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Publication numberUS20030079877 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/128,695
Publication dateMay 1, 2003
Filing dateApr 24, 2002
Priority dateApr 24, 2001
Also published asUS6782947, US7040400, US20030130136, US20030131995, WO2002086029A2, WO2002086029A3
Publication number10128695, 128695, US 2003/0079877 A1, US 2003/079877 A1, US 20030079877 A1, US 20030079877A1, US 2003079877 A1, US 2003079877A1, US-A1-20030079877, US-A1-2003079877, US2003/0079877A1, US2003/079877A1, US20030079877 A1, US20030079877A1, US2003079877 A1, US2003079877A1
InventorsScott Wellington, Ilya Berchenko, Eric de Rouffignac, Thomas Fowler, Robert Ryan, Gordon Shahin, George Stegemeier, Harold Vinegar, Etuan Zhang
Original AssigneeWellington Scott Lee, Berchenko Ilya Emil, De Rouffignac Eric Pierre, Fowler Thomas David, Ryan Robert Charles, Shahin Gordon Thomas, Stegemeier George Leo, Vinegar Harold J., Etuan Zhang
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
In situ thermal processing of a relatively impermeable formation in a reducing environment
US 20030079877 A1
Abstract
A method for treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ may include providing heat from one or more heat sources to a portion of the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heat sources to a selected section of the formation. The transferred heat may pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section. A mixture of hydrocarbons may be produced from the selected section. In some embodiments, a reducing environment may be maintained in a portion of the formation.
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Claims(6856)
What is claimed is:
1. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least one portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 375 C.; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
8. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
9. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation with a valve coupled to at least one of the one or more heat sources.
10. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation with a valve coupled to a production well located in the formation.
11. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C 84B
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
15. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
16. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
17. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
18. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
19. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
20. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
21. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
22. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
23. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
24. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
25. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, and wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
26. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
27. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
28. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
29. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling formation conditions such that the produced mixture comprises a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture greater than about 0.5 bars.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
31. The method of claim 1, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
32. The method of claim 1, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
33. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
34. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
35. The method of claim 1, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
36. The method of claim 34, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
37. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
38. The method of claim 1, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
39. The method of claim 1, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas stream and a liquid stream.
40. The method of claim 1, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas stream and a liquid stream and separating the liquid stream into an aqueous stream and a non-aqueous stream.
41. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises H2S, the method further comprising separating a portion of the H2S from non-condensable hydrocarbons.
42. The method of claim 1, wherein the produced mixture comprises CO2, the method further comprising separating a portion of the CO2 from non-condensable hydrocarbons.
43. The method of claim 1, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein the heating is controlled such that the mixture can be produced from the formation as a vapor.
44. The method of claim 1, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, the method further comprising heating a wellbore of the production well to inhibit condensation of the mixture within the wellbore.
45. The method of claim 1, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein a wellbore of the production well comprises a heater element configured to heat the formation adjacent to the wellbore, and further comprising heating the formation with the heater element to produce the mixture, wherein the mixture comprises a large non-condensable hydrocarbon gas component and H2.
46. The method of claim 1, wherein the minimum pyrolysis temperature is about 270 C.
47. The method of claim 1, further comprising maintaining the pressure within the formation above about 2.0 bars absolute to inhibit production of fluids having carbon numbers above 25.
48. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to control an amount of condensable hydrocarbons within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to increase production of condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein the pressure is increased to increase production of non-condensable hydrocarbons.
49. The method of claim 1, further comprising controlling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to control an API gravity of condensable hydrocarbons within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to decrease the API gravity, and wherein the pressure is increased to reduce the API gravity.
50. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from at least the portion to a selected section of the formation substantially by conduction of heat;
pyrolyzing at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
51. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
52. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
53. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
54. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
55. The method of claim 50, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
56. The method of claim 50, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
57. The method of claim 50, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.0 C. per day during pyrolysis.
58. The method of claim 50, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
59. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
60. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
61. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
62. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
63. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
64. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
65. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
66. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
67. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
68. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
69. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
70. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
71. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
72. The method of claim 50, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
73. The method of claim 50, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
74. The method of claim 73, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
75. The method of claim 50, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
76. The method of claim 50, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
77. The method of claim 50, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
78. The method of claim 50, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
79. The method of claim 50, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
80. The method of claim 79, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
81. The method of claim 50, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
82. The method of claim 50, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
83. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 370 C. such that production of a substantial amount of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 is inhibited;
controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein about 0.1% by weight of the produced mixture to about 15% by weight of the produced mixture are olefins, and wherein an average carbon number of the produced mixture ranges from 1-25.
84. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
85. The method of claim 83, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
86. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
87. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
88. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
89. The method of claim 83, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
90. The method of claim 83, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
91. The method of claim 83, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
92. The method of claim 83, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
93. The method of claim 83, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
94. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
95. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001to about 0.15.
96. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
97. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
98. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
99. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
100. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
101. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
102. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
103. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
104. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
105. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
106. The method of claim 83, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
107. The method of claim 106, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
108. The method of claim 83, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
109. The method of claim 83, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
110. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
111. The method of claim 83, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
112. The method of claim 111, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
113. The method of claim 83, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
114. The method of claim 83, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
115. The method of claim 83, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas stream and a liquid stream.
116. The method of claim 83, further comprising separating the produced mixture into a gas stream and a liquid stream and separating the liquid stream into an aqueous stream and a non-aqueous stream.
117. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises H2S, the method further comprising separating a portion of the H2S from non-condensable hydrocarbons.
118. The method of claim 83, wherein the produced mixture comprises CO2, the method further comprising separating a portion of the CO2 from non-condensable hydrocarbons.
119. The method of claim 83, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein the heating is controlled such that the mixture can be produced from the formation as a vapor.
120. The method of claim 83, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, the method further comprising heating a wellbore of the production well to inhibit condensation of the mixture within the wellbore.
121. The method of claim 83, wherein the mixture is produced from a production well, wherein a wellbore of the production well comprises a heater element configured to heat the formation adjacent to the wellbore, and further comprising heating the formation with the heater element to produce the mixture, wherein the produced mixture comprise a large non-condensable hydrocarbon gas component and H2.
122. The method of claim 83, wherein the minimum pyrolysis temperature is about 270 C.
123. The method of claim 83, further comprising maintaining the pressure within the formation above about 2.0 bars absolute to inhibit production of fluids having carbon numbers above 25.
124. The method of claim 83, further comprising controlling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars absolute, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to control an amount of condensable fluids within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to increase production of condensable fluids, and wherein the pressure is increased to increase production of non-condensable fluids.
125. The method of claim 83, further comprising controlling pressure within the formation in a range from about atmospheric pressure to about 100 bars absolute, as measured at a wellhead of a production well, to control an API gravity of condensable fluids within the produced mixture, wherein the pressure is reduced to decrease the API gravity, and wherein the pressure is increased to reduce the API gravity.
126. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
127. The method of claim 126, wherein controlling the pressure comprises controlling the pressure with a valve coupled to at least one of the one or more heat sources.
128. The method of claim 126, wherein controlling the pressure comprises controlling the pressure with a valve coupled to a production well located in the formation.
129. The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
130. The method of claim 126, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
131. The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
132. The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
133. The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
134. The method of claim 126, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
135. The method of claim 126, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
136. The method of claim 126, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
137. The method of claim 126, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
138. The method of claim 126, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
139. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
140. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
141. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
142. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
143. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
144. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
145. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
146. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
147. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
148. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
149. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
150. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
151. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
152. The method of claim 126, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
153. The method of claim 152, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
154. The method of claim 126, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
155. The method of claim 126, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
156. The method of claim 126, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
157. The method of claim 126, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
158. The method of claim 126, wherein producing the mixture from the formation comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
159. The method of claim 158, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
160. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute;
controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 375 C.; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
161. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
162. The method of claim 159, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
163. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
164. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
165. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
166. The method of claim 159, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
167. The method of claim 159, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
168. The method of claim 159, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
169. The method of claim 159, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
170. The method of claim 159, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
171. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
172. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
173. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
174. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001to about 0.15.
175. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
176. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
177. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
178. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
179. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
180. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
181. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
182. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
183. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
184. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
185. The method of claim 159, wherein controlling the heat further comprises controlling the heat such that coke production is inhibited.
186. The method of claim 159, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
187. The method of claim 186, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
188. The method of claim 159, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
189. The method of claim 159, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
190. The method of claim 159, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
191. The method of claim 159, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
192. The method of claim 159, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
193. The method of claim 192, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
194. The method of claim 159, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
195. The method of claim 159, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
196. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein at least a portion of the mixture is produced during the pyrolysis and the mixture moves through the formation in a vapor phase; and
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section above about 2.0 bars absolute.
