US 20030079877 A1 Abstract A method for treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ may include providing heat from one or more heat sources to a portion of the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heat sources to a selected section of the formation. The transferred heat may pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section. A mixture of hydrocarbons may be produced from the selected section. In some embodiments, a reducing environment may be maintained in a portion of the formation.
Claims(6856) 1. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least one portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 375° C.; and producing a mixture from the formation. 2. The method of 3. The method of 4. The method of 5. The method of 6. The method of 7. The method of 8. The method of 9. The method of 10. The method of 11. The method of 12. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation: Pwr=h*V*C _{84}*ρ_{B } wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρ _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 13. The method of 14. The method of 15. The method of 16. The method of 17. The method of 18. The method of 19. The method of 20. The method of 21. The method of 22. The method of 23. The method of 24. The method of 25. The method of 26. The method of 27. The method of 28. The method of 29. The method of _{2 }within the mixture greater than about 0.5 bars. 30. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 31. The method of 32. The method of 33. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 34. The method of 35. The method of 36. The method of 37. The method of 38. The method of 39. The method of 40. The method of 41. The method of _{2}S, the method further comprising separating a portion of the H_{2}S from non-condensable hydrocarbons. 42. The method of _{2}, the method further comprising separating a portion of the CO_{2 }from non-condensable hydrocarbons. 43. The method of 44. The method of 45. The method of _{2}. 46. The method of 47. The method of 48. The method of 49. The method of 50. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from at least the portion to a selected section of the formation substantially by conduction of heat; pyrolyzing at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation. 51. The method of 52. The method of 53. The method of 54. The method of 55. The method of 56. The method of 57. The method of 58. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation: Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρ _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 59. The method of 60. The method of 61. The method of 62. The method of 63. The method of 64. The method of 65. The method of 66. The method of 67. The method of 68. The method of 69. The method of 70. The method of 71. The method of 72. The method of 73. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 74. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 75. The method of 76. The method of 77. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 78. The method of 79. The method of 80. The method of 81. The method of 82. The method of 83. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 370° C. such that production of a substantial amount of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 is inhibited; controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least 2.0 bars absolute; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein about 0.1% by weight of the produced mixture to about 15% by weight of the produced mixture are olefins, and wherein an average carbon number of the produced mixture ranges from 1-25. 84. The method of 85. The method of 86. The method of 87. The method of 88. The method of 89. The method of 90. The method of 91. The method of 92. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and wherein heating energy/day provided to the volume is equal to or less than Pwr, wherein Pwr is calculated by the equation: Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρ _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 93. The method of 94. The method of 95. The method of 96. The method of 97. The method of 98. The method of 99. The method of 100. The method of 101. The method of 102. The method of 103. The method of 104. The method of 105. The method of 106. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 107. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 108. The method of 109. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 110. The method of 111. The method of 112. The method of 113. The method of 114. The method of 115. The method of 116. The method of 117. The method of _{2}S, the method further comprising separating a portion of the H_{2}S from non-condensable hydrocarbons. 118. The method of _{2}, the method further comprising separating a portion of the CO_{2 }from non-condensable hydrocarbons. 119. The method of 120. The method of 121. The method of _{2}. 122. The method of 123. The method of 124. The method of 125. The method of 126. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute; and producing a mixture from the formation. 127. The method of 128. The method of 129. The method of 130. The method of 131. The method of 132. The method of 133. The method of 134. The method of 135. The method of 136. The method of 137. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 138. The method of 139. The method of 140. The method of 141. The method of 142. The method of 143. The method of 144. The method of 145. The method of 146. The method of 147. The method of 148. The method of 149. The method of 150. The method of 151. The method of 152. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 153. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 154. The method of 155. The method of 156. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 157. The method of 158. The method of 159. The method of 160. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and controlling a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the controlled pressure is at least about 2.0 bars absolute; controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation is less than about 375° C.; and producing a mixture from the formation. 161. The method of 162. The method of 163. The method of 164. The method of 165. The method of 166. The method of 167. The method of 168. The method of 169. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 170. The method of 171. The method of 172. The method of 173. The method of 174. The method of 175. The method of 176. The method of 177. The method of 178. The method of 179. The method of 180. The method of 181. The method of 182. The method of 183. The method of 184. The method of 185. The method of 186. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 187. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 188. The method of 189. The method of 190. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 191. The method of 192. The method of 193. The method of 194. The method of 195. The method of 196. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation, wherein at least a portion of the mixture is produced during the pyrolysis and the mixture moves through the formation in a vapor phase; and maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section above about 2.0 bars absolute. 197. The method of 198. The method of 199. The method of 200. The method of 201. The method of 202. The method of 203. The method of 204. The method of 205. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 206. The method of 207. The method of 208. The method of 209. The method of 210. The method of 211. The method of 212. The method of 213. The method of 214. The method of 215. The method of 216. The method of 217. The method of 218. The method of 219. The method of 220. The method of 221. The method of 222. The method of 223. The method of 224. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 225. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 226. The method of 227. The method of 228. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 229. The method of 230. The method of 231. The method of 232. The method of 233. The method of 234. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation above 2.0 bars absolute; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity higher than an API gravity of condensable hydrocarbons in a mixture producible from the formation at the same temperature and at atmospheric pressure. 235. The method of 236. The method of 237. The method of 238. The method of 239. The method of 240. The method of 241. The method of 242. The method of 243. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 244. The method of 245. The method of 246. The method of 247. The method of 248. The method of 249. The method of 250. The method of 251. The method of 252. The method of 253. The method of 254. The method of 255. The method of 256. The method of 257. The method of 258. The method of 259. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 260. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 261. The method of 262. The method of 263. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 264. The method of 265. The method of 266. The method of 267. The method of 268. The method of 269. