another aspect of the present invention, methods are provided for treating or preventing proliferative diabetic retinopathy, comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist to the eyes, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited.

[0999] Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, proliferative diabetic retinopathy may be treated by injection into the aqueous humor or the vitreous, in order to increase the local concentration of the polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist in the retina. Preferably, this treatment should be initiated prior to the acquisition of severe disease requiring photocoagulation.

[1000] Within another aspect of the present invention, methods are provided for treating or preventing retrolental fibroplasia, comprising the step of administering to a patient a therapeutically effective amount of a polynucleotide, polypeptide, antagonist and/or agonist to the eye, such that the formation of blood vessels is inhibited. The compound may be administered topically, via intravitreous injection and/or via intraocular implants.

[1001] Additionally, diseases, disorders, and/or conditions which can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with the polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists include, but are not limited to, hemangioma, arthritis, psoriasis, angiofibroma, atherosclerotic plaques, delayed wound healing, granulations, hemophilic joints, hypertrophic scars, nonunion fractures, Osler-Weber syndrome, pyogenic granuloma, scleroderma, trachoma, and vascular adhesions.

[1002] Moreover, diseases, disorders, and/or conditions and/or states, which can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with the the polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists include, but are not limited to, solid tumors, blood born tumors such as leukemias, tumor metastasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, benign tumors, for example hemangiomas, acoustic neuromas, neurofibromas, trachomas, and pyogenic granulomas, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, ocular angiogenic diseases, for example, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, macular degeneration, corneal graft rejection, neovascular glaucoma, retrolental fibroplasia, rubeosis, retinoblastoma, and uvietis, delayed wound healing, endometriosis, vascluogenesis, granulations, hypertrophic scars (keloids), nonunion fractures, scleroderma, trachoma, vascular adhesions, myocardial angiogenesis, coronary collaterals, cerebral collaterals, arteriovenous malformations, ischemic limb angiogenesis, Osler-Webber Syndrome, plaque neovascularization, telangiectasia, hemophiliac joints, angiofibroma fibromuscular dysplasia, wound granulation, Crohn's disease, atherosclerosis, birth control agent by preventing vascularization required for embryo implantation controlling menstruation, diseases that have angiogenesis as a pathologic consequence such as cat scratch disease (Rochele minalia quintosa), ulcers (Helicobacter pylori), Bartonellosis and bacillary angiomatosis.

[1003] In one aspect of the birth control method, an amount of the compound sufficient to block embryo implantation is administered before or after intercourse and fertilization have occurred, thus providing an effective method of birth control, possibly a “morning after” method. Polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists may also be used in controlling menstruation or administered as either a peritoneal lavage fluid or for peritoneal implantation in the treatment of endometriosis.

[1004] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists of the present invention may be incorporated into surgical sutures in order to prevent stitch granulomas.

[1005] Polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists may be utilized in a wide variety of surgical procedures. For example, within one aspect of the present invention a compositions (in the form of, for example, a spray or film) may be utilized to coat or spray an area prior to removal of a tumor, in order to isolate normal surrounding tissues from malignant tissue, and/or to prevent the spread of disease to surrounding tissues. Within other aspects of the present invention, compositions (e.g., in the form of a spray) may be delivered via endoscopic procedures in order to coat tumors, or inhibit angiogenesis in a desired locale. Within yet other aspects of the present invention, surgical meshes which have been coated with anti-angiogenic compositions of the present invention may be utilized in any procedure wherein a surgical mesh might be utilized. For example, within one embodiment of the invention a surgical mesh laden with an anti-angiogenic composition may be utilized during abdominal cancer resection surgery (e.g., subsequent to colon resection) in order to provide support to the structure, and to release an amount of the anti-angiogenic factor.

[1006] Within further aspects of the present invention, methods are provided for treating tumor excision sites, comprising administering a polynucleotide, polypeptide, agonist and/or agonist to the resection margins of a tumor subsequent to excision, such that the local recurrence of cancer and the formation of new blood vessels at the site is inhibited. Within one embodiment of the invention, the anti-angiogenic compound is administered directly to the tumor excision site (e.g., applied by swabbing, brushing or otherwise coating the resection margins of the tumor with the anti-angiogenic compound). Alternatively, the anti-angiogenic compounds may be incorporated into known surgical pastes prior to administration. Within particularly preferred embodiments of the invention, the anti-angiogenic compounds are applied after hepatic resections for malignancy, and after neurosurgical operations.

[1007] Within one aspect of the present invention, polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists may be administered to the resection margin of a wide variety of tumors, including for example, breast, colon, brain and hepatic tumors. For example, within one embodiment of the invention, anti-angiogenic compounds may be administered to the site of a neurological tumor subsequent to excision, such that the formation of new blood vessels at the site are inhibited.

[1008] The polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists and/or agonists of the present invention may also be administered along with other anti-angiogenic factors. Representative examples of other anti-angiogenic factors include: Anti-Invasive Factor, retinoic acid and derivatives thereof, paclitaxel, Suramin, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-2, and various forms of the lighter “d group” transition metals.

[1009] Lighter “d group” transition metals include, for example, vanadium, molybdenum, tungsten, titanium, niobium, and tantalum species. Such transition metal species may form transition metal complexes. Suitable complexes of the above-mentioned transition metal species include oxo transition metal complexes.

[1010] Representative examples of vanadium complexes include oxo vanadium complexes such as vanadate and vanadyl complexes. Suitable vanadate complexes include metavanadate and orthovanadate complexes such as, for example, ammonium metavanadate, sodium metavanadate, and sodium orthovanadate. Suitable vanadyl complexes include, for example, vanadyl acetylacetonate and vanadyl sulfate including vanadyl sulfate hydrates such as vanadyl sulfate mono- and trihydrates.

[1011] Representative examples of tungsten and molybdenum complexes also include oxo complexes. Suitable oxo tungsten complexes include tungstate and tungsten oxide complexes. Suitable tungstate complexes include ammonium tungstate, calcium tungstate, sodium tungstate dihydrate, and tungstic acid. Suitable tungsten oxides include tungsten (IV) oxide and tungsten (VI) oxide. Suitable oxo molybdenum complexes include molybdate, molybdenum oxide, and molybdenyl complexes. Suitable molybdate complexes include ammonium molybdate and its hydrates, sodium molybdate and its hydrates, and potassium molybdate and its hydrates. Suitable molybdenum oxides include molybdenum (VI) oxide, molybdenum (VI) oxide, and molybdic acid. Suitable molybdenyl complexes include, for example, molybdenyl acetylacetonate. Other suitable tungsten and molybdenum complexes include hydroxo derivatives derived from, for example, glycerol, tartaric acid, and sugars.

[1012] A wide variety of other anti-angiogenic factors may also be utilized within the context of the present invention. Representative examples include platelet factor 4; protamine sulphate; sulphated chitin derivatives (prepared from queen crab shells), (Murata et al., Cancer Res. 51:22-26, 1991); Sulphated Polysaccharide Peptidoglycan Complex (SP-PG) (the function of this compound may be enhanced by the presence of steroids such as estrogen, and tamoxifen citrate); Staurosporine; modulators of matrix metabolism, including for example, proline analogs, cishydroxyproline, dL-3,4-dehydroproline, Thiaproline, alpha,alpha-dipyridyl, aminopropionitrile fumarate; 4-propyl-5-(4-pyridinyl)-2(3H)-oxazolone; Methotrexate; Mitoxantrone; Heparin; Interferons; 2 Macroglobulin-serum; ChIMP-3 (Pavloff et al., J. Bio. Chem. 267:17321-17326, 1992); Chymostatin (Tomkinson et al., Biochem J. 286:475-480, 1992); Cyclodextrin Tetradecasulfate; Eponemycin; Camptothecin; Fumagillin (Ingber et al., Nature 348:555-557, 1990); Gold Sodium Thiomalate (“GST”; Matsubara and Ziff, J. Clin. Invest. 79:1440-1446, 1987); anticollagenase-serum; alpha2-antiplasmin (Holmes et al., J. Biol. Chem. 262(4):1659-1664, 1987); Bisantrene (National Cancer Institute); Lobenzarit disodium (N-(2)-carboxyphenyl-4-chloroanthronilic acid disodium or “CCA”; Takeuchi et al., Agents Actions 36:312-316, 1992); Thalidornide; Angostatic steroid; AGM-1470; carboxynaminolniidazole; and metalloproteinase inhibitors such as BB94.

[1013] Diseases at the Cellular Level

[1014] Diseases associated with increased cell survival or the inhibition of apoptosis that could be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by the polynucleotides or polypeptides and/or antagonists or agonists of the invention, include cancers (such as follicular lymphomas, carcinomas with p53 mutations, and hormone-dependent tumors, including, but not limited to colon cancer, cardiac tumors, pancreatic cancer, melanoma, retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, testicular cancer, stomach cancer, neuroblastoma, myxoma, myoma, lymphoma, endothelioma, osteoblastoma, osteoclastoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma and ovarian cancer); autoimmune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions (such as, multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, biliary cirrhosis, Behcet's disease, Crohn's disease, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus and immune-related glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis) and viral infections (such as herpes viruses, pox viruses and adenoviruses), inflammation, graft v. host disease, acute graft rejection, and chronic graft rejection. In preferred embodiments, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to inhibit growth, progression, and/or metasis of cancers, in particular those listed above.

