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Publication numberUS20030099977 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 10/206,839
Publication dateMay 29, 2003
Filing dateJul 26, 2002
Priority dateJun 10, 1998
Also published asEP1086243A1, US6448003, WO1999064630A1
Publication number10206839, 206839, US 2003/0099977 A1, US 2003/099977 A1, US 20030099977 A1, US 20030099977A1, US 2003099977 A1, US 2003099977A1, US-A1-20030099977, US-A1-2003099977, US2003/0099977A1, US2003/099977A1, US20030099977 A1, US20030099977A1, US2003099977 A1, US2003099977A1
InventorsMarco Guida, Janice Kurth
Original AssigneeDna Sciences Laboratories, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Genotyping human UDP-glucuronsyltransferase 2B15 (UGT2B15) genes
US 20030099977 A1
Abstract
Genetic polymorphisms are identified in the human STP2 gene that alter STP2-dependent drug metabolism. Nucleic acids comprising the polymorphic sequences are used to screen patients for altered metabolism for STP2 substrates, potential drug-drug interactions, and adverse/side effects, as well as diseases that result from environmental or occupational exposure to toxins. The nucleic acids are used to establish animal, cell and in vitro models for drug metabolism.
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Claims(10)
What is claimed is:
1. An isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a STP2 sequence polymorphism, as part of other than a naturally occurring chromosome.
2. A nucleic acid probe for detection of STP2 locus polymorphisms, comprising a polymorphic sequence listed in Table 4.
3. A nucleic acid probe according to claim 2, wherein said probe is conjugated to a detectable marker.
4. An array of oligonucleotides comprising:
two or more probes for detection of STP2 locus polymorphisms, said probes comprising at least one form of a polymorphic sequence listed in Table 4.
5. A method for detecting in an individual a polymorphism in STP2 metabolism of a substrate, the method comprising:
analyzing the genome of said individual for the presence of at least one STP2 polymorphism listed in Table 4; wherein the presence of said predisposing polymorphism is indicative of an alteration in STP2 expression or activity.
6. A method according to claim 5, wherein said analyzing step comprises detection of specific binding between the genomic DNA of said individual with an array of oligonucleotides comprising:
two or more probes for detection of STP2 locus polymorphisms, said probes comprising at least one form of a polymorphic sequence listed in Table 4.
7. A method according to claim 5, wherein said alteration in STP2 expression is tissue specific.
8. A method according to claim 5, wherein said alteration in STP2 expression is in response to a STP2 modifier.
9. A method according to claim 8, wherein said modifier induces STP2 expression.
10. A method according to claim 8, wherein said modifier inhibits STP2 expression.
Description
INTRODUCTION

[0001] Sulfonation is an important pathway in the biotransformation of many drugs, xenobiotics, neurotransmitters, and steroid hormones. Many of the sulfonation reactions for pharmacologic agents are performed by a group of enzymes known as phenol transferases. The phenol sulfotransferase gene family consists to three members located on chromosome 16. A single gene (STM) encodes the thermolabile monoamine-metabolizing form. Two thermostable phenol-metabolizing enzymes are encoded by STP1 and STP2. Substrates for STP1 and STP2 include minoxidil, acetaminophen, and para-nitrophenol. Alterations in phenol sulfotransferase activity have been correlated with individual variation in sulfonation of acetaminophen (Reiter and Weinshilboum (1982) Clin. Pharm.) and predisposition to diet-induced migraine headaches.

[0002] The STP2 gene spans approximately 5.1 kb and contains nine exons that range in length from 74 to 347 bp. Exons IA and IB are noncoding and represent two different cDNA 5′-untranslated region sequences. The two apparent 5′-flanking regions of the STP2 gene contain no canonical TATA boxes, but do contain CCAAT elements. STP2 has been localized to human chromosome 16.

[0003] Since rates of metabolism of drugs, toxins, etc. can depend on the amounts and kinds of phenol sulfotransferase in tissues, variation in biological response may be determined by the profile of expression of phenol sulfotransferases in each person. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms that lead to altered expression and/or enzyme activity are therefore of interest.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0004] Genetic sequence polymorphisms are identified in the STP2 gene. Nucleic acids comprising the polymorphic sequences are used in screening assays, and for genotyping individuals. The genotyping information is used to predict an individuals' rate of metabolism for STP2 substrates, potential drug-drug interactions, and adverse/side effects. Specific polynucleotides include the polymorphic STP2 sequences set forth in SEQ ID NOs:63-100.

[0005] The nucleic acid sequences of the invention may be provided as probes for detection of STP2 locus polymorphisms, where the probe comprises a polymorphic sequence of SEQ ID NOs:63- 1 10. The sequences may further be utilized as an array of oligonucleotides comprising two or more probes for detection of STP2 locus polymorphisms.

[0006] Another aspect of the invention provides a method for detecting in an individual a polymorphism in STP2 metabolism of a substrate, where the method comprises analyzing the genome of the individual for the presence of at least one STP2 polymorphism; wherein the presence of the predisposing polymorphism is indicative of an alteration in STP2 expression or activity. The analyzing step of the method may be accomplished by detection of specific binding between the individual's genomic DNA with an array of oligonucleotides comprising STP2 locus polymorphic sequences. In other embodiments, the alteration in STP2 expression or activity is tissue specific, or is in response to a STP2 modifier that induces or inhibits STP2 expression.

Database References for Nucleotide Sequences

[0007] Genbank accession no. U34804 provides the sequence of the STP2 gene.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEQUENCE LISTING

[0008] STP2 Reference Sequences. SEQ ID NO: 1 lists the sequence of the reference STP2 gene. The exons are as follows: exon 1A (nt 2591-2664); exon 1B (nt 3180-3526); exon 2 (nt 3726-3877); exon 3 (nt 3985-4110); exon 4 (nt 4196-4293); exon 5 (nt 6088-6214); exon 6 (6310-6404); exon 7 (nt 7214-7394); exon 8 (nt 7517-7712). The mRNA sequence is set forth in SEQ ID NO:2, and the encoded amino acid sequence in SEQ ID NO:3.

[0009] Primers. The PCR primers for amplification of polymorphic sequences are set forth as SEQ ID NOs:4-17. The primers used in sequencing isolated polymorphic sequences are presented as SEQ ID NOs: 18-46. The primers used in Taqman assays are listed as SEQ ID NO:47-62.

[0010] Polymorphisms. Polymorphic sequences of STP2 are presented as SEQ ID NOs:63-110.

DESCRIPTION OF THE SPECIFIC EMBODIMENTS

[0011] Pharmacogenetics is the linkage between an individual's genotype and that individual's ability to metabolize or react to a therapeutic agent. Differences in metabolism or target sensitivity can lead to severe toxicity or therapeutic failure by altering the relation between bioactive dose and blood concentration of the drug. Relationships between polymorphisms in metabolic enzymes or drug targets and both response and toxicity can be used to optimize therapeutic dose administration.

[0012] Genetic polymorphisms are identified in the STP2 gene. Nucleic acids comprising the polymorphic sequences are used to screen patients for altered metabolism for STP2 substrates, potential drug-drug interactions, and adverse/side effects, as well as diseases that result from environmental or occupational exposure to toxins. The nucleic acids are used to establish animal, cell culture and in vitro cell-free models for drug metabolism.

Definitions

[0013] It is to be understood that this invention is not limited to the particular methodology, protocols, cell lines, animal species or genera, constructs, and reagents described, as such may vary. It is also to be understood that the terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only, and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention which will be limited only by the appended claims.

[0014] As used herein the singular forms “a”, “and”, and “the” include plural referents unless the context clearly dictates otherwise. Thus, for example, reference to “a construct” includes a plurality of such constructs and reference to “the STP2 nucleic acid” includes reference to one or more nucleic acids and equivalents thereof known to those skilled in the art, and so forth. All technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood to one of ordinary skill in the art to which this invention belongs unless clearly indicated otherwise.

