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Publication numberUS20030071999 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/243,165
Publication dateApr 17, 2003
Filing dateSep 11, 2002
Priority dateFeb 10, 2000
Also published asEP1259838A1, EP1259838A4, US6937338, US7092098, US7119902, US20010038452, US20040150825, US20060077389, WO2001059490A1, WO2001059490A9
Publication number10243165, 243165, US 2003/0071999 A1, US 2003/071999 A1, US 20030071999 A1, US 20030071999A1, US 2003071999 A1, US 2003071999A1, US-A1-20030071999, US-A1-2003071999, US2003/0071999A1, US2003/071999A1, US20030071999 A1, US20030071999A1, US2003071999 A1, US2003071999A1
InventorsMatt Beaumont
Original AssigneeLight And Sound Design Ltd.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Calibration for optical filter
US 20030071999 A1
Abstract
Calibrating each of a plurality of driven optical filters. The color parameters of the driven optical filters are characterized for the individual optical filter. These color parameters are used as calibration data to calibrate more standard information.
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Claims(33)
What is claimed is:
1. An apparatus, comprising:
an optical device including an optical filter having characteristics that vary across a gradient axis thereof; and
a memory unit, storing calibration data for the specific optical filter, which calibration data relates to optical characteristics which are individual to the specific optical filter in said optical device, and which affects the way said optical filter is used.
2. An apparatus as in claim 1, further comprising an optical source, producing optical energy along an optical axis thereof, said optical axis intersecting said gradient axis of said optical filter.
3. An apparatus as in claim 2, further comprising a filter moving element, which moves said filter to change a position of the gradient axis that intersects said optical axis and thereby change a characteristic of filtering, wherein said filter moving element is responsive to said calibration data.
4. An apparatus as in claim 1, wherein said filter is round and said gradient axis extends around a circumference of said filter.
5. An apparatus as in claim 3, wherein said filter moving element includes a motor, and servo electronics driving the motor, said servo electronics including a memory table which includes a list of specified colors, and positions for the specified colors, and said positions include said calibration data.
6. An apparatus as in claim 5, wherein said optical filter includes a position marking, marking a specified point on the optical filter.
7. An apparatus as in claim 5, wherein said calibration data includes a table of points indicating a specified position in a cut on curve.
8. An apparatus as in claim 7, wherein said specified position is a 50 percent position.
9. A lighting apparatus, comprising:
an optical source, projecting light along an optical axis;
an optical filter, having an optical characteristic that varies according to a parameter thereof, located in a position intersecting said optical axis, and such that the parameter can be varied on said optical axis;
a controllable motor, coupled to move said optical filter to vary said parameter relative to said optical axis; and
a controller for said motor, said controller including an indication of specified colors on said optical filter, and specified parameter values for said colors, said specified parameter values including data which is specific to the individual optical filter.
10. An apparatus as in claim 9, wherein said controller includes a lookup table with a plurality of parameter values related to color values.
11. An apparatus as in claim 9, wherein said parameter includes a position on said filter represented by a gradient axis, wherein said gradient axis intersects said optical axis, and said controllable motor moves said optical filter to move a position of intersection between said gradient axis and said optical axis based on said parameter values in said controller.
12. An apparatus as in claim 11, wherein said controller includes a memory table having a plurality of position values, related to color values, said position values including calibration data which is specific to the individual filter.
13. An apparatus as in claim 11, wherein said optical filter includes a hub which contains the filter, and which includes a position detecting device which sets a specified position of the hub.
14. A method, comprising:
forming an optical filter assembly having an optical characteristic that varies according to a parameter thereof;
using an optical device to form information about said optical characteristic on the optical filter, and to obtain information which is individual for each specific optical filter; and
using said information which is individual for each specific optical filter to modify a profile used to move said optical filter.
15. A method as in claim 14, wherein said profile used to move said optical filter is a profile that drives a motor.
16. A method as in claim 14, wherein said using an optical device comprises using a spectrophotometer to scan a region of the filter to form a set of data indicating transmittances as a function of wavelength.
17. A method as in claim 16, further comprising analyzing said data to find a specified point in a slope curve formed by said data, said specified point forming said information which is individual to each specific optical filter.
18. A method as in claim 17, wherein said specified point in said slope curve is at 50 percent of the cut on point.
19. A method as in claim 17, wherein said specified point in said slope curve is a value that allows any color at any point in the filter to be represented by a single value.
20. A method as in claim to 14, wherein said optical device has a first aperture which is different than a second aperture at which said optical filter will be used.
21. A method as in claim 20, further comprising compensating for an aperture mixing effect caused by said different aperture.
22. A method as in claim 21, wherein said compensating comprises determining values at different scans in the first aperture, and averaging said values over said second aperture.
23. A method as in claim 22, wherein said optical filter assembly is substantially round, and said determining values comprises determining radial segment values.
24. A method as in claim 22, wherein said determining values comprises determining a first area of the segment encompassed by said first aperture, and determining a proportion of said first area within the second area represented by an area of said second aperture.
25. A method as in claim 22, wherein said compensating comprises determining an area of the first aperture and an area of the second aperture, and a ratio between said areas, and weighting a value of said first aperture according to said ratio.
26. A method, comprising:
projecting light along an optical axis;
placing an optical filter assembly along said optical axis in a location such that a position of said optical filter assembly on said optical axis causes a different optical color effect to be caused by said optical filter assembly;
moving said optical filter assembly with the motor;
setting a memory map for said motor which is common for each of a plurality of different optical filter assemblies, and which relates positions on said motor to different colors for said each of said plurality of different optical filter assemblies; and
changing said memory map using individual data which is specific for each individual optical filter assembly.
27. A method as in claim 26, wherein said changing comprises determining individual features of said optical filter assembly, and color transmittances of said optical filter assembly, forming data indicative of said individual features, and using said data to change said memory map.
28. A method as in claim 27, wherein said forming data comprises determining a specified point in a slope curve for each of a plurality of areas which is effective to allow characterization of the color of any point in the filter as represented by a single value.
29. A method as in claim 28, wherein said specified point in the slope curve is 50 percent of the cut on value.
30. A method as in claim 27, wherein said determining individual features, comprises scanning the filter to determine transmittances of the filter at different locations, producing a map indicating specified cut on points as functions of positions in said filter, compensating for a difference in apertures between said scanning and an aperture of the light projected along the optical axis, and using compensated data to change said memory map.
31. A method, comprising:
forming a plurality of optical devices including optical filters with characteristics that vary along a gradient axis thereof;
calibrating said plurality of optical filters to determine color characteristics thereof and forming calibration data indicative of said calibrating; and
commanding each of said plurality of optical devices to produce the same color, and using said calibration data in each of said optical devices to ensure that each of said optical devices produces the same color.
32. An apparatus, comprising:
an optical lamp, projecting light along an optical axis, said light having a first aperture size;
a color filter, having a projection area located along said optical axis, said projection be area located along a gradient axis of said color filter, and said color filter having a characteristic whereby color projected by the color filter varies along said gradient axis;
a motor, connected to move the color filter, into locations such that different areas of said gradient axis are presented to said optical axis; and
a motor controlling element, including a servo mechanism which drives said motor, and stored data which represents a position of said color filter that corresponds to a specified color, said data including calibration data which is individual and specific to the color filter associated with said motor controlling element.
33. A method, comprising:
forming a plurality of optical devices including optical filters with characteristics that vary along a gradient axis thereof;
calibrating said plurality of optical filters using a device that has a first aperture to determine color characteristics thereof and forming calibration data indicative of said calibrating;
compensating said calibration data for a difference between said first aperture, and a second aperture that will be used to project light using said plurality of optical devices; and
using the compensated calibration data to commanding each of said plurality of optical devices to produce specified colors.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