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation to above 2.0 bars absolute; and producing a fluid from the formation, wherein condensable hydrocarbons within the fluid comprise an atomic hydrogen to atomic carbon ratio of greater than about 1.75. 270. The method of 271. The method of 272. The method of 273. The method of 274. The method of 275. The method of 276. The method of 277. The method of 278. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 279. The method of 280. The method of 281. The method of 282. The method of 283. The method of 284. The method of 285. The method of 286. The method of 287. The method of 288. The method of 289. The method of 290. The method of 291. The method of 292. The method of 293. The method of 294. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 295. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 296. The method of 297. The method of 298. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 299. The method of 300. The method of 301. The method of 302. The method of 303. The method of 304. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; maintaining a pressure within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation to above 2.0 bars absolute; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises a higher amount of non-condensable components as compared to non-condensable components producible from the formation under the same temperature conditions and at atmospheric pressure. 305. The method of 306. The method of 307. The method of 308. The method of 309. The method of 310. The method of 311. The method of 312. The method of 313. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν*ρ} _{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 314. The method of 315. The method of 316. The method of 317. The method of 318. The method of 319. The method of 320. The method of 321. The method of 322. The method of 323. The method of 324. The method of 325. The method of 326. The method of 327. The method of 328. The method of 329. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 330. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 331. The method of 332. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 333. The method of 334. The method of 335. The method of 336. The method of 337. The method of 338. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least about 20% by weight of hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation. 339. The method of 340. The method of 341. The method of 342. The method of 343. The method of 344. The method of 345. The method of 346. The method of 347. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 348. The method of 349. The method of 350. The method of 351. The method of 352. The method of 353. The method of 354. The method of 355. The method of 38, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen. 356. The method of 357. The method of 358. The method of 359. The method of 360. The method of 361. The method of 362. The method of 363. The method of 364. The method of 365. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 366. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 367. The method of 368. The method of 369. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 370. The method of 371. The method of 372. The method of 373. The method of 374. The method of 375. The method of 376. The method of 377. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least about 20% of hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the mixture comprises a condensable component having an API gravity of at least about 25°. 378. The method of 379. The method of 380. The method of 381. The method of 382. The method of 383. The method of 384. The method of 385. The method of 386. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν*ρ} _{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 387. The method of 388. The method of 389. The method of 390. The method of 391. The method of 392. The method of 393. The method of 394. The method of 395. The method of 396. The method of 397. The method of 398. The method of 399. The method of 400. The method of 401. The method of 402. The method of 403. The method of _{2},wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 404. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 405. The method of 406. The method of 407. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 408. The method of 409. The method of 410. The method of 411. The method of 412. The method of 413. The method of 414. The method of 415. A method of treating a layer of a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the layer, wherein the one or more heat sources are positioned proximate an edge of the layer; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the layer such that superimposed heat from the one or more heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation. 416. The method of 417. The method of 418. The method of 419. The method of 420. The method of 421. The method of 422. The method of 423. The method of 424. The method of 425. The method of 426. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 427. The method of 428. The method of 429. The method of 430. The method of 431. The method of 432. The method of 433. The method of 434. The method of 435. The method of 436. The method of 437. The method of 438. The method of 439. The method of 440. The method of 441. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 442. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 443. The method of 444. The method of 445. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 446. The method of 447. The method of 448. The method of 449. The method of 450. The method of 451. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and controlling a pressure and a temperature within at least a majority of the selected section of the formation, wherein the pressure is controlled as a function of temperature, or the temperature is controlled as a function of pressure; and producing a mixture from the formation. 452. The method of 453. The method of 454. The method of 455. The method of 456. The method of 457. The method of 458. The method of 459. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (Cν), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 460. The method of 461. The method of 462. The method of 463. The method of 464. The method of 465. The method of 466. The method of 467. The method of 468. The method of 469. The method of 470. The method of 471. The method of 472. The method of 473. The method of 474. The method of 475. The method of 476. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 477. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 478. The method of 479. The method of 480. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 481. The method of 482. The method of 483. The method of 484. The method of 485. The method of 486. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section; producing a mixture from the formation; and controlling API gravity of the produced mixture to be greater than about 25 degrees API by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section: p=e ^{[−44000/T+67]} where p is measured in psia and T is measured in ° Kelvin. 487. The method of p=e
^{[−31000/T+51]}. 488. The method of p=e
^{[−22000/T+38]}. 489. The method of 490. The method of 491. The method of 492. The method of 493. The method of 494. The method of 495. The method of 496. The method of 497. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 498. The method of 499. The method of 500. The method of 501. The method of 502. The method of 503. The method of 504. The method of 505. The method of 506. The method of 507. The method of 508. The method of 509. The method of 510. The method of 511. The method of 512. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 513. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 514. The method of 515. The method of 516. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 517. The method of 518. The method of 519. The method of 520. The method of 521. The method of 522. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat to at least a portion of a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons such that a temperature (T) in a substantial part of the heated portion exceeds 270° C. and hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed within the heated portion of the formation; controlling a pressure (p) within at least a substantial part of the heated portion of the formation; wherein p _{bar}>e^{[(−A/T)+B−2.6744[}; wherein p is the pressure in bars absolute and T is the temperature in degrees K, and A and B are parameters that are larger than 10 and are selected in relation to the characteristics and composition of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and on the required olefin content and carbon number of the pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids; and producing pyrolyzed hydrocarbon fluids from the heated portion of the formation. 523. The method of 524. The method of 525. The method of 526. The method of 527. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 528. The method of 529. The method of 530. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture flowing through the formation is greater than 0.5 bars. 531. The method of 532. The method of 533. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section; producing a mixture from the formation; and controlling a weight percentage of olefins of the produced mixture to be less than about 20% by weight by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section: p=e ^{[−57000/T+83]} where p is measured in psia and T is measured in ° Kelvin. 534. The method of p=e