[1015] Additional diseases or conditions associated with increased cell survival that could be treated, prevented or diagnosed by the polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, include, but are not limited to, progression, and/or metastases of malignancies and related disorders such as leukemia (including acute leukemias (e.g., acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelocytic leukemia (including myeloblastic, promyelocytic, myelomonocytic, monocytic, and erythroleukemia)) and chronic leukemias (e.g., chronic myelocytic (granulocytic) leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia)), polycythemia vera, lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's disease), multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, heavy chain disease, and solid tumors including, but not limited to, sarcomas and carcinomas such as fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, liposarcoma, chondrosarcoma, osteogenic sarcoma, chordoma, angiosarcoma, endotheliosarcoma, lymphangiosarcoma, lymphangioendotheliosarcoma, synovioma, mesothelioma, Ewing's tumor, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, colon carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, sweat gland carcinoma, sebaceous gland carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinomas, cystadenocarcinoma, medullary carcinoma, bronchogenic carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, hepatoma, bile duct carcinoma, choriocarcinoma, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, Wilm's tumor, cervical cancer, testicular tumor, lung carcinoma, small cell lung carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, epithelial carcinoma, glioma, astrocytoma, medulloblastoma, craniopharyngioma, ependymoma, pinealoma, hemangioblastoma, acoustic neuroma, oligodendroglioma, menangioma, melanoma, neuroblastoma, and retinoblastoma.

[1016] Diseases associated with increased apoptosis that could be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, include AIDS; neurodegenerative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions (such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Retinitis pigmentosa, Cerebellar degeneration and brain tumor or prior associated disease); autoimrnune diseases, disorders, and/or conditions (such as, multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's syndrome, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, biliary cirrhosis, Behcet's disease, Crohn's disease, polymyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus and immune-related glomerulonephritis and rheumatoid arthritis) myelodysplastic syndromes (such as aplastic anemia), graft v. host disease, ischemic injury (such as that caused by myocardial infarction, stroke and reperfusion injury), liver injury (e.g., hepatitis related liver injury, ischemia/reperfusion injury, cholestosis (bile duct injury) and liver cancer); toxin-induced liver disease (such as that caused by alcohol), septic shock, cachexia and anorexia.

[1017] Wound Healing and Epithelial Cell Proliferation

[1018] In accordance with yet a further aspect of the present invention, there is provided a process for utilizing the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, for therapeutic purposes, for example, to stimulate epithelial cell proliferation and basal keratinocytes for the purpose of wound healing, and to stimulate hair follicle production and healing of dermal wounds. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, as well as agonists or antagonists of the invention, may be clinically useful in stimulating wound healing including surgical wounds, excisional wounds, deep wounds involving damage of the dermis and epidermis, eye tissue wounds, dental tissue wounds, oral cavity wounds, diabetic ulcers, dermal ulcers, cubitus ulcers, arterial ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, burns resulting from heat exposure or chemicals, and other abnormal wound healing conditions such as uremia, malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies and complications associted with systemic treatment with steroids, radiation therapy and antineoplastic drugs and antimetabolites. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to promote dermal reestablishment subsequent to dermal loss.

[1019] The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to increase the adherence of skin grafts to a wound bed and to stimulate re-epithelialization from the wound bed. The following are a non-exhaustive list of grafts that polynucleotides or polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to increase adherence to a wound bed: autografts, artificial skin, allografts, autodermic graft, autoepdermic grafts, avacular grafts, Blair-Brown grafts, bone graft, brephoplastic grafts, cutis graft, delayed graft, dermic graft, epidermic graft, fascia graft, full thickness graft, heterologous graft, xenograft, homologous graft, hyperplastic graft, lamellar graft, mesh graft, mucosal graft, Ollier-Thiersch graft, omenpal graft, patch graft, pedicle graft, penetrating graft, split skin graft, thick split graft. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used to promote skin strength and to improve the appearance of aged skin.

[1020] It is believed that the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, will also produce changes in hepatocyte proliferation, and epithelial cell proliferation in the lung, breast, pancreas, stomach, small intesting, and large intestine. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could promote proliferation of epithelial cells such as sebocytes, hair follicles, hepatocytes, type II pneumocytes, mucin-producing goblet cells, and other epithelial cells and their progenitors contained within the skin, lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, may promote proliferation of endothelial cells, keratinocytes, and basal keratinocytes.

[1021] The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could also be used to reduce the side effects of gut toxicity that result from radiation, chemotherapy treatments or viral infections. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, may have a cytoprotective effect on the small intestine mucosa. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, may also stimulate healing of mucositis (mouth ulcers) that result from chemotherapy and viral infections.

[1022] The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could further be used in full regeneration of skin in full and partial thickness skin defects, including burns, (i.e., repopulation of hair follicles, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands), treatment of other skin defects such as psoriasis. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to treat epidermolysis bullosa, a defect in adherence of the epidermis to the underlying dermis which results in frequent, open and painful blisters by accelerating reepithelialization of these lesions. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could also be used to treat gastric and doudenal ulcers and help heal by scar formation of the mucosal lining and regeneration of glandular mucosa and duodenal mucosal lining more rapidly. Inflamamatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis; are diseases which result in destruction of the mucosal surface of the small or large intestine, respectively. Thus, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to promote the resurfacing of the mucosal surface to aid more rapid healing and to prevent progression of inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment with the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, is expected to have a significant effect on the production of mucus throughout the gastrointestinal tract and could be used to protect the intestinal mucosa from injurious substances that are ingested or following surgery. The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to treat diseases associate with the under expression of the polynucleotides of the invention.

[1023] Moreover, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to prevent and heal damage to the lungs due to various pathological states. A growth factor such as the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, which could stimulate proliferation and differentiation and promote the repair of alveoli and brochiolar epithelium to prevent or treat acute or chronic lung damage. For example, emphysema, which results in the progressive loss of aveoli, and inhalation injuries, i.e., resulting from smoke inhalation and burns, that cause necrosis of the bronchiolar epithelium and alveoli could be effectively treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention. Also, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to stimulate the proliferation of and differentiation of type II pneumocytes, which may help treat or prevent disease such as hyaline membrane diseases, such as infant respiratory distress syndrome and bronchopulmonary displasia, in premature infants.

[1024] The polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of hepatocytes and, thus, could be used to alleviate or treat liver diseases and pathologies such as fulminant liver failure caused by cirrhosis, liver damage caused by viral hepatitis and toxic substances (i.e., acetaminophen, carbon tetraholoride and other hepatotoxins known in the art).

[1025] In addition, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used treat or prevent the onset of diabetes mellitus. In patients with newly diagnosed Types I and II diabetes, where some islet cell function remains, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used to maintain the islet function so as to alleviate, delay or prevent permanent manifestation of the disease. Also, the polynucleotides or polypeptides, and/or agonists or antagonists of the invention, could be used as an auxiliary in islet cell transplantation to improve or promote islet cell function.

[1026] Neurological Diseases

[1027] Nervous system diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, which can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed with the compositions of the invention (e.g., polypeptides, polynucleotides, and/or agonists or antagonists), include, but are not limited to, nervous system injuries, and diseases, disorders, and/or conditions which result in either a disconnection of axons, a diminution or degeneration of neurons, or demyelination. Nervous system lesions which may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed in a patient (including human and non-human mammalian patients) according to the invention, include but are not limited to, the following lesions of either the central (including spinal cord, brain) or peripheral nervous systems: (1) ischemic lesions, in which a lack of oxygen in a portion of the nervous system results in neuronal injury or death, including cerebral infarction or ischemia, or spinal cord infarction or ischemia; (2) traumatic lesions, including lesions caused by physical injury or associated with surgery, for example, lesions which sever a portion of the nervous system, or compression injuries; (3) malignant lesions, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured by malignant tissue which is either a nervous system associated malignancy or a malignancy derived from non-nervous system tissue; (4) infectious lesions, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured as a result of infection, for example, by an abscess or associated with infection by human immunodeficiency virus, herpes zoster, or herpes simplex virus or with Lyme disease, tuberculosis, syphilis; (5) degenerative lesions, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured as a result of a degenerative process including but not limited to degeneration associated with Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); (6) lesions associated with nutritional diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured by a nutritional disorder or disorder of metabolism including but not limited to, vitamin B12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency, Wemicke disease, tobacco-alcohol amblyopia, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (primary degeneration of the corpus callosum), and alcoholic cerebellar degeneration; (7) neurological lesions associated with systemic diseases including, but not limited to, diabetes (diabetic neuropathy, Bell's palsy), systemic lupus erythematosus, carcinoma, or sarcoidosis; (8) lesions caused by toxic substances including alcohol, lead, or particular neurotoxins; and (9) demyelinated lesions in which a portion of the nervous system is destroyed or injured by a demyelinating disease including, but not limited to, multiple sclerosis, human immunodeficiency virus-associated myelopathy, transverse myelopathy or various etiologies, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, and central pontine myelinolysis.

