Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20030022121 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 09/905,686
Publication dateJan 30, 2003
Filing dateJan 9, 2001
Priority dateNov 2, 2000
Also published asUS20060000139
Publication number09905686, 905686, US 2003/0022121 A1, US 2003/022121 A1, US 20030022121 A1, US 20030022121A1, US 2003022121 A1, US 2003022121A1, US-A1-20030022121, US-A1-2003022121, US2003/0022121A1, US2003/022121A1, US20030022121 A1, US20030022121A1, US2003022121 A1, US2003022121A1
InventorsCharles Biggs
Original AssigneeCharles Biggs
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Vegetable-based compositions and articles, and methods of making same
US 20030022121 A1
Abstract
Disclosed is a shaped article of manufacture formed from a vegetable-based composition comprising a combination of vegetable-based compound(s) and insect wax wherein the combination of ingredients provides enhanced release properties and unique and desirable aesthetic characteristics.
Images(8)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(22)
What is claimed is:
1. A shaped article of manufacture comprising at least a surface layer formed of a composition comprising from about 80 parts by weight to less than about 99 parts by weight of vegetable-derived compound(s) and from about 1 part to about 20 parts by weight of insect wax, the combination of said vegetable wax and said insect wax together providing said surface layer with an appearance selected from the group consisting of a fingerprint pattern, a sunburst pattern, a marble pattern, a tortoise pattern, a spotted pattern and combinations of two or more of these.
2. The article of claim 1 wherein said vegetable-derived compound(s) comprise a mixture of vegetable wax and vegetable acid.
3. The article of claim 1 wherein said composition comprises from about 2% to about 15% by weight of insect wax.
4. The article of claim 1 wherein said composition comprises from about 4% to about 15% by weight of insect wax.
5. The article of claim 1 wherein said composition comprises from about 4% to about 10% by weight of insect wax.
6. The article of claim 1 wherein said article consists of said composition.
7. The article of claim 6 wherein said article is a candle.
8. A shaped article of manufacture comprising at least a surface layer formed of a vegetable-based composition, said composition comprising greater than about 80 parts by weight to less than about 98 parts by weight of vegetable-based compound(s) and from about greater than about 2 parts by weight to less than about 20 parts by weight of insect wax.
9. The shaped article of claim 8 wherein said insect wax comprises beeswax.
10. The shaped article of claim 9 wherein said insect wax consists essentially of beeswax.
11. The article of claim 8 wherein said vegetable-based compound(s) comprise a combination of vegetable acid and vegetable wax.
12. The article of claim 11 wherein said vegetable acid comprises stearic acid and said vegetable wax comprises ester of stearic acid.
13. The article of claim 8 wherein said vegetable-based compound(s) comprise from about 70 parts by weight to about 90 parts by weight of stearic acid and from about 10 parts by weight to about 30 parts by weight of ester of stearic acid.
14. The article of claim 13 wherein said vegetable-based compound(s) consist essentially of stearic acid and ester of stearic acid.
15. The article of claim 13 wherein said vegetable-based compound(s) comprise about 80 parts by weight of stearic acid and about 20 parts by weight of ester of stearic acid.
16. The article of claim 15 wherein said vegetable-based compound(s) comprise about 80% by weight of stearic acid and about 20% by weight of ester of stearic acid.
17. A method of fabricating a molded article comprising:
providing a composition comprising vegetable-derived compound(s) and insect wax;
molding said composition into a desired shape, said molding step including introducing said composition into a mold;
and removing said molded composition from said mold, said composition containing said insect wax in amount effective to cause sufficient shrinkage of said molded article relative to said article without said insect wax to improve the release properties of said composition from said mold.
18. The method of claim 17 wherein said composition comprises at least about 1% by weight of insect wax.
19. The method of claim 18 wherein said insect wax comprises beeswax.
20. The method of claim 19 wherein said composition comprises at least about 3 weight percent beeswax.
21. The method of claim 17 wherein said vegetable-derived compound(s) comprise stearic acid.
22. The method of claim 17 wherein said vegetable-derived compound(s) comprise ester of stearic acid.
Description
    FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to vegetable-based compositions, articles of manufacture containing these compositions and to methods of manufacturing such articles. According to preferred aspects of the invention, the article is a candle with desirable aesthetic properties and/or improved mold-release properties.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    Vegetable waxes have been used for centuries to make articles of manufacture, particularly candles. Although the use of candles has obviously been supplanted as a primary source of light in most cultures, candles are nevertheless used for a large number of diverse reasons, including to enhance the decoration, atmosphere and mood of the locations in which they are used. Accordingly, while it remains necessary that candles be manufactured from materials and in a manner that ensures that will burn in pleasing way (e.g., without excessive smoke or soot), there has been an increasing desire to obtain candles with pleasing visual features.