197. The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
198. The method of claim 196, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
199. The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
200. The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
201. The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
202. The method of claim 196, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
203. The method of claim 196, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
204. The method of claim 196, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
205. The method of claim 196, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
206. The method of claim 196, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
207. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
208. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
209. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
210. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
211. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
212. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
213. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
214. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
215. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
216. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
217. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
218. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
219. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
220. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
221. The method of claim 196, wherein the pressure is measured at a wellhead of a production well.
222. The method of claim 196, wherein the pressure is measured at a location within a wellbore of the production well.
223. The method of claim 196, wherein the pressure is maintained below about 100 bars absolute.
224. The method of claim 196, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
225. The method of claim 224, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
226. The method of claim 196, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
227. The method of claim 196, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
228. The method of claim 196, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
229. The method of claim 196, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
230. The method of claim 196, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
231. The method of claim 230, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
232. The method of claim 196, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
233. The method of claim 196, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
234. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation above 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity higher than an API gravity of condensable hydrocarbons in a mixture producible from the formation at the same temperature and at atmospheric pressure.
235. The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
236. The method of claim 234, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
237. The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
238. The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
239. The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
240. The method of claim 234, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
241. The method of claim 234, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
242. The method of claim 234, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
243. The method of claim 234, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
244. The method of claim 234, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
245. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
246. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
247. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
248. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
249. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
250. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
251. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
252. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
253. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
254. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
255. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
256. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
257. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
258. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
259. The method of claim 234, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
260. The method of claim 234, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
261. The method of claim 234, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
262. The method of claim 234, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
263. The method of claim 234, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
264. The method of claim 234, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
265. The method of claim 234, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
266. The method of claim 265, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
267. The method of claim 234, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
268. The method of claim 234, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
269. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation to above 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a fluid from the formation, wherein condensable hydrocarbons within the fluid comprise an atomic hydrogen to atomic carbon ratio of greater than about 1.75.
270. The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
271. The method of claim 269, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
272. The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
273. The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
274. The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
275. The method of claim 269, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
276. The method of claim 269, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
277. The method of claim 269, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
278. The method of claim 269, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
279. The method of claim 269, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
280. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
281. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
282. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
283. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
284. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
285. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
286. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
287. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
288. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
289. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
290. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
291. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
292. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
293. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
294. The method of claim 269, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
295. The method of claim 269, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
296. The method of claim 269, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
297. The method of claim 269, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
298. The method of claim 269, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
299. The method of claim 269, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
300. The method of claim 269, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
301. The method of claim 300, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
302. The method of claim 269, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
303. The method of claim 269, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
304. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation to above 2.0 bars absolute; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a higher amount of non-condensable components as compared to non-condensable components producible from the formation under the same temperature conditions and at atmospheric pressure.
305. The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
306. The method of claim 304, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
307. The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
308. The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
309. The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
310. The method of claim 304, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
311. The method of claim 304, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
312. The method of claim 304, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
313. The method of claim 304, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C ν*ρ B
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
314. The method of claim 304, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
315. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
316. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
317. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
318. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
319. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
320. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
321. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
322. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
323. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
324. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
325. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
326. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
327. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
328. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
329. The method of claim 304, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
330. The method of claim 304, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
331. The method of claim 304, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
332. The method of claim 304, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
333. The method of claim 304, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
334. The method of claim 304, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
335. The method of claim 334, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
336. The method of claim 304, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
337. The method of claim 304, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
338. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least about 20% by weight of hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
339. The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
340. The method of claim 338, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
341. The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
342. The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
343. The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
344. The method of claim 338, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
345. The method of claim 338, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
346. The method of claim 338, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
347. The method of claim 338, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
348. The method of claim 338, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
349. The method of claim 338, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected formation such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
350. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
351. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
352. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
353. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
354. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
355. The method of claim 3 38, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
356. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
357. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
358. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
359. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
360. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
361. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
362. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
363. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
364. The method of claim 338, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
365. The method of claim 338, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
366. The method of claim 338, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
367. The method of claim 338, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
368. The method of claim 338, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
369. The method of claim 338, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
370. The method of claim 338, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
371. The method of claim 338, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
372. The method of claim 338, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
373. The method of claim 338, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
374. The method of claim 373, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
375. The method of claim 338, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
376. The method of claim 338, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
377. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least about 20% of hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the mixture comprises a condensable component having an API gravity of at least about 25.
378. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
379. The method of claim 377, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
380. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
381. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
382. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
383. The method of claim 377, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
384. The method of claim 377, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
385. The method of claim 377, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
386. The method of claim 377, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C ν*ρ B
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
387. The method of claim 377, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
388. The method of claim 377, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
389. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
390. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
391. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
392. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
393. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
394. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
395. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
396. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
397. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
398. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
399. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
400. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
401. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
402. The method of claim 377, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
403. The method of claim 377, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2,wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
404. The method of claim 377, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
405. The method of claim 377, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
406. The method of claim 377, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
407. The method of claim 377, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
408. The method of claim 377, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
409. The method of claim 377, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
410. The method of claim 377, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
411. The method of claim 377, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
412. The method of claim 411, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
413. The method of claim 377, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
414. The method of claim 377, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
415. A method of treating a layer of a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the layer, wherein the one or more heat sources are positioned proximate an edge of the layer;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the layer such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
416. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources are laterally spaced from a center of the layer.
417. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources are positioned in a staggered line.
418. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources positioned proximate the edge of the layer can increase an amount of hydrocarbons produced per unit of energy input to the one or more heat sources.
419. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources positioned proximate the edge of the layer can increase the volume of formation undergoing pyrolysis per unit of energy input to the one or more heat sources.
420. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
421. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
422. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
423. The method of claim 415, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
424. The method of claim 415, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
425. The method of claim 415, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.0 C. per day during pyrolysis.
426. The method of claim 415, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of the layer comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
427. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
428. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
429. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
430. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
431. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
432. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
433. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
434. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
435. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
436. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
437. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
438. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
439. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
440. The method of claim 415, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
441. The method of claim 415, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
442. The method of claim 441, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
443. The method of claim 415, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
444. The method of claim 415, further comprising controlling formation conditions, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
445. The method of claim 415, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
446. The method of claim 415, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
447. The method of claim 415, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
448. The method of claim 447, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
449. The method of claim 415, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
450. The method of claim 415, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
451. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
452. The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
453. The method of claim 451, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
454. The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
455. The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
456. The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
457. The method of claim 451, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
458. The method of claim 451, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
459. The method of claim 451, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
460. The method of claim 451, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
461. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
462. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
463. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
464. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
465. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
466. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
467. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
468. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
469. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
470. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
471. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
472. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
473. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
474. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
475. The method of claim 451, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
476. The method of claim 451, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
477. The method of claim 451, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
478. The method of claim 451, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
479. The method of claim 451, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
480. The method of claim 451, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
481. The method of claim 451, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
482. The method of claim 451, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
483. The method of claim 482, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
484. The method of claim 451, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
485. The method of claim 451, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
486. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
controlling API gravity of the produced mixture to be greater than about 25 degrees API by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section:
p=e[−44000/T+67]
where p is measured in psia and T is measured in Kelvin.
487. The method of claim 486, wherein the API gravity of the produced mixture is controlled to be greater than about 30 degrees API, and wherein the equation is:
p=e[−31000/T+51].
488. The method of claim 486, wherein the API gravity of the produced mixture is controlled to be greater than about 35 degrees API, and wherein the equation is:
p=e[−22000/T+38].
489. The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
490. The method of claim 486, wherein controlling the average temperature comprises maintaining a temperature in the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
491. The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
492. The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
493. The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
494. The method of claim 486, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
495. The method of claim 486, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
496. The method of claim 486, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
497. The method of claim 486, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
498. The method of claim 486, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
499. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
500. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
501. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
502. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
503. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
504. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
505. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
506. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics wit h more than two rings.
507. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
508. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
509. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
510. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammnonia.
511. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
512. The method of claim 486, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
513. The method of claim 486, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
514. The method of claim 486, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
515. The method of claim 486, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
516. The method of claim 486, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
517. The method of claim 486, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
518. The method of claim 486, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
519. The method of claim 518, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
520. The method of claim 486, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
521. The method of claim 486, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
522. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat to at least a portion of a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons such that a temperature (T) in a substantial part of the heated portion exceeds 270 C. and hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed within the heated portion of the formation;
controlling a pressure (p) within at least a substantial part of the heated portion of the formation;
wherein pbar>e[(−A/T)+B−2.6744[;
wherein p is the pressure in bars absolute and T is the temperature in degrees K, and A and B are parameters that are larger than 10 and are selected in relation to the characteristics and composition of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and on the required olefin content and carbon number of the pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids; and
producing pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids from the heated portion of the formation.
523. The method of claim 522, wherein A is greater than 14000 and B is greater than about 25 and a majority of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids have an average carbon number lower than 25 and comprise less than about 10% by weight of olefins.
524. The method of claim 522, wherein T is less than about 390 C., p is greater than about 1.4 bars, A is greater than about 44000, and b is greater than about 67, and a majority of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids have an average carbon number less than 25 and comprise less than 10% by weight of olefins.
525. The method of claim 522, wherein T is less than about 390 C., p is greater than about 2 bars, A is less than about 57000, and b is less than about 83, and a majority of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids have an average carbon number lower than about 21.