[1028] In a preferred embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to protect neural cells from the damaging effects of cerebral hypoxia. According to this embodiment, the compositions of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose neural cell injury associated with cerebral hypoxia. In one aspect of this embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose neural cell injury associated with cerebral ischemia. In another aspect of this embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose neural cell injury associated with cerebral infarction. In another aspect of this embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose or prevent neural cell injury associated with a stroke. In a further aspect of this embodiment, the polypeptides, polynucleotides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose neural cell injury associated with a heart attack.

[1029] The compositions of the invention which are useful for treating or preventing a nervous system disorder may be selected by testing for biological activity in promoting the survival or differentiation of neurons. For example, and not by way of limitation, compositions of the invention which elicit any of the following effects may be useful according to the invention: (1) increased survival time of neurons in culture; (2) increased sprouting of neurons in culture or in vivo; (3) increased production of a neuron-associated molecule in culture or in vivo, e.g., choline acetyltransferase or acetylcholinesterase with respect to motor neurons; or (4) decreased symptoms of neuron dysfunction in vivo. Such effects may be measured by any method known in the art. In preferred, non-limiting embodiments, increased survival of neurons may routinely be measured using a method set forth herein or otherwise known in the art, such as, for example, the method set forth in Arakawa et al. (J. Neurosci. 10:3507-3515 (1990)); increased sprouting of neurons may be detected by methods known in the art, such as, for example, the methods set forth in Pestronk et al. (Exp. Neurol. 70:65-82 (1980)) or Brown et al. (Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 4:1742 (1981)); increased production of neuron-associated molecules may be measured by bioassay, enzymatic assay, antibody binding, Northern blot assay, etc., using techniques known in the art and depending on the molecule to be measured; and motor neuron dysfunction may be measured by assessing the physical manifestation of motor neuron disorder, e.g., weakness, motor neuron conduction velocity, or functional disability.

[1030] In specific embodiments, motor neuron diseases, disorders, and/or conditions that may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed according to the invention include, but are not limited to, diseases, disorders, and/or conditions such as infarction, infection, exposure to toxin, trauma, surgical damage, degenerative disease or malignancy that may affect motor neurons as well as other components of the nervous system, as well as diseases, disorders, and/or conditions that selectively affect neurons such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and including, but not limited to, progressive spinal muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar palsy, primary lateral sclerosis, infantile and juvenile muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar paralysis of childhood (Fazio-Londe syndrome), poliomyelitis and the post polio syndrome, and Hereditary Motorsensory Neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease).

[1031] Infectious Disease

[1032] A polypeptide or polynucleotide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose infectious agents. For example, by increasing the immune response, particularly increasing the proliferation and differentiation of B and/or T cells, infectious diseases may be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed. The immune response may be increased by either enhancing an existing immune response, or by initiating a new immune response. Alternatively, polypeptide or polynucleotide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention may also directly inhibit the infectious agent, without necessarily eliciting an immune response.

[1033] Viruses are one example of an infectious agent that can cause disease or symptoms that can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention. Examples of viruses, include, but are not limited to Examples of viruses, include, but are not limited to the following DNA and RNA viruses and viral families: Arbovirus, Adenoviridae, Arenaviridae, Arterivirus, Bimaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Circoviridae, Coronaviridae, Dengue, EBV, HIV, Flaviviridae, Hepadnaviridae (Hepatitis), Herpesviridae (such as, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes Simplex, Herpes Zoster), Mononegavirus (e.g., Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus, Rhabdoviridae), Orthomyxoviridae (e.g., Influenza A, Influenza B, and parainfluenza), Papiloma virus, Papovaviridae, Parvoviridae, Picomaviridae, Poxyiridae (such as Smallpox or Vaccinia), Reoviridae (e.g., Rotavirus), Retroviridae (HTLV-I, HTLV-II, Lentivirus), and Togaviridae (e.g., Rubivirus). Viruses falling within these families can cause a variety of diseases or symptoms, including, but not limited to: arthritis, bronchiollitis, respiratory syncytial virus, encephalitis, eye infections (e.g., conjunctivitis, keratitis), chronic fatigue syndrome, hepatitis (A, B, C, E, Chronic Active, Delta), Japanese B encephalitis, Junin, Chikungunya, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, meningitis, opportunistic infections (e.g., AIDS), pneumonia, Burkitt's Lymphoma, chickenpox, hemorrhagic fever, Measles, Mumps, Parainfluenza, Rabies, the common cold, Polio, leukemia, Rubella, sexually transmitted diseases, skin diseases (e.g., Kaposi's, warts), and viremia polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose any of these symptoms or diseases. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose: meningitis, Dengue, EBV, and/or hepatitis (e.g., hepatitis B). In an additional specific embodiment polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat patients nonresponsive to one or more other commercially available hepatitis vaccines. In a further specific embodiment polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose AIDS.

[1034] Similarly, bacterial or fungal agents that can cause disease or symptoms and that can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention include, but not limited to, include, but not limited to, the following Gram-Negative and Gram-positive bacteria and bacterial families and fungi: Actinomycetales (e.g., Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Norcardia), Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillosis, Bacillaceae (e.g., Anthrax, Clostridium), Bacteroidaceae, Blastomycosis, Bordetella, Borrelia (e.g., Borrelia burgdorferi), Brucellosis, Candidiasis, Campylobacter, Coccidioidomycosis, Cryptococcosis, Dermatocycoses, E. coli (e.g., Enterotoxigenic E. coli and Enterohemorrhagic E. coli), Enterobacteriaceae (Klebsiella, Salmonella (e.g., Salmonella typhi, and Salmonella paratyphi), Serratia, Yersinia), Erysipelothrix, Helicobacter, Legionellosis, Leptospirosis, Listeria, Mycoplasmatales, Mycobacterium leprae, Vibrio cholerae, Neisseriaceae (e.g., Acinetobacter, Gonorrhea, Menigococcal), Meisseria meningitidis, Pasteurellacea Infections (e.g., Actinobacillus, Heamophilus (e.g., Heamophilus influenza type B), Pasteurella), Pseudomonas, Rickettsiaceae, Chlamydiaceae, Syphilis, Shigella spp., Staphylococcal, Meningiococcal, Pneumococcal and Streptococcal (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Group B Streptococcus). These bacterial or fungal families can cause the following diseases or symptoms, including, but not limited to: bacteremia, endocarditis, eye infections (conjunctivitis, tuberculosis, uveitis), gingivitis, opportunistic infections (e.g., AIDS related infections), paronychia, prosthesis-related infections, Reiter's Disease, respiratory tract infections, such as Whooping Cough or Empyema, sepsis, Lyme Disease, Cat-Scratch Disease, Dysentery, Paratyphoid Fever, food poisoning, Typhoid, pneumonia, Gonorrhea, meningitis (e.g., mengitis types A and B), Chlamydia, Syphilis, Diphtheria, Leprosy, Paratuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Lupus, Botulism, gangrene, tetanus, impetigo, Rheumatic Fever, Scarlet Fever, sexually transmitted diseases, skin diseases (e.g., cellulitis, dermatocycoses), toxemia, urinary tract infections, wound infections. Polynucleotides or polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose any of these symptoms or diseases. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose: tetanus, Diptheria, botulism, and/or meningitis type B.

[1035] Moreover, parasitic agents causing disease or symptoms that can be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed by a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention include, but not limited to, the following families or class: Amebiasis, Babesiosis, Coccidiosis, Cryptosporidiosis, Dientamoebiasis, Dourine, Ectoparasitic, Giardiasis, Helminthiasis, Leishmaniasis, Theileriasis, Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosomiasis, and Trichomonas and Sporozoans (e.g., Plasmodium virax, Plasmodium falciparium, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale). These parasites can cause a variety of diseases or symptoms, including, but not limited to: Scabies, Trombiculiasis, eye infections, intestinal disease (e.g., dysentery, giardiasis), liver disease, lung disease, opportunistic infections (e.g., AIDS related), malaria, pregnancy complications, and toxoplasmosis polynucleotides or polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention, can be used totreat, prevent, and/or diagnose any of these symptoms or diseases. In specific embodiments, polynucleotides, polypeptides, or agonists or antagonists of the invention are used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose malaria.

[1036] Preferably, treatment or prevention using a polypeptide or polynucleotide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention could either be by administering an effective amount of a polypeptide to the patient, or by removing cells from the patient, supplying the cells with a polynucleotide of the present invention, and returning the engineered cells to the patient (ex vivo therapy). Moreover, the polypeptide or polynucleotide of the present invention can be used as an antigen in a vaccine to raise an immune response against infectious disease.

[1037] Regeneration

[1038] A polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention can be used to differentiate, proliferate, and attract cells, leading to the regeneration of tissues. (See, Science 276:59-87 (1997).) The regeneration of tissues could be used to repair, replace, or protect tissue damaged by congenital defects, trauma (wounds, bums, incisions, or ulcers), age, disease (e.g. osteoporosis, osteocarthritis, periodontal disease, liver failure), surgery, including cosmetic plastic surgery, fibrosis, reperfusion injury, or systemic cytokine damage.