^{[−16000/T+28]}. 535. The method of p=e
^{[−12000/T+22]}. 536. The method of 537. The method of 538. The method of 539. The method of 540. The method of 541. The method of 542. The method of 543. The method of 544. The method of 545. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 546. The method of 547. The method of 548. The method of 549. The method of 550. The method of 551. The method of 552. The method of 553. The method of 554. The method of 555. The method of 556. The method of 557. The method of 558. The method of 559. The method of 560. The method of 561. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 562. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 563. The method of 564. The method of 565. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 566. The method of 567. The method of 568. The method of 569. The method of 570. The method of 571. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation to raise an average temperature within the selected section to, or above, a temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section; producing a mixture from the formation; and controlling hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 20 of the produced mixture to be less than about 20% by weight by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section: p=e ^{[−14000/T+25]} where p is measured in psia and T is measured in ° Kelvin. 572. The method of p=e
^{[−18000/T+32]} 573. The method of 574. The method of 575. The method of 576. The method of 577. The method of 578. The method of 579. The method of 580. The method of 581. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 582. The method of 583. The method of 584. The method of 585. The method of 586. The method of 587. The method of 588. The method of 589. The method of 590. The method of 591. The method of 592. The method of 593. The method of 594. The method of 595. The method of 596. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 597. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 598. The method of 599. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 600. The method of 601. The method of 602. The method of 603. The method of 604. The method of 605. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation; and controlling an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of the produced mixture to be greater than about 1.7 by controlling average pressure and average temperature in the selected section such that the average pressure in the selected section is greater than the pressure (p) set forth in the following equation for an assessed average temperature (T) in the selected section: p=e ^{[−38000/T+61]} where p is measured in psia and T is measured in ° Kelvin. 606. The method of p=e
^{[−13000/T+24]} 607. The method of p=e
^{[−8000/T+18]} 608. The method of 609. The method of 610. The method of 611. The method of 612. The method of 613. The method of 614. The method of 615. The method of 616. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 617. The method of 618. The method of 619. The method of 620. The method of 621. The method of 622. The method of 623. The method of 624. The method of 625. The method of 626. The method of 627. The method of 628. The method of 629. The method of 630. The method of 631. The method of 632. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 633. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 634. The method of 635. The method of 636. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 637. The method of 638. The method of 639. The method of 640. The method of 641. The method of 642. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least one portion of the formation; controlling a pressure-temperature relationship within at least the selected section of the formation by selected energy input into the one or more heat sources and by pressure release from the selected section through wellbores of the one or more heat sources; and producing a mixture from the formation. 643. The method of 644. The method of 645. The method of 646. The method of 647. The method of 648. The method of 649. The method of 650. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 651. The method of 652. The method of 653. The method of 654. The method of 655. The method of 656. The method of 657. The method of 658. The method of 659. The method of 660. The method of 661. The method of 662. The method of 663. The method of 664. The method of 665. The method of 666. The method of 667. The method of _{2}, wherein the partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 668. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 669. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 670. The method of 671. The method of 672. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 673. The method of 674. The method of 675. The method of 676. The method of 677. The method of 678. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, wherein formation has an average heat capacity (C _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 679. The method of 680. The method of 681. The method of 682. The method of 683. The method of 684. The method of 685. The method of _{ν}is determined as an average heat capacity of two or more samples taken from the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons. 686. The method of 687. The method of 688. The method of 689. The method of 690. The method of 691. The method of 692. The method of 693. The method of 694. The method of 695. The method of 696. The method of 697. The method of 698. The method of 699. The method of 700. The method of 701. The method of 702. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 703. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 704. The method of 705. The method of 706. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the heated volume to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the volume; and heating a portion of the volume with heat from hydrogenation. 707. The method of 708. The method of 709. The method of 710. The method of 711. The method of 712. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; controlling heat output from the one or more heat sources such that an average heating rate of the selected section rises by less than about 3° C. per day when the average temperature of the selected section is at, or above, the temperature that will pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section; and producing a mixture from the formation. 713. The method of raising the average temperature within the selected section to a first temperature that is at or above a minimum pyrolysis temperature of hydrocarbons within the formation; limiting energy input into the one or more heat sources to inhibit increase in temperature of the selected section; and increasing energy input into the formation to raise an average temperature of the selected section above the first temperature when production of formation fluid declines below a desired production rate. 714. The method of raising the average temperature within the selected section to a first temperature that is at or above a minimum pyrolysis temperature of hydrocarbons within the formation; limiting energy input into the one or more heat sources to inhibit increase in temperature of the selected section; and increasing energy input into the formation to raise an average temperature of the selected section above the first temperature when quality of formation fluid produced from the formation falls below a desired quality. 715. The method of 716. The method of 717. The method of 718. The method of 719. The method of 720. The method of 721. The method of 722. The method of 723. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρ _{B }is formation bulk density. 724. The method of 725. The method of 726. The method of 727. The method of 728. The method of 729. The method of 730. The method of 731. The method of 732. The method of 733. The method of 734. The method of 735. The method of 736. The method of 737. The method of 738. The method of 739. The method of 740. The method of 741. The method of 742. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 743. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 744. The method of 745. The method of 746. The method of providing H _{2 }to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 747. The method of 748. The method of 749. The method of 750. The method of 751. The method of 752. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; to heat a selected section of the formation to an average temperature above about 270° C.; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation; controlling the heat from the one or more heat sources such that an average heating rate of the selected section is less than about 3° C. per day during pyrolysis; and producing a mixture from the formation. 753. The method of 754. The method of 755. The method of 756. The method of 757. The method of 758. The method of 759. The method of 760. The method of 761. The method of 762. The method of 763. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρB wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρ _{B }is formation bulk density. 