  • [0003]
    For example, it has been reported in U.S. Pat. No. 5,762,487—Kujawski (which is incorporated herein by reference) that many varied and relatively complex techniques have been used to produce candles with interesting decorative effects. For example, the Kujawski patent describes candles made by a casting method in which the mold is filled with discrete layers of wax of different colors and then tilted to produce angled stripes of different colors. This patent also discloses candle making techniques which involve creating a random mosaic effect by adding solid wax chips of various colors to the mold and then filling with a molten wax. Other complex decorative techniques are also disclosed, such as aerating the wax before or after it is poured into the mold and adding pieces of ice to the wax to create a honeycomb effect.
  • [0004]
    While the above techniques may have been successful in creating interesting decorative effects, they are all relatively complex, time consuming and/or labor intensive procedures which ultimately add cost to the finished product. Furthermore, certain of the materials which have heretofore been used to manufacture candles have become increasingly disfavored in recent years. For example, the Kujawski patent discloses that the candles are preferably formed from petroleum based waxes (i.e., paraffin waxes). However, petroleum products have become increasingly expensive and are a further concern because they represent an nonrenewable resource. As a result it has become increasingly desirable to produce “green” candles, that is, candles which do not contain petroleum derived products. Furthermore, although Kujawski discloses that beeswax may be used as alternative to petroleum-based waxes, the formation of candles exclusively from beeswax is generally disfavored from a cost perspective due to the relatively high cost of beeswax.
  • [0005]
    U.S. Pat. No. 6,063,144—Calzada, which is incorporated herein by reference, discloses a candle formed from non-parafin materials consisting essentially of at least 30 parts by weight of stearic acid, at least 5 parts by weight of vegetable-derived wax with a melting point of at least 50° C., vegetable oil, fragrance and an oxidation inhibitor. The Calzada patent does not disclose that the article formed from such a composition has advantageous aesthetic qualities or decorative effects.
  • [0006]
    In view of these and other potential deficiencies in the techniques and materials heretofore used to produce candles and other articles, the present inventor has developed articles which can be efficiently manufactured while at the same time possessing unique and highly attractive decorative effects.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES
  • [0007]
    Attached as FIG. 1 is a series of photographs showing candles made in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0008]
    Attached as FIG. 2 is a series of photographs showing candles made in accordance with a second embodiment of the present invention
  • [0009]
    Attached as FIG. 3 is a series of photographs showing candles made in accordance with a third embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0010]
    Attached as FIG. 4 is a series of photographs showing candles made in accordance with a fourth embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0011]
    Attached as FIG. 5 is a series of photographs showing candles made in accordance with a fourth embodiment of the present invention.
  • [0012]
    Attached as FIG. 6 is a photograph which shows a candles which does not achieve the preferred decorative effects of the present invention.
  • [0013]
    Attached as FIG. 7 is a photograph which shows candles made in accordance with the present invention in a variety of colors, shapes and sizes.
  • DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION AND PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
  • [0014]
    The Compositions and the Articles
  • [0015]
    The present inventor has discovered that desirable articles of manufacture can be obtained by the use of compositions comprising, on a relative basis, from about 80 parts to about 99 parts by weight of vegetable-derived compound(s) and from about 1 part to about 20 parts by weight of insect wax. According to preferred embodiments, the article is a molded candle which exhibits one or more of a variety of decorative effects, as described in more detail hereinafter. According to highly preferred embodiments, the candle body of the present invention consists essentially of vegetable-derived compound(s) and insect wax.
  • [0016]
    The term “vegetable-derived compound(s)” as used herein refers to any single compound or combination of compounds which are of the type commonly derived from vegetable or fruit sources. Although it is contemplated that any vegetable-derived compound(s) may be adapted for used in accordance with the present invention, it is generally preferred that the vegetable-derived compound(s) comprise, and even more preferably are selected from the group consisting essentially of vegetable waxes, vegetable acids and combinations of acids and waxes of the type derived from vegetable and fruit sources. The term “consisting essentially of” is used herein in its art-recognized sense to express that the composition is open to the inclusion of additional ingredients in amounts which do not adversely affect its novel and basic properties.