[0015] STP2 reference sequence. The sequence of the STP2 gene may be accessed through Genbank as previously cited, and is provided in SEQ ID NO:1 and SEQ ID NO:2 (CDNA sequence). The amino acid sequence of STP2 is listed as SEQ ID NO:3. These sequences provide a reference for the polymorphisms of the invention. The nucleotide sequences provided herein differ from the published sequence at certain positions throughout the sequence. Where there is a discrepancy the provided sequence is used as a reference.

[0016] The term “wild-type” may be used to refer to the reference coding sequences of STP2, and the term “variant”, or “STP2v” to refer to the provided variations in the STP2 sequence. Where there is no published form, such as in the intron sequences, the term wild-type may be used to refer to the most commonly found allele. It will be understood by one of skill in the art that the designation as “wild-type” is merely a convenient label for a common allele, and should not be construed as conferring any particular property on that form of the sequence.

[0017] STP2 polymorphic sequences. It has been found that specific sites in the STP2 gene sequence are polymorphic, i.e. within a population, more than one nucleotide (G, A, T, C) is found at a specific position. Polymorphisms may provide functional differences in the genetic sequence, through changes in the encoded polypeptide, changes in mRNA stability, binding of transcriptional and translation factors to the DNA or RNA, and the like. The polymorphisms are also used as single nucleotide polymorphisms to detect association with, or genetic linkage to phenotypic variation in activity and expression of STP2.

[0018] SNPs are generally biallelic systems, that is, there are two alleles that an individual may have for any particular marker. SNPs, found approximately every kilobase, offer the potential for generating very high density genetic maps, which will be extremely useful for developing haplotyping systems for genes or regions of interest, and because of the nature of SNPs, they may in fact be the polymorphisms associated with the disease phenotypes under study. The low mutation rate of SNPs also makes them excellent markers for studying complex genetic traits.

[0019] Single nucleotide polymorphisms are provided in the STP2 promoter, intron and exon sequences. Table 4 and the corresponding sequence listing provide both forms of each polymorphic sequence. For example, SEQ ID NO:99 and 100 are the alternative forms of a single polymorphic site. The provided sequences also encompass the complementary sequence corresponding to any of the provided polymorphisms.

[0020] In order to provide an unambiguous identification of the specific site of a polymorphism, sequences flanking the polymorphic site are shown in Table 4, where the 5′ and 3′ flanking sequence is non-polymorphic, and the central position, shown in bold, is variable. It will be understood that there is no special significance to the length of non-polymorphic flanking sequence that is included, except to aid in positioning the polymorphism in the genomic sequence. The STP2 exon sequences have been published, and therefore one of each pair of sequences in Table 4 is a publically known sequence.

[0021] As used herein, the term “STP2 gene” is intended to generically refer to both the wild-type and variant forms of the sequence, unless specifically denoted otherwise. As it is commonly used in the art, the term “gene” is intended to refer to the genomic region encompassing 5′ UTR, exons, introns, and 3′ UTR. Individual segments may be specifically referred to, e.g. exon 2, intron 5, etc. Combinations of such segments that provide for a complete STP2 protein may be referred to generically as a protein coding sequence.

[0022] Nucleic acids of interest comprise the provided STP2v nucleic acid sequence(s), as set forth in Table 4. Such nucleic acids include short hybridization probes, protein coding sequences, variant forms of STP2 CDNA, segments, e.g. exons, introns, etc., and the like. Methods of producing nucleic acids are well-known in the art, including chemical synthesis, cDNA or genomic cloning, PCR amplification, etc.

[0023] For the most part, DNA fragments will be of at least 15 nt, usually at least 20 nt, often at least 50 nt. Such small DNA fragments are useful as primers for PCR, hybridization screening, etc. Larger DNA fragments, i. e. greater than 100 nt are useful for production of the encoded polypeptide, promoter motifs, etc. For use in amplification reactions, such as PCR, a pair of primers will be used. The exact composition of primer sequences is not critical to the invention, but for most applications the primers will hybridize to the subject sequence under stringent conditions, as known in the art.

[0024] The STP2 nucleic acid sequences are isolated and obtained in substantial purity, generally as other than an intact or naturally occurring mammalian chromosome. Usually, the DNA will be obtained substantially free of other nucleic acid sequences that do not include a STP2 sequence or fragment thereof, generally being at least about 50%, usually at least about 90% pure and are typically “recombinant”, i.e. flanked by one or more nucleotides with which it is not normally associated on a naturally occurring chromosome.

[0025] For screening purposes, hybridization probes of the polymorphic sequences may be used where both forms are present, either in separate reactions, spatially separated on a solid phase matrix, or labeled such that they can be distinguished from each other. Assays may utilize nucleic acids that hybridize to one or more of the described polymorphisms.

[0026] An array may include all or a subset of the polymorphisms listed in Table 4. One or both polymorphic forms may be present in the array, for example the polymorphism of SEQ ID NO:37 and 38 may be represented by either, or both, of the listed sequences. Usually such an array will include at least 2 different polymorphic sequences, i.e. polymorphisms located at unique positions within the locus, and may include as many all of the provided polymorphisms. Arrays of interest may further comprise sequences, including polymorphisms, of other genetic sequences, particularly other sequences of interest for pharmacogenetic screening, e.g. STP1; UGT1, UGT2, cytochrome oxidases, etc. The oligonucleotide sequence on the array will usually be at least about 12 nt in length, may be the length of the provided polymorphic sequences, or may extend into the flanking regions to generate fragments of 100 to 200 nt in length. For examples of arrays, see Ramsay (1998) Nat. Biotech. 16:40-44; Hacia et al. (1996) Nature Genetics 14:441-447; Lockhart et al. (1996) Nature Biotechnol. 14:1675-1680; and De Risi et al. (1996) Nature Genetics 14:457-460.

[0027] Nucleic acids may be naturally occurring, e.g. DNA or RNA, or may be synthetic analogs, as known in the art. Such analogs may be preferred for use as probes because of superior stability under assay conditions. Modifications in the native structure, including alterations in the backbone, sugars or heterocyclic bases, have been shown to increase intracellular stability and binding affinity. Among useful changes in the backbone chemistry are phosphorothioates; phosphorodithioates, where both of the non-bridging oxygens are substituted with sulfur; phosphoroamidites; alkyl phosphotriesters and boranophosphates. Achiral phosphate derivatives include 3′-O′-5′-S-phosphorothioate, 3′-S-5′-O- phosphorothioate, 3′-CH2-5′-O-phosphonate and 3′-NH-5′-O-phosphoroamidate. Peptide nucleic acids replace the entire ribose phosphodiester backbone with a peptide linkage.

[0028] Sugar modifications are also used to enhance stability and affinity. The a-anomer of deoxyribose may be used, where the base is inverted with respect to the natural b-anomer. The 2′-OH of the ribose sugar may be altered to form 2′-O- methyl or 2′-O-allyl sugars, which provides resistance to degradation without comprising affinity.

[0029] Modification of the heterocyclic bases must maintain proper base pairing. Some useful substitutions include deoxyuridine for deoxythymidine; 5-methyl-2′- deoxycytidine and 5-bromo-2′-deoxycytidine for deoxycytidine. 5- propynyl-2′- deoxyuridine and 5-propynyl-2′-deoxycytidine have been shown to increase affinity and biological activity when substituted for deoxythymidine and deoxycytidine, respectively.

[0030] STP2 polypeptides. A subset of the provided nucleic acid polymorphisms in STP2 exons confer a change in the corresponding amino acid sequence. Using the amino acid sequence provided in SEQ ID NO:3 as a reference, the amino acid polymorphisms of the invention include pro→leu, pos. 19; ala→val, pos. 136; asn→thr, pos. 235; glu→lys, pos 282; and atruncated formresulting from a stop codon at exon 5, position 447. Polypeptides comprising at least one of the provided polymorphisms (STP2v polypeptides) are of interest. The term “STP2v polypeptides” as used herein includes complete STP2 protein forms, e.g. such splicing variants as known in the art, and fragments thereof, which fragments may comprise short polypeptides, epitopes, functional domains; binding sites; etc.; and including fusions of the subject polypeptides to other proteins or parts thereof. Polypeptides will usually be at least about 8 amino acids in length, more usually at least about 12 amino acids in length, and may be 20 amino acids or longer, up to substantially the complete protein.