526. The method of claim 522, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the heated portion is less than about 3 C. per day during pyrolysis.
527. The method of claim 522, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
528. The method of claim 522, wherein heat is transferred substantially by conduction from one or more heat sources to the heated portion of the formation.
529. The method of claim 528, wherein the heat sources comprise heaters in which hydrocarbons are either injected into a heaters or released by the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons adjacent to a heater by an oxidant injected into the heater in or adjacent to which the combustion occurs and wherein at least part of the produced combustion gases are vented to surface via the heater in which the combustion occurs.
530. The method of claim 522, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture flowing through the formation is greater than 0.5 bars.
531. The method of claim 530, further comprising, hydrogenating a portion of the produced pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen and heating the fluids with heat from hydrogenation.
532. The method of claim 522, wherein the substantially gaseous pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids are produced from a production well, the method further comprising heating a wellbore of the production well to inhibit condensation of the hydrocarbon fluids within the wellbore.
533. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
controlling a weight percentage of olefins of the produced mixture to be less than about 20% by weight by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section:
p=e[−57000/T+83]
where p is measured in psia and T is measured in Kelvin.
534. The method of claim 533, wherein the weight percentage of olefins of the produced mixture is controlled to be less than about 10% by weight, and wherein the equation is:
p=e[−16000/T+28].
535. The method of claim 533, wherein the weight percentage of olefins of the produced mixture is controlled to be less than about 5% by weight, and wherein the equation is:
p=e[−12000/T+22].
536. The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
537. The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
538. The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
539. The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
540. The method of claim 533, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
541. The method of claim 533, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
542. The method of claim 541, wherein controlling an average temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
543. The method of claim 533, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 3.0 C. per day during pyrolysis.
544. The method of claim 533, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
545. The method of claim 533, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
546. The method of claim 533, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
547. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
548. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
549. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
550. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
551. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
552. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
553. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
554. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
555. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
556. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
557. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
558. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
559. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
560. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
561. The method of claim 533, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
562. The method of claim 533, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
563. The method of claim 533, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
564. The method of claim 533, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
565. The method of claim 533, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
566. The method of claim 533, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
567. The method of claim 533, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
568. The method of claim 567, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
569. The method of claim 533, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
570. The method of claim 533, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
571. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
controlling hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 20 of the produced mixture to be less than about 20% by weight by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section:
p=e[−14000/T+25]
where p is measured in psia and T is measured in Kelvin.
572. The method of claim 571, wherein the hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 20 of the produced mixture is controlled to be less than about 15% by weight, and wherein the equation is:
p=e[−18000/T+32]
573. The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
574. The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
575. The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
576. The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
577. The method of claim 571, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
578. The method of claim 571, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
579. The method of claim 578, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
580. The method of claim 571, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
581. The method of claim 571, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
582. The method of claim 571, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
583. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
584. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
585. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
586. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
587. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
588. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
589. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
590. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
591. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
592. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
593. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
594. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
595. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
596. The method of claim 571, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
597. The method of claim 571, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
598. The method of claim 571, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
599. The method of claim 571, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
600. The method of claim 571, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
601. The method of claim 571, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
602. The method of claim 601, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
603. The method of claim 571, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
604. The method of claim 571, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
605. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
controlling an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the produced mixture to be greater than about 1.7 by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section:
p=e[−38000/T+61]
where p is measured in psia and T is measured in Kelvin.
606. The method of claim 605, wherein the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the produced mixture is controlled to be greater than about 1.8, and wherein the equation is:
p=e[−13000/T+24]
607. The method of claim 605, wherein the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the produced mixture is controlled to be greater than about 1.9, and wherein the equation is:
p=e[−8000/T+18]
608. The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
609. The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
610. The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
611. The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
612. The method of claim 605, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
613. The method of claim 605, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
614. The method of claim 613, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
615. The method of claim 605, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
616. The method of claim 605, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
617. The method of claim 605, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
618. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
619. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
620. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
621. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
622. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
623. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
624. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
625. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
626. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
627. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
628. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
629. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
630. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia
631. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
632. The method of claim 605, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
633. The method of claim 605, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
634. The method of claim 605, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
635. The method of claim 605, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
636. The method of claim 605, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
637. The method of claim 605, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
638. The method of claim 605, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
639. The method of claim 638, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
640. The method of claim 605, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
641. The method of claim 605, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
642. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least one portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
controlling a pressure-temperature relationship within at least the selected section of the formation by selected energy input into the one or more heat sources and by pressure release from the selected section through wellbores of the one or more heat sources; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
643. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
644. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources.
645. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
646. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
647. The method of claim 642, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
648. The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling the pressure-temperature relationship by controlling a rate of removal of fluid from the formation.
649. The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
650. The method of claim 642, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
651. The method of claim 642, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
652. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
653. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
654. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
655. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
656. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
657. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
658. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
659. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
660. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
661. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
662. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
663. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
664. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
665. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
666. The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
667. The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of hydrocarbon fluids and H2, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
668. The method of claim 642, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
669. The method of claim 642, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
670. The method of claim 642, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
671. The method of claim 642, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
672. The method of claim 642, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
673. The method of claim 642, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
674. The method of claim 642, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
675. The method of claim 674, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
676. The method of claim 642, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
677. The method of claim 642, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
678. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, wherein formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
679. The method of claim 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with an electrical heater.
680. The method of claim 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with a surface burner.
681. The method of claim 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with a flameless distributed combustor.
682. The method of claim 678, wherein heating a selected volume comprises heating with at least one natural distributed combustor.
683. The method of claim 678, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected volume of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
684. The method of claim 678, further comprising controlling the heating such that an average heating rate of the selected volume is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
685. The method of claim 678, wherein a value for Cνis determined as an average heat capacity of two or more samples taken from the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons.
686. The method of claim 678, wherein heating the selected volume comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
687. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
688. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
689. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
690. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
691. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
692. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
693. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
694. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
695. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
696. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
697. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
698. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
699. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
700. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer
701. The method of claim 678, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected volume of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
702. The method of claim 678, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation comprising condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
703. The method of claim 678, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
704. The method of claim 678, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
705. The method of claim 678, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
706. The method of claim 678, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated volume to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the volume; and
heating a portion of the volume with heat from hydrogenation.
707. The method of claim 678, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
708. The method of claim 678, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
709. The method of claim 708, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
710. The method of claim 678, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
711. The method of claim 678, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
712. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
controlling heat output from the one or more heat sources such that an average heating rate of the selected section rises by less than about 3 C. per day when the average temperature of the selected section is at, or above, the temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
713. The method of claim 712, wherein controlling heat output comprises:
raising the average temperature within the selected section to a first temperature that is at or above a minimum pyrolysis temperature of hydrocarbons within the formation;
limiting energy input into the one or more heat sources to inhibit increase in temperature of the selected section; and
increasing energy input into the formation to raise an average temperature of the selected section above the first temperature when production of formation fluid declines below a desired production rate.
714. The method of claim 712, wherein controlling heat output comprises:
raising the average temperature within the selected section to a first temperature that is at or above a minimum pyrolysis temperature of hydrocarbons within the formation;
limiting energy input into the one or more heat sources to inhibit increase in temperature of the selected section; and
increasing energy input into the formation to raise an average temperature of the selected section above the first temperature when quality of formation fluid produced from the formation falls below a desired quality.
715. The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section.
716. The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
717. The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
718. The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
719. The method of claim 712, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
720. The method of claim 712, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
721. The method of claim 712, wherein the heat is controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.5 C. per day during pyrolysis.
722. The method of claim 712, wherein the heat is controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
723. The method of claim 712, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density.
724. The method of claim 712, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
725. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
726. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
727. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, wherein the condensable hydrocarbons have an olefin content less than about 2.5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein the olefin content is greater than about 0.1% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons.
728. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
729. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.10 and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
730. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.05 and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
731. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
732. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
733. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
734. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
735. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
736. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
737. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
738. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
739. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia
740. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
741. The method of claim 712, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
742. The method of claim 712, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
743. The method of claim 712, wherein a partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
744. The method of claim 712, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
745. The method of claim 712, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
746. The method of claim 712, further comprising:
providing H2 to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
747. The method of claim 712, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
748. The method of claim 712, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
749. The method of claim 748, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
750. The method of claim 712, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
751. The method of claim 712, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
752. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; to heat a selected section of the formation to an average temperature above about 270 C.;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation;
controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 3 C. per day during pyrolysis; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
753. The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
754. The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
755. The method of claim 752, further comprising supplying electricity to the electrical heaters substantially during non-peak hours.
756. The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
757. The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
758. The method of claim 752, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
759. The method of claim 752, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
760. The method of claim 752, wherein the heat is further controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 3 C./day until production of condensable hydrocarbons substantially ceases.
761. The method of claim 752, wherein the heat is further controlled that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.5 C. per day during pyrolysis.
762. The method of claim 752, wherein the heat is further controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
763. The method of claim 752, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C ν*ρB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density.