  • [0017]
    For embodiments which incorporate vegetable acids, it is generally preferred that the vegetable acid comprise, and preferably consist essentially of, stearic acid. As used herein, the term “stearic acid” includes any of the commercial grades of stearic acid. While academic authorities and textbooks treat “stearic acid” as a synonym for the pure chemical compound octadecanoic acid (C17H35COOH), commercial practice, which is the intended meaning herein, is broader and uses the same term for mixtures comprising major amounts of one or more of both octadecanoic acid, the 16 carbon hexadecanoic acid or palmitic acid (C17H33COOH), together with minor amounts of lower and higher homologs, the corresponding monounsaturated acids 9-Octadecanoic acid (oleic acid, C17H33COOH) and 9-Hexadecanoic acid (palmitoleic acid, C15H29COOH) and a variety of trace impurities characteristic of the source of the raw material and the method used in its refining. Furthermore, it will be appreciated that while the stearic acid used in accordance with the present invention is preferably obtained by the processing of vegetable materials, it will be appreciated that stearic acid compounds may be derived form other sources and are considered within the scope the term “vegetable-derived compound(s)” as used herein.
  • [0018]
    According to certain preferred embodiments, the vegetable acid of the present invention comprises one or more compounds corresponding to the formula CxAyCOOH, where x is from about 15 to about 17 and y is from about 29 to about 35.
  • [0019]
    Likewise, while the vegetable waxes used in accordance with the present invention are preferably obtained by the processing of vegetable materials, it will be appreciated that such wax compounds may be derived form other sources and are considered within the scope the term “vegetable-derived compound” as used herein. In other words, it is considered that synthetic forms of, or substitutes for, the vegetable waxes and vegetable acids are within the meaning of those terms as used herein.
  • [0020]
    Commercially available stearic acid is sold by Procter & Gamble Chemicals under the trade designation V-1855 and is preferably used as the vegetable acid component of the present compositions.
  • [0021]
    Commercially available palmitic acid is sold by Procter & Gamble Chemicals under the trade designations V-1695 and V-1655 and is preferably used as a vegetable acid component in certain embodiments of the present compositions.
  • [0022]
    With respect to the vegetable wax compounds, particularly preferred compounds are palm-derived waxes, candelilla waxes, cork fiber waxes, hemp fiber waxes, sugar cane waxes, bayberry waxes, Japan waxes, bamboo leaf waxes, rice waxes, esparto wax, and mixtures and combinations of these. In general, palm-derived-waxes are preferred and include carnauba wax, ouricury, caranda' and raffia. As is known, palm derived waxes generally contain high concentrations, for example, from about 80% to about 90% of alkyl esters of higher fatty acids. Such esters may include esters of palmitic acids, stearic, oleic acids and combinations of two or more of those.
  • [0023]
    In general, the vegetable wax of the present invention preferably is comprised in major proportion of palmitic ester waxes, and even more preferably the vegetable wax comprises at least about 70% by weight of esters derived from palmitic, stearic or oleic acids, with at least about 80% by weight of such esters being even more preferred. According to highly preferred embodiments, the vegetable wax component of the present compositions comprises, and preferably consist essentially of, lower alkyl (C1-C4) esters, and even more preferably methyl esters, of stearic acids. Among the preferred methyl esters of stearic acid are methyl ester of hexadecanoic acid and methyl ester of octadecanoic acid. A combination of methyl ester of hexadecanoic acid and methyl ester of octadecanoic acid is sold by Procter & Gamble Chemicals under the trade designation CD-1618H and is preferably used as the vegetable wax component of the present composition.
  • [0024]
    The vegetable-derived compound(s) preferably comprise a major proportion, on a relative weight basis, of stearic acid and minor proportion of esters of stearic acid. Preferably the vegetable-derived compound(s) comprise, on a relative basis, from about 70 to about 90 parts by weight of stearic acid and from about 10 parts by weight to about 30 parts by weight of esters of stearic acid.
  • [0025]
    The present inventor has found that compositions comprising a major proportion of vegetable-derived compound(s) and from about 1% by weight, and even more preferably from about 2% by weight, up to about 20% by weight of insect wax (based on the combined weight of vegetable-derived compound(s) and insect wax) is capable of producing unique and highly desirable aesthetic properties. More particularly, the compositions, when formed into shaped articles, and particularly candles, exhibit a variety of surface appearances which flow from the combinations described herein without the need for any additional or complex decorating procedures. Applicant has found that the desirable aesthetic effect is generally not achieved at insect wax concentrations below about 1% or at about 20% or above. Furthermore, as explained in connection with the method aspects hereof, amounts of beeswax below about 1% do not provide certain processing advantages that are obtained when concentrations within the described range are used. In addition, applicant has found and believes that the advantageous aesthetic features of the present invention are not achieved with compositions which eliminate the vegetable-based compound(s) and utilize instead petroleum-derived compounds of the types which have heretofore used in the manufacture of candles.