[0001] This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/778,242, filed Feb. 6, 2001, which claims benefit of U.S. provisional application serial No. 60/181,525, filed Feb. 10, 2000.

BACKGROUND

[0002] Different kinds of optical filters are known. Optical filters can be formed by coating a blank to form an optical filter which has different characteristics in different locations of the filter.

[0003] Examples of such filters are found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,426,576. In these optical filters, the amount of color saturation may vary based on the distance along a gradient axis. The gradient axis can be a linear gradient axis, or a circumferential gradient axis, in this patent. Also, two filters can be used together to form a cross fader.

[0004] Different kinds of coated optical filters are also known. In general, these coated optical filters may have characteristics that vary based on the amount of the coating.

SUMMARY

[0005] The present application teaches a system which enables consistent color from each of a plurality of luminaires, each of which use a coated optical filter.

[0006] According to the present application, a special technique of calibration is described for an optical filter which has characteristics that vary based a parameter of the optical filter, e.g. color that changes along a gradient axis.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

[0007] These and other aspects will now be described in detail, with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein:

[0008]FIG. 1 shows a block diagram of the luminaire system;

[0009]FIG. 2 shows a flow diagram of forming the filters;

[0010]FIG. 3 shows a diagram of rotation compensation for the filter characterization.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

[0011]FIG. 1 shows a system in which a light transmission device 90 including a lamp 10 and reflector 11 is caused to transmit light along an optical axis 12. Two color filters 14 and 15 are placed along the optical axis. Each of the color filters, such as 14, may include an alignment mark 125. The alignment mark 125 may include, for example, a physical hole in the filter. The alignment mark allows the system to determine a set point in the filter, for example the beginning of a certain color spectrum. The filters are coated with a varying amount of filtering medium, so that different areas on the filter produce a different color effect.