[0031] The STP2 genetic sequence, including polymorphisms, may be employed for polypeptide synthesis. For expression, an expression cassette may be employed, providing for a transcriptional and translational initiation region, which may be inducible or constitutive, where the coding region is operably linked under the transcriptional control of the transcriptional initiation region, and a transcriptional and translational termination region. Various transcriptional initiation regions may be employed that are functional in the expression host. The polypeptides may be expressed in prokaryotes or eukaryotes in accordance with conventional ways, depending upon the purpose for expression. Small peptides can also be synthesized in the laboratory.

[0032] Substrate. A substrate is a chemical entity that is modified by STP2, usually under normal physiological conditions. Although the duration of drug action tends to be shortened by metabolic transformation, drug metabolism is not “detoxification”. Frequently the metabolic product has greater biologic activity than the drug itself. In some cases the desirable pharmacologic actions are entirely attributable to metabolites, the administered drugs themselves being inert. Likewise, the toxic side effects of some drugs may be due in whole or in part to metabolic products.

[0033] Substrates of interest may be drugs, xenobiotics, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones, etc. STP2 preferentially catalyzes the sulfonation of ‘simple’ planar phenols. Substrates include minoxidil, acetaminophen, para-nitrophenol, N-hydroxy 4-aminobiphenyl, etc.

[0034] Modifier. A modifier is a chemical agent that modulates the action of STP2, either through altering its enzymatic activity (enzymatic modifier) or through modulation of expression (expression modifier, e.g., by affecting transcription or translation). In some cases the modifier may also be a substrate. Inhibitors include N-ethylmaleimide; phenylglyoxal; 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol; p-nitrophenol; quercetin and other flavonoids, e.g. fisetin, galangin, myricetin, kaempferol, chrysin, apigenin; and phenols such as curcumin, genistein, ellagic acid. Steroids, e.g. estradiol benzoate, testosterone proprionate may affect activity and/or expression.

[0035] Pharmacokinetic parameters. Pharmacokinetic parameters provide fundamental data for designing safe and effective dosage regimens. A drug's volume of distribution, clearance, and the derived parameter, half-life, are particularly important, as they determine the degree of fluctuation between a maximum and minimum plasma concentration during a dosage interval, the magnitude of steady state concentration and the time to reach steady state plasma concentration upon chronic dosing. Parameters derived from in vivo drug administration are useful in determining the clinical effect of a particular STP2 genotype.

[0036] Expression assay. An assay to determine the effect of a sequence polymorphism on STP2 expression. Expression assays may be performed in cell-free extracts, or by transforming cells with a suitable vector. Alterations in expression may occur in the basal level that is expressed in one or more cell types, or in the effect that an expression modifier has on the ability of the gene to be inhibited or induced. Expression levels of a variant alleles are compared by various methods known in the art. Methods for determining promoter or enhancer strength include quantitation of the expressed natural protein; insertion of the variant control element into a vector with a reporter gene such as b-galactosidase, luciferase, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, etc. that provides for convenient quantitation; and the like.

[0037] Gel shift or electrophoretic mobility shift assay provides a simple and rapid method for detecting DNA-binding proteins (Ausubel, F.M. et al. (1989) In: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology, Vol. 2, John Wiley and Sons, New York). This method has been used widely in the study of sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins, such as transcription factors. The assay is based on the observation that complexes of protein and DNA migrate through a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel more slowly than free DNA fragments or double-stranded oligonucleotides. The gel shift assay is performed by incubating a purified protein, or a complex mixture of proteins (such as nuclear or cell extract preparations), with an end-labeled DNA fragment containing the putative protein binding site. The reaction products are then analyzed on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel. The specificity of the DNA-binding protein for the putative binding site is established by competition experiments using DNA fragments or oligonucleotides containing a binding site for the protein of interest, or other unrelated DNA sequences.

[0038] Expression assays can be used to detect differences in expression of polymorphisms with respect to tissue specificity, expression level, or expression in response to exposure to various substrates, and/or timing of expression during development. For example, since STP2 is expressed in liver, polymorphisms could be evaluated for expression in tissues other than liver, or expression in liver tissue relative to a reference STP2 polypeptide.

[0039] Substrate screening assay. Substrate screening assays are used to determine the metabolic activity of a STP2 protein or peptide fragment on a substrate. Many suitable assays are known in the art, including the use of primary or cultured cells, genetically modified cells (e.g., where DNA encoding the STP2 polymorphism to be studied is introduced into the cell within an artificial construct), cell-free systems, e.g. microsomal preparations or recombinantly produced enzymes in a suitable buffer, or in animals, including human clinical trials. Where genetically modified cells are used, since most cell lines do not express STP2 activity (liver cells lines being the exception), introduction of artificial construct for expression of the STP2 polymorphism into many human and non-human cell lines does not require additional modification of the host to inactivate endogenous STP2 expression/activity. Clinical trials may monitor serum, urine, etc. levels of the substrate or its metabolite(s).

[0040] Typically a candidate substrate is input into the assay system, and the oxidation to a metabolite is measured over time. The choice of detection system is determined by the substrate and the specific assay parameters. Assays are conventionally run, and will include negative and positive controls, varying concentrations of substrate and enzyme, etc. Exemplary assays may be found in the literature, for examples see Chou et al. (1995) Carcinogenesis 16:413-417; Walle and Walle (1991) Drug Metab. Dispos. 19:448-453; and Falany et al. (1990) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 278:312-318.

[0041] Genotyping: STP2 genotyping is performed by DNA or RNA sequence and/or hybridization analysis of any convenient sample from a patient, e.g. biopsy material, blood sample (serum, plasma, etc.), buccal cell sample, etc. A nucleic acid sample from an individual is analyzed for the presence of polymorphisms in STP2, particularly those that affect the activity or expression of STP2. Specific sequences of interest include any polymorphism that leads to changes in basal expression in one or more tissues, to changes in the modulation of STP2 expression by modifiers, or alterations in STP2 substrate specificity and/or activity.

[0042] Linkage Analysis: Diagnostic screening may be performed for polymorphisms that are genetically linked to a phenotypic variant in STP2 activity or expression, particularly through the use of microsatellite markers or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). The microsatellite or SNP polymorphism itself may not phenotypically expressed, but is linked to sequences that result in altered activity or expression. Two polymorphic variants may be in linkage disequilibrium, i.e. where alleles show non-random associations between genes even though individual loci are in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

[0043] Linkage analysis may be performed alone, or in combination with direct detection of phenotypically evident polymorphisms. The use of microsatellite markers for genotyping is well documented. For examples, see Mansfield et al. (1994) Genomics 24:225-233; and Ziegle et al. (1992) Genomics 14:1026-1031. The use of SNPs for genotyping is illustrated in Underhill et al. (1996) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:196-200.

[0044] Transgenic animals. The subject nucleic acids can be used to generate genetically modified non-human animals or site specific gene modifications in cell lines. The term “transgenic” is intended to encompass genetically modified animals having a deletion or other knock-out of STP2 gene activity, having an exogenous STP2 gene that is stably transmitted in the host cells, or having an exogenous STP2 promoter operably linked to a reporter gene. Transgenic animals may be made through homologous recombination, where the STP2 locus is altered. Alternatively, a nucleic acid construct is randomly integrated into the genome. Vectors for stable integration include plasmids, retroviruses and other animal viruses, YACs, and the like. Of interest are transgenic mammals, e.g. cows, pigs, goats, horses, etc., and particularly rodents, e.g. rats, mice, etc.

[0045] Genetically Modified Cells. Primary or cloned cells and cell lines are modified by the introduction of vectors comprising STP2 gene polymorphisms. The gene may comprise one or more variant sequences, preferably a haplotype of commonly occurring combinations. In one embodiment of the invention, a panel of two or more genetically modified cell lines, each cell line comprising a STP2 polymorphism, are provided for substrate and/or expression assays. The panel may further comprise cells genetically modified with other genetic sequences, including polymorphisms, particularly other sequences of interest for pharmacogenetic screening, e.g. STP 1; UGT 1, UGT2, cytochrome oxidases, etc.