  • [0026]
    The term “insect wax” as used herein refers not only to waxes produced by naturally occurring insects, but also any waxes produced by genetically altered insects and to waxes produced synthetically as insect wax substitutes. Synthetic substitutes for insect wax are disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,500,359, 4,292,008 and 4,151,00, each of which is incorporated herein by reference. The preferred insect wax in accordance with the present invention is beeswax. In general, based on various publications, beeswax contains of 10.5-14% hydrocarbons, 71-72% alkyl esters of monocarboxylic acids, 0.6-0.8% choloesteryl esters, 12%-14.5% free acids, 1-1.5% free alcohols, and other ingredients, including coloring matter, lactone, moisture and mineral impurities. See Van Nostrand Reinhold Encyclopedia of Chemistry (4th Edition); Beeswax-Composition and Analysis, by Tulloch, National Research Council of Canada; and U.S. Pat. No. 4,151,001, each one of which is incorporated herein by reference.
  • [0027]
    In general, the simple esters of beeswax are comprised in major proportion of palmitate compounds, including myricyl palmitate.
  • [0028]
    The reason that the combination of vegetable-derived compound(s) and insect waxes in accordance with the present invention produces articles with the aesthetic effects discovered by the applicant is not fully understood.
  • [0029]
    With reference now to FIG. 1, color photographs of two cylindrically shaped articles in accordance with the present invention are shown. These articles each exhibit a visual effect which is described herein as a thumb-print pattern. This pattern is achieved with insect wax in amounts of from about 2% to about 6% of the composition. The articles in FIG. 1 contain about 2% and 3%, respectively from left to right, of beeswax with the remainder being vegetable-derived compound(s) comprising about 80 parts by weight of V-1855 and 20 parts by weight of CD-1618H.
  • [0030]
    With reference now to FIG. 2, color photographs of three cylindrically shaped articles in accordance with the present invention are shown. These articles each exhibit a visual effect which is described herein as cellular or tortoise shell pattern. It should be noted that these articles include a thumb-print pattern within each cell of the tortoise shell pattern. This combination of patterns is highly preferred, and is generally achieved only with compositions that contain insect wax, and preferably beeswax, in amounts of from about 4% to about 6% of the wax component of the composition. The articles in FIG. 2 contain about 4%, 5% and 6%, respectively from left to right, of beeswax with the remainder being vegetable-derived compound(s) comprising about 80 parts by weight of V-1855 and 20 parts by weight of CD-1618H.
  • [0031]
    With reference now to FIG. 3, color photographs of four cylindrically shaped articles in accordance with the present invention are shown. These articles each contain tortoise shell pattern. However, each cell or bordered segment which is part of the overall tortoise shell pattern is made from or contains what is referred to herein as a sunburst pattern. This combination of patterns is preferred in certain embodiments, and is generally achieved only with compositions that contain insect wax, and preferably beeswax, in amounts of from about 7% to about 10% of the wax component of the composition. The articles in FIG. 3 contain about 7%, 8%, 9% and 10%, respectively from left to right, of beeswax with the remainder being vegetable-derived compounds comprising about 80 parts by weight of V-1855 and 20 parts by weight of CD-1618H.
  • [0032]
    With reference now to FIG. 4, color photographs of two cylindrically shaped articles in accordance with the present invention are shown. These articles each exhibit a visual effect which is described herein as marble pattern. It should be noted that these articles generally do not contain either a thumb-print pattern or a sunburst pattern effect. The marble pattern is generally achieved only with compositions that contain insect wax, and preferably beeswax, in amounts of from about 11% to about 12% of the wax component of the composition. The articles in FIG. 4 contain about 11% and 12 6%, respectively from left to right, of beeswax with the remainder being vegetable-derived compounds comprising about 80 parts by weight of V-1855 and 20 parts by weight of CD-1618H.
  • [0033]
    With reference now to FIG. 5, color photographs of three cylindrically shaped articles in accordance with the present invention are shown. These articles each exhibit a visual effect which is described herein as spotted or mottled pattern. It should be noted that ceratin of these, particularly the article in picture on the left side of the figure, also include elements of the marble pattern. The spotted patterns is generally achieved only with compositions that contain insect wax, and preferably beeswax, in amounts of from about 13% to about 15% of the wax component of the composition. The articles in FIG. 5 contain about 13%, 14% and 15%, respectively from left to right, of beeswax with the remainder being vegetable-derived compounds comprising about 80 parts by weight of V-1855 and 20 parts by weight of CD-1618H.
  • [0034]
    With reference now to FIG. 6, a color photograph of a cylindrically shaped articles that does not exhibit the preferred pattern effect of the present invention is shown. The article in FIG. 6 contains about 20% of beeswax and 80% by weight of being vegetable-derived compounds comprising about 80 parts by weight of V-1855 and 20 parts by weight of CD1618H.