[1039] Tissues that could be regenerated using the present invention include organs (e.g., pancreas, liver, intestine, kidney, skin, endothelium), muscle (smooth, skeletal or cardiac), vasculature (including vascular and lymphatics), nervous, hematopoietic, and skeletal (bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament) tissue. Preferably, regeneration occurs without or decreased scarring. Regeneration also may include angiogenesis.

[1040] Moreover, a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention may increase regeneration of tissues difficult to heal. For example, increased tendon/ligament regeneration would quicken recovery time after damage. A polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention could also be used prophylactically in an effort to avoid damage. Specific diseases that could be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed include of tendinitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and other tendon or ligament defects. A further example of tissue regeneration of non-healing wounds includes pressure ulcers, ulcers associated with vascular insufficiency, surgical, and traumatic wounds.

[1041] Similarly, nerve and brain tissue could also be regenerated by using a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention to proliferate and differentiate nerve cells. Diseases that could be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using this method include central and peripheral nervous system diseases, neuropathies, or mechanical and traumatic diseases, disorders, and/or conditions (e.g., spinal cord disorders, head trauma, cerebrovascular disease, and stoke). Specifically, diseases associated with peripheral nerve injuries, peripheral neuropathy (e.g., resulting from chemotherapy or other medical therapies), localized neuropathies, and central nervous system diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Shy-Drager syndrome), could all be treated, prevented, and/or diagnosed using the polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention.

[1042] Chemotaxis

[1043] A polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention may have chemotaxis activity. A chemotaxic molecule attracts or mobilizes cells (e.g., monocytes, fibroblasts, neutrophils, T-cells, mast cells, eosinophils, epithelial and/or endothelial cells) to a particular site in the body, such as inflammation, infection, or site of hyperproliferation. The mobilized cells can then fight off and/or heal the particular trauma or abnormality.

[1044] A polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention may increase chemotaxic activity of particular cells. These chemotactic molecules can then be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose inflammation, infection, hyperproliferative diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, or any immune system disorder by increasing the number of cells targeted to a particular location in the body. For example, chemotaxic molecules can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose wounds and other trauma to tissues by attracting immune cells to the injured location. Chemotactic molecules of the present invention can also attract fibroblasts, which can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose wounds.

[1045] It is also contemplated that a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention may inhibit chemotactic activity. These molecules could also be used totreat, prevent, and/or diagnose diseases, disorders, and/or conditions. Thus, a polynucleotide or polypeptide and/or agonist or antagonist of the present invention could be used as an inhibitor of chemotaxis.

[1046] Binding Activity

[1047] A polypeptide of the present invention may be used to screen for molecules that bind to the polypeptide or for molecules to which the polypeptide binds. The binding of the polypeptide and the molecule may activate (agonist), increase, inhibit (antagonist), or decrease activity of the polypeptide or the molecule bound. Examples of such molecules include antibodies, oligonucleotides, proteins (e.g., receptors), or small molecules.

[1048] Preferably, the molecule is closely related to the natural ligand of the polypeptide, e.g., a fragment of the ligand, or a natural substrate, a ligand, a structural or functional mimetic. (See, Coligan et al., Current Protocols in Immunology 1(2):Chapter 5 (1991).) Similarly, the molecule can be closely related to the natural receptor to which the polypeptide binds, or at least, a fragment of the receptor capable of being bound by the polypeptide (e.g., active site). In either case, the molecule can be rationally designed using known techniques.

[1049] Preferably, the screening for these molecules involves producing appropriate cells which express the polypeptide, either as a secreted protein or on the cell membrane. Preferred cells include cells from mammals, yeast, Drosophila, or E. coli. Cells expressing the polypeptide (or cell membrane containing the expressed polypeptide) are then preferably contacted with a test compound potentially containing the molecule to observe binding, stimulation, or inhibition of activity of either the polypeptide or the molecule.

[1050] The assay may simply test binding of a candidate compound to the polypeptide, wherein binding is detected by a label, or in an assay involving competition with a labeled competitor. Further, the assay may test whether the candidate compound results in a signal generated by binding to the polypeptide.

[1051] Alternatively, the assay can be carried out using cell-free preparations, polypeptide/molecule affixed to a solid support, chemical libraries, or natural product mixtures. The assay may also simply comprise the steps of mixing a candidate compound with a solution containing a polypeptide, measuring polypeptide/molecule activity or binding, and comparing the polypeptide/molecule activity or binding to a standard.

[1052] Preferably, an ELISA assay can measure polypeptide level or activity in a sample (e.g., biological sample) using a monoclonal or polyclonal antibody. The antibody can measure polypeptide level or activity by either binding, directly or indirectly, to the polypeptide or by competing with the polypeptide for a substrate.

[1053] Additionally, the receptor to which a polypeptide of the invention binds can be identified by numerous methods known to those of skill in the art, for example, ligand panning and FACS sorting (Coligan, et al., Current Protocols in Immun., 1(2), Chapter 5, (1991)). For example, expression cloning is employed wherein polyadenylated RNA is prepared from a cell responsive to the polypeptides, for example, NIH3T3 cells which are known to contain multiple receptors for the FGF family proteins, and SC-3 cells, and a cDNA library created from this RNA is divided into pools and used to transfect COS cells or other cells that are not responsive to the polypeptides. Transfected cells which are grown on glass slides are exposed to the polypeptide of the present invention, after they have been labelled. The polypeptides can be labeled by a variety of means including iodination or inclusion of a recognition site for a site-specific protein kinase.

[1054] Following fixation and incubation, the slides are subjected to auto-radiographic analysis. Positive pools are identified and sub-pools are prepared and re-transfected using an iterative sub-pooling and re-screening process, eventually yielding a single clones that encodes the putative receptor.

[1055] As an alternative approach for receptor identification, the labeled polypeptides can be photoaffinity linked with cell membrane or extract preparations that express the receptor molecule. Cross-linked material is resolved by PAGE analysis and exposed to X-ray film. The labeled complex containing the receptors of the polypeptides can be excised, resolved into peptide fragments, and subjected to protein microsequencing. The amino acid sequence obtained from microsequencing would be used to design a set of degenerate oligonucleotide probes to screen a cDNA library to identify the genes encoding the putative receptors.

[1056] Moreover, the techniques of gene-shuffling, motif-shuffling, exon-shuffling, and/or codon-shuffling (collectively referred to as “DNA shuffling”) may be employed to modulate the activities of polypeptides of the invention thereby effectively generating agonists and antagonists of polypeptides of the invention. See generally, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,605,793, 5,811,238, 5,830,721, 5,834,252, and 5,837,458, and Patten, P. A., et al., Curr. Opinion Biotechnol. 8:724-33 (1997); Harayama, S. Trends Biotechnol. 16(2):76-82 (1998); Hansson, L. O., et al., J. Mol. Biol. 287:265-76 (1999); and Lorenzo, M. M. and Blasco, R. Biotechniques 24(2):308-13 (1998) (each of these patents and publications are hereby incorporated by reference). In one embodiment, alteration of polynucleotides and corresponding polypeptides of the invention may be achieved by DNA shuffling. DNA shuffling involves the assembly of two or more DNA segments into a desired polynucleotide sequence of the invention molecule by homologous, or site-specific, recombination. In another embodiment, polynucleotides and corresponding polypeptides of the invention may be alterred by being subjected to random mutagenesis by error-prone PCR, random nucleotide insertion or other methods prior to recombination. In another embodiment, one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc., of the polypeptides of the invention may be recombined with one or more components, motifs, sections, parts, domains, fragments, etc. of one or more heterologous molecules. In preferred embodiments, the heterologous molecules are family members. In further preferred embodiments, the heterologous molecule is a growth factor such as, for example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), transforming growth factor (TGF)-alpha, epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), TGF-beta, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, activins A and B, decapentaplegic(dpp), 60A, OP-2, dorsalin, growth differentiation factors (GDFs), nodal, MIS, inhibin-alpha, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, TGF-beta5, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF).

[1057] Other preferred fragments are biologically active fragments of the polypeptides of the invention. Biologically active fragments are those exhibiting activity similar, but not necessarily identical, to an activity of the polypeptide. The biological activity of the fragments may include an improved desired activity, or a decreased undesirable activity.

[1058] Additionally, this invention provides a method of screening compounds to identify those which modulate the action of the polypeptide of the present invention. An example of such an assay comprises combining a mammalian fibroblast cell, a the polypeptide of the present invention, the compound to be screened and 3[H] thymidine under cell culture conditions where the fibroblast cell would normally proliferate. A control assay may be performed in the absence of the compound to be screened and compared to the amount of fibroblast proliferation in the presence of the compound to determine if the compound stimulates proliferation by determining the uptake of 3[H] thymidine in each case. The amount of fibroblast cell proliferation is measured by liquid scintillation chromatography which measures the incorporation of 3[H] thymidine. Both agonist and antagonist compounds may be identified by this procedure.

[1059] In another method, a mammalian cell or membrane preparation expressing a receptor for a polypeptide of the present invention is incubated with a labeled polypeptide of the present invention in the presence of the compound. The ability of the compound to enhance or block this interaction could then be measured. Alternatively, the response of a known second messenger system following interaction of a compound to be screened and the receptor is measured and the ability of the compound to bind to the receptor and elicit a second messenger response is measured to determine if the compound is a potential agonist or antagonist. Such second messenger systems include but are not limited to, cAMP guanylate cyclase, ion channels or phosphoinositide hydrolysis.