764. The method of claim 752, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
765. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
766. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
767. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
768. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
769. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
770. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
771. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
772. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
773. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
774. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
775. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
776. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
777. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
778. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
779. The method of claim 752, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
780. The method of claim 752, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
781. The method of claim 780, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
782. The method of claim 752, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
783. The method of claim 752, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
784. The method of claim 752, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
785. The method of claim 752, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
786. The method of claim 752, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
787. The method of claim 786, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
788. The method of claim 752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
789. The method of claim 752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
790. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation through at least one production well;
monitoring a temperature at or in the production well; and
controlling heat input to raise the monitored temperature at a rate of less than about 3 C. per day.
791. The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
792. The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
793. The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
794. The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
795. The method of claim 790, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
796. The method of claim 790, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
797. The method of claim 790, wherein the heat is controlled such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
798. The method of claim 790, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density.
799. The method of claim 790, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
800. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
801. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
802. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
803. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
804. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
805. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
806. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
807. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
808. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
809. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
810. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
811. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
812. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
813. The method of claim 790, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
814. The method of claim 790, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
815. The method of claim 814, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
816. The method of claim 790, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
817. The method of claim 790, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
818. The method of claim 790, further comprising:
providing H2 to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
819. The method of claim 790, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
820. The method of claim 790, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
821. The method of claim 820, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
822. The method of claim 790, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
823. The method of claim 790, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
824. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support oxidation of hydrocarbons within the portion, wherein the portion is located substantially adjacent to a wellbore;
flowing an oxidant through a conduit positioned within the wellbore to a heat source zone within the portion, wherein the heat source zone supports an oxidation reaction between hydrocarbons and the oxidant;
reacting a portion of the oxidant with hydrocarbons to generate heat; and
transferring generated heat substantially by conduction to a pyrolysis zone of the formation to pyrolyze at least a portion of the hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone.
825. The method of claim 824, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises raising a temperature of the portion above about 400 C.
826. The method of claim 824, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, the method further comprising flowing the oxidant through the critical flow orifices to the heat source zone.
827. The method of claim 824, further comprising removing reaction products from the heat source zone through the wellbore.
828. The method of claim 824, further comprising removing excess oxidant from the heat source zone to inhibit transport of the oxidant to the pyrolysis zone.
829. The method of claim 824, further comprising transporting the oxidant from the conduit to the heat source zone substantially by diffusion.
830. The method of claim 824, further comprising heating the conduit with reaction products being removed through the wellbore.
831. The method of claim 824, wherein the oxidant comprises hydrogen peroxide.
832. The method of claim 824, wherein the oxidant comprises air.
833. The method of claim 824, wherein the oxidant comprises a fluid substantially free of nitrogen.
834. The method of claim 824, further comprising limiting an amount of oxidant to maintain a temperature of the heat source zone less than about 1200 C.
835. The method of claim 824, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises electrically heating the formation.
836. The method of claim 824, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises heating the portion using exhaust gases from a surface burner.
837. The method of claim 824, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises heating the portion with a flameless distributed combustor.
838. The method of claim 824, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
839. The method of claim 824, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the pyrolysis zone is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
840. The method of claim 824, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
841. The method of claim 824, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and
heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation.
842. The method of claim 824, wherein the wellbore is located along strike to reduce pressure differentials along a heated length of the wellbore.
843. The method of claim 824, wherein the wellbore is located along strike to increase uniformity of heating along a heated length of the wellbore.
844. The method of claim 824, wherein the wellbore is located along strike to increase control of heating along a heated length of the wellbore.
845. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidant;
flowing the oxidant into a conduit, and wherein the conduit is connected such that the oxidant can flow from the conduit to the hydrocarbons;
allowing the oxidant and the hydrocarbons to react to produce heat in a heat source zone;
allowing heat to transfer from the heat source zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation to pyrolyze at least a portion of the hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and
removing reaction products such that the reaction products are inhibited from flowing from the heat source zone to the pyrolysis zone.
846. The method of claim 845, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises raising the temperature of the portion above about 400 C.
847. The method of claim 845, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises electrically heating the formation.
848. The method of claim 845, wherein heating the portion of the formation comprises heating the portion using exhaust gases from a surface burner.
849. The method of claim 845, wherein the conduit comprises critical flow orifices, the method further comprising flowing the oxidant through the critical flow orifices to the heat source zone.
850. The method of claim 845, wherein the conduit is located within a wellbore, wherein removing reaction products comprises removing reaction products from the heat source zone through the wellbore.
851. The method of claim 845, further comprising removing excess oxidant from the heat source zone to inhibit transport of the oxidant to the pyrolysis zone.
852. The method of claim 845, further comprising transporting the oxidant from the conduit to the heat source zone substantially by diffusion.
853. The method of claim 845, wherein the conduit is located within a wellbore, the method further comprising heating the conduit with reaction products being removed through the wellbore to raise a temperature of the oxidant passing through the conduit.
854. The method of claim 845, wherein the oxidant comprises hydrogen peroxide.
855. The method of claim 845, wherein the oxidant comprises air.
856. The method of claim 845, wherein the oxidant comprises a fluid substantially free of nitrogen.
857. The method of claim 845, further comprising limiting an amount of oxidant to maintain a temperature of the heat source zone less than about 1200 C.
858. The method of claim 845, further comprising limiting an amount of oxidant to maintain a temperature of the heat source zone at a temperature that inhibits production of oxides of nitrogen.
859. The method of claim 845, wherein heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support oxidation of hydrocarbons within the portion further comprises heating with a flameless distributed combustor.
860. The method of claim 845, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
861. The method of claim 845, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the pyrolysis zone is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
862. The method of claim 845, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
863. The method of claim 845, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
864. The method of claim 845, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and
heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation.
865. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein the portion is located substantially adjacent to an opening in the formation;
providing the oxidizing fluid to a heat source zone in the formation;
allowing the oxidizing gas to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the heat source zone to generate heat in the heat source zone; and
transferring the generated heat substantially by conduction from the heat source zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation.
866. The method of claim 865, further comprising transporting the oxidizing fluid through the heat source zone by diffusion.
867. The method of claim 865, further comprising directing at least a portion of the oxidizing fluid into the opening through orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening.
868. The method of claim 865, further comprising controlling a flow of the oxidizing fluid with critical flow orifices of a conduit disposed in the opening such that a rate of oxidation is controlled.
869. The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit.
870. The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and transferring substantial heat from the oxidation product in the conduit to the oxidizing fluid in the conduit.
871. The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit, wherein a flow rate of the oxidizing fluid in the conduit is approximately equal to a flow rate of the oxidation product in the conduit.
872. The method of claim 865, wherein a conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising removing an oxidation product from the formation through the conduit and controlling a pressure between the oxidizing fluid and the oxidation product in the conduit to reduce contamination of the oxidation product by the oxidizing fluid.
873. The method of claim 865, wherein a center conduit is disposed within an outer conduit, and wherein the outer conduit is disposed within the opening, the method further comprising providing the oxidizing fluid into the opening through the center conduit and removing an oxidation product through the outer conduit.
874. The method of claim 865, wherein the heat source zone extends radially from the opening a width of less than approximately 0.15 m.
875. The method of claim 865, wherein heating the portion comprises applying electrical current to an electric heater disposed within the opening.
876. The method of claim 865, wherein the pyrolysis zone is substantially adjacent to the heat source zone.
877. The method of claim 865, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
878. The method of claim 865, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the pyrolysis zone is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
879. The method of claim 865, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
880. The method of claim 865, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the pyrolysis zone, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
881. The method of claim 865, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and
heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation.
882. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
maintaining an average temperature within the selected section above a minimum pyrolysis temperature and below a vaporization temperature of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 to inhibit production of a substantial amount of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 in the mixture.
883. The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
884. The method of claim 882, wherein maintaining the average temperature within the selected section comprises maintaining the temperature within a pyrolysis temperature range.
885. The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
886. The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
887. The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
888. The method of claim 882, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
889. The method of claim 882, wherein the minimum pyrolysis temperature is greater than about 270 C.
890. The method of claim 882, wherein the vaporization temperature is less than approximately 450 C. at atmospheric pressure.