[0046] Vectors useful for introduction of the gene include plasmids and viral vectors, e.g. retroviral-based vectors, adenovirus vectors, etc. that are maintained transiently or stably in mammalian cells. A wide variety of vectors can be employed for transfection and/or integration of the gene into the genome of the cells. Alternatively, micro-injection may be employed, fusion, or the like for introduction of genes into a suitable host cell.

Genotyping Methods

[0047] The effect of a polymorphism in the STP2 gene sequence on the response to a particular substrate or modifier of STP2 is determined by in vitro or in vivo assays. Such assays may include monitoring the metabolism of a substrate during clinical trials to determine the STP2 enzymatic activity, specificity or expression level. Generally, in vitro assays are useful in determining the direct effect of a particular polymorphism, while clinical studies will also detect an enzyme phenotype that is genetically linked to a polymorphism.

[0048] The response of an individual to the substrate or modifier can then be predicted by determining the STP2 genotype, with respect to the polymorphism. Where there is a differential distribution of a polymorphism by racial background, guidelines for drug administration can be generally tailored to a particular ethnic group.

[0049] The basal expression level in different tissue may be determined by analysis of tissue samples from individuals typed for the presence or absence of a specific polymorphism. Any convenient method may be use, e.g. ELISA, RIA, etc. for protein quantitation, northern blot or other hybridization analysis, quantitative RT-PCR, etc. for mRNA quantitation. The tissue specific expression is correlated with the genotype.

[0050] The alteration of STP2 expression in response to a modifier is determined by administering or combining the candidate modifier with an expression system, e.g. animal, cell, in vitro transcription assay, etc. The effect of the modifier on STP2 transcription and/or steady state mRNA levels is determined. As with the basal expression levels, tissue specific interactions are of interest. Correlations are made between the ability of an expression modifier to affect STP2 activity, and the presence of the provided polymorphisms. A panel of different modifiers, cell types, etc. may be screened in order to determine the effect under a number of different conditions.

[0051] A STP2 polymorphism that results in altered enzyme activity or specificity is determined by a variety of assays known in the art. The enzyme may be tested for metabolism of a substrate in vitro, for example in defined buffer, or in cell or subcellular lysates, where the ability of a substrate to be metabolized by STP2 under physiologic conditions is determined. Where there are not significant issues oftoxicity from the substrate or metabolite(s), in vivo human trials may be utilized, as previously described.

[0052] The genotype of an individual is determined with respect to the provided STP2 gene polymorphisms. The genotype is useful for determining the presence of a phenotypically evident polymorphism, and for determining the linkage of a polymorphism to phenotypic change.

[0053] A number of methods are available for analyzing nucleic acids for the presence of a specific sequence. Where large amounts of DNA are available, genomic DNA is used directly.

[0054] Alternatively, the region of interest is cloned into a suitable vector and grown in sufficient quantity for analysis. The nucleic acid may be amplified by conventional techniques, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), to provide sufficient amounts for analysis. The use of the polymerase chain reaction is described in Saiki et al. (1985) Science 230:1350-1354, and a review of current techniques may be found in Sambrook et al. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, CSH Press 1989, pp. 14.2-14.33. Amplification may be used to determine whether a polymorphism is present, by using a primer that is specific for the polymorphism. Alternatively, various methods are known in the art that utilize oligonucleotide ligation as a means of detecting polymorphisms, for examples see Riley et al. (1990) Nucleic Acids Res 18:2887-2890; and Delahunty et al. (1996) Am J Hum Genet 58:1239-1246.

[0055] A detectable label may be included in an amplification reaction. Suitable labels include fluorochromes, e.g. fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), rhodamine, Texas Red, phycoerythrin, allophycocyanin, 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM), 2′,7′-dimethoxy-4′,5′-dichloro-6-carboxyfluorescein (JOE), 6-carboxy-X-rhodamine (ROX), 6-carboxy-2′,4′,7′,4,7-hexachlorofluorescein (HEX), 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-FAM) or N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-6-carboxyrhodamine (TAMRA), radioactive labels, e.g. 32P, 35S, 3H; etc. The label may be a two stage system, where the amplified DNA is conjugated to biotin, haptens, etc. having a high affinity binding partner, e.g. avidin, specific antibodies, etc., where the binding partner is conjugated to a detectable label. The label may be conjugated to one or both of the primers. Alternatively, the pool of nucleotides used in the amplification is labeled, so as to incorporate the label into the amplification product.

[0056] The sample nucleic acid, e.g. amplified or cloned fragment, is analyzed by one of a number of methods known in the art. The nucleic acid may be sequenced by dideoxy or other methods. Hybridization with the variant sequence may also be used to determine its presence, by Southern blots, dot blots, etc. The hybridization pattern of a control and variant sequence to an array of oligonucleotide probes immobilized on a solid support, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,445,934, or in W095/35505, may also be used as a means of detecting the presence of variant sequences. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), mismatch cleavage detection, and heteroduplex analysis in gel matrices are used to detect conformational changes created by DNA sequence variation as alterations in electrophoretic mobility. Alternatively, where a polymorphism creates or destroys a recognition site for a restriction endonuclease (restriction fragment length polymorphism, RFLP), the sample is digested with that endonuclease, and the products size fractionated to determine whether the fragment was digested. Fractionation is performed by gel or capillary electrophoresis, particularly acrylamide or agarose gels.

[0057] In one embodiment of the invention, an array of oligonucleotides are provided, where discrete positions on the array are complementary to one or more of the provided polymorphic sequences, e.g. oligonucleotides of at least 12 nt, frequently 20 nt, or larger, and including the sequence flanking the polymorphic position. Such an array may comprise a series of oligonucleotides, each of which can specifically hybridize to a different polymorphism. For examples of arrays, see Hacia et al. (1996) Nat Genet 14:441-447 and DeRisi et al. (1996) Nat Genet 14:457-460.

[0058] The genotype information is used to predict the response of the individual to a particular STP2 substrate or modifier. Where an expression modifier inhibits STP2 expression, then drugs that are a STP2 substrate will be metabolized more slowly if the modifier is co-administered. Where an expression modifier induces STP2 expression, a co-administered substrate will typically be metabolized more rapidly. Similarly, changes in STP2 activity will affect the metabolism of an administered drug. The pharmacokinetic effect of the interaction will depend on the metabolite that is produced, e.g. a prodrug is metabolized to an active form, a drug is metabolized to an inactive form, an environmental compound is metabolized to a toxin, etc. Consideration is given to the route of administration, drug-drug interactions, drug dosage, etc.

EXPERIMENTAL

[0059] The following examples are put forth so as to provide those of ordinary skill in the art with a complete disclosure and description of how to make and use the subject invention, and are not intended to limit the scope of what is regarded as the invention. Efforts have been made to ensure accuracy with respect to the numbers used (e.g. amounts, temperature, concentrations, etc.) but some experimental errors and deviations should be allowed for. Unless otherwise indicated, parts are parts by weight, molecular weight is average molecular weight, temperature is in degrees centigrade; and pressure is at or near atmospheric.

[0060] Materials and Methods

[0061] DNA samples. Blood specimens from approximately 300 individuals were collected after obtaining informed consent. All samples were stripped of personal identifiers to maintain confidentiality. The only data associated with a given blood sample was gender and self-reported major racial group designations in the United States (Caucasian, Hispanic, African American). Genomic DNA was isolated from these samples using standard techniques. gDNA was either stored as concentrated solutions or stored dried in microtiter plates for future use.