[1060] All of these above assays can be used as diagnostic or prognostic markers. The molecules discovered using these assays can be used to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose disease or to bring about a particular result in a patient (e.g., blood vessel growth) by activating or inhibiting the polypeptide/molecule. Moreover, the assays can discover agents which may inhibit or enhance the production of the polypeptides of the invention from suitably manipulated cells or tissues. Therefore, the invention includes a method of identifying compounds which bind to the polypeptides of the invention comprising the steps of: (a) incubating a candidate binding compound with the polypeptide; and (b) determining if binding has occurred. Moreover, the invention includes a method of identifying agonists/antagonists comprising the steps of: (a) incubating a candidate compound with the polypeptide, (b) assaying a biological activity, and (b) determining if a biological activity of the polypeptide has been altered.

[1061] Also, one could identify molecules bind a polypeptide of the invention experimentally by using the beta-pleated sheet regions contained in the polypeptide sequence of the protein. Accordingly, specific embodiments of the invention are directed to polynucleotides encoding polypeptides which comprise, or alternatively consist of, the amino acid sequence of each beta pleated sheet regions in a disclosed polypeptide sequence. Additional embodiments of the invention are directed to polynucleotides encoding polypeptides which comprise, or alternatively consist of, any combination or all of contained in the polypeptide sequences of the invention. Additional preferred embodiments of the invention are directed to polypeptides which comprise, or alternatively consist of, the amino acid sequence of each of the beta pleated sheet regions in one of the polypeptide sequences of the invention. Additional embodiments of the invention are directed to polypeptides which comprise, or alternatively consist of, any combination or all of the beta pleated sheet regions in one of the polypeptide sequences of the invention.

[1062] Targeted Delivery

[1063] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of delivering compositions to targeted cells expressing a receptor for a polypeptide of the invention, or cells expressing a cell bound form of a polypeptide of the invention.

[1064] As discussed herein, polypeptides or antibodies of the invention may be associated with heterologous polypeptides, heterologous nucleic acids, toxins, or prodrugs via hydrophobic, hydrophilic, ionic and/or covalent interactions. In one embodiment, the invention provides a method for the specific delivery of compositions of the invention to cells by administering polypeptides of the invention (including antibodies) that are associated with heterologous polypeptides or nucleic acids. In one example, the invention provides a method for delivering a therapeutic protein into the targeted cell. In another example, the invention provides a method for delivering a single stranded nucleic acid (e.g., antisense or ribozymes) or double stranded nucleic acid (e.g., DNA that can integrate into the cell's genome or replicate episomally and that can be transcribed) into the targeted cell.

[1065] In another embodiment, the invention provides a method for the specific destruction of cells (e.g., the destruction of tumor cells) by administering polypeptides of the invention (e.g., polypeptides of the invention or antibodies of the invention) in association with toxins or cytotoxic prodrugs.

[1066] By “toxin” is meant compounds that bind and activate endogenous cytotoxic effector systems, radioisotopes, holotoxins, modified toxins, catalytic subunits of toxins, or any molecules or enzymes not normally present in or on the surface of a cell that under defined conditions cause the cell's death. Toxins that may be used according to the methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, radioisotopes known in the art, compounds such as, for example, antibodies (or complement fixing containing portions thereof) that bind an inherent or induced endogenous cytotoxic effector system, thymidine kinase, endonuclease, RNAse, alpha toxin, ricin, abrin, Pseudomonas exotoxin A, diphtheria toxin, saporin, momordin, gelonin, pokeweed antiviral protein, alpha-sarcin and cholera toxin. By “cytotoxic prodrug” is meant a non-toxic compound that is converted by an enzyme, normally present in the cell, into a cytotoxic compound. Cytotoxic prodrugs that may be used according to the methods of the invention include, but are not limited to, glutamyl derivatives of benzoic acid mustard alkylating agent, phosphate derivatives of etoposide or mitomycin C, cytosine arabinoside, daunorubisin, and phenoxyacetamide derivatives of doxorubicin.

[1067] Drug Screening

[1068] Further contemplated is the use of the polypeptides of the present invention, or the polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, to screen for molecules which modify the activities of the polypeptides of the present invention. Such a method would include contacting the polypeptide of the present invention with a selected compound(s) suspected of having antagonist or agonist activity, and assaying the activity of these polypeptides following binding.

[1069] This invention is particularly useful for screening therapeutic compounds by using the polypeptides of the present invention, or binding fragments thereof, in any of a variety of drug screening techniques. The polypeptide or fragment employed in such a test may be affixed to a solid support, expressed on a cell surface, free in solution, or located intracellularly. One method of drug screening utilizes eukaryotic or prokaryotic host cells which are stably transformed with recombinant nucleic acids expressing the polypeptide or fragment. Drugs are screened against such transformed cells in competitive binding assays. One may measure, for example, the formulation of complexes between the agent being tested and a polypeptide of the present invention.

[1070] Thus, the present invention provides methods of screening for drugs or any other agents which affect activities mediated by the polypeptides of the present invention. These methods comprise contacting such an agent with a polypeptide of the present invention or a fragment thereof and assaying for the presence of a complex between the agent and the polypeptide or a fragment thereof, by methods well known in the art. In such a competitive binding assay, the agents to screen are typically labeled. Following incubation, free agent is separated from that present in bound form, and the amount of free or uncomplexed label is a measure of the ability of a particular agent to bind to the polypeptides of the present invention.

[1071] Another technique for drug screening provides high throughput screening for compounds having suitable binding affinity to the polypeptides of the present invention, and is described in great detail in European Patent Application 84/03564, published on Sep. 13, 1984, which is incorporated herein by reference herein. Briefly stated, large numbers of different small peptide test compounds are synthesized on a solid substrate, such as plastic pins or some other surface. The peptide test compounds are reacted with polypeptides of the present invention and washed. Bound polypeptides are then detected by methods well known in the art. Purified polypeptides are coated directly onto plates for use in the aforementioned drug screening techniques. In addition, non-neutralizing antibodies may be used to capture the peptide and immobilize it on the solid support.

[1072] This invention also contemplates the use of competitive drug screening assays in which neutralizing antibodies capable of binding polypeptides of the present invention specifically compete with a test compound for binding to the polypeptides or fragments thereof. In this manner, the antibodies are used to detect the presence of any peptide which shares one or more antigenic epitopes with a polypeptide of the invention.

[1073] Antisense And Ribozyme (Antagonists)

[1074] In specific embodiments, antagonists according to the present invention are nucleic acids corresponding to the sequences contained in SEQ ID NO:X, or the complementary strand thereof, and/or to nucleotide sequences contained a deposited clone. In one embodiment, antisense sequence is generated internally by the organism, in another embodiment, the antisense sequence is separately administered (see, for example, O'Connor, Neurochem., 56:560 (1991). Oligodeoxynucleotides as Anitsense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988). Antisense technology can be used to control gene expression through antisense DNA or RNA, or through triple-helix formation. Antisense techniques are discussed for example, in Okano, Neurochem., 56:560 (1991); Oligodeoxynucleotides as Antisense Inhibitors of Gene Expression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla. (1988). Triple helix formation is discussed in, for instance, Lee et al., Nucleic Acids Research, 6:3073 (1979); Cooney et al., Science, 241:456 (1988); and Dervan et al., Science, 251:1300 (1991). The methods are based on binding of a polynucleotide to a complementary DNA or RNA.

[1075] For example, the use of c-myc and c-myb antisense RNA constructs to inhibit the growth of the non-lymphocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and other cell lines was previously described. (Wickstrom et al. (1988); Anfossi et al. (1989)). These experiments were performed in vitro by incubating cells with the oligoribonucleotide. A similar procedure for in vivo use is described in WO 91/15580. Briefly, a pair of oligonucleotides for a given antisense RNA is produced as follows: A sequence complimentary to the first 15 bases of the open reading frame is flanked by an EcoRl site on the 5 end and a HindE site on the 3 end. Next, the pair of oligonucleotides is heated at 90° C. for one minute and then annealed in 2X ligation buffer (2OrnM TRIS HCl pH 7.5, 10 mM MgCl2, 10 MM dithiothreitol (DTT) and 0.2 mM ATP) and then ligated to the EcoR1/Hind III site of the retroviral vector PMV7 (WO 91/15580).

[1076] For example, the 5′ coding portion of a polynucleotide that encodes the mature polypeptide of the present invention may be used to design an antisense RNA oligonucleotide of from about 10 to 40 base pairs in length. A DNA oligonucleotide is designed to be complementary to a region of the gene involved in transcription thereby preventing transcription and the production of the receptor. The antisense RNA oligonucleotide hybridizes to the mRNA in vivo and blocks translation of the mRNA molecule into receptor polypeptide.