891. The method of claim 882, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
892. The method of claim 882, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
893. The method of claim 882, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
894. The method of claim 882, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
895. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
896. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
897. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
898. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
899. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
900. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
901. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
902. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
903. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
904. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
905. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
906. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
907. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
908. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
909. The method of claim 882, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
910. The method of claim 882, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
911. The method of claim 910, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
912. The method of claim 882, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
913. The method of claim 882, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
914. The method of claim 882, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
915. The method of claim 882, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
916. The method of claim 915, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
917. The method of claim 882, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
918. The method of claim 882, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
919. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
controlling a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than 25; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
920. The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
921. The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
922. The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
923. The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
924. The method of claim 919, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
925. The method of claim 919, further comprising controlling a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
926. The method of claim 925, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
927. The method of claim 919, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
928. The method of claim 919, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
929. The method of claim 919, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
930. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
931. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
932. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
933. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
934. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
935. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
936. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
937. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
938. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
939. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
940. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
941. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
942. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
943. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
944. The method of claim 919, further comprising controlling the pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
945. The method of claim 919, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
946. The method of claim 945, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
947. The method of claim 919, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
948. The method of claim 919, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
949. The method of claim 919, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
950. The method of claim 919, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
951. The method of claim 950, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
952. The method of claim 919, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
953. The method of claim 919, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
954. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
955. The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
956. The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
957. The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
958. The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
959. The method of claim 954, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
960. The method of claim 954, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
961. The method of claim 954, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
962. The method of claim 954, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
963. The method of claim 954, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
964. The method of claim 954, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
965. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
966. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
967. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
968. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
969. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
970. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
971. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
972. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
973. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
974. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
975. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
976. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
977. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
978. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
979. The method of claim 954, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
980. The method of claim 954, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
981. The method of claim 980, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
982. The method of claim 954, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
983. The method of claim 954, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
984. The method of claim 954, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
985. The method of claim 954, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
986. The method of claim 954, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
987. The method of claim 986, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
988. The method of claim 954, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
989. The method of claim 954, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
990. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a section of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature from at least a first heat source, a second heat source and a third heat source, and wherein the first heat source, the second heat source and the third heat source are located along a perimeter of the section;
controlling heat input to the first heat source, the second heat source and the third heat source to limit a heating rate of the section to a rate configured to produce a mixture from the formation with an olefin content of less than about 15% by weight of condensable fluids (on a dry basis) within the produced mixture; and
producing the mixture from the formation through a production well.
991. The method of claim 990, wherein superposition of heat form the first heat source, second heat source, and third heat source pyrolyzes a portion of the hydrocarbons within the formation to fluids.
992. The method of claim 990, wherein the pyrolysis temperature is between about 270 C. and about 400 C.
993. The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source is operated for less than about twenty four hours a day.
994. The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source comprises an electrical heater.
995. The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source comprises a surface burner.
996. The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source comprises a flameless distributed combustor.
997. The method of claim 990, wherein the first heat source, second heat source and third heat source are positioned substantially at apexes of an equilateral triangle.
998. The method of claim 990, wherein the production well is located substantially at a geometrical center of the first heat source, second heat source, and third heat source.
999. The method of claim 990, further comprising a fourth heat source, fifth heat source, and sixth heat source located along the perimeter of the section.
1000. The method of claim 999, wherein the heat sources are located substantially at apexes of a regular hexagon.
1001. The method of claim 1000, wherein the production well is located substantially at a center of the hexagon.
1002. The method of claim 990, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1003. The method of claim 990, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1004. The method of claim 990, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the section is less than about 3 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1005. The method of claim 990, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1006. The method of claim 990, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1007. The method of claim 990, wherein heating the section of the formation comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1008. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1009. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1010. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
1011. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1012. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1013. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1014. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1015. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1016. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1017. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1018. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1019. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1020. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1021. The method of claim 990, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1022. The method of claim 990, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1023. The method of claim 1022, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1024. The method of claim 990, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1025. The method of claim 990, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1026. The method of claim 990, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1027. The method of claim 990, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1028. The method of claim 990, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1029. The method of claim 1028, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1030. The method of claim 990, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1031. The method of claim 990, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1032. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1033. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1034. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1035. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1036. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1037. The method of claim 1032, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1038. The method of claim 1032, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1039. The method of claim 1038, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1040. The method of claim 1032, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1041. The method of claim 1032, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1042. The method of claim 1032, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1043. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1044. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1045. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1046. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
1047. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1048. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1049. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1050. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1051. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1052. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1053. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1054. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1055. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1056. The method of claim 1032, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1057. The method of claim 1032, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1058. The method of claim 1057, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1059. The method of claim 1032, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1060. The method of claim 1032, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1061. The method of claim 1032, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1062. The method of claim 1032, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1063. The method of claim 1032, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1064. The method of claim 1063, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1065. The method of claim 1032, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1066. The method of claim 1032, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1067. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1068. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1069. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1070. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1071. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1072. The method of claim 1067, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1073. The method of claim 1067, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1074. The method of claim 1073, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1075. The method of claim 1067, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1076. The method of claim 1067, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C 84 B
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1077. The method of claim 1067, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1078. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1079. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1080. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1081. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
1082. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1083. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1084. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1085. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1086. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1087. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1088. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1089. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1090. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1091. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1092. The method of claim 1067, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1093. The method of claim 1067, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1094. The method of claim 1093, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1095. The method of claim 1067, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1096. The method of claim 1067, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1097. The method of claim 1067, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1098. The method of claim 1067, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1099. The method of claim 1067, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1100. The method of claim 1099, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1101. The method of claim 1067, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1102. The method of claim 1067, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1103. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1104. The method of claim 1 103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1105. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1106. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1107. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1108. The method of claim 1103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1109. The method of claim 1103, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1110. The method of claim 1109, wherein controlling the temperature comprises maintaining the temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1111. The method of claim 1103, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1112. The method of claim 1103, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1113. The method of claim 1103, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1114. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1115. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1116. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the non-condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1117. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons is less than about 0.15, and wherein the ratio of ethene to ethane is greater than about 0.001.
1118. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1119. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1120. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1121. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1122. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1123. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1124. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1125. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1126. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1127. The method of claim 1103, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1128. The method of claim 1103, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1129. The method of claim 1128, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1130. The method of claim 1103, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1131. The method of claim 1103, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1132. The method of claim 1 103, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1133. The method of claim 1103, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1134. The method of claim 1103, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1135. The method of claim 1134, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1136. The method of claim 1103, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1137. The method of claim 1103, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1138. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
raising a temperature of a first section of the formation with one or more heat sources to a first pyrolysis temperature;
heating the first section to an upper pyrolysis temperature, wherein heat is supplied to the first section at a rate configured to inhibit olefin production;
producing a first mixture from the formation, wherein the first mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons and H2;
creating a second mixture from the first mixture, wherein the second mixture comprises a higher concentration of H2 than the first mixture;
raising a temperature of a second section of the formation with one or more heat sources to a second pyrolysis temperature;
providing a portion of the second mixture to the second section;
heating the second section to an upper pyrolysis temperature, wherein heat is supplied to the second section at a rate configured to inhibit olefin production; and
producing a third mixture from the second section.
1139. The method of claim 1138, wherein creating the second mixture comprises removing condensable hydrocarbons from the first mixture.
1140. The method of claim 1138, wherein creating the second mixture comprises removing water from the first mixture.
1141. The method of claim 1138, wherein creating the second mixture comprises removing carbon dioxide from the first mixture.
1142. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first pyrolysis temperature is greater than about 270 C.
1143. The method of claim 1138, wherein the second pyrolysis temperature is greater than about 270 C.
1144. The method of claim 1138, wherein the upper pyrolysis temperature is about 500 C.
1145. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the first or second selected section of the formation.
1146. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1147. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1148. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1149. The method of claim 1138, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1150. The method of claim 1138, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first section and the second section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1151. The method of claim 1138, further comprising controlling the heat to the first and second sections such that an average heating rate of the first and second sections is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1152. The method of claim 1138, wherein heating the first and the second sections comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1153. The method of claim 1138, wherein heating the first and second sections comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1154. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1155. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1156. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1157. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1158. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1159. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1160. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1161. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1162. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1163. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1164. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises a non-condensable component, and wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, and wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1165. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1166. The method of claim 1138, wherein the first or third mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1167. The method of claim 1138, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second sections of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1168. The method of claim 1138, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1169. The method of claim 1168, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within a mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1170. The method of claim 1138, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1171. The method of claim 1138, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section; and
heating a portion of the first or second section with heat from hydrogenation.
1172. The method of claim 1138, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1173. The method of claim 1138, wherein producing the first or third mixture comprises producing the first or third mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1174. The method of claim 1173, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1175. The method of claim 1138, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1176. The method of claim 1138, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1177. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced mixture with H2 produced from the formation.
1178. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1179. The method of claim 1177, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1180. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1181. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1182. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1183. The method of claim 1177, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1184. The method of claim 1177, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1185. The method of claim 1177, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1186. The method of claim 1177, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρβis formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1187. The method of claim 1177, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1188. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1189. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1190. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1191. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1192. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1193. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1194. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1195. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1196. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1197. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1198. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1199. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1200. The method of claim 1177, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1201. The method of claim 1177, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1202. The method of claim 1177, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1203. The method of claim 1177, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1204. The method of claim 1177, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1205. The method of claim 1177, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1206. The method of claim 1177, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1207. The method of claim 1206, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1208. The method of claim 1177, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1209. The method of claim 1177, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1210. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation;
producing H2 from the first section of formation;
heating a second section of the formation; and
recirculating a portion of the H2 from the first section into the second section of the formation to provide a reducing environment within the second section of the formation.
1211. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with an electrical heater.
1212. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a surface burner.
1213. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a flameless distributed combustor.
1214. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a natural distributed combustor.