[0062] PCR amplifications. The primers used to amplify the coding regions and the promoter region of the STP2 gene from 200 ng of human gDNA are shown in Table 1. Primers were designed based upon publicly available genomic sequence provided by Heretal. (1996) Genomics 33:409-420. 100 ng of gDNA from 2 individuals was amplified with the Perkin Elmer GeneAmp PCR kit according to manufacturer's instructions in 100 μl reactions with Taq Gold DNA polymerase, with two exceptions. Boehringer-Mannheim Expand High Fidelity PCR System kit was used to amplify the promoter region and exon 1A. Magnesium concentrations for each PCR reaction was optimized empirically, and are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1
PCR primers and Mg++ concentrations.
Forward/ SEQ
Region Reverse ID Forward Primer (5′ 3′) [Mg++]
Promoter F 4. CCCAAATACAGGTGTTCC 2mM
R 5. GGAGCAGAGCAAGGATC
Exon 1A F 6. TTCTTCTAGGATCTTCTATCG 2mM
R 7. ACTCAGCAAAAGGAGGAT
Exon 1B F 8. TTAGAGATGGGGTCTTCC 2mM
R 9. GGGCGAGAGATGTCC
Exon2 F 10. GGAGAGGAGCCTACTGG 2mM
R 11. AGTCTGAGGTGAGCAT
Exons 3&4 F 12. GCCTCAGTGACTTCCCT 3mM
R 13. TTTGGAAGAGACTTATCTGG
Exons 5&6 F 14. GCAGGACTTTGGCTTT 2mM
R 15. GACTCAGGCACAGGAG
Exons 7&8 F 16. GACCATCCCAGTCCTT 2mM
R 17. CCCCAACGACACAGG

[0063] Thermal cycling was performed in a GeneAmp PCR System 9600 PCR machine (Perkin Elmer) with an initial denaturation step at 95° C. for 10 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 95° C. for 30 sec, primer annealing at 60° C. for 45 sec, and primer extension at 72° C. for 2 min, followed by final extension at 72° C. for 5 min, with the following exceptions. 40 cycles were used to amplify exon 1B and to co-amplify exons 7 and 8. Cycling conditions for the promoter region and exon 1A were an initial denaturation at 95° C. for 2 min, followed by 40 cycles of denaturation at 94° C. for 30 sec, primer annealing at 60° C. for 45 sec, and primer extension at 68° C. for 4 min, followed by a final extension at 68° C. for 7 min.

[0064] DNA sequencing. PCR products from 32 individuals, approximately ⅓ from each of the 3 major racial groups (see above), were spin column purified using Microcon -100 columns. Cycle sequencing was performed on the GeneAmp PCR System 9600 PCR machine (Perkin Elmer) using the ABI Prism dRhodamine Terminator Cycle Sequencing Ready Reaction Kit according to the manufacturer's directions. Oligonucleotide primers used for the sequencing reactions are listed in

TABLE 2
Sequencing primers.
Forward/
Region Reverse SEQ ID Forward Primer (5′ 3′)
Promoter (1) F 18. TGGAGCCCGTCTTGG
R 19. CAGCAGTTTCACTTGACC
Promoter (2) F 20. TGCCACCCCCTGCT
R 21. AGGCTGCTCCCCTG
Promoter (3) F 22. GGGCTCACGCAACC
R 23. GCAGGTACTTTTCTTTCCA
Exon1A(1) F 24. TTCTTCTAGGATCTTCTATCG
R 25. TTTTTGAGGTGTCACTGG
Exon 1A (2) F 26. CCCACACAAGACCCAC
R 27. GCTTCTGGAATGTTGG
Exon 1A (3) R 28. CGGAAAAAAAAAAAGGAAG
Exon 1B (1) F 29. CAATGCTGCCCAGA
R 30. GCTCCACTGAGGAACCT
Exon 1B (2) F 31. GGAGAGGAGCCTACTGG
R 32. TACCACCATCACAACAGC
Exon 2 F 33. CTGAAAGCAAGAAATCCAC
R 34. AGGCTGAGGTGAGCAT
Exons 3&4 F 35. GCGGTGACCTGGAA
R 36. TTTGGAAGAGACTTATCTGG
Exons 5&6 (1) F 37. CTGACTTGCCCCTACCT
R 38. TAGCCACCACCCCTTA
Exons 5&6 (2) F 39. CCAAAGTGTACCCTGACC
R 40. AGCCTGCTGCCACA
Exons 7&8 (1) F 41. GACCATCCCAGTCCTT
R 42. CAAACCCCCGTGCT
Exons 7&8 (2) F 43. CTGTGGACCTCTTGGTTG
R 44. CACAAATCATACTTTATTCTGG
Exons 7&8 (3) F 45. CGATGCGGACTATGG
R 46. CCCCAACGACACAGG

[0065] Eight μl sequencing reactions were subjected to 30 cycles at 96° C. for 20 sec, 50° C. for 20 sec, and 60° C. for 4 min, followed by ethanol precipitation. Samples were evaporated to dryness at 50° C. for ˜15 min and resuspended in 2 μl of loading buffer (5:1 deionized formamide:50 mM EDTA pH 8.0), heated to 65° C. for 5 min, and electrophoresed through 4% polyacrylamide/6M urea gels in an ABI 377 Nucleic Acid Analyzer according to the manufacturer's instructions for sequence determination. All sequences were determined from both the 5′ and 3′ (sense and antisense) direction. Each sequencing reaction was performed with 2 individuals' DNA pooled together. The 16 electropherograms were analyzed by comparing peak heights, looking for ˜25% reduction in peak size and/or presence of extra peaks as an indication of heterozygosity. If polymorphisms were identified, pools were subsequently split and resequenced for confirmation.

[0066] Population genotyping. High-throughput genotyping using TaqMan technology (ABI) was performed using standard techniques (Livak et al. (1995) PCR Methods and Applications 4:357-362) on the samples described above for 3 STP2 polymorphisms. Oligonucleotide PCR primers and probes used for genotyping are shown in Table 3. Polymorphisms for which allele frequencies were determined are marked with an asterisk (*) in Table 4.

TABLE 3
TaqMan primers and probes.
SEQ ID Description Primers
47. STP2-136A primer GGTGCTGGGGTTGAGTCTTCTG
48. STP2-136A1a probe CAAAGGATGTGGCGGTTTCCTACTAC
C
49. STP2-136B primer ACACCTTCCTTCCTCCCATCAAG
50. STP2-136Val probe CGCAAAGGATGTGGTGGTTTCCTACT
AC
51. STP2-235A primer GGAGACTGTGGACCTCATGGTTGA
52. STP2-235Asn probe TAGTTGGTCATAGGGTTCTTCTTCAT
CTCCTT
53. STP2-235B primer CCGGCACCTACCTTTCCTCAT
54. STP2-235Thr probe TAGTTGGTCATAGGGGTCTTCTTCAT
CTCC
55. STP2-282A primer AGCTTTGCTCCCTGCCTTCCT
56. STP2-282Glu probe CTGCCATCTTCTCCGCATAGTCCG
57. STP2-282B primer GGAACCCCTCTCACAGCTCAGA
58. STP2-282Lys probe TGCCATCTTCTTCGCATAGTCCGC
59. STP2-447A primer GGTGCTGGGGTTGAGTCTTCTG
60. STP2-DelA447 probe ATGGCCAAAGTGTACCCTCACCCTG
61. STP2-447B primer ACACCTTCCTTCCTCCCATCAAG
62. STP2-InsA447 probe CATGGCCAAAGTGTAACCCTCACCC

[0067] Assay name is given by locus and position. Primer names are abbreviated locus-position and letter designations representing forward (A) and reverse (B) primers. Probes are abbreviated locus-position and 3 letter nucleic acid designations representing the nucleic acid alteration in the coding strand of the genomic DNA. Positions at which probes detect nucleic acid variations are shown in bold.

[0068] Results

[0069] Eight exons, the promoter region, 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions from the human STP2 gene were resequenced in 32 individuals representing three major ethnic groups (Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American). The polymorphisms are listed in Table 4.