[1077] In one embodiment, the antisense nucleic acid of the invention is produced intracellularly by transcription from an exogenous sequence. For example, a vector or a portion thereof, is transcribed, producing an antisense nucleic acid (RNA) of the invention. Such a vector would contain a sequence encoding the antisense nucleic acid of the invention. Such a vector can remain episomal or become chromosomally integrated, as long as it can be transcribed to produce the desired antisense RNA. Such vectors can be constructed by recombinant DNA technology methods standard in the art. Vectors can be plasmid, viral, or others known in the art, used for replication and expression in vertebrate cells. Expression of the sequence encoding a polypeptide of the invention, or fragments thereof, can be by any promoter known in the art to act in vertebrate, preferably human cells. Such promoters can be inducible or constitutive. Such promoters include, but are not limited to, the SV40 early promoter region (Bemoist and Chambon, Nature, 29:304-310 (1981), the promoter contained in the 3′ long terminal repeat of Rous sarcoma virus (Yamamoto et al., Cell, 22:787-797 (1980), the herpes thymidine promoter (Wagner et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 78:1441-1445 (1981), the regulatory sequences of the metallothionein gene (Brinster et al., Nature, 296:39-42 (1982)), etc.

[1078] The antisense nucleic acids of the invention comprise a sequence complementary to at least a portion of an RNA transcript of a gene of interest. However, absolute complementarity, although preferred, is not required. A sequence “complementary to at least a portion of an RNA,” referred to herein, means a sequence having sufficient complementarity to be able to hybridize with the RNA, forming a stable duplex; in the case of double stranded antisense nucleic acids of the invention, a single strand of the duplex DNA may thus be tested, or triplex formation may be assayed. The ability to hybridize will depend on both the degree of complementarity and the length of the antisense nucleic acid Generally, the larger the hybridizing nucleic acid, the more base mismatches with a RNA sequence of the invention it may contain and still form a stable duplex (or triplex as the case may be). One skilled in the art can ascertain a tolerable degree of mismatch by use of standard procedures to determine the melting point of the hybridized complex.

[1079] Oligonucleotides that are complementary to the 5′ end of the message, e.g., the 5′ untranslated sequence up to and including the AUG initiation codon, should work most efficiently at inhibiting translation. However, sequences complementary to the 3′ untranslated sequences of mRNAs have been shown to be effective at inhibiting translation of “mRNAs as well. See generally, Wagner, R., Nature, 372:333-335 (1994). Thus, oligonucleotides complementary to either the 5′- or 3′-non-translated, non-coding regions of a polynucleotide sequence of the invention could be used in an antisense approach to inhibit translation of endogenous mRNA. Oligonucleotides complementary to the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA should include the complement of the AUG start codon. Antisense oligonucleotides complementary to mRNA coding regions are less efficient inhibitors of translation but could be used in accordance with the invention. Whether designed to hybridize to the 5′-, 3′- or coding region of mRNA, antisense nucleic acids should be at least six nucleotides in length, and are preferably oligonucleotides ranging from 6 to about 50 nucleotides in length. In specific aspects the oligonucleotide is at least 10 nucleotides, at least 17 nucleotides, at least 25 nucleotides or at least 50 nucleotides.

[1080] The polynucleotides of the invention can be DNA or RNA or chimeric mixtures or derivatives or modified versions thereof, single-stranded or double-stranded. The oligonucleotide can be modified at the base moiety, sugar moiety, or phosphate backbone, for example, to improve stability of the molecule, hybridization, etc. The oligonucleotide may include other appended groups such as peptides (e.g., for targeting host cell receptors in vivo), or agents facilitating transport across the cell membrane (see, e.g., Letsinger et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86:6553-6556 (1989); Lemaitre et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 84:648-652 (1987); PCT Publication NO: WO88/09810, published Dec. 15, 1988) or the blood-brain barrier (see, e.g., PCT Publication NO: WO89/10134, published Apr. 25, 1988), hybridization-triggered cleavage agents. (See, e.g., Krol et al., BioTechniques, 6:958-976 (1988)) or intercalating agents. (See, e.g., Zon, Pharm. Res., 5:539-549 (1988)). To this end, the oligonucleotide may be conjugated to another molecule, e.g., a peptide, hybridization triggered cross-linking agent, transport agent, hybridization-triggered cleavage agent, etc.

[1081] The antisense oligonucleotide may comprise at least one modified base moiety which is selected from the group including, but not limited to, 5-fluorouracil, 5-bromouracil, 5-chlorouracil, 5-iodouracil, hypoxanthine, xantine, 4-acetylcytosine, 5-(carboxyhydroxylmethyl) uracil, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyluracil, dihydrouracil, beta-D-galactosylqueosine, inosine, N6-isopentenyladenine, 1-methylguanine, 1-methylinosine, 2,2-dimethylguanine, 2-methyladenine, 2-methylguanine, 3-methylcytosine, 5-methylcytosine, N6-adenine, 7-methylguanine, 5-methylaminomethyluracil, 5-methoxyaminomethyl-2-thiouracil, beta-D-mannosylqueosine, 5′-methoxycarboxymethyluracil, 5-methoxyuracil, 2-methylthio-N6-isopentenyladenine, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid (v), wybutoxosine, pseudouracil, queosine, 2-thiocytosine, 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, 2-thiouracil, 4-thiouracil, 5-methyluracil, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid methylester, uracil-5-oxyacetic acid (v), 5-methyl-2-thiouracil, 3-(3-amino-3-N-2-carboxypropyl) uracil, (acp3)w, and 2,6-diaminopurine.

[1082] The antisense oligonucleotide may also comprise at least one modified sugar moiety selected from the group including, but not limited to, arabinose, 2-fluoroarabinose, xylulose, and hexose.

[1083] In yet another embodiment, the antisense oligonucleotide comprises at least one modified phosphate backbone selected from the group including, but not limited to, a phosphorothioate, a phosphorodithioate, a phosphoramidothioate, a phosphoramidate, a phosphordiamidate, a methylphosphonate, an alkyl phosphotriester, and a formacetal or analog thereof.

[1084] In yet another embodiment, the antisense oligonucleotide is an a-anomeric oligonucleotide. An a-anomeric oligonucleotide forms specific double-stranded hybrids with complementary RNA in which, contrary to the usual b-units, the strands run parallel to each other (Gautier et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 15:6625-6641 (1987)). The oligonucleotide is a 2-O-methylribonucleotide (Inoue et al., Nucl. Acids Res., 15:6131-6148 (1987)), or a chimeric RNA-DNA analogue (Inoue et al., FEBS Lett. 215:327-330 (1987)).

[1085] Polynucleotides of the invention may be synthesized by standard methods known in the art, e.g. by use of an automated DNA synthesizer (such as are commercially available from Biosearch, Applied Biosystems, etc.). As examples, phosphorothioate oligonucleotides may be synthesized by the method of Stein et al. (Nucl. Acids Res., 16:3209 (1988)), methylphosphonate oligonucleotides can be prepared by use of controlled pore glass polymer supports (Sarin et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 85:7448-7451 (1988)), etc.

[1086] While antisense nucleotides complementary to the coding region sequence of the invention could be used, those complementary to the transcribed untranslated region are most preferred.

[1087] Potential antagonists according to the invention also include catalytic RNA, or a ribozyme (See, e.g., PCT International Publication WO 90/11364, published October 4, 1990; Sarver et al, Science, 247:1222-1225 (1990). While ribozymes that cleave mRNA at site specific recognition sequences can be used to destroy mRNAs corresponding to the polynucleotides of the invention, the use of hammerhead ribozymes is preferred. Hammerhead ribozymes cleave mRNAs at locations dictated by flanking regions that form complementary base pairs with the target mRNA. The sole requirement is that the target niRNA have the following sequence of two bases: 5′-UG-3′. The construction and production of hammerhead ribozymes is well known in the art and is described more fully in Haseloff and Gerlach, Nature, 334:585-591 (1988). There are numerous potential hammerhead ribozyme cleavage sites within each nucleotide sequence disclosed in the sequence listing. Preferably, the ribozyme is engineered so that the cleavage recognition site is located near the 5′ end of the mRNA corresponding to the polynucleotides of the invention; i.e., to increase efficiency and minimize the intracellular accumulation of non-functional mRNA transcripts.

[1088] As in the antisense approach, the ribozymes of the invention can be composed of modified oligonucleotides (e.g. for improved stability, targeting, etc.) and should be delivered to cells which express the polynucleotides of the invention in vivo. DNA constructs encoding the ribozyme may be introduced into the cell in the same manner as described above for the introduction of antisense encoding DNA. A preferred method of delivery involves using a DNA construct “encoding” the ribozyme under the control of a strong constitutive promoter, such as, for example, pol III or pol II promoter, so that transfected cells will produce sufficient quantities of the ribozyme to destroy endogenous messages and inhibit translation. Since ribozymes unlike antisense molecules, are catalytic, a lower intracellular concentration is required for efficiency.

[1089] Antagonist/agonist compounds may be employed to inhibit the cell growth and proliferation effects of the polypeptides of the present invention on neoplastic cells and tissues, i.e. stimulation of angiogenesis of tumors, and, therefore, retard or prevent abnormal cellular growth and proliferation, for example, in tumor formation or growth.

[1090] The antagonist/agonist may also be employed to prevent hyper-vascular diseases, and prevent the proliferation of epithelial lens cells after extracapsular cataract surgery. Prevention of the mitogenic activity of the polypeptides of the present invention may also be desirous in cases such as restenosis after balloon angioplasty.