1215. The method of claim 1210, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1216. The method of claim 1210, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the first or second section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1217. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section further comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1218. The method of claim 1210, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1219. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1220. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1221. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1222. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1223. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1224. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1225. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1226. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1227. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1228. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1229. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1230. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1231. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the second section, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1232. The method of claim 1210, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1233. The method of claim 1210, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1234. The method of claim 1233, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within a mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1235. The method of claim 1210, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1236. The method of claim 1210, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the second section with heat from hydrogenation.
1237. The method of claim 1210, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1238. The method of claim 1210, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1239. The method of claim 1238, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1240. The method of claim 1210, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1241. The method of claim 1210, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1242. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation; and
controlling formation conditions such that the mixture produced from the formation comprises condensable hydrocarbons including H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1243. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1244. The method of claim 1242, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1245. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1246. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1247. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1248. The method of claim 1242, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1249. The method of claim 1242, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1250. The method of claim 1242, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1251. The method of claim 1242, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C84 ), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1252. The method of claim 1242, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1253. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1254. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1255. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1256. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1257. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1258. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1259. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1260. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1261. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1262. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1263. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1264. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1265. The method of claim 1242, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1266. The method of claim 1242, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1267. The method of claim 1242, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1268. The method of claim 1242, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1269. The method of claim 1242, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1270. The method of claim 1242, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1271. The method of claim 1242, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1272. The method of claim 1271, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1273. The method of claim 1242, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1274. The method of claim 1242, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1275. The method of claim 1242, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1276. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
maintaining a pressure of the selected section above atmospheric pressure to increase a partial pressure of H2, as compared to the partial pressure of H2 at atmospheric pressure, in at least a majority of the selected section; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1277. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1278. The method of claim 1276, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1279. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1280. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1281. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1282. The method of claim 1276, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1283. The method of claim 1276, further comprising controlling the pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1284. The method of claim 1276, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1285. The method of claim 1276, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1286. The method of claim 1276, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1287. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1288. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1289. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1290. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1291. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1292. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1293. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1294. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1295. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1296. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1297. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1298. The method of claim 1276, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1299. The method of claim 1276, further comprising controlling the pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1300. The method of claim 1276, further comprising increasing the pressure of the selected section, to an upper limit of about 21 bars absolute, to increase an amount of non-condensable hydrocarbons produced from the formation.
1301. The method of claim 1276, further comprising decreasing pressure of the selected section, to a lower limit of about atmospheric pressure, to increase an amount of condensable hydrocarbons produced from the formation.
1302. The method of claim 1276, wherein the partial pressure comprises a partial pressure based on properties measured at a production well.
1303. The method of claim 1276, further comprising altering the pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1304. The method of claim 1276, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1305. The method of claim 1276, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1306. The method of claim 1276, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1307. The method of claim 1276, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1308. The method of claim 1307, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1309. The method of claim 1276, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1310. The method of claim 1276, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1311. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
providing H2 to the formation to produce a reducing environment in at least some of the formation;
producing a mixture from the formation.
1312. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1313. The method of claim 1311, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1314. The method of claim 1311, further comprising separating a portion of hydrogen within the mixture and recirculating the portion into the formation.
1315. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1316. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1317. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1318. The method of claim 1311, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1319. The method of claim 1311, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1320. The method of claim 1311, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1321. The method of claim 1311, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1322. The method of claim 1311, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1323. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1324. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1325. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1326. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1327. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1328. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1329. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1330. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1331. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1332. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1333. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1334. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1335. The method of claim 1311, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1336. The method of claim 1311, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1337. The method of claim 1311, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1338. The method of claim 1311, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1339. The method of claim 1311, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1340. The method of claim 1311, wherein providing hydrogen (H2) to the formation further comprises:
hydrogenating hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1341. The method of claim 1311, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1342. The method of claim 1311, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1343. The method of claim 1342, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1344. The method of claim 1311, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1345. The method of claim 1311, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1346. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
providing H2 to the selected section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the selected section and to heat a portion of the section with heat from the hydrogenation; and
controlling heating of the selected section by controlling amounts of H2 provided to the selected section.
1347. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1348. The method of claim 1346, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1349. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1350. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1351. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1352. The method of claim 1346, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1353. The method of claim 1346, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1354. The method of claim 1346, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1355. The method of claim 1346, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1356. The method of claim 1346, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1357. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1358. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1359. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1360. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1361. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1362. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1363. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1364. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1365. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1366. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1367. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1368. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1369. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1370. The method of claim 1346, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1371. The method of claim 1346, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1372. The method of claim 1371, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1373. The method of claim 1346, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1374. The method of claim 1346, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from a produced mixture into the formation.
1375. The method of claim 1346, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1376. The method of claim 1346, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1377. The method of claim 1376, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1378. The method of claim 1346, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1379. The method of claim 1346, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1380. An in situ method for producing H2 from a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a H2 partial pressure within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1381. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1382. The method of claim 1380, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1383. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1384. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1385. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1386. The method of claim 1380, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1387. The method of claim 1380, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1388. The method of claim 1380, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1389. The method of claim 1380, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1390. The method of claim 1380, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1391. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1392. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1393. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1394. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1395. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1396. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1397. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1398. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1399. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1400. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1401. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1402. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1403. The method of claim 1380, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1404. The method of claim 1380, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1405. The method of claim 1380, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1406. The method of claim 1380, further comprising recirculating a portion of the hydrogen within the mixture into the formation.
1407. The method of claim 1380, further comprising condensing a hydrocarbon component from the produced mixture and hydrogenating the condensed hydrocarbons with a portion of the hydrogen.
1408. The method of claim 1380, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1409. The method of claim 1380, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1410. The method of claim 1409, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1411. The method of claim 1380, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1412. The method of claim 1380, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1413. The method of claim 1380, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1414. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using an atomic hydrogen weight percentage of at least a portion of hydrocarbons in the selected section, and wherein at least the portion of the hydrocarbons in the selected section comprises an atomic hydrogen weight percentage, when measured on a dry, ash-free basis, of greater than about 4.0%; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1415. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1416. The method of claim 1414, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1417. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1418. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1419. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1420. The method of claim 1414, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1421. The method of claim 1414, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1422. The method of claim 1414, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1423. The method of claim 1414, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1424. The method of claim 1414, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1425. The method of claim 1414, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1426. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1427. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1428. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1429. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1430. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1431. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1432. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1433. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1434. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1435. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1436. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1437. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1438. The method of claim 1414, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1439. The method of claim 1414, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1440. The method of claim 1414, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1441. The method of claim 1440, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1442. The method of claim 1414, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1443. The method of claim 1414, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1444. The method of claim 1414, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1445. The method of claim 1414, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1446. The method of claim 1414, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1447. The method of claim 1414, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1448. The method of claim 1414, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1449. The method of claim 1448, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1450. The method of claim 1414, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1451. The method of claim 1414, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1452. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial atomic hydrogen weight percentage of greater than about 4.0%; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1453. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1454. The method of claim 1452, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1455. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1456. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1457. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1458. The method of claim 1452, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1459. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1460. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1461. The method of claim 1452, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1462. The method of claim 1452, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1463. The method of claim 1452, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1464. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1465. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1466. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1467. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1468. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1469. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1470. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1471. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1472. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1473. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1474. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1475. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1476. The method of claim 1452, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1477. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1478. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1479. The method of claim 1478, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1480. The method of claim 1452, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1481. The method of claim 1452, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1482. The method of claim 1452, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1483. The method of claim 1452, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1484. The method of claim 1452, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1485. The method of claim 1452, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1486. The method of claim 1452, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1487. The method of claim 1486, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1488. The method of claim 1452, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1489. The method of claim 1452, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1490. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using a total organic matter weight percentage of at least a portion of the selected section, and wherein at least the portion of the selected section comprises a total organic matter weight percentage, of at least about 5.0%; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1491. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1492. The method of claim 1490, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1493. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1494. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1495. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1496. The method of claim 1490, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1497. The method of claim 1490, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1498. The method of claim 1490, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1499. The method of claim 1490, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1500. The method of claim 1490, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1501. The method of claim 1490, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1502. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1503. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1504. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1505. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1506. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1507. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1508. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1509. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1510. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1511. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1512. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1513. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1514. The method of claim 1490, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1515. The method of claim 1490, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1516. The method of claim 1490, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1517. The method of claim 1516, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1518. The method of claim 1490, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1519. The method of claim 1490, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1520. The method of claim 1490, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1521. The method of claim 1490, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1522. The method of claim 1490, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
The method of claim 1490, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1523. The method of claim 1490, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1524. The method of claim 1523, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1525. The method of claim 1490, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern
1526. The method of claim 1490, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1527. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial total organic matter weight percentage of at least about 5.0%; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1528. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1529. The method of claim 1527, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1530. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1531. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1532. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1533. The method of claim 1527, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1534. The method of claim 1527, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1535. The method of claim 1527, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1536. The method of claim 1527, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1537. The method of claim 1527, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1538. The method of claim 1527, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1539. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1540. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1541. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1542. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1543. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1544. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1545. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1546. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1547. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1548. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1549. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1550. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1551. The method of claim 1527, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1552. The method of claim 1527, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1553. The method of claim 1527, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1554. The method of claim 1553, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1555. The method of claim 1527, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1556. The method of claim 1527, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1557. The method of claim 1527, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1558. The method of claim 1527, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1559. The method of claim 1527, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