  • [0035]
    The compositions of the present invention, and the articles from which they are made, therefore preferably comprise, and even more preferably consist essentially of, from about 70 parts by weight to about 98 parts by weight of vegetable-derived compound(s), and insect wax (preferably beeswax) in an amount of from about 2 parts by weight to about 15 parts by weight, more preferably in amounts of from about 4 parts to about 15 parts by weight, and even more preferably in amounts of from about 4 parts to about 12 parts by weight. It will be appreciated, of course that other components, such as perfumes, fillers, dyes, etc. may be included in the compositions and articles hereof without detriment.
  • [0036]
    Furthermore, it will be appreciated that the present articles can be formed from material other than the present composition, provided the present composition is utilized to provide at least one visual surface portion of the article. This could be achieved, for example, by coating or layering the present composition onto a support structure formed from other components. However, it is preferred in many embodiments, such as candles for example, that the article be formed in substantial portion from the present compositions. Such articles will receive the benefit of achieving a through-pattern feature for the article, that is, the decorative effect will exist throughout the article, and not just on a localized surface or area thereof As a result, the effect will remain visible from all angles even as the candle burns.
  • [0037]
    The Methods
  • [0038]
    It is contemplated that many methods may adapted to form the present compositions into articles, and articles made by all such methods are within the scope hereof However, the present compositions exhibit additional advantage when used as the material for molding or casting techniques. More particularly, such techniques utilize a mold which defines a cavity having the desired geometry of the article being produced. The present composition, preferably in molten form, is introduced into the mold, preferably by pouring, to fill the cavity and thereby taken on the desired shape. In the case of candle making, the process also generally includes placing a wick into the cavity of the mold, for example by suspending the wick from a cross-bar over the mouth of the mold, and then placing the molten wax into the mold and around the wick. The wax is then allowed to solidify, and once the wax has set, the candle is removed from the mold.
  • [0039]
    Applicants have noted a significant processing advantage associated with the compositions of the present invention when used to make articles by the molding process. More particularly, applicants have noted that the easy with which the article is removed from one-piece molds is greatly enhanced by the incorporation of insect wax into the present compositions. Although applicant does not intend to necessarily bound by its theory of operation, it is believed that vegetable-derived compounds, and particularly the preferred vegetable acids and waxes, undergo no substantial shrinkage upon solidification and setting in the mold. As a result, it can sometimes be difficult to remove the shaped article from a one piece mold. Applicant has found that the addition of as little as 1%, but preferably at least about 3%, by weight of insect wax to the composition produces just enough shrinkage of the article, without materially effecting the overall shape or integrity of the article, to greatly enhance the ease with which the article can be removed from the mold. Of course, to further facilitate removal of the article from the mold, release agents can be applied to the inside surfaces of the mold or introduced into the composition. Furthermore, numerous materials can be used to form the mold, such as glass, metal (including aluminum), plaster, or even cardboard.
  • [0040]
    The following examples are illustrative of the compositions, articles and process of the present invention and should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention in any way.
  • EXAMPLE 1
  • [0041]
    Each of the following compositions was made from a vegetable-derived compound comprising about 80 weight percent of V-1855 and 20 weight percent CD-1618H. A series of compositions were made comprising this vegetable compound and beeswax comprising the balance of the composition in amounts of 0, 1, 2, etc. to 20 percent by weight, hereinafter referred to as Compositions 0 through 20.
  • [0042]
    Each composition was melted, blended thoroughly to produce a substantially homogeneous mixture, poured at 140° F. into 1.875-inch aluminum candle molds, and allowed to harden at room temperature overnight. Composition 0, containing no beeswax, was difficult to remove from the mold. Composition 1, with 1 percent beeswax, shrank slightly from the mold and released more easily than Composition 0. Composition 2, with 2 percent beeswax, released easier than Sample Composition 1. Compositions 3 through 20 all shrank sufficiently from the mold to release easily after solidification.
  • EXAMPLE 2
  • [0043]
    A candle wax compositions is made from a vegetable-derived compound comprising about 80 weight percent of palmitic acid (V-1695) and 20 weight percent CD-1618H. A series of compositions are made comprising the vegetable derived compound, with the balance being quantities of from 1 to about 20 percent by weight beeswax. These compositions are melted, blended thoroughly to produce a substantially homogeneous mixture, poured at 140° F. into 1.875-inch aluminum candle molds, and allowed to harden at room temperature overnight. These compositions all shrink from the mold and release more easily than compositions without beeswax.