[1091] The antagonist/agonist may also be employed to prevent the growth of scar tissue during wound healing.

[1092] The antagonist/agonist may also be employed to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose the diseases described herein.

[1093] Thus, the invention provides a method of treating or preventing diseases, disorders, and/or conditions, including but not limited to the diseases, disorders, and/or conditions listed throughout this application, associated with overexpression of a polynucleotide of the present invention by administering to a patient (a) an antisense molecule directed to the polynucleotide of the present invention, and/or (b) a ribozyme directed to the polynucleotide of the present invention. invention, and/or (b) a ribozyme directed to the polynucleotide of the present invention

[1094] Other Activities

[1095] The polypeptide of the present invention, as a result of the ability to stimulate vascular endothelial cell growth, may be employed in treatment for stimulating re-vascularization of ischemic tissues due to various disease conditions such as thrombosis, arteriosclerosis, and other cardiovascular conditions. These polypeptide may also be employed to stimulate angiogenesis and limb regeneration, as discussed above.

[1096] The polypeptide may also be employed for treating wounds due to injuries, burns, post-operative tissue repair, and ulcers since they are mitogenic to various cells of different origins, such as fibroblast cells and skeletal muscle cells, and therefore, facilitate the repair or replacement of damaged or diseased tissue.

[1097] The polypeptide of the present invention may also be employed stimulate neuronal growth and to treat, prevent, and/or diagnose neuronal damage which occurs in certain neuronal disorders or neuro-degenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and AIDS-related complex. The polypeptide of the invention may have the ability to stimulate chondrocyte growth, therefore, they may be employed to enhance bone and periodontal regeneration and aid in tissue transplants or bone grafts.

[1098] The polypeptide of the present invention may be also be employed to prevent skin aging due to sunburn by stimulating keratinocyte growth.

[1099] The polypeptide of the invention may also be employed for preventing hair loss, since FGF family members activate hair-forming cells and promotes melanocyte growth. Along the same lines, the polypeptides of the present invention may be employed to stimulate growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells and bone marrow cells when used in combination with other cytokines.

[1100] The polypeptide of the invention may also be employed to maintain organs before transplantation or for supporting cell culture of primary tissues.

[1101] The polypeptide of the present invention may also be employed for inducing tissue of mesodermal origin to differentiate in early embryos.

[1102] The polypeptide or polynucleotides and/or agonist or antagonists of the present invention may also increase or decrease the differentiation or proliferation of embryonic stem cells, besides, as discussed above, hematopoietic lineage.

[1103] The polypeptide or polynucleotides and/or agonist or antagonists of the present invention may also be used to modulate mammalian characteristics, such as body height, weight, hair color, eye color, skin, percentage of adipose tissue, pigmentation, size, and shape (e.g., cosmetic surgery). Similarly, polypeptides or polynucleotides and/or agonist or antagonists of the present invention may be used to modulate mammalian metabolism affecting catabolism, anabolism, processing, utilization, and storage of energy.

[1104] Polypeptide or polynucleotides and/or agonist or antagonists of the present invention may be used to change a mammal's mental state or physical state by influencing biorhythms, caricadic rhythms, depression (including depressive diseases, disorders, and/or conditions), tendency for violence, tolerance for pain, reproductive capabilities (preferably by Activin or Inhibin-like activity), hormonal or endocrine levels, appetite, libido, memory, stress, or other cognitive qualities.

[1105] Polypeptide or polynucleotides and/or agonist or antagonists of the present invention may also be used as a food additive or preservative, such as to increase or decrease storage capabilities, fat content, lipid, protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals, cofactors or other nutritional components.

[1106] Other Preferred Embodiments

[1107] Other preferred embodiments of the claimed invention include an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 50 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X wherein X is any integer as defined in Table 1.

[1108] Also preferred is a nucleic acid molecule wherein said sequence of contiguous nucleotides is included is a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X in the range of positions beginning with the nucleotide at about the position of the 5′ Nucleotide of the Clone Sequence and ending with the nucleotide at about the position of the 3′ Nucleotide of the Clone Sequence as defined for SEQ ID NO:X in Table 1.

[1109] Also preferred is a nucleic acid molecule wherein said sequence of contiguous nucleotides is included in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X in the range of positions beginning with the nucleotide at about the position of the 5′ Nucleotide of the Start Codon and ending with the nucleotide at about the position of the 3′ Nucleotide of the Clone Sequence as defined for SEQ ID NO:X in Table 1.

[1110] Similarly preferred is a nucleic acid molecule wherein said sequence of contiguous nucleotides is included in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X in the range of positions beginning with the nucleotide at about the position of the 5′ Nucleotide of the First Amino Acid of the Signal Peptide and ending with the nucleotide at about the position of the 3′ Nucleotide of the Clone Sequence as defined for SEQ ID NO:X in Table 1.

[1111] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 150 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X.

[1112] Further preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 500 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X.

[1113] A further preferred embodiment is a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X beginning with the nucleotide at about the position of the 5′ Nucleotide of the First Amino Acid of the Signal Peptide and ending with the nucleotide at about the position of the 3′ Nucleotide of the Clone Sequence as defined for SEQ ID NO:X in Table 1.

[1114] A further preferred embodiment is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to the complete nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X.

[1115] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule which hybridizes under stringent hybridization conditions to a nucleic acid molecule, wherein said nucleic acid molecule which hybridizes does not hybridize under stringent hybridization conditions to a nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence consisting of only A residues or of only T residues.

[1116] Also preferred is a composition of matter comprising a DNA molecule which comprises a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1, which DNA molecule is contained in the material deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and given the ATCC Deposit Number shown in Table 1 for said cDNA Clone Identifier.

[1117] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence of a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1, which DNA molecule is contained in the deposit given the ATCC Deposit Number shown in Table 1.

[1118] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule, wherein said sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides is included in the nucleotide sequence of the complete open reading frame sequence encoded by said human cDNA clone.

[1119] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to sequence of at least 150 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence encoded by said human cDNA clone.

[1120] A further preferred embodiment is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to sequence of at least 500 contiguous nucleotides in the nucleotide sequence encoded by said human cDNA clone.

[1121] A further preferred embodiment is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to the complete nucleotide sequence encoded by said human cDNA clone.

[1122] A further preferred embodiment is a method for detecting in a biological sample a nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X wherein X is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a nucleotide sequence encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1; which method comprises a step of comparing a nucleotide sequence of at least one nucleic acid molecule in said sample with a sequence selected from said group and determining whether the sequence of said nucleic acid molecule in said sample is at least 95% identical to said selected sequence.

[1123] Also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing sequences comprises determining the extent of nucleic acid hybridization between nucleic acid molecules in said sample and a nucleic acid molecule comprising said sequence selected from said group. Similarly, also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing sequences is performed by comparing the nucleotide sequence determined from a nucleic acid molecule in said sample with said sequence selected from said group. The nucleic acid molecules can comprise DNA molecules or RNA molecules.

[1124] A further preferred embodiment is a method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample which method comprises a step of detecting nucleic acid molecules in said sample, if any, comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X wherein X is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a nucleotide sequence encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1125] The method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample can comprise a step of detecting nucleic acid molecules comprising a nucleotide sequence in a panel of at least two nucleotide sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from said group.

[1126] Also preferred is a method for diagnosing in a subject a pathological condition associated with abnormal structure or expression of a gene encoding a secreted protein identified in Table 1, which method comprises a step of detecting in a biological sample obtained from said subject nucleic acid molecules, if any, comprising a nucleotide sequence that is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X wherein X is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a nucleotide sequence encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1127] The method for diagnosing a pathological condition can comprise a step of detecting nucleic acid molecules comprising a nucleotide sequence in a panel of at least two nucleotide sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from said group.

[1128] Also preferred is a composition of matter comprising isolated nucleic acid molecules wherein the nucleotide sequences of said nucleic acid molecules comprise a panel of at least two nucleotide sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least 50 contiguous nucleotides in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: a nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO:X wherein X is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a nucleotide sequence encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1. The nucleic acid molecules can comprise DNA molecules or RNA molecules.

[1129] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least about 10 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1. Also preferred is a polypeptide, wherein said sequence of contiguous amino acids is included in the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y in the range of positions beginning with the residue at about the position of the First Amino Acid of the Secreted Portion and ending with the residue at about the Last Amino Acid of the Open Reading Frame as set forth for SEQ ID NO:Y in Table 1.

[1130] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 30 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y.

[1131] Further preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 100 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y.

[1132] Further preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to the complete amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y.

[1133] Further preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least about 10 contiguous amino acids in the complete amino acid sequence of a secreted protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1134] Also preferred is a polypeptide wherein said sequence of contiguous amino acids is included in the amino acid sequence of a secreted portion of the secreted protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1135] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 30 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of the secreted portion of the protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1136] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to a sequence of at least about 100 contiguous amino acids in the amino acid sequence of the secreted portion of the protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1137] Also preferred is an isolated polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence at least 95% identical to the amino acid sequence of the secreted portion of the protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1138] Further preferred is an isolated antibody which binds specifically to a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a complete amino acid sequence of a protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1139] Further preferred is a method for detecting in a biological sample a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence which is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a complete amino acid sequence of a protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1; which method comprises a step of comparing an amino acid sequence of at least one polypeptide molecule in said sample with a sequence selected from said group and determining whether the sequence of said polypeptide molecule in said sample is at least 90% identical to said sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids.