The method of claim 1527, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1561. The method of claim 1527, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1562. The method of claim 1561, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1563. The method of claim 1527, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1564. The method of claim 1527, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1565. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of at least a portion of hydrocarbons in the selected section, wherein at least a portion of the hydrocarbons in the selected section comprises an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio greater than about 0.70, and wherein the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio is less than about 1.65; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1566. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1567. The method of claim 1565, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1568. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1569. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1570. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1571. The method of claim 1565, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1572. The method of claim 1565, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1573. The method of claim 1565, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1574. The method of claim 1565, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1575. The method of claim 1565, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1576. The method of claim 1565, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1577. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1578. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1579. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1580. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1581. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1582. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1583. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1584. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1585. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1586. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1587. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1588. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1589. The method of claim 1565, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1590. The method of claim 1565, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1591. The method of claim 1565, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1592. The method of claim 1591, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1593. The method of claim 1565, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1594. The method of claim 1565, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1595. The method of claim 1565, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1596. The method of claim 1565, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1597. The method of claim 1565, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1598. The method of claim 1565, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1599. The method of claim 1565, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1600. The method of claim 1599, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1601. The method of claim 1565, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1602. The method of claim 1565, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1603. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation to pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section;
wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio greater than about 0.70;
wherein the initial atomic hydrogen to carbon ration is less than about 1.65; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1604. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1605. The method of claim 1603, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1606. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1607. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1608. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1609. The method of claim 1603, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1610. The method of claim 1603, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1611. The method of claim 1603, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1612. The method of claim 1603, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1613. The method of claim 1603, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1614. The method of claim 1603, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1615. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1616. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1617. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1618. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1619. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1620. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1621. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1622. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1623. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1624. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1625. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1626. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1627. The method of claim 1603, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1628. The method of claim 1603, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1629. The method of claim 1603, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1630. The method of claim 1629, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1631. The method of claim 1603, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1632. The method of claim 1603, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1633. The method of claim 1603, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1634. The method of claim 1603, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1635. The method of claim 1603, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1636. The method of claim 1603, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1637. The method of claim 1603, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1638. The method of claim 1637, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1639. The method of claim 1603, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1640. The method of claim 1603, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1641. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using a moisture content in the selected section, and wherein at least a portion of the selected section comprises a moisture content of less than about 15% by weight; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1642. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1643. The method of claim 1641, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1644. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1645. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1646. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1647. The method of claim 1641, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1648. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1649. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1650. The method of claim 1641, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1651. The method of claim 1641, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1652. The method of claim 1641, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1653. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1654. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1655. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1656. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1657. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1658. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1659. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1660. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1661. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1662. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1663. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1664. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1665. The method of claim 1641, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1666. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1667. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1668. The method of claim 1667, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1669. The method of claim 1641, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1670. The method of claim 1641, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1671. The method of claim 1641, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1672. The method of claim 1641, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1673. The method of claim 1641, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1674. The method of claim 1641, wherein allowing the heat to transfer further comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1675. The method of claim 1641, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1676. The method of claim 1675, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1677. The method of claim 1641, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern
1678. The method of claim 1641, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1679. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation;
wherein at least a portion of the selected section has an initial moisture content of less than about 15% by weight; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1680. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1681. The method of claim 1679, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1682. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1683. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1684. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1685. The method of claim 1679, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1686. The method of claim 1679, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1687. The method of claim 1679, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1688. The method of claim 1679, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1689. The method of claim 1679, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1690. The method of claim 1679, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1691. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1692. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1693. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1694. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1695. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1696. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1697. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1698. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1699. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1700. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1701. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1702. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1703. The method of claim 1679, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1704. The method of claim 1679, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1705. The method of claim 1679, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1706. The method of claim 1705, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1707. The method of claim 1679, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1708. The method of claim 1679, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1709. The method of claim 1679, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1710. The method of claim 1679, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1711. The method of claim 1679, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1712. The method of claim 1679, wherein allowing the heat to transfer further comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1713. The method of claim 1679, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1714. The method of claim 1713, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1715. The method of claim 1679, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1716. The method of claim 1679, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1717. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation;
wherein the selected section is heated in a reducing environment during at least a portion of the time that the selected section is being heated; and
producing a mixture from the formation.
1718. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1719. The method of claim 1717, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1720. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1721. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1722. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1723. The method of claim 1717, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1724. The method of claim 1717, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1725. The method of claim 1717, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1726. The method of claim 1717, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1727. The method of claim 1717, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1728. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1729. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1730. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1731. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1732. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1733. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1734. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1735. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1736. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1737. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1738. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1739. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1740. The method of claim 1717, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1741. The method of claim 1717, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1742. The method of claim 1717, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1743. The method of claim 1742, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1744. The method of claim 1717, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1745. The method of claim 1717, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1746. The method of claim 1717, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1747. The method of claim 1717, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1748. The method of claim 1717, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1749. The method of claim 1748, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1750. The method of claim 1717, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1751. The method of claim 1717, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1752. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation to produce a mixture from the formation;
heating a second section of the formation; and
recirculating a portion of the produced mixture from the first section into the second section of the formation to provide a reducing environment within the second section of the formation.
1753. The method of claim 1752, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the first section or the second section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1754. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with an electrical heater.
1755. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with a surface burner.
1756. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with a flameless distributed combustor.
1757. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises heating with a natural distributed combustor.
1758. The method of claim 1752, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1759. The method of claim 1752, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the first or the second section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1760. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1761. The method of claim 1752, wherein heating the first or the second section comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1762. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1763. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1764. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1765. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1766. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1767. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1768. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1769. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1770. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1771. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1772. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1773. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1774. The method of claim 1752, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1775. The method of claim 1752, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1776. The method of claim 1752, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1777. The method of claim 1776, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1778. The method of claim 1752, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1779. The method of claim 1752, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section; and
heating a portion of the first or second section with heat from hydrogenation.
1780. The method of claim 1752, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1781. The method of claim 1752, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1782. The method of claim 1781, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1783. The method of claim 1752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1784. The method of claim 1752, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1785. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; and
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that a permeability of a majority of at least a portion of the selected section increases substantially uniformly.
1786. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1787. The method of claim 1785, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1788. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1789. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1790. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1791. The method of claim 1785, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1792. The method of claim 1785, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1793. The method of claim 1785, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1794. The method of claim 1785, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1795. The method of claim 1785, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1796. The method of claim 1785, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1797. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1798. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1799. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1800. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1801. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1802. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1803. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1804. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1805. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1806. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1807. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1808. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1809. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1810. The method of claim 1785, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1811. The method of claim 1785, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1812. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1813. The method of claim 1785, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1814. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1815. The method of claim 1785, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1816. The method of claim 1785, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1817. The method of claim 1785, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1818. The method of claim 1785, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1819. The method of claim 1818, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1820. The method of claim 1785, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1821. The method of claim 1785, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1822. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
controlling the heat to yield at least about 15% by weight of a total organic carbon content of at least some of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons into condensable hydrocarbons.
1823. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1824. The method of claim 1822, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1825. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1826. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1827. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1828. The method of claim 1822, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1829. The method of claim 1822, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1830. The method of claim 1822, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1831. The method of claim 1822, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1832. The method of claim 1822, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1833. The method of claim 1822, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources comprises heating the selected section such that a thermal conductivity of at least a portion of the selected section is greater than about 0.5 W/(m C.).
1834. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1835. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1836. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1837. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1838. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1839. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1840. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1841. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1842. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1843. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1844. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1845. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1846. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1847. The method of claim 1822, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1848. The method of claim 1822, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1849. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1850. The method of claim 1822, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1851. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1852. The method of claim 1822, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1853. The method of claim 1822, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1854. The method of claim 1822, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section to greater than about 100 millidarcy.
1855. The method of claim 1822, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises substantially uniformly increasing a permeability of a majority of the selected section.
1856. The method of claim 1822, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1857. The method of claim 1856, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1858. The method of claim 1822, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1859. The method of claim 1822, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1860. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbonsrelatively impermeable formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
controlling the heat to yield greater than about 60% by weight of hydrocarbons.
1861. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1862. The method of claim 1860, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1863. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1864. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1865. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1866. The method of claim 1860, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1867. The method of claim 1860, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1868. The method of claim 1860, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1869. The method of claim 1860, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1870. The method of claim 1860, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1871. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1872. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1873. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1874. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1875. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1876. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1877. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1878. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1879. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1880. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1881. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1882. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1883. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1884. The method of claim 1860, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1885. The method of claim 1860, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1886. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1887. The method of claim 1860, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1888. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1889. The method of claim 1860, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1890. The method of claim 1860, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1891. The method of claim 1860, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1892. The method of claim 1891, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1893. The method of claim 1860, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1894. The method of claim 1860, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1895. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation to pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the first section and produce a first mixture from the formation;
heating a second section of the formation to pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the second section and produce a second mixture from the formation; and
leaving an unpyrolyzed section between the first section and the second section to inhibit subsidence of the formation.