[0012] The two color filters can be moved relative to one another by the motors SM1 and SM2. By moving the color filters, the degree of saturation changes, and hence the color output changes. The motors SM1 and SM2 are controlled by a controller 100. The controller 100 operates according to a prestored program which may be stored in its memory 110.

[0013] According to the present system, each luminaire 99 should, on cue, produce the same color. This is done according to the present system by calibrating each of the filters 14, 15 in each luminaire 99 based on a reference standard. The calibration allows each luminaire to know an exact position of the filter that produces a specific color effect even if there are positional and/or color differences between the filters.

[0014] The system used herein may use a parametric color filter of the type described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,426,576. Alternatively, any other kind of filter that has characteristics that vary according to a parameter of the filter, here a distance along a gradient axis, may be compensated using this system.

[0015] No two filters, in general, will be exactly the same. One technique used herein is to provide tight tolerances on certain aspects of the filter, and allow other aspects of the filter to be corrected by the calibration process. For example, spectral form, radiality, start and end points may be tightly controlled. Other parameters such as relationship of the aperture hole to the coating edge, and linearity, may be more loosely controlled.

[0016] In addition to manufacturing differences in the filter itself, another source of errors in the filters may involve the combining of the filters 14, 15 with the hub that carries the filters shown as 121. In this embodiment, the hub includes a magnet 123 which is used to set a ‘home’ position of the filter relative to the optical axis 12 of the luminaire 99. In assembling the filters, a jig may align the center of the magnet 123 to the aperture hole in the filter. Errors in this assembly may arise, for example due to the physics of the way the manufacturing jig mounts the devices. The jig can not have too tight a fit in the aperture hole, because of the fragile nature of certain filters. For example, certain filters may be manufactured from Vycor (™); a form of fused silica manufactured by Corning, Inc. Other sources of manufacture and assembly errors may be also be expected. In general, this may provide an error up to plus or minus 0.5 degrees.

[0017] The calibration operation is shown in FIG. 2. This calibration operation may be carried out on a test jig for example. At 200, the parametric color filter is assembled using the jig. As described above, this is done using the best possible accuracy, although it should be understood that certain errors will inevitably occur.

[0018] In order to calibrate each filter, the filters must first be characterized. 210 shows scanning the coated area of the filter at intervals. The scanning can use an ultraviolet or visible spectrophotometer to scan the filter at regular intervals. The intervals between scans should remain constant for each filter so that the characteristics of each filter are consistent from filter to filter. Each scan produces a set of data in the form of transmittance as a function of wavelength. The scan is then analyzed to find the location where the value cuts on to 50 percent. The color at any point in the filter can then be represented as a single value.

[0019] This creates a map of points showing the optical characteristics of the filter as a function of the position on the filter. The maps can use a specified point in the slope curve of the data. Here, that specified point is selected to be 50 percent of the cut on value. Other slope points could also be selected. The map essentially becomes a table of 50 percent cut on points and a position where those 50 percent cut on points occur. This may be stored, for example, as a 16-bit encoder count.

[0020] This produces a map at 220 indicating the position of cut on as a function of angular position. Each map is unique to each filter.

[0021] The spectrophotometer which is used may have a maximum aperture of scanning that may be of a different size, usually smaller than, the scanning beam used for the final illumination. For example, the spectrophotometer may have an aperture of 5 mm, while the light beam may scan at 30 mm. Therefore, any individual scan may not be representative of the color that would be produced when the filter is used in a lighting fixture which has a much larger aperture, e.g. 30 mm. At 230, the map is compensated for the aperture mixing affect, essentially compensating for the larger aperture. The correction may be done by calculating an approximate weighted mean cut on for each of a plurality of smaller points in the map. Ideally, angular distances between scans of the filter will be an even fraction of the angle that the aperture occupies.

[0022] An area occupied by each scan in the aperture is first calculated. In the system used according to the preferred mode, the coating is radially measured. The aperture can be divided into radially divided segments centered on the center of rotation as shown in FIG. 3. The center of rotation 300 is used as a common point. A plurality of segments are formed. Each segment has an area A1, A2 . . . An, and a corresponding measured wavelength λ1, for segment a1 and the like.