[1140] Also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing an amino acid sequence of at least one polypeptide molecule in said sample with a sequence selected from said group comprises determining the extent of specific binding of polypeptides in said sample to an antibody which binds specifically to a polypeptide comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a complete amino acid sequence of a protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1141] Also preferred is the above method wherein said step of comparing sequences is performed by comparing the amino acid sequence determined from a polypeptide molecule in said sample with said sequence selected from said group.

[1142] Also preferred is a method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample which method comprises a step of detecting polypeptide molecules in said sample, if any, comprising an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a complete amino acid sequence of a secreted protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1143] Also preferred is the above method for identifying the species, tissue or cell type of a biological sample, which method comprises a step of detecting polypeptide molecules comprising an amino acid sequence in a panel of at least two amino acid sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the above group.

[1144] Also preferred is a method for diagnosing in a subject a pathological condition associated with abnormal structure or expression of a gene encoding a secreted protein identified in Table 1, which method comprises a step of detecting in a biological sample obtained from said subject polypeptide molecules comprising an amino acid sequence in a panel of at least two amino acid sequences, wherein at least one sequence in said panel is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a complete amino acid sequence of a secreted protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1145] In any of these methods, the step of detecting said polypeptide molecules includes using an antibody.

[1146] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence which is at least 95% identical to a nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide wherein said polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence that is at least 90% identical to a sequence of at least 10 contiguous amino acids in a sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a complete amino acid sequence of a secreted protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1147] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule, wherein said nucleotide sequence encoding a polypeptide has been optimized for expression of said polypeptide in a prokaryotic host.

[1148] Also preferred is an isolated nucleic acid molecule, wherein said polypeptide comprises an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is any integer as defined in Table 1; and a complete amino acid sequence of a secreted protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1.

[1149] Further preferred is a method of making a recombinant vector comprising inserting any of the above isolated nucleic acid molecule into a vector. Also preferred is the recombinant vector produced by this method. Also preferred is a method of making a recombinant host cell comprising introducing the vector into a host cell, as well as the recombinant host cell produced by this method.

[1150] Also preferred is a method of making an isolated polypeptide comprising culturing this recombinant host cell under conditions such that said polypeptide is expressed and recovering said polypeptide. Also preferred is this method of making an isolated polypeptide, wherein said recombinant host cell is a eukaryotic cell and said polypeptide is a secreted portion of a human secreted protein comprising an amino acid sequence selected from the group consisting of: an amino acid sequence of SEQ ID NO:Y beginning with the residue at the position of the First Amino Acid of the Secreted Portion of SEQ ID NO:Y wherein Y is an integer set forth in Table 1 and said position of the First Amino Acid of the Secreted Portion of SEQ ID NO:Y is defined in Table 1; and an amino acid sequence of a secreted portion of a protein encoded by a human cDNA clone identified by a cDNA Clone Identifier in Table 1 and contained in the deposit with the ATCC Deposit Number shown for said cDNA clone in Table 1. The isolated polypeptide produced by this method is also preferred.

[1151] Also preferred is a method of treatment of an individual in need of an increased level of a secreted protein activity, which method comprises administering to such an individual a pharmaceutical composition comprising an amount of an isolated polypeptide, polynucleotide, or antibody of the claimed invention effective to increase the level of said protein activity in said individual.

[1152] The above-recited applications have uses in a wide variety of hosts. Such hosts include, but are not limited to, human, murine, rabbit, goat, guinea pig, camel, horse, mouse, rat, hamster, pig, micro-pig, chicken, goat, cow, sheep, dog, cat, non-human primate, and human. In specific embodiments, the host is a mouse, rabbit, goat, guinea pig, chicken, rat, hamster, pig, sheep, dog or cat. In preferred embodiments, the host is a mammal. In most preferred embodiments, the host is a human.

[1153] In specific embodiments of the invention, for each “Contig ID” listed in the fourth column of Table 2, preferably excluded are one or more polynucleotides comprising, or alternatively consisting of, a nucleotide sequence referenced in the fifth column of Table 2 and described by the general formula of a-b, whereas a and b are uniquely determined for the corresponding SEQ ID NO:X referred to in column 3 of Table 2. Further specific embodiments are directed to polynucleotide sequences excluding one, two, three, four, or more of the specific polynucleotide sequences referred to in the fifth column of Table 2. In no way is this listing meant to encompass all of the sequences which may be excluded by the general formula, it is just a resentative example. All references available through these accessions are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

TABLE 2
NT
cDNA Clone SEQ ID
Gene No. ID NO: X Contig ID Public Accession Numbers
 4 HAMGG68 14 731859 T50763, R53008, AA054732
 5 HAPOM49 15 769555 R01247, R36924, N59290, N72014, N91904,
N91912, N99466, W24077, W24089, W86920,
AA235373, AA235784, AA417558, AA417671
 5 HAPOM49 83 722386 R01247, R36924, H68902, N59290, N72014,
N91904, N91912, N99466, W24077, W24089,
W86920, AA235373, AA235784, AA417558,
AA417671
 7 HBJFJ26 17 772348 R02524, H14806, N53061, N73248, W93593,
AA010653, AA037624, AA134768
 7 HBJFJ26 84 648583 R02524, N53061, N73248, W93593, AA010653,
AA037624, AA134768
 8 HCEDH38 18 730529 T66539, R15913, R43424
11 HELGK31 21 681138 R09514, R09626, R09625, R54573, H11615,
H18393, N79058, N94446, W30793, AA132746,
AA132651, AA161264, AA161263, AA227183,
AA426455, AA426587, AA424834
11 HCNUA40 85 340352 R09514, R09626, R09625, R54573, H11615,
H18393, N79058, N94446, W24000, W30793,
AA132746, AA132651, AA142878, AA143152,
AA161264, AA161263
14 HHEPG41 24 714102 T52716, T61025, T61577, R09517, R09629,
R24626, R26656, R68241, R68534, R70469,
R70556, R71470, R71518, R77435, R77524,
R79694, H01135, H01343, H01394, H03302,
H03303, H03402, H18688, H18782, H18972,
H19070, H20023, H20098, H20143, H20238,
H21165, H22368, H22402, H23656, H27857,
H40075, H40779, H46187, H46188, H46478,
R86746, R87112, R91937, R92265, R94908,
R94992, R99715, H50206, H50207, H59520,
H60187, H60231, H60393, H67121, H71491,
H71551, H71623, H75393, H81427, H84494,
H84495, H84951, H93252, H99652, N23673,
N24442, N24542, N25251, N33887, N33986,
N38815, N58266, N58289, N70496, N71609,
N71651, N72206, N76257, N77644, N77658,
N77862, N94261, N95063, W01678, W04664,
W31583, W32075, W37128, W37143, W38900,
W40195, W58208, AA026633, AA026672,
AA037789, AA129884, AA149944, AA150561,
AA157861, AA159798, AA159902, AA164972,
AA165011, AA186949, AA188345, AA419151,
AA419096, AA427690
14 HAUAI83 88 639009 T52716, T61025, T61577, R09517, R26656,
R70469, R71470, R77435, R79694, H03303,
H03402, H18688, H18972, H21165, H22368,
H27857, H46188, R87112, R91937, R94908,
H60187, H60393, H67121, H81427, H84495,
H84951, N70496, N71651, N72206, N95063,
W31583, AA159798, AA164972, AA188345,
AA419096
14 HJPAZ83 89 383592 T52716, T61025, T61577, R09517, R09629,
R24626, R26656, R68241, R68534, R70469,
R70556, R71470, R71518, R77435, R77524,
R79694, H01135, H01343, H01394, H02789,
H03302, H03303, H03402, H18688, H18782,
H18972, H19070, H20023, H20098, H20143,
H20238, H21165, H22368, H22402, H23656,
H27857, H40075, H40779, H46187, H46188,
H46478, R86746, R87112, R91937, R92265,
R94908, R94992, R99715, H50206, H50207,
H59520, H60187, H60231, H60393, H67121,
H71491, H71551, H71623, H75393, H81427,
H84494, H84495, H84951, H93252, H99652,
N23673, N24442, N24542, N25251, N33887,
N33986, N38815, N58266, N58289, N70496,
N71609, N71651, N72206, N76257, N77644,
N77658, N77862, N94261, N95063, W01678,
W04664, W31583, W32075, W37128, W37143,
W38900, W40195, W58208, AA026633,
AA026672, AA037789, AA129884, AA149944,
AA150561, AA157861, AA159798, AA159902,
AA164972, AA165011, AA186949, AA188345
16 HMIAP86 26 726831 R19440, R44688, R44688, N48177, AA015735,
AA015832, AA021119, AA035652, AA054548,
AA056945, AA057005, AA142931
17 HMUAP70 27 872208 T54768, T63367, T63693, T91023, T84597,
R12614, R13763, R18327, R20519, R25031,
R32390, R32391, R42373, R43789, R53025,
R20519, R43789, R42373, R55911, R56184,
R63828, R