1896. The method of claim 1895, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the first section or the second section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1897. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with an electrical heater.
1898. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a surface burner.
1899. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a flameless distributed combustor.
1900 The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises heating with a natural distributed combustor.
1901. The method of claim 1895, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1902. The method of claim 1895, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the first or second section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1903. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1904. The method of claim 1895, wherein heating the first section or heating the second section comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1905. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1906. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1907. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1908. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1909. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1910. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1911. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1912. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1913. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1914. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1915. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises a non-condensable component, and wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, and wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1916. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the first or second mixture is ammonia.
1917. The method of claim 1895, wherein the first or second mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1918. The method of claim 1895, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the first or second section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1919. The method of claim 1895, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the first or second mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the first or second mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1920. The method of claim 1895, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the first or second mixture is measured when the first or second mixture is at a production well.
1921. The method of claim 1895, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1922. The method of claim 1895, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the first or second mixture into the formation.
1923. The method of claim 1895, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section, respectively; and
heating a portion of the first or second section, respectively, with heat from hydrogenation.
1924. The method of claim 1895, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1925. The method of claim 1895, wherein producing the first or second mixture comprises producing the first or second mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1926. The method of claim 1925, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1927. The method of claim 1895, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1928. The method of claim 1895, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1929. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation through one or more production wells, wherein the heating is controlled such that the mixture can be produced from the formation as a vapor, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1930. The method of claim 1929, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1931. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation.
1932. The method of claim 1929, further comprising maintaining a temperature within the selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
1933. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1934. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1935. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1936. The method of claim 1929, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1937. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1938. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1939. The method of claim 1929, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C νB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1940. The method of claim 1929, wherein allowing the heat to transfer comprises transferring heat substantially by conduction.
1941. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1942. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1943. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1944. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1945. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1946. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1947. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1948. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1949. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1950. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1951. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1952. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1953. The method of claim 1929, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1954. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1955. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce the mixture, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1956. The method of claim 1955, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1957. The method of claim 1929, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1958. The method of claim 1929, further comprising controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1959. The method of claim 1929, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1960. The method of claim 1929, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1961. The method of claim 1929, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1962. The method of claim 1929, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1963. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the one or more heat sources are disposed within one or more first wells;
allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and
producing a mixture from the formation through one or more second wells, wherein one or more of the first or second wells are initially used for a first purpose and are then used for one or more other purposes.
1964. The method of claim 1963, wherein the first purpose comprises removing water from the formation, and wherein the second purpose comprises providing heat to the formation.
1965. The method of claim 1963, wherein the first purpose comprises removing water from the formation, and wherein the second purpose comprises producing the mixture.
1966. The method of claim 1963, wherein the first purpose comprises heating, and wherein the second purpose comprises removing water from the formation.
1967. The method of claim 1963, wherein the first purpose comprises producing the mixture, and wherein the second purpose comprises removing water from the formation.
1968. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
1969. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise surface burners.
1970. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
1971. The method of claim 1963, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
1972. The method of claim 1963, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
1973. The method of claim 1963, further comprising controlling the heat such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 1.0 C. per day during pyrolysis.
1974. The method of claim 1963, wherein providing heat from the one or more heat sources to at least the portion of the formation comprises:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C vB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
1975. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
1976. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
1977. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
1978. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
1979. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
1980. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
1981. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
1982. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
1983. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
1984. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
1985. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
1986. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
1987. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
1988. The method of claim 1963, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
1989. The method of claim 1963, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture of condensable hydrocarbons and H2, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
1990. The method of claim 1989, wherein the partial pressure of H2 is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
1991. The method of claim 1963, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
1992. The method of claim 1963, further comprising controlling formation conditions, wherein controlling formation conditions comprises recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
1993. The method of claim 1963, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and
heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation.
1994. The method of claim 1963, wherein the produced mixture comprises hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons, the method further comprising hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
1995. The method of claim 1963, wherein producing the mixture comprises producing the mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1996. The method of claim 1995, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
1997. The method of claim 1963, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
1998. The method of claim 1963, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
1999. A method for forming heater wells in a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
forming a first wellbore in the formation;
forming a second wellbore in the formation using magnetic tracking such that the second wellbore is arranged substantially parallel to the first wellbore; and
providing at least one heat source within the first wellbore and at least one heat source within the second wellbore such that the heat sources can provide heat to at least a portion of the formation.
2000. The method of claim 1999, wherein superposition of heat from the at least one heat source within the first wellbore and the at least one heat source within the second wellbore pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within a selected section of the formation.
2001. The method of claim 1999, further comprising maintaining a temperature within a selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
2002. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise electrical heaters.
2003. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise surface burners.
2004. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise flameless distributed combustors.
2005. The method of claim 1999, wherein the heat sources comprise natural distributed combustors.
2006. The method of claim 1999, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
2007. The method of claim 1999, further comprising controlling the heat from the heat sources such that heat transferred from the heat sources to at least the portion of the hydrocarbons is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
2008. The method of claim 1999, further comprising:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C vB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
2009. The method of claim 1999, further comprising allowing the heat to transfer from the heat sources to at least the portion of the formation substantially by conduction.
2010. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
2011. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
2012. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
2013. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
2014. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
2015. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
2016. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
2017. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
2018. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
2019. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
2020. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
2021. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
2022. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
2023. The method of claim 1999, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
2024. The method of claim 2023, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
2025. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
2026. The method of claim 1999, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
2027. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
2028. The method of claim 1999, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the portion to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the formation; and
heating a portion of the formation with heat from hydrogenation.
2029. The method of claim 1999, further comprising:
producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and
hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen.
2030. The method of claim 1999, further comprising producing a mixture in a production well, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
2031. The method of claim 2030, wherein at least about 20 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well.
2032. The method of claim 1999, further comprising forming a production well in the formation using magnetic tracking such that the production well is substantially parallel to the first wellbore and coupling a wellhead to the third wellbore.
2033. The method of claim 1999, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, and wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern.
2034. The method of claim 1999, further comprising providing heat from three or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein three or more of the heat sources are located in the formation in a unit of heat sources, wherein the unit of heat sources comprises a triangular pattern, and wherein a plurality of the units are repeated over an area of the formation to form a repetitive pattern of units.
2035. A method for installing a heater well into a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
forming a bore in the ground using a steerable motor and an accelerometer; and
providing a heat source within the bore such that the heat source can transfer heat to at least a portion of the formation.
2036. The method of claim 2035, further comprising installing at least two heater wells, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heater wells pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within a selected section of the formation.
2037. The method of claim 2035, further comprising maintaining a temperature within a selected section within a pyrolysis temperature range.
2038. The method of claim 2035, wherein the heat source comprises an electrical heater.
2039. The method of claim 2035, wherein the heat source comprises a surface burner.
2040. The method of claim 2035, wherein the heat source comprises a flameless distributed combustor.
2041. The method of claim 2035, wherein the heat source comprises a natural distributed combustor.
2042. The method of claim 2035, further comprising controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure.
2043. The method of claim 2035, further comprising controlling the heat from the heat source such that heat transferred from the heat source to at least the portion of the formation is less than about 1 C. per day during pyrolysis.
2044. The method of claim 2035, further comprising:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heat source, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cv), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and
wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation:
Pwr=h*V*C vB
wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρB is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10 C./day.
2045. The method of claim 2035, further comprising allowing the heat to transfer from the heat source to at least the portion of the formation substantially by conduction.
2046. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25.
2047. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins.
2048. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises non-condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein a molar ratio of ethene to ethane in the non-condensable hydrocarbons ranges from about 0.001 to about 0.15.
2049. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen.
2050. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen.
2051. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur.
2052. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein greater than about 20% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are aromatic compounds.
2053. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 5% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons comprises multi-ring aromatics with more than two rings.
2054. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 0.3% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are asphaltenes.
2055. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 5% by weight to about 30% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are cycloalkanes.
2056. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a non-condensable component, wherein the non-condensable component comprises hydrogen, wherein the hydrogen is greater than about 10% by volume of the non-condensable component, and wherein the hydrogen is less than about 80% by volume of the non-condensable component.
2057. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein greater than about 0.05% by weight of the produced mixture is ammonia.
2058. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises ammonia, and wherein the ammonia is used to produce fertilizer.
2059. The method of claim 2035, further comprising controlling a pressure within at least a majority of a selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute.
2060. The method of claim 2035, further comprising controlling formation conditions to produce a mixture from the formation, wherein a partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars.
2061. The method of claim 2060, wherein the partial pressure of H2 within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well.
2062. The method of claim 2035, further comprising altering a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than about 25.
2063. The method of claim 2035, further comprising producing a mixture from the formation and controlling formation conditions by recirculating a portion of hydrogen from the mixture into the formation.
2064. The method of claim 2035, further comprising:
providing hydrogen (H2) to the at least the heated portion to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the formation; and