  • EXAMPLE 3
  • [0044]
    A candle wax compositions is made from a vegetable-derived compound comprising about 50 weight percent of palmitic acid (V-1655) and 50 weight percent V-1855. A series of compositions are made comprising this vegetable derived compound, with the balance being quantities of from 1 to about 20 percent by weight beeswax. These compositions are melted, blended thoroughly to produce a substantially homogeneous mixture, poured at 140° F. into 1.875-inch aluminum candle molds, and allowed to harden at room temperature overnight. These compositions all shrink from the mold and release more easily than compositions without beeswax.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US26780 *Jan 10, 1860 Improvement in compositions for coating candles
US1428940 *Jul 20, 1921Sep 12, 1922Standard Oil CoOrnamented candle
US1520541 *Jun 13, 1923Dec 23, 1924Standard Oil CoOrnamented candle
US1641729 *Oct 27, 1924Sep 6, 1927Standard Oil CoOrnamented candle and method of making same
US1863758 *Mar 13, 1929Jun 21, 1932Standard Oil CoOrnamental candle
US1950813 *Aug 10, 1931Mar 13, 1934Ig Farbenindustrie AgProduction of candles
US1954659 *Aug 6, 1931Apr 10, 1934Will & Baumer Candle Co IncCandle and method of making same
US1964200 *Dec 8, 1932Jun 26, 1934Standard Oil CoDecorative candle
US1968269 *Jan 11, 1932Jul 31, 1934Standard Oil CoDipped candle
US2090629 *Jul 31, 1934Aug 24, 1937Collins & Aikman CorpRubber composition and method of making the same
US2315751 *Aug 15, 1941Apr 6, 1943Standard Oil CoCandle ornamenting method
US2406336 *Aug 21, 1942Aug 27, 1946Laszlo AuerWaxes
US2541725 *Feb 15, 1947Feb 13, 1951Sunny Lorraine ChandleryLuminous candle
US3057405 *Sep 3, 1959Oct 9, 1962Pan American Petroleum CorpMethod for setting well conduit with passages through conduit wall
US3081263 *Nov 29, 1957Mar 12, 1963Secretary Of The Dept Of SupplPrecipitation of particulate or molecular materials in electrostatic developing
US3255137 *May 28, 1962Jun 7, 1966Gulf Research Development CoPolyalpha olefin polish composition
US3265629 *Dec 22, 1958Aug 9, 1966Ncr CoCoating by phase separation
US3298804 *Jan 14, 1965Jan 17, 1967Nalco Chemical CoPrevention of freezing together of coal particles and compositions thereof
US3355295 *Feb 11, 1964Nov 28, 1967Eastman Kodak CoNucleated vesicular film
US3539465 *Oct 8, 1968Nov 10, 1970Ncr CoEncapsulation of hydrophilic liquid-in-oil emulsions
US3717589 *Sep 17, 1970Feb 20, 1973Monsanto CoSodium nitrilotriacetate and processes for producing same
US3844706 *Oct 30, 1973Oct 29, 1974Tsaras ECandles and manufacture thereof
US3852311 *Jul 3, 1972Dec 3, 1974Knapp FErgosteryl esters having liquid crystalline properties
US3925029 *Aug 14, 1973Dec 9, 1975William W WilsonMethod and composition for candle making
US4190568 *Jan 2, 1979Feb 26, 1980Haney Fred HMineral stabilized resin emulsion
US4507077 *Jan 25, 1982Mar 26, 1985Sapper John MDripless candle
US4682947 *Aug 5, 1986Jul 28, 1987National Distillers And Chemical CorporationDecorative candles
US4735742 *Sep 5, 1986Apr 5, 1988Henkel Kommanditgesellschaft Auf AktienPalmitate-stearate o/w emulsions and their preparation
US4759709 *Jul 23, 1987Jul 26, 1988National Distillers And Chemical CorporationWax compositions
US4865908 *Sep 21, 1987Sep 12, 1989Mobil Oil CorporationCoated, oriented polymer film laminate
US4891072 *Jul 5, 1983Jan 2, 1990Imperial Chemical Industries PlcMulti-component grouting system
US4973465 *Jun 8, 1989Nov 27, 1990Ire-Celltarg S.A.Microcrystals comprising an active substance having an affinity for phospholipids, and at least one phospholipid, process of preparation
US5225097 *Mar 20, 1992Jul 6, 1993The Procter & Gamble CompanySkin pH freezer bar and process
US5380538 *Dec 16, 1992Jan 10, 1995Nabisco, Inc.Crystal modifiers for diacetin fats
US5403392 *Aug 4, 1993Apr 4, 1995Ennis Herder, Inc.High solids aqueous dispersions of hydrophobizing agents
US5425892 *Mar 24, 1993Jun 20, 1995The Procter & Gamble CompanyPersonal cleansing freezer bar made with a rigid, interlocking mesh of neutralized carboxylic acid
US5610199 *Dec 29, 1994Mar 11, 1997Estee Lauder Inc.Solid lipophilic composition and process for its preparation
US5674511 *Sep 30, 1996Oct 7, 1997The Procter & Gamble CompanyShelf stable skin cleansing liquid with gel forming polymer, lipid and crystalline ethylene glycol fatty acid ester