TABLE 4
Newly identified STP2 gene polymorphisms.
SEQ
Location; ID Polymorphism Sequence AA change
3′end; 99 63. CCAGCTCCTCAACTTGCCCTG
64. CCAGCTCCTCTACTTGCCCTG
3′UTR; 7 65. GTGAGAGGGGTTCCTGGAGTC
66. GTGAGAGGGGCTCCTGGAGTC
Promoter;−603 67. CATGAAGCTGGGGCTGGCTCC
68. CATGAAGCTGAGGCTGGCTCC
Promoter;−833 69. CTCGTGCCCAGCTTGACCCTG
70. CTCGTGCCCAACTTGACCCTG
Promoter;−1005 71. GGGATTCCTCAGGGGCACAGA
72. GGGATTCCTCCGGGGCACAGA
Promoter;−1306 73. ACAGCGCCATGTTGCTTCTGG
74. ACAGCGCCATATTGCTTCTGG
5′UTR-A; 36 75. CAGCCACTGCGGGCGAGGAGG
76. CAGCCACTGCAGGCGAGGAGG
5′UTR-A;51 77. AGGAGGGCACAAGGCCAGGTT
78. AGGAGGGCACGAGGCCAGGTT
5′UTR-B; 183 79. GGGGAACATCGGGGAGAGGAG
80. GGGGAACATCAGGGAGAGGAG
Exon 5*; 447 81. CCAAAGTGTACCCTCACCCT INS STOP
82. CCAAAGTGTAACCCTCACCCTINS STOP
Exon 5*; 136 83. AAGGATGTGGCGGTTTCCTAC ALA-VAL
(nt 307) 84. AAGGATGTGGTGGTTTCCTAC ALA-VAL
Exon 7*; 235 85. ATGAAGAAGAACCCTATGACC ASN-THR
(nt 705) 86. ATGAAGAAGACCCCTATGACC ASN-THR
Exon 8*; 282 87. GGACTATGCGGAGAAGATGGC GLU-LYS
(nt 845) 88. GGACTATGCGAAGAAGATGGC GLU-LYS
Exon 2; 19 89. AAGGGGGTCCCGCTCATCAAG PRO-LEU
(nt 56) 90. AAGGGGGTCCTGCTCATCAAG PRO-LEU
Intron 1A; 88 91. CTCTGCTATCTCTGCCCTCTC
92. CTCTGCTATCCCTGCCCTCTC
Intron 2; 34 93. CTCTCCCAGGTGGCAGTCCCC
94. CTCTCCCAGGCGGCAGTCCCC
Intron 4; −71 95. CCTTTGCCAAACCAAGAGATG DEL A
96. CCTTTGCCAACCAAGAGATG DEL A
Intron 5; −19 97. GTGTCGGCACTCCCTGCCCGC
98. GTGTCGGCACCCCCTGCCCGC
Intron 6; 93 99. CCTCCCTGGGCGGCCCCTCCA
100. CCTCCCTGGGTGGCCCCTCCA
Promoter; −547 101. TTGTTCTATGGATCCATGCTC
102. TTGTTCTATGCATCCATGCTC
Promoter;−453 103. CATGGGCTGCTGGAGGCCTGT
104. CATGGGCTGCCGGAGGCCTGT
Promoter;−425 105. ACTGGGCCAGGACCCCTGGCA
106. ACTGGGCCAGAACCCCTGGCA
Promoter;−358 107. CCTGCCTATCCCAGCTTTCTC
108. CCTGCCTATCTCAGCTTTCTC
Promoter;−355 109. GCCTATCCCATCTTTCTCCTC
110. GCCTATCCCAGCTTTCTCCTC

[0070] Genotyping of 95 individuals from each of 3 broadly defined racial groups (African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Caucasian Americans) for three polymorphisms produced the allele and genotype frequencies shown in Table 5.

TABLE 5
Allele and Genotype Population Frequencies.
Locus Calc name Start Position Population Allele Freq Genotype Freq
STP2 STP2_Ala136Val_AfAm 0 African Americans, California STP2_Ala136 = 0.997 STP2_136Ala/Ala = 0.995
STP2_Val136 = 0.003 STP2_136Ala/Val = 0.005
STP2_136Val/Val = 0
STP2 STP2_Ala136Val_Cauc2 0 Caucasian, USA STP2_Ala136 = 1 STP2_136Ala/Ala = 1
STP2_Val136 = 0 STP2_136Ala/Val = 0
STP2_136Val/Val = 0
STP2 STP2_Ala136Val_Cauc 0 Caucasians, California STP2_Ala136 = 1 STP2_136Ala/Ala = 1
STP2_Val136 = 0 STP2_136Ala/Val = 0
STP2_136Val/Val = 0
STP2 STP2_Ala136Val_Chin 0 Chinese, California STP2_Ala136 = 1 STP2_136Ala/Ala = 1
STP2_Val136 = 0 STP2_136Ala/Val = 0
STP2_136Val/Val = 0
STP2 STP2_Ala136Val_Hisp 0 Hispanics, California STP2_Ala136 = 1 STP2_136Ala/Ala = 1
STP2_Val136 = 0 STP2_136Ala/Val = 0
STP2_136Val/Val = 0
STP2 STP2_Ala136Val_Japn 0 Japanese, California STP2_Ala136 = 1 STP2_136Ala/Ala = 1
STP2_Val136 = 0 STP2_136Ala/Val = 0
STP2_136Val/Val = 0
STP2 STP2_insA447_AfAm 0 African Americans, California STP2_delA447 = 0.981 STP2_447delA/delA = 0.963
STP2_insA447 = 0.019 STP2_447delA/insA = 0.037
STP2_447insA/insA = 0
STP2 STP2_insA447_Cauc2 0 Caucasian, USA STP2_delA447 = 1 STP2_447delA/delA = 1
STP2_insA447 = 0 STP2_447delA/insA = 0
STP2_447insA/insA = 0
STP2 STP2_insA447_Cauc 0 Caucasians, California STP2_delA447 = 1 STP2_447delA/delA = 1
STP2_insA447 = 0 STP2_447delA/insA = 0
STP2_447insA/insA = 0
STP2 STP2_insA447_Chin 0 Chinese, California STP2_delA447 = 1 STP2_447delA/delA = 1
STP2_insA447 = 0 STP2_447delA/insA = 0
STP2_447insA/insA = 0
STP2 STP2_insA447_Hisp 0 Hispanics, California STP2_delA447 = 0.995 STP2_447delA/delA = 0.989
STP2_insA447 + 0.005 STP2_447delA/insA = 0.011
STP2_447insA/insA = 0
STP2 STP2_insA447_Japn 0 Japanese, California STP2_delA447 = 1 STP2_447delA/delA = 1
STP2_insA447 = 0 STP2_447delA/insA = 0
STP2_447insA/insA = 0
STP2 STP2_Asn235Thr_AfAm 0 African Arnericans, California STP2_Asn235 = 0.749 STP2_235Asn/Asn = 0.562
STP2_Thr235 = 0.251 STP2_235Asn/Thr = 0.373
STP2_235Thr/Thr = 0.065
STP2 STP2_Asn235Thr_Cauc2 0 Caucasian, USA STP2_Asn235 = 0.753 STP2_235Asn/Asn = 0.565
STP2_Thr235 = 0.247 STP2_235Asn/Thr = 0.376
STP2_235Thr/Thr = 0.059
STP2 STP2_Asn235Thr_Cauc 0 Caucasians, California STP2_Asn235 = 0.649 STP2_235Asn/Asn = 0.42
STP2_Thr235 = 0.351 STP2_235Asn/Thr = 0.458
STP2_235Thr/Thr = 0.122
STP2 STP2_Asn235Thr_Chin 0 Chinese, California STP2_Asn235 = 0.934 STP2_235Asn/Asn = 0.882
STP2_Thr235 = 0.066 STP2_235Asn/Thr = 0.105
STP2_235Thr/Thr = 0.013
STP2 STP2_Asn235Thr_Hisp 0 Hispanic, California STP2_Asn235 = 0.623 STP2_235Asn/Asn = 0.385
STP2_Thr235 = 0.377 STP2_235Asn/Thr = 0.476
STP2_235Thr/Thr = 0.139
STP2 STP2_Asn235Thr_Japn 0 Japanese, California STP2_Asn235 = 0.855 STP2_235Asn/Asn = 0.75
STP2_Thr235 = 0.145 STP2_235Asn/Thr = 0.211
STP2_235Thr/Thr = 0.039
STP2 STP2_Glu282Lys_AfAm 0 African Americans, California STP2_Glu282 = 0.949 STP2_828Glu/Glu = 0.899
STP2_Lys282 = 0.051 STP2_282Glu/Lys = 0.101
STP2_282Lys/Lys = 0
STP2 STP2_Glu282Lys_Cauc2 0 Caucasian, USA STP2_Glu282 = 1 STP2_282Glu/Glu = 1
STP2_Lys282 = 0 STP2_282Glu/Lys = 0
STP2_282Lys/Lys = 0
STP2 STP2_Glu282Lys_Cauc 0 Caucasians, California STP2_Glu282 = 0.997 STP2_282Glu/Glu = 0.995
STP2_Lys282 = 0.003 STP2_282Glu/Lys = 0.005
STP2_282Lys/Lys = 0
STP2 STP2_Glu282Lys_Chin 0 Chinese, California STP2_Glu282 = 1 STP2_282Glu/Glu = 1
STP2_Lys282 = 0 STP2_282Glu/Lys = 0
STP2_282Lys/Lys = 0
STP2 STP2_Glu282Lys_Hisp 0 Hispanic, California STP2_Glu282 = 0.992 STP2_282Glu/Glu = 0.984
STP2_Lys282 = 0.008 STP2_282Glu/Lys = 0.016
STP2_282Lys/Lys = 0
STP2 STP2_Glu282Lys_Japn 0 Japanese, California STP2_Glu282 = 1 STP2_282Glu/Glu = 1
STP2_Lys282 = 0 STP2_282Glu/Lys = 0
STP2_282Lys/Lys = 0