764. The method of 765. The method of 766. The method of 767. The method of 768. The method of 769. The method of 770. The method of 771. The method of 772. The method of 773. The method of 774. The method of 775. The method of 776. The method of 777. The method of 778. The method of 779. The method of 780. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 781. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 782. The method of 783. The method of 784. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 785. The method of 786. The method of 787. The method of 788. The method of 789. The method of 790. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation through at least one production well; monitoring a temperature at or in the production well; and controlling heat input to raise the monitored temperature at a rate of less than about 3° C. per day. 791. The method of 792. The method of 793. The method of 794. The method of 795. The method of 796. The method of 797. The method of 798. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρ _{B }is formation bulk density. 799. The method of 800. The method of 801. The method of 802. The method of 803. The method of 804. The method of 805. The method of 806. The method of 807. The method of 808. The method of 809. The method of 810. The method of 811. The method of 812. The method of 813. The method of 814. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 815. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 816. The method of 817. The method of 818. The method of providing H _{2 }to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 819. The method of 820. The method of 821. The method of 822. The method of 823. The method of 824. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support oxidation of hydrocarbons within the portion, wherein the portion is located substantially adjacent to a wellbore; flowing an oxidant through a conduit positioned within the wellbore to a heat source zone within the portion, wherein the heat source zone supports an oxidation reaction between hydrocarbons and the oxidant; reacting a portion of the oxidant with hydrocarbons to generate heat; and transferring generated heat substantially by conduction to a pyrolysis zone of the formation to pyrolyze at least a portion of the hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone. 825. The method of 826. The method of 827. The method of 828. The method of 829. The method of 830. The method of 831. The method of 832. The method of 833. The method of 834. The method of 835. The method of 836. The method of 837. The method of 838. The method of 839. The method of 840. The method of 841. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation. 842. The method of 843. The method of 844. The method of 845. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidant; flowing the oxidant into a conduit, and wherein the conduit is connected such that the oxidant can flow from the conduit to the hydrocarbons; allowing the oxidant and the hydrocarbons to react to produce heat in a heat source zone; allowing heat to transfer from the heat source zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation to pyrolyze at least a portion of the hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and removing reaction products such that the reaction products are inhibited from flowing from the heat source zone to the pyrolysis zone. 846. The method of 847. The method of 848. The method of 849. The method of 850. The method of 851. The method of 852. The method of 853. The method of 854. The method of 855. The method of 856. The method of 857. The method of 858. The method of 859. The method of 860. The method of 861. The method of 862. The method of 863. The method of 864. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation. 865. An in situ method for heating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
heating a portion of the formation to a temperature sufficient to support reaction of hydrocarbons within the portion of the formation with an oxidizing fluid, wherein the portion is located substantially adjacent to an opening in the formation; providing the oxidizing fluid to a heat source zone in the formation; allowing the oxidizing gas to react with at least a portion of the hydrocarbons at the heat source zone to generate heat in the heat source zone; and transferring the generated heat substantially by conduction from the heat source zone to a pyrolysis zone in the formation. 866. The method of 867. The method of 868. The method of 869. The method of 870. The method of 871. The method of 872. The method of 873. The method of 874. The method of 875. The method of 876. The method of 877. The method of 878. The method of 879. The method of 880. The method of 881. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the pyrolysis zone to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the pyrolysis zone; and heating a portion of the pyrolysis zone with heat from hydrogenation. 882. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation; and maintaining an average temperature within the selected section above a minimum pyrolysis temperature and below a vaporization temperature of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 to inhibit production of a substantial amount of hydrocarbons having carbon numbers greater than 25 in the mixture. 883. The method of 884. The method of 885. The method of 886. The method of 887. The method of 888. The method of 889. The method of 890. The method of 891. The method of 892. The method of 893. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 894. The method of 895. The method of 896. The method of 897. The method of 898. The method of 899. The method of 900. The method of 901. The method of 902. The method of 903. The method of 904. The method of 905. The method of 906. The method of 907. The method of 908. The method of 909. The method of 910. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 911. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 912. The method of 913. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 914. The method of 915. The method of 916. The method of 917. The method of 918. The method of 919. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; controlling a pressure within the formation to inhibit production of hydrocarbons from the formation having carbon numbers greater than 25; and producing a mixture from the formation. 920. The method of 921. The method of 922. The method of 923. The method of 924. The method of 925. The method of 926. The method of 927. The method of 928. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 929. The method of 930. The method of 931. The method of 932. The method of 933. The method of 934. The method of 935. The method of 936. The method of 937. The method of 938. The method of 939. The method of 940. The method of 941. The method of 942. The method of 943. The method of 944. The method of 945. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 946. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 947. The method of 948. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 949. The method of 950. The method of 951. The method of 952. The method of 953. The method of 954. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein about 0.1% by weight to about 15% by weight of the condensable hydrocarbons are olefins. 955. The method of 956. The method of 957. The method of 958. The method of 959. The method of 960. The method of 961. The method of 962. The method of 963. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 964. The method of 965. The method of 966. The method of 967. The method of 968. The method of 969. The method of 970. The method of 971. The method of 972. The method of 973. The method of 974. The method of 975. The method of 976. The method of 977. The method of 978. The method of 979. The method of 980. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 981. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 982. The method of 983. The method of 984. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 985. The method of 986. The method of 987. The method of 988. The method of 989. The method of 990. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a section of the formation to a pyrolysis temperature from at least a first heat source, a second heat source and a third heat source, and wherein the first heat source, the second heat source and the third heat source are located along a perimeter of the section; controlling heat input to the first heat source, the second heat source and the third heat source to limit a heating rate of the section to a rate configured to produce a mixture from the formation with an olefin content of less than about 15% by weight of condensable fluids (on a dry basis) within the produced mixture; and producing the mixture from the formation through a production well. 991. The method of 992. The method of 993. The method of 994. The method of 995. The method of 996. The method of 997. The method of 998. The method of 999. The method of 1000. The method of 1001. The method of 1002. The method of 1003. The method of 1004. The method of 1005. The method of 1006. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1007. The method of 1008. The method of 1009. The method of 1010. The method of 1011. The method of 1012. The method of 1013. The method of 1014. The method of 1015. The method of 1016. The method of 1017. The method of 1018. The method of 1019. The method of 1020. The method of 1021. The method of 1022. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1023. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1024. The method of 1025. The method of 1026. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1027. The method of 1028. The method of 1029. The method of 1030. The method of 1031. The method of 1032. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is nitrogen. 1033. The method of 1034. The method of 1035. The method of 1036. The method of 1037. The method of 1038. The method of 1039. The method of 1040. The method of 1041. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1042. The method of 1043. The method of 1044. The method of 1045. The method of 1046. The method of 1047. The method of 1048. The method of 1049. The method of 1050. The method of 1051. The method of 1052. The method of 1053. The method of 1054. The method of 1055. The method of 1056. The method of 1057. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1058. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1059. The method of 1060. The method of 1061. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1062. The method of 1063. The method of 1064. The method of 1065. The method of 1066. The method of 1067. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is oxygen. 1068. The method of 1069. The method of 1070. The method of 1071. The method of 1072. The method of 1073. The method of 1074. The method of 1075. The method of 1076. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{84 }*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1077. The method of 1078. The method of 1079. The method of 1080. The method of 1081. The method of 1082. The method of 1083. The method of 1084. The method of 1085. The method of 1086. The method of 1087. The method of 1088. The method of 1089. The method of 1090. The method of 1091. The method of 1092. The method of 1093. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1094. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1095. The method of 1096. The method of 1097. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1098. The method of 1099. The method of 1100. The method of 1101. The method of 1102. The method of 1103. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons, and wherein less than about 1% by weight, when calculated on an atomic basis, of the condensable hydrocarbons is sulfur. 1104. The method of 103, wherein the one or more heat sources comprise at least two heat sources, and wherein superposition of heat from at least the two heat sources pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section of the formation. 1105. The method of 1106. The method of 1107. The method of 1108. The method of 1109. The method of 1110. The method of 1111. The method of 1112. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1113. The method of 1114. The method of 1115. The method of 1116. The method of 1117. The method of 1118. The method of 1119. The method of 1120. The method of 1121. The method of 1122. The method of 1123. The method of 1124. The method of 1125. The method of 1126. The method of 1127. The method of 1128. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1129. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1130. The method of 1131. The method of 1132. The method of 103, further comprising:
_{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1133. The method of 1134. The method of 1135. The method of 1136. The method of 1137. The method of 1138. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
raising a temperature of a first section of the formation with one or more heat sources to a first pyrolysis temperature; heating the first section to an upper pyrolysis temperature, wherein heat is supplied to the first section at a rate configured to inhibit olefin production; producing a first mixture from the formation, wherein the first mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons and H _{2}; creating a second mixture from the first mixture, wherein the second mixture comprises a higher concentration of H _{2 }than the first mixture; raising a temperature of a second section of the formation with one or more heat sources to a second pyrolysis temperature; providing a portion of the second mixture to the second section; heating the second section to an upper pyrolysis temperature, wherein heat is supplied to the second section at a rate configured to inhibit olefin production; and producing a third mixture from the second section. 1139. The method of 1140. The method of 1141. The method of 1142. The method of 1143. The method of 1144. The method of 1145. The method of 1146. The method of 1147. The method of 1148. The method of 1149. The method of 1150. The method of 1151. The method of 1152. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1153. The method of 1154. The method of 1155. The method of 1156. The method of 1157. The method of 1158. The method of 1159. The method of 1160. The method of 1161. The method of 1162. The method of 1163. The method of 1164. The method of 1165. The method of 1166. The method of 1167. The method of 1168. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1169. The method of _{2 }within a mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1170. The method of 1171. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section; and heating a portion of the first or second section with heat from hydrogenation. 1172. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen. 1173. The method of 1174. The method of 1175. The method of 1176. The method of 1177. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation; and hydrogenating a portion of the produced mixture with H _{2 }produced from the formation. 1178. The method of 1179. The method of 1180. The method of 1181. The method of 1182. The method of 1183. The method of 1184. The method of 1185. The method of 1186. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } wherein Pwr is the heating energy/day, h is an average heating rate of the formation, ρ _{β}is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1187. The method of 1188. The method of 1189. The method of 1190. The method of 1191. The method of 1192. The method of 1193. The method of 1194. The method of 1195. The method of 1196. The method of 1197. The method of 1198. The method of 1199. The method of 1200. The method of 1201. The method of 1202. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1203. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1204. The method of 1205. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1206. The method of 1207. The method of 1208. The method of 1209. The method of 1210. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation; producing H _{2 }from the first section of formation; heating a second section of the formation; and recirculating a portion of the H _{2 }from the first section into the second section of the formation to provide a reducing environment within the second section of the formation. 1211. The method of 1212. The method of 1213. The method of 1214. The method of 1215. The method of 1216. The method of 1217. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1218. The method of 1219. The method of 1220. The method of 1221. The method of 1222. The method of 1223. The method of 1224. The method of 1225. The method of 1226. The method of 1227. The method of 1228. The method of 1229. The method of 1230. The method of 1231. The method of 1232. The method of 1233. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1234. The method of _{2 }within a mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1235. The method of 1236. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the second section with heat from hydrogenation. 1237. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen. 1238. The method of 1239. The method of 1240. The method of 1241. The method of 1242. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation; and controlling formation conditions such that the mixture produced from the formation comprises condensable hydrocarbons including H _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1243. The method of 1244. The method of 1245. The method of 1246. The method of 1247. The method of 1248. The method of 1249. The method of 1250. The method of 1251. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{84 }), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1252. The method of 1253. The method of 1254. The method of 1255. The method of 1256. The method of 1257. The method of 1258. The method of 1259. The method of 1260. The method of 1261. The method of 1262. The method of 1263. The method of 1264. The method of 1265. The method of 1266. The method of 1267. The method of 1268. The method of 1269. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1270. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and hydrogenating a portion of the produced condensable hydrocarbons with at least a portion of the produced hydrogen. 1271. The method of 1272. The method of 1273. The method of 1274. The method of 1275. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1276. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; maintaining a pressure of the selected section above atmospheric pressure to increase a partial pressure of H _{2}, as compared to the partial pressure of H_{2 }at atmospheric pressure, in at least a majority of the selected section; and producing a mixture from the formation, wherein the produced mixture comprises condensable hydrocarbons having an API gravity of at least about 25°. 1277. The method of 1278. The method of 1279. The method of 1280. The method of 1281. The method of 1282. The method of 1283. The method of 1284. The method of 1285. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1286. The method of 1287. The method of 1288. The method of 1289. The method of 1290. The method of 1291. The method of 1292. The method of 1293. The method of 1294. The method of 1295. The method of 1296. The method of 1297. The method of 1298. The method of 1299. The method of 1300. The method of 1301. The method of 1302. The method of 1303. The method of 1304. The method of 1305. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1306. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1307. The method of 1308. The method of 1309. The method of 1310. The method of 1311. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; providing H _{2 }to the formation to produce a reducing environment in at least some of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation. 1312. The method of 1313. The method of 1314. The method of 1315. The method of 1316. The method of 1317. The method of 1318. The method of 1319. The method of 1320. The method of 1321. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1322. The method of 1323. The method of 1324. The method of 1325. The method of 1326. The method of 1327. The method of 1328. The method of 1329. The method of 1330. The method of 1331. The method of 1332. The method of 1333. The method of 1334. The method of 1335. The method of 1336. The method of 1337. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1338. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1339. The method of 1340. The method of _{2}) to the formation further comprises:
hydrogenating hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1341. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1342. The method of 1343. The method of 1344. The method of 1345. The method of 1346. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; providing H _{2 }to the selected section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the selected section and to heat a portion of the section with heat from the hydrogenation; and controlling heating of the selected section by controlling amounts of H _{2 }provided to the selected section. 1347. The method of 1348. The method of 1349. The method of 1350. The method of 1351. The method of 1352. The method of 1353. The method of 1354. The method of 1355. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1356. The method of 1357. The method of 1358. The method of 1359. The method of 1360. The method of 1361. The method of 1362. The method of 1363. The method of 1364. The method of 1365. The method of 1366. The method of 1367. The method of 1368. The method of 1369. The method of 1370. The method of 1371. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1372. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1373. The method of 1374. The method of 1375. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1376. The method of 1377. The method of 1378. The method of 1379. The method of 1380. An in situ method for producing H_{2 }from a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation, wherein a H _{2 }partial pressure within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1381. The method of 1382. The method of 1383. The method of 1384. The method of 1385. The method of 1386. The method of 1387. The method of 1388. The method of 1389. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1390. The method of 1391. The method of 1392. The method of 1393. The method of 1394. The method of 1395. The method of 1396. The method of 1397. The method of 1398. The method of 1399. The method of 1400. The method of 1401. The method of 1402. The method of 1403. The method of 1404. The method of 1405. The method of 1406. The method of 1407. The method of 1408. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1409. The method of 1410. The method of 1411. The method of 1412. The method of 1413. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1414. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using an atomic hydrogen weight percentage of at least a portion of hydrocarbons in the selected section, and wherein at least the portion of the hydrocarbons in the selected section comprises an atomic hydrogen weight percentage, when measured on a dry, ash-free basis, of greater than about 4.0%; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1415. The method of 1416. The method of 1417. The method of 1418. The method of 1419. The method of 1420. The method of 1421. The method of 1422. The method of 1423. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1424. The method of 1425. The method of 1426. The method of 1427. The method of 1428. The method of 1429. The method of 1430. The method of 1431. The method of 1432. The method of 1433. The method of 1434. The method of 1435. The method of 1436. The method of 1437. The method of 1438. The method of 1439. The method of 1440. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1441. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1442. The method of 1443. The method of 1444. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1445. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1446. The method of 1447. The method of 1448. The method of 1449. The method of 1450. The method of 1451. The method of 1452. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial atomic hydrogen weight percentage of greater than about 4.0%; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1453. The method of 1454. The method of 1455. The method of 1456. The method of 1457. The method of 1458. The method of 1459. The method of 1460. The method of 1461. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1462. The method of 1463. The method of 1464. The method of 1465. The method of 1466. The method of 1467. The method of 1468. The method of 1469. The method of 1470. The method of 1471. The method of 1472. The method of 1473. The method of 1474. The method of 1475. The method of 1476. The method of 1477. The method of 1478. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1479. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1480. The method of 1481. The method of 1482. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1483. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1484. The method of 1485. The method of 1486. The method of 1487. The method of 1488. The method of 1489. The method of 1490. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using a total organic matter weight percentage of at least a portion of the selected section, and wherein at least the portion of the selected section comprises a total organic matter weight percentage, of at least about 5.0%; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1491. The method of 1492. The method of 1493. The method of 1494. The method of 1495. The method of 1496. The method of 1497. The method of 1498. The method of 1499. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1500. The method of 1501. The method of 1502. The method of 1503. The method of 1504. The method of 1505. The method of 1506. The method of 1507. The method of 1508. The method of 1509. The method of 1510. The method of 1511. The method of 1512. The method of 1513. The method of 1514. The method of 1515. The method of 1516. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1517. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1518. The method of 1519. The method of 1520. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1521. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1522. The method of The method of 1523. The method of 1524. The method of 1525. The method of 1526. The method of 1527. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial total organic matter weight percentage of at least about 5.0%; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1528. The method of 1529. The method of 1530. The method of 1531. The method of 1532. The method of 1533. The method of 1534. The method of 1535. The method of 1536. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1537. The method of 1538. The method of 1539. The method of 1540. The method of 1541. The method of 1542. The method of 1543. The method of 1544. The method of 1545. The method of 1546. The method of 1547. The method of 1548. The method of 1549. The method of 1550. The method of 1551. The method of 1552. The method of 1553. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1554. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1555. The method of 1556. The method of 1557. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1558. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1559. The method of The method of 1561. The method of 1562. The method of 1563. The method of 1564. The method of 1565. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio of at least a portion of hydrocarbons in the selected section, wherein at least a portion of the hydrocarbons in the selected section comprises an atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio greater than about 0.70, and wherein the atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio is less than about 1.65; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1566. The method of 1567. The method of 1568. The method of 1569. The method of 1570. The method of 1571. The method of 1572. The method of 1573. The method of 1574. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1575. The method of 1576. The method of 1577. The method of 1578. The method of 1579. The method of 1580. The method of 1581. The method of 1582. The method of 1583. The method of 1584. The method of 1585. The method of 1586. The method of 1587. The method of 1588. The method of 1589. The method of 1590. The method of 1591. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1592. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1593. The method of 1594. The method of 1595. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1596. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1597. The method of 1598. The method of 1599. The method of 1600. The method of 1601. The method of 1602. The method of 1603. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation to pyrolyze hydrocarbons within the selected section; wherein at least some hydrocarbons within the selected section have an initial atomic hydrogen to carbon ratio greater than about 0.70; wherein the initial atomic hydrogen to carbon ration is less than about 1.65; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1604. The method of 1605. The method of 1606. The method of 1607. The method of 1608. The method of 1609. The method of 1610. The method of 1611. The method of 1612. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1613. The method of 1614. The method of 1615. The method of 1616. The method of 1617. The method of 1618. The method of 1619. The method of 1620. The method of 1621. The method of 1622. The method of 1623. The method of 1624. The method of 1625. The method of 1626. The method of 1627. The method of 1628. The method of 1629. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1630. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1631. The method of 1632. The method of 1633. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1634. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1635. The method of 1636. The method of 1637. The method of 1638. The method of 1639. The method of 1640. The method of 1641. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; wherein the selected section has been selected for heating using a moisture content in the selected section, and wherein at least a portion of the selected section comprises a moisture content of less than about 15% by weight; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1642. The method of 1643. The method of 1644. The method of 1645. The method of 1646. The method of 1647. The method of 1648. The method of 1649. The method of 1650. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1651. The method of 1652. The method of 1653. The method of 1654. The method of 1655. The method of 1656. The method of 1657. The method of 1658. The method of 1659. The method of 1660. The method of 1661. The method of 1662. The method of 1663. The method of 1664. The method of 1665. The method of 1666. The method of 1667. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1668. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1669. The method of 1670. The method of 1671. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1672. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1673. The method of 1674. The method of 1675. The method of 1676. The method of 1677. The method of 1678. The method of 1679. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation; allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to the selected section of the formation; wherein at least a portion of the selected section has an initial moisture content of less than about 15% by weight; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1680. The method of 1681. The method of 1682. The method of 1683. The method of 1684. The method of 1685. The method of 1686. The method of 1687. The method of 1688. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1689. The method of 1690. The method of 1691. The method of 1692. The method of 1693. The method of 1694. The method of 1695. The method of 1696. The method of 1697. The method of 1698. The method of 1699. The method of 1700. The method of 1701. The method of 1702. The method of 1703. The method of 1704. The method of 1705. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1706. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1707. The method of 1708. The method of 1709. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1710. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1711. The method of 1712. The method of 1713. The method of 1714. The method of 1715. The method of 1716. The method of 1717. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; wherein the selected section is heated in a reducing environment during at least a portion of the time that the selected section is being heated; and producing a mixture from the formation. 1718. The method of 1719. The method of 1720. The method of 1721. The method of 1722. The method of 1723. The method of 1724. The method of 1725. The method of 1726. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1727. The method of 1728. The method of 1729. The method of 1730. The method of 1731. The method of 1732. The method of 1733. The method of 1734. The method of 1735. The method of 1736. The method of 1737. The method of 1738. The method of 1739. The method of 1740. The method of 1741. The method of 1742. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1743. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1744. The method of 1745. The method of 1746. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1747. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1748. The method of 1749. The method of 1750. The method of 1751. The method of 1752. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation to produce a mixture from the formation; heating a second section of the formation; and recirculating a portion of the produced mixture from the first section into the second section of the formation to provide a reducing environment within the second section of the formation. 1753. The method of 1754. The method of 1755. The method of 1756. The method of 1757. The method of 1758. The method of 1759. The method of 1760. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1761. The method of 1762. The method of 1763. The method of 1764. The method of 1765. The method of 1766. The method of 1767. The method of 1768. The method of 1769. The method of 1770. The method of 1771. The method of 1772. The method of 1773. The method of 1774. The method of 1775. The method of 1776. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1777. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1778. The method of 1779. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section; and heating a portion of the first or second section with heat from hydrogenation. 1780. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1781. The method of 1782. The method of 1783. The method of 1784. The method of 1785. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; and allowing the heat to transfer from the one or more heat sources to a selected section of the formation such that a permeability of a majority of at least a portion of the selected section increases substantially uniformly. 1786. The method of 1787. The method of 1788. The method of 1789. The method of 1790. The method of 1791. The method of 1792. The method of 1793. The method of 1794. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1795. The method of 1796. The method of 1797. The method of 1798. The method of 1799. The method of 1800. The method of 1801. The method of 1802. The method of 1803. The method of 1804. The method of 1805. The method of 1806. The method of 1807. The method of 1808. The method of 1809. The method of 1810. The method of 1811. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1812. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1813. The method of 1814. The method of 1815. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1816. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1817. The method of 1818. The method of 1819. The method of 1820. The method of 1821. The method of 1822. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; controlling the heat to yield at least about 15% by weight of a total organic carbon content of at least some of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons into condensable hydrocarbons. 1823. The method of 1824. The method of 1825. The method of 1826. The method of 1827. The method of 1828. The method of 1829. The method of 1830. The method of 1831. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1832. The method of 1833. The method of 1834. The method of 1835. The method of 1836. The method of 1837. The method of 1838. The method of 1839. The method of 1840. The method of 1841. The method of 1842. The method of 1843. The method of 1844. The method of 1845. The method of 1846. The method of 1847. The method of 1848. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1849. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1850. The method of 1851. The method of 1852. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1853. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1854. The method of 1855. The method of 1856. The method of 1857. The method of 1858. The method of 1859. The method of 1860. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbonsrelatively impermeable formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; controlling the heat to yield greater than about 60% by weight of hydrocarbons. 1861. The method of 1862. The method of 1863. The method of 1864. The method of 1865. The method of 1866. The method of 1867. The method of 1868. The method of 1869. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1870. The method of 1871. The method of 1872. The method of 1873. The method of 1874. The method of 1875. The method of 1876. The method of 1877. The method of 1878. The method of 1879. The method of 1880. The method of 1881. The method of 1882. The method of 1883. The method of 1884. The method of 1885. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1886. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1887. The method of 1888. The method of 1889. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1890. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1891. The method of 1892. The method of 1893. The method of 1894. The method of 1895. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
heating a first section of the formation to pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the first section and produce a first mixture from the formation; heating a second section of the formation to pyrolyze at least some hydrocarbons in the second section and produce a second mixture from the formation; and leaving an unpyrolyzed section between the first section and the second section to inhibit subsidence of the formation. 1896. The method of 1897. The method of 1898. The method of 1899. The method of 1900 The method of 1901. The method of 1902. The method of 1903. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1904. The method of 1905. The method of 1906. The method of 1907. The method of 1908. The method of 1909. The method of 1910. The method of 1911. The method of 1912. The method of 1913. The method of 1914. The method of 1915. The method of 1916. The method of 1917. The method of 1918. The method of 1919. The method of _{2 }within the first or second mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1920. The method of _{2 }within the first or second mixture is measured when the first or second mixture is at a production well. 1921. The method of 1922. The method of 1923. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the first or second section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the first or second section, respectively; and heating a portion of the first or second section, respectively, with heat from hydrogenation. 1924. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1925. The method of 1926. The method of 1927. The method of 1928. The method of 1929. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation; producing a mixture from the formation through one or more production wells, wherein the heating is controlled such that the mixture can be produced from the formation as a vapor, and wherein at least about 7 heat sources are disposed in the formation for each production well. 1930. The method of 1931. The method of 1932. The method of 1933. The method of 1934. The method of 1935. The method of 1936. The method of 1937. The method of 1938. The method of 1939. The method of _{ν}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{ν}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1940. The method of 1941. The method of 1942. The method of 1943. The method of 1944. The method of 1945. The method of 1946. The method of 1947. The method of 1948. The method of 1949. The method of 1950. The method of 1951. The method of 1952. The method of 1953. The method of 1954. The method of 1955. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1956. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1957. The method of 1958. The method of 1959. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1960. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 1961. The method of 1962. The method of 1963. A method of treating a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons in situ, comprising:
providing heat from one or more heat sources to at least a portion of the formation, wherein the one or more heat sources are disposed within one or more first wells; producing a mixture from the formation through one or more second wells, wherein one or more of the first or second wells are initially used for a first purpose and are then used for one or more other purposes. 1964. The method of 1965. The method of 1966. The method of 1967. The method of 1968. The method of 1969. The method of 1970. The method of 1971. The method of 1972. The method of 1973. The method of 1974. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the one or more heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{v}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{v}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 1975. The method of 1976. The method of 1977. The method of 1978. The method of 1979. The method of 1980. The method of 1981. The method of 1982. The method of 1983. The method of 1984. The method of 1985. The method of 1986. The method of 1987. The method of 1988. The method of 1989. The method of _{2}, wherein a partial pressure of H_{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 1990. The method of _{2 }is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 1991. The method of 1992. The method of 1993. The method of _{2}) to the heated section to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the section; and heating a portion of the section with heat from hydrogenation. 1994. The method of 1995. The method of 1996. The method of 1997. The method of 1998. The method of 1999. A method for forming heater wells in a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
forming a first wellbore in the formation; forming a second wellbore in the formation using magnetic tracking such that the second wellbore is arranged substantially parallel to the first wellbore; and providing at least one heat source within the first wellbore and at least one heat source within the second wellbore such that the heat sources can provide heat to at least a portion of the formation. 2000. The method of 2001. The method of 2002. The method of 2003. The method of 2004. The method of 2005. The method of 2006. The method of 2007. The method of 2008. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heat sources, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{v}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{v}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 2009. The method of 2010. The method of 2011. The method of 2012. The method of 2013. The method of 2014. The method of 2015. The method of 2016. The method of 2017. The method of 2018. The method of 2019. The method of 2020. The method of 2021. The method of 2022. The method of 2023. The method of 2024. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 2025. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 2026. The method of 2027. The method of 2028. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the portion to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the formation; and heating a portion of the formation with heat from hydrogenation. 2029. The method of producing hydrogen and condensable hydrocarbons from the formation; and 2030. The method of 2031. The method of 2032. The method of 2033. The method of 2034. The method of 2035. A method for installing a heater well into a relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons, comprising:
forming a bore in the ground using a steerable motor and an accelerometer; and providing a heat source within the bore such that the heat source can transfer heat to at least a portion of the formation. 2036. The method of 2037. The method of 2038. The method of 2039. The method of 2040. The method of 2041. The method of 2042. The method of 2043. The method of 2044. The method of heating a selected volume (V) of the relatively low permeability formation containing heavy hydrocarbons from the heat source, wherein the formation has an average heat capacity (C _{v}), and wherein the heating pyrolyzes at least some hydrocarbons within the selected volume of the formation; and Pwr=h*V*C _{v}*ρ_{B } _{B }is formation bulk density, and wherein the heating rate is less than about 10° C./day. 2045. The method of 2046. The method of 2047. The method of 2048. The method of 2049. The method of 2050. The method of 2051. The method of 2052. The method of 2053. The method of 2054. The method of 2055. The method of 2056. The method of 2057. The method of 2058. The method of 2059. The method of 2060. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is greater than about 0.5 bars. 2061. The method of _{2 }within the mixture is measured when the mixture is at a production well. 2062. The method of 2063. The method of 2064. The method of providing hydrogen (H _{2}) to the at least the heated portion to hydrogenate hydrocarbons within the formation; and |