US5763500 *May 29, 1996Jun 9, 1998L'orealExpanded solid composition whose matrix comprises a starch-based cellular network and which contains size-graded spheroidal polyamide particles and its uses in topical application
US5843407 *Apr 26, 1996Dec 1, 1998The Procter & Gamble CompanyNon-sweating lipsticks
US5885486 *Dec 2, 1996Mar 23, 1999Pharmaciaand Upjohn AbSolid lipid particles, particles of bioactive agents and methods for the manufacture and use thereof
US5961967 *Sep 6, 1996Oct 5, 19993M Innovative Properties CompanyMultiphase candle containing locally enriched regions of deliverable actives
US5986119 *Dec 24, 1997Nov 16, 1999Hansotech Inc.Reconstituted castor oil
US6440184 *Nov 10, 1999Aug 27, 2002Cera Rica Noda Co., Ltd.Smokeless candle
US6471731 *Jun 9, 2000Oct 29, 2002PenrecoPolymeric candle compositions and candles made therefrom
US6497735 *Mar 8, 2001Dec 24, 2002Indiana Soybean BoardVegetable lipid-based composition and candle
US6521002 *Dec 1, 2000Feb 18, 2003Xanadu Candle International LimitedTransparent clear candle
US6533828 *Dec 1, 2000Mar 18, 2003Xanadu Candle International LimitedTransparent clear candle shell
US6551365 *Sep 24, 2001Apr 22, 2003Bush Boake AllenComposite candle compositions
US6599334 *Dec 29, 2000Jul 29, 2003Jill M. AndersonSoybean wax candles
US6641623 *Jan 3, 2001Nov 4, 2003SCHÜMANN SASOL GmbHProcess for producing a paraffin-based object and a paraffin-based object
US6645261 *Jun 8, 2001Nov 11, 2003Cargill, Inc.Triacylglycerol-based alternative to paraffin wax
US6652606 *Jun 12, 2000Nov 25, 2003Ungerer & CompanyDecorative gel with in situ-formed crystals embedded therein, candles containing the gel, and a process for making the decorative gel and candles
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US6770104Oct 30, 2002Aug 3, 2004Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol based candle wax
US6773469Nov 12, 2002Aug 10, 2004Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol based wax for use in candles
US6797020Nov 12, 2002Sep 28, 2004Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol based wax for use in container candles
US6824572Mar 5, 2002Nov 30, 2004Cargill, IncorporatedVegetable oil based wax compositions
US7128766Sep 25, 2001Oct 31, 2006Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol based wax compositions
US7192457May 8, 2003Mar 20, 2007Cargill, IncorporatedWax and wax-based products
US7217301Sep 5, 2003May 15, 2007Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol-based alternative to paraffin wax
US7462205Jun 8, 2004Dec 9, 2008Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Triacylglycerol based candle wax
US7510584Oct 13, 2004Mar 31, 2009Daniel S. CapAcetylated wax compositions and articles containing them
US7569084Apr 23, 2004Aug 4, 2009Bernard TaoVegetable lipid-based composition and candle
US7588607Mar 16, 2005Sep 15, 2009Daniel S. CapCandlewax compositions with improved scent-throw
US7833294Aug 11, 2006Nov 16, 2010Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Wax and wax-based products
US8021443Oct 27, 2006Sep 20, 2011Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Triacylglycerol based wax composition
US8070833Nov 12, 2008Dec 6, 2011Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Triacyglycerol based candle wax
US8137418Oct 18, 2007Mar 20, 2012Indiana Soybean AllianceVegetable lipid-based composition and candle
US8157873Oct 13, 2010Apr 17, 2012Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Wax and wax-based products
US8202329May 11, 2007Jun 19, 2012Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Triacylglycerol-based alternative to paraffin wax
US8344052Jul 12, 2007Jan 1, 2013Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Hot melt adhesive compositions comprising metathesized unsaturated polyol ester wax
US8404003Jan 16, 2012Mar 26, 2013Indiana Soybean Board, Inc.Vegetable lipid-based composition and candle
US8500826Mar 7, 2011Aug 6, 2013Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Lipid-based wax compositions substantially free of fat bloom and methods of making
US8529924May 15, 2012Sep 10, 2013Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Triacyglycerol-based alternative to paraffin wax
US8551194Nov 30, 2009Oct 8, 2013Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Prilled waxes comprising small particles and smooth-sided compression candles made therefrom
US8603197Aug 12, 2009Dec 10, 2013Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Wax compositions and methods of preparing wax compositions