[0071] Each of the polymorphisms identified in this study are unique and newly described. Several of the nucleotide base changes result in amino acid changes that may alter enzyme activity by any of a number of possible mechanisms. The changes in the 5′ and 3′ UTRs may alter regulation of transcription or transcript stability. Promoter region alterations may result in altered regulation or efficiency of transcription.

[0072] All of these polymorphisms have utility. As the human genome project progresses, polymorphisms within every human gene must be identified in order to perform whole genome association studies that will be necessary for identifying genetic etiologies of complex diseases. These polymorphisms are useful for association studies.

[0073] All publications and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent application were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference. The citation of any publication is for its disclosure prior to the filing date and should not be construed as an admission that the present invention is not entitled to antedate such publication by virtue of prior invention.

[0074] Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.

1 110 1 8396 DNA H. sapiens 1 ctctccctcc ttgtctctta cctgcctgct gcctgggaca ggatgaagcg gggcccttgt 60 gttgccccaa ccctggctgt tggctaagag cccacgtgat ctgcctgtga gaggagttcc 120 ttccggaaga accagggcag cttctgcccc tagagggcca atgccctagc tgagtgcagt 180 cccccggccc cagcctggtc cagctttggg aagagggtgc ccagttgtgc aatccaggcc 240 ggggcagccg tgtcctgatc ttggtattca gggctgagcc tggagggggc ttgtgatgcc 300 tgactctgtc tctctctctg gccccatgcc ttggtagctg tgaggcgtca ctgctttggg 360 tgacctgatc tggctgtgat ggatgagcac gggggaaata gtggaagact cggaattaga 420 agacgtgagt gggctttggc cccagcctcc ctaccccact ccctgtcctg ggctgcctgt 480 gaccaacctt gtttctgcag gcacactgga tagccctgct ggagctcagt gtccctaatc 540 ccctccagat actggtggcc taggggaggt catcaaagac cagtgggaca tcgacctcag 600 cctgtttcca cgtttcttgt tgtttttttt tttttgtgga gacagagttt cactcttgtt 660 gcccaggctg gagtgcaatg gcgtgatctt ggctcaccgc aacctctgcc tcccgggttc 720 aagcgattct cctgcctcag cctcccaagt agctgggatt acaggcgtgt gccaccaggc 780 ttgactaatt ttctattttt agtagagaca aggtttctcc atgttggtca ggctggtctc 840 aaactcccga cttcaggtga tctgcctgcc tcggcctccc aaagtgctgg gattacagga 900 gtgagccacc gtgccaggcc ttctccaggc tcttggcacc ttagccagaa acaatttaag 960 gacaagtgca aaagtcatga acgtaggcag atttcctgca gagtaaaggg actcactgaa 1020 gaagaggaac gtgggggtcc tcaagagagt gtctcatgcc ctacaaggtg tggggctgac 1080 ctttatgggc ttcttcaact aaagaggggt atattcatga agagtccagg aaaaggtaaa 1140 gatttctcaa gaccgtggtg ccacaattta cacccaaata caggtgttcc tggagccgtc 1200 ttggcactgg tgggtgtacg gtttcatatg ttactgattg tacagtgaga tcctaggtga 1260 aacctacatc aaatacagcg ccatgttgct tctggttggt cgcagccagc ttggtcctca 1320 tcctattttt cagggactta ttggcccttg gcacatgcag ctatttcaag tttccttctt 1380 ctggtcatgt gaaactgctg cctgggattt tctgttgtct tgctagcact ctattaatct 1440 cacattctcg cctcttttct gtgccacccc ctgctggtcc ggctggtttt cactagagtg 1500 caatacaaag tctcagtcaa gagggcctcc tgaaggttgc tgagggcagg ggtggagcta 1560 gtagccggag gacctgccag tcatggggat tcctcagggg cacagaggag ggaggagggg 1620 cctgtggccc tagcagggga gcagcctctc ctctgcctgg aaatcccatg cctcagtttt 1680 ccccgcttgc ctctgagctc acgcaaccct gggaaggctt gggagactca cctttactca 1740 gatggttgtt tacctgtctc gtgcccagct tgaccctgga ctttaaatag tgaggacaaa 1800 gaacgaggag ggtgggggga tgcactcctt ccacgggggc ctgtggcttc caagcctcaa 1860 cctcctctgg tctctgtctg tggagcctcc ttcaaaccca tggaaagaaa agtacctgcc 1920 aggggctgtg gttcttctag gatcttctat cgatgttctg tgaggtcccc agggagccat 1980 gaagctgggg ctggctccca gggcaatggg actgcagtgt ccttgttctt tcttgttcta 2040 tggatccatg ctctgctcca cccctgcccc ttcactctgc ccacacgcat cactccagac 2100 tggccttgtg gtcagagcct ggagtgcatg ggctgctgga ggcctgtggg ttgcactggg 2160 ccaggacccc tggcaccttc aagactggcc tggagccagc aggtaggtga cctttccagg 2220 gcctgcctat cccagctttc tcctccaatc cctcccctct cttgcctggg tcaattagag 2280 aaagcttgtc ttttggagtt caggggcagg tcaggagccc agtgacagct caaaaaaaaa 2340 accccaaaaa aaaaacccca ccattgggcc ctttcccctt tcattcttct gttttctaca 2400 caccaaaccc agtcgtggct ttggagatca ctttaagctt gtctccagct ggcaaactaa 2460 ggagggtaat agagaagctc ccccaccccc aaccctaccc cttccttccg gaagcaaatc 2520 taagtccagc cccggctcca gatccctccc acactgacct aagaaaccct cagcacagac 2580 aacacccctg cattccccac acaacaccca cactcagcca ctgcgggcga ggagggcacg 2640 aggccaggtt cccaagagct caggtgagtg acacaccgga atggcccagg acgccctcac 2700 cctgctcagc ttgtggctcc aacattccag aagccgaggc ctctgctatc tctgccctct 2760 ccccatggat atcccatttc agacaacccc ggccggcctg aatccccctc ccttcctttt 2820 tttttttccg gggaggccag gtcttgctgt caccgaggct ggagtgctgt gggatcctgg 2880 ccactgcagc cttgaattcc tgggctcaag tgattctcct gcctcagtag ctaggactac 2940 agaccctcac catcctgcct ggatagtttt aaaaaatatt tttaaaagat ttttagagat 3000 ggggtcttcc aatgctgccc agattggtct ccaaattctg gcctcagcct ccctagggtc 3060 tgggattaca ggtgggagcc accctgccca ggatcctcct