[0023] Once the area of each of the segments has been determined, the proportion that each segment occupies as compared with the total aperture area is next calculated.

πr2=Σ(A 1 →A 7)

[0024] R e l a t i v e a r e a ( a ) = s e g m e n t e d a r e a ( A ) π r 2

[0025] The diagram of FIG. 3 shows seven segments. Within each segment, there is a specified 50 percent cut on represented by λ. The weighted means of the segments is therefore

Wm=(a 1λ1)+(a 2λ2)+(a 3λ3)+(a 4λ4)+(a 5λ5)+(a 6λ6)+(a 7λ7)

or

[0026] Wm = i = 1 7 ( a i λ 1 )

[0027] This calculation may be repeated for each practical point on the map. That is, each aperture point may be characterized fully within the coated region of the filter.

[0028] By using this technique, most of the filter can be calibrated. The maximum calibrated region of the filter may be 360 degrees minus the angle occupied by the clear region in the angle occupied by one whole aperture. For example, for a 30 degree aperture and a 60 degree clear region, 270 degrees of the filter may be calibrated.

[0029] Once this has been completed, at 240, the map or look up table is distorted to show angular position as a function of cut on. This may be done by interpolation. A set of target values for each filter is determined. These may be, for example, ideal 50 percent cut on values. These target values may be evenly spaced within the 50 percent of the cut on range of the filter's characteristic. Alternatively, they may be tailored in order to increase resolution in certain areas of the filter. While both of these techniques will work, it may be essential that the same target values be used for every like filter, in order to make sure that the calibrated values look the same from each luminaire. The number of target values may be set to less than the number of values in the motor profiling table for a specified region.

[0030] The positions for these target values are then found by interpolation of the data in the distorted map. These positions are used for the calibration process. At 250, the motor module lookup table is re-profiled using this calibration data. Each motor, such as SM1, has an associated lookup table 131 along with servo motor drive electronics. The lookup table may include a specified number of positions, each position corresponding to a color. For example, there may be 49 positions. These 49 positions represent the start and end points of 48 line segments. These form a linear approximation to occur from which the motor moves are profiled in the 270 degree calibrated region of the filter. The profile contains 49, 16-bit positions which extend from 8192 to 57344, and are linearly spaced at one K intervals. The motor profiling operation may move the motor to precise locations by interpolation between points on the table.

[0031] The positions of the target values may also be in the range of 8192-57344. These positions replace the linearly-spaced positions in the motor profiling table. This hence profiles the motor according to the filter map of weighted mean 50 percent cut on values.

[0032] Using this technique allows several fixtures to be sent the same color data by a controlling console. Each filter is moved to its unique position and outputs the same color.

[0033] Although only a few embodiments have been disclosed in detail above, other modifications are possible. For example, the system above has described one specific filter. It should be understood that other filters, including filters on which the gradient axis is linear or two-dimensional could similarly be characterized. The techniques given above of characterizing the radial filter can be extended to linear filters, and in many ways might be more simple in linear filters.

[0034] In addition, while this system has described distorting a lookup table in the servo drive electronics, other ways of using this calibration data should also be understood. For example, the calibration data could be stored as the correction factor for use with existing electronics.

[0035] All such modifications are intended to be encompassed within the following claims, in which:

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7119902Aug 30, 2005Oct 10, 2006Production Resource Group, L.L.C.Calibration for optical filter
Classifications
U.S. Classification356/416
International ClassificationG02B5/20, G02B7/00
Cooperative ClassificationG01J3/02, G02B5/20, G02B26/008, G01J3/12, G01N21/274, G01J3/28, G01J3/0235
European ClassificationG01N21/27E, G01J3/12, G02B26/00W1, G01J3/02, G01J3/28, G01J3/02B10, G02B5/20
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Aug 16, 2007ASAssignment
Owner name: PRODUCTION RESOURCE GROUP, L.L.C., NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PRODUCTION RESOURCE GROUP INC.;REEL/FRAME:019704/0511
Effective date: 20070816
Owner name: PRODUCTION RESOURCE GROUP, L.L.C.,NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:PRODUCTION RESOURCE GROUP INC.;REEL/FRAME:19704/511
Mar 17, 2004ASAssignment
Owner name: PRODUCTION RESOURCE GROUP INC., NEW YORK
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LIGHT AND SOUND DESIGN LTD.;REEL/FRAME:014439/0033
Effective date: 20040216
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:LIGHT AND SOUND DESIGN LTD.;REEL/FRAME:14439/33
Owner name: PRODUCTION RESOURCE GROUP INC.,NEW YORK