US8641814May 5, 2011Feb 4, 2014Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Natural oil based marking compositions and their methods of making
US8652221Dec 14, 2009Feb 18, 2014Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Hybrid wax compositions for use in compression molded wax articles such as candles
US8685118Jan 10, 2006Apr 1, 2014Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products
US8876919Jun 18, 2013Nov 4, 2014Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Lipid-based wax compositions substantially free of fat bloom and methods of making
US8911515Jan 29, 2014Dec 16, 2014Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products
US8940090Oct 31, 2013Jan 27, 2015Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Wax compositions and methods of preparing wax compositions
US9139801Jul 6, 2012Sep 22, 2015Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Metallic soap compositions for various applications
US9249360Jul 6, 2011Feb 2, 2016Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Compositions derived from metathesized natural oils and amines and methods of making
US9458411Nov 21, 2011Oct 4, 2016Cargill, IncorporatedLipid-based wax compositions substantially free of fat bloom and methods of making
US20030057599 *Sep 25, 2001Mar 27, 2003Murphy Timothy A.Triacylglycerol based wax compositions
US20030061760 *Sep 27, 2001Apr 3, 2003Bernard TaoVegetable lipid-based composition and candle
US20030110683 *Oct 30, 2002Jun 19, 2003Cargill, Inc.Triacylglycerol based candle wax
US20040047886 *Sep 5, 2003Mar 11, 2004Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol-based alternative to paraffin wax
US20040088907 *Nov 12, 2002May 13, 2004Cargill, Inc.Triacylglycerol based wax for use in container candles
US20040088908 *Nov 12, 2002May 13, 2004Cargill, IncTriacylglycerol based wax for use in candles
US20040200136 *Apr 23, 2004Oct 14, 2004Indiana Soybean Board, Inc.Vegetable lipid-based composition and candle
US20040221503 *May 8, 2003Nov 11, 2004Cargill, IncorporatedWax and wax-based products
US20040221504 *Jun 8, 2004Nov 11, 2004Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol based candle wax
US20060075679 *Oct 13, 2004Apr 13, 2006Cap Daniel SAcetylated wax compositions and articles containing them
US20060272200 *Aug 11, 2006Dec 7, 2006Cargill, IncorporatedWax and wax-based products
US20070039237 *Oct 27, 2006Feb 22, 2007Cargill, IncorporatedTriacylglycerol based wax composition
US20070282000 *May 11, 2007Dec 6, 2007Cargill, Inc.Triacylglycerol-based alternative to paraffin wax
US20080138753 *Oct 18, 2007Jun 12, 2008Bernard TaoVegetable lipid-based composition and candle
US20090119977 *Nov 12, 2008May 14, 2009Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Triacyglycerol based candle wax
US20090217568 *Jan 10, 2006Sep 3, 2009Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Candle and candle wax containing metathesis and metathesis-like products
US20100024281 *Aug 12, 2009Feb 4, 2010Daniel Wayne LemkeWax compositions and methods of preparing wax compositions
US20100047499 *Jul 12, 2007Feb 25, 2010Diza Pearl BraksmayerHot Melt Adhesive Compositions Comprising Metathesized Unsaturated Polyol Ester Wax
US20100132250 *Nov 30, 2009Jun 3, 2010Elevance Renewable Sciences, Inc.Prilled waxes comprising small particles and smooth-sided compression candles made therefrom
US20110165529 *Oct 13, 2010Jul 7, 2011Murphy Timothy AWax and wax-based products
US20110219667 *Mar 7, 2011Sep 15, 2011Dimaio Jeffrey RLipid-based wax compositions substantially free of fat bloom and methods of making
US20130249141 *May 27, 2011Sep 26, 2013Korona SaManufacturing of a cast block candle - gelpressing method
Classifications
U.S. Classification431/289
International ClassificationC11C5/02, C11C5/00
Cooperative ClassificationC11C5/002, C11C5/008, C11C5/023
European ClassificationC11C5/00B, C11C5/00F, C11C5/02D
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Aug 5, 2002ASAssignment
Owner name: HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC., NEW JERSEY
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BIGGS, CHARLES;REEL/FRAME:013148/0986
Effective date: 20020726
Aug 22, 2005ASAssignment
Owner name: THE INTERNATIONAL GROUP, INC., CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:HONEYWELL INTERNATIONAL INC.;REEL/FRAME:016906/0295
Effective date: 20050527