tttgctgagt catcacagtt 3120 ttgctcattc ccacatcagg ctctggcccc caataccagc tcagttgctc aatgggctgt 3180 ttgtcctgga acccagatgg actgtggccg ggcaagtgga tcacaggcct ggccagccta 3240 ggagttgcca catgtgaggg gccgaggggc tcaaggaggg gaacatcggg gagaggagcc 3300 tactgggtgg aggctggggg tcccagcagg aaatggtgag acaaagggcg ctggctggca 3360 ggaagacagc acaggaaggt cctagaggtt cctcagtgca gctggactct cctggagacc 3420 ttcacacacc ctgacatctg ggccccgttc cacgagggtg ctttcactgg tctgcaccat 3480 ggcccaggcc ctgggatttt gaacagctcc gcaggtgaat gaaaggtgag gccaggctgg 3540 ggaaccacca cattagaacc cgacctggtt ttcagcccca gccccgccac tgactggcct 3600 tgtgagtgcg ggcaagtcac tcaacctccc taggcctcag tgacttccct gaaagcaaga 3660 attccacttt cttgctgttg tgatggtggt aagggaacgg gcctggctct ggcccctgac 3720 gcaggaacat ggagctgatc caggacatct ctcgcccgcc actggagtac gtgaaggggg 3780 tcccgctcat caagtacttt gcagaggcac tggggcccct gcagagcttc caggcccggc 3840 ctgatgacct gctcatcagc acctacccca agtccggtag gtgaggaggg ccacccaccc 3900 tctcccaggt ggcagtcccc accttggcca gcgaggtcat gctcacctca gcctgctcac 3960 ctcccatctc cctccctctc caggcaccac ctgggtgagc cagattctgg acatgatcta 4020 ccagggcggt gacctggaaa agtgtcaccg agctcccatc ttcatgcggg tgcccttcct 4080 tgagttcaaa gtcccaggga ttccctcagg tgtgtgtgtc ctgggtgcaa ggggagtgga 4140 ggaagacagg gctggggctt cagctcacca gaccttccct gacccactgc tcagggatgg 4200 agactctgaa aaacacacca gccccacgac tcctgaagac acacctgccc ctggctctgc 4260 tcccccagac tctgttggat cagaaggtca aggtgagact gggcacagtg gttcacaccc 4320 gcaatctcag tactttggga ggctgaggtg ggaagatccc ttgaagccag aagttccaga 4380 taagtctctt ccaaaaaaaa aacttagctg tgcatagtgg tgtgtgcctg taataccagt 4440 tactcaggag gttgaggtgg gaggatcatc tgagcctagg agtttaaggt tacagcgagc 4500 tatgatcaca ccagtgcact ccaggctggg tgacagagaa acactgtctc aaaaaacgat 4560 gaatagaaag agtgtcccac cagtgcggtg gctcacacct gtaattccag cacttgaaga 4620 ggctgaggca ggtggatcac ctgagactag gagtttgaga tcagcctggc caacatggca 4680 aaaccccatc tctactaaaa atacaaaaaa attagccggg catggtggca ggcatctgta 4740 atcccagcta cttgggaggc tgaagcagga gaattgcttg aagctgggag gcagaggttg 4800 tagtcagccg agacctcacc attgcaccgc agcctgggaa acaagagcaa aactctgtct 4860 caaaaaaaaa agaaaaaaat aaaaaagcgg caggtggcag ggggctgggc ctgttgtggc 4920 tcacgcctgt aataccagca ctttcggagg tcgaggtggg cagatcaccc aaggttagga 4980 gtttgagatc agtctggcca acatggagaa accccgtctc tactaaaaat acaaaaatta 5040 gccaggcgtt ggggcaggcg ccagtaatcc cagctactcg ggaggctgag gaaggagaat 5100 agcttgcacc tgggaggcgg tggttgcagt gagccgagat tgtgccactg tactccagcc 5160 tgggagacac aacgagacat tgtttcaaac aaaacaaata aatattttaa aaggtttgcc 5220 acctgggtgg ctcaccgctg taatgccagc attttgggag gccaagatgg gtggaccgct 5280 tgagctcagg agttccagac cagcccagga aacatgggga gactccatct ctataaaaga 5340 tgcaaataat cagcagggca tggtggcata gcgctatagt cccagctact caaaagtcta 5400 aggttggagg attgcttgag cctgggaggt caacgttgca gtgagctatt ctcactccag 5460 tgcactccaa cctgggcaac aggaaaaaag aaagcccaag gtcttttttc tcttttctct 5520 tttttttgag acctagagtc ccccccccca aaaaaaaaaa aaccacaaca aaaagaaaaa 5580 agcaaaggtc caggtgtggg gcatgtgaat ccagggaagg aggccccggc tcagcccagc 5640 tttggtcctg ttcttctggg agagtcgcct cacttcctcc agacttgtct catcttccac 5700 gggggggact gtctgccttt tgctctgatg accaaaaaca tgagactctt ccgggtagac 5760 ctaagaaagg tagagggtgg gtcctcacag acccacaaaa tttggtggtg gtgggaacat 5820 gcctggtgga gcatgccttg ctccagatcg gggtgtgacg cattgatgca gattatatta 5880 ctatagaata tgatggtctc agggaccagg caggactttg gcttttgagc agggttcaga 5940 tcctgacttg gccctacctg tgccgtgaga tctcaaacaa gtcagcctct aagcctcagc 6000 ttcctccttt gccaaaccaa gagatgagct ggcctggggc aggctgtgtg gtgatggtgc 6060 tggggttgag tcttctgccc ctgcaggtgg tctatgttgc ccgcaacgca aaggatgtgg 6120 cggtttccta ctaccacttc taccacatgg ccaaagtgta ccctcaccct gggacctggg 6180 aaagcttcct ggagaagttc atggctggag aaggtgggct tgatgggagg aaggaaggtg 6240 tggagctaag gggtggtggc tacaacgcac agcaaccctg tgtcggcacc ccctgcccgc 6300 ttctccagtg tcctatgggt cctggtacca gcacgtgcaa gagtggtggg agctgagccg 6360 cacccaccct gttctctacc tcttctatga agacatgaag gaggtgagac cgcctttgat 6420 gcttccctcc acgtgacacc tgggggcagg cacttcacag ggacctgcca aggccaccca 6480 gccaccctcc ctgggcggcc cctccagcag gcccggattc cccatcctga ctccctggcc 6540 caggccccac tgcagcccca tgtggcagca ggctgggcac agctctcatc tcctgtgcct 6600 gagtcagctg cacgggtggc catggatcag ctactttttt ttttgagaca aaagtcttgc 6660 tctgttgtcc aggatggcat gcagtggtgt gatctcagct cagtgtaacc ccccctccca 6720 ggttcaagtg attctcctgc ctcagcctcc tgagtagctg agattacaga tgcacactac 6780 catgcctggc taatttttgt gttgtgccat gttggccagg ttggtctcca tctcctgagc 6840 tcaggtgatc cgcctgcctc agcctcccaa agtcttggga attacacgcc tgaaccacgg 6900 ccccttgcca cagatcagct atctattcca attgcttctc cctgccaatg gttatgccac 6960 ccagggccac aggcacggaa gaagaccatc ccagtcctta cccataggag ccaagcccag 7020 ctcatgatgg gatcacaggg cagacagcaa ttcattttgc cccagggact ggggtcccag 7080 gggtcgagga gctggctcta tgggttttga agtggaagtg gccagttccc ctctgaggtt 7140 agagaagtgg acccctttta ttttcctgaa tcagcaatcc aagcctccac tgaggagccc 7200 tctgctgctc agaaccccaa aagggagatt caaaