US 20030027103 A1
The combat training system includes a transmitter of a first electroluminescent signal representative of a projectile fired at a front of a structure, which is detected at the structure's front. An extent of damage that would be expected to be experienced by the structure is determined from the detected first signal. A second electroluminescent signal is transmitted behind the structure that is representative of the expected damage extent. A target behind the structure's front detects the second signal, from which an effect expected to be experienced by the target is determined.
1. A combat training system comprising:
means for transmitting a first electroluminescent signal representative of a projectile fired at a front of a structure;
means affixed to the structure front for detecting the transmitted first signal;
means for determining from the detected first signal an extent of damage expected to be experienced by the structure;
means for transmitting a second electroluminescent signal behind the structure representative of the expected damage extent;
means affixed to a target behind the structure front for detecting the second signal; and
means for determining from the detected second signal an effect expected to be experienced by the target.
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15. A method for combat training comprising the steps of:
transmitting a first electroluminescent signal representative of a projectile fired at a front of a structure;
detecting the transmitted first signal;
determining from the detected first signal an extent of damage expected to be experienced by the structure;
transmitting a second electroluminescent signal behind the structure representative of the expected damage extent;
detecting the second signal at a target location; and
determining from the detected second signal an effect expected to be experienced by the target.
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23. A simulated projectile signal decoding device comprising:
means for receiving an electroluminescent signal containing information on a simulated projectile hit experienced by a structure; and
means for determining from the information damage expected to be experienced by the structure.
24. A signal transmitter for simulating an effect of a projectile striking a structure comprising:
means for receiving a first signal representative of damage expected to be inflicted upon and behind a structure; and
means for transmitting a second signal behind the structure representative of the damage.
25. A simulated damage signal decoder and transmitter comprising:
means for receiving an electroluminescent signal containing information on a simulated projectile hit experienced by a structure;
means for determining from the information damage expected to be experienced by the structure; and
means for transmitting a second signal behind the structure representative of the damage.
26. A signal transmitter for simulating an effect of a projectile striking a structure comprising:
means for receiving a first signal representative of damage expected to be inflicted upon and behind a structure;
means for transmitting a second signal behind the structure representative of the damage;
means for determining from the second signal damage expected to be experienced in an area adjacent the structure; and
means for transmitting a third signal into the adjacent area representative of the expected damage thereto.
 1. Field of the Invention
 The present invention relates to simulation systems and methods, and, more particularly, to such systems and methods for training for urban combat.
 2. Description of Related Art
 Training personnel for warfare in various settings may be accomplished, for example, by simulating a plurality of weapons and opposing combatants. Exemplary systems include so-called multiple integrated laser engagement systems (MILES), which comprise a weapon simulation transmitter that “fires” at a target, which comprises a detector that senses if a “hit” is experienced. Detectors may be mounted on stationary objects or on the trainee. Calculations can also be made using the sensed “hit” data regarding damage likely to have been experienced.
 A particularly difficult training setting is that containing a large number of stationary objects capable of hiding opposing combatants. Such a setting is experienced in urban warfare, known as “military operations in urban terrain”(MOUT), wherein a combatant may be positioned within buildings.
 It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a combat training simulation system and method for a structure-intensive setting.
 It is a further object to provide such a system and method for simulating the effects of firing a weapon at a wall or similar solid structure.
 It is another object to provide such a system and method that include means for calculating probable damage to the structure.
 It is an additional object to provide such a system and method that include means for calculating position-dependent probable damage to structure occupants.
 It is yet a further object to provide such a system and method that include means for simulating damage to an adjacent area.
 It is yet another object to provide such a system and method that eliminate ricochet effects within the structure.
 These and other objects are achieved by the present invention, a combat training system and method for a structure-intensive setting. The combat training system comprises means for transmitting a first electroluminescent signal representative of a projectile fired at a front of a structure. Typically such a signal will contain data relating to the type of projectile being simulated and the energy carried thereby.
 Means are affixed to the structure's front for detecting the transmitted first signal. Means are also provided for determining from the detected first signal an extent of damage that would be expected to be experienced by the structure. Such a damage extent may include, for example, whether the projectile would be expected to penetrate the structure, how large a hole might be made, and how far inside the structure it would travel.
 Another signal-transmitting means transmit a second electroluminescent signal behind the structure, wherein the second signal is representative of the expected damage extent of the first signal on the structure. For example, if the first signal were experiences as being sufficiently strong to carry the simulated projectile into the structure, the second signal would carry information on interior damage expected.
 Means are also affixed to a target behind the structure's front for detecting the second signal, and means are provided for determining from the detected second signal an effect expected to be experienced by the target. For example, if the target is a person, a probability of injury or death is calculated by the system.
 The system accurately simulates shooting through a wall or other generally solid structure with a weapon that is simulated by, for example, a laser transmitter, with a specific embodiment intended for simulating military operations in urban terrain.
 The features that characterize the invention, both as to organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages thereof, will be better understood from the following description used in conjunction with the accompanying drawing. It is to be expressly understood that the drawing is for the purpose of illustration and description and is not intended as a definition of the limits of the invention. These and other objects attained, and advantages offered, by the present invention will become more fully apparent as the description that now follows is read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing.
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the urban combat simulation system.
FIG. 2 illustrates the scanner in use.
FIG. 3 illustrates target fireback.
FIG. 4 illustrates the effect of laser ricochet.
FIG. 5 illustrates the extended coverage device in use.
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the network.
 A description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention will now be presented with reference to FIGS. 1-6.
 The present invention includes a system and method for simulating shooting through a wall or other generally solid structure, and calculating damage done to the structure and to a target within the structure. An exemplary embodiment of the system 10 is illustrated schematically in FIG. 1, wherein the system components are in communication via, for example, a local-area-network (LAN) 11 under control of a processor 12 having software 13 resident thereon and in communication with output devices such as a monitor 14 and printer 15 and an input device such as a keyboard 16 and pointing device such as a mouse 17.
 In the embodiment of FIG. 1, a plurality of troops 90 are inside a structure comprising a building 18 having a front wall 19 that has a composition the characteristics of which are resident in the processor 12. Another troop 91 is in an adjoining room 20 at the back of the building 18.
 A simulation of an attack on the building 19 includes inputting to the processor 12 a weapon type that is to be fired upon the building's front wall 19. Alternatively, an actual simulated weapon 21 is used by an attack troop 92. The characteristics of the weapon 21 are stored in the processor 12 and are correlated with a signal that is to be delivered by an eye-safe laser transmitter 22 to the front wall 19. In addition to the weapon type, the user may input a plurality of firings by the same weapon.
 The front wall 19 comprises a laser-beam-sensitive array of detectors 23, which provide hit and position information to the processor 12. This information is relayed as an electrical signal to a decoder 24, which may be positioned inside the building 18, although this is not intended as a limitation. The decoder 24 contains a processor 25 having a routine resident thereon for calculating from the electrical signal and known data a probable extent of damage that is expected to the wall 19, based upon the composition of the wall 19, the position and number of hits, and the weapon and ammunition type. The decoder 24 is also adapted to simulate different fields of effectiveness for each weapon type or for an amount of a room to be destroyed by a particular weapon's impact. In addition to the composition of the wall 19, the decoder 24 also is adapted to simulate differences in the building's reinforcement levels and changes in extent of damage depending upon the reinforcement. The damage extent probability can be altered within the decoder 24 to simulate various wall types from light to heavy reinforced walls. The decoder 24 can also have interfaced thereto a plurality of detector arrays 23. In a particular embodiment, for example, four arrays 23 (see FIG. 6) are interfaced to the decoder 24 for permitting signals impinging on all four walls of a building 18 to be detected.
 As exemplary input for scan and detection criteria, Table 1 lists various weapon types recognized by a particular embodiment of the detector array 23. NE denotes “no effect.” From these data it may be seen that each different weapons creates a varying damage and scan width within the building.
 In electronic communication with the decoder 24 and affixed within the interior of the building 18 on the inner face of the front wall 19 is a scanner 26. The scanner 26 provides a multidirected, variable scan the characteristics of which are dependent upon the calculated probable extent of damage from the decoder 24. The scanner 26 comprises an eye-safe laser transmitter 27 that simulates variations in expected effects of the attack such as kill percentages and coverage areas in accordance with the identified projectile damage characteristics. The scanner 26 may be mounted along the inside of wall 19 as shown FIG. 1, or alternatively, in a corner, as shown in FIG. 2.
 The scanner 26 comprises a “smart” system in exerting control the transmitter 27 scanned sensor area or adjusts the scanned laser output beam width with respect to a received coded message dependent upon the results relayed by the decoder 24. The scan direction is controlled, as are the number of energy bursts transmitted at each “dwell time” during the scan. The number of bursts is related to the probability of a “kill” along the scanned area. The scanner 26 is adapted to simulate wide-dispersion impacts by spreading the impact area with an appropriate beam scan dependent upon the predetermined weapon dispersion. In order to randomize the output, partial scans may have random start/stop points determined by the transmitter 27 and a full scan of approximately 160°, although this is not intended as a limitation.
 The troops 90 in the building 18 each wear a detector 28 sensitive to the scanner laser 27 energy bursts, which are interpreted as projectile hits. Each time a troop detector 28 registers a hit, this information is relayed to the processor 12 for tallying. The detector 28 is typically configured for draping over a human body, such as a vest.
 The system 10 also has the capability of providing for fire from an opposing troop 92 within the building 18 to a target troop 90 (FIG. 3). The element is provided within the scanner 26, which can be directed to direct energy where the opposing troop 92, typically a dummy in a training environment, would be capable of firing.
 As another feature, the system 10 can account for laser ricochet within the building 18 (FIG. 4) with an automatic sensitivity adjustment system (ASAS). This feature is provided by the scanner 26 outputting a special code and continuously sweeping the building 18 for reducing the sensitivity of the troop detectors 28 within the building 18. By reducing the sensitivity, the simulated laser “bullets” (bursts) ricocheting off the walls (beam 29→reflected beam 29′) and contents of the building 18, which have lower energy following the ricochet, do not count as “hits”; rather, the laser 27 burst at a higher energy level must impact a troop 90 directly to achieve a “hit.”
 The ASAS system comprises a room entry beacon transmitter 30 and a dynamic, sensitivity-adjustable detector, along with interface codes for system integration. The beacon transmitter 30 may operate by either an optical (e.g., infrared) link providing sequential laser pulsing or an rf (e.g., 916.5 MHZ) link, and the detector comprises part of the troop detector 28. Sensitivity control therefore may be achieved by optical or rf control, depending upon the type of beacon transmitter 30 selected. When the beacon transmitter 30 signal ceases to be received by the detector 28, the sensitivity automatically reverts to the higher (outdoor) level.
 Signals from the beacon transmitter 30 can also be used to associate troops 90 with the building 18, with the processor 12 being able to log entry time and correlate that time with the room conditions. In addition, an audible alarm 31 may be activated by the signal from the beacon transmitter 30, alerting the troop 90 that he/she has reached a particular location. Further, a signal from the beacon transmitter 30 may be used to indicate if a predetermined perimeter has been breached by a troop 90. The processor 12 can then log the particular troop 90 and time of the breach.
 As shown in FIG. 1, an adjacent room 20 may also contain personnel 91, and, although the scanner laser 27 transmission could not reach this room 20, in actual practice damage may be experienced there. Therefore, an additional element of the present invention comprises an extended coverage device 29 (ECD) that is mounted, for example, in a corner of the room 20 or hallway, as shown in FIG. 5. In a preferred embodiment the ECD comprises a miniaturized, nonscanning, wide-angle laser transmitter that repeats the signal of the scanner laser 27 isotropically. In this mode the troops 91 are showered with hits even though they are out of the direct path of the initial projectile.
 In a preferred embodiment the LAN 11 for use with the system 10 of the present invention comprises an RS 422 control link that interconnects a command and control center or computer controlling data collection in a building 18 with sensor devices 23,28 (FIG. 6). The LAN 11 interfaces a command center to allow triggering of the transmitters 22,27 directly and altering of all aspects of the damage parameters used for the array and scanner action. The LAN 11 also passes indirect fire engagements from a command center to the affected rooms, triggering the rooms' scanners 26. Further, the LAN 11 provides a capability to pass battle damage assessments, weapon type, and troop ID from the decoders 24 to the command center.
 It may be appreciated by one skilled in the art that additional embodiments may be contemplated, including a similar system and method adapted for game settings (e.g., “laser tag”).
 In the foregoing description, certain terms have been used for brevity, clarity, and understanding, but no unnecessary limitations are to be implied therefrom beyond the requirements of the prior art, because such words are used for description purposes herein and are intended to be broadly construed. Moreover, the embodiments of the apparatus illustrated and described herein are by way of example, and the scope of the invention is not limited to the exact details of construction.
 Having now described the invention, the construction, the operation and use of preferred embodiments thereof, and the advantageous new and useful results obtained thereby, the new and useful constructions, and reasonable mechanical equivalents thereof obvious to those skilled in the art, are set forth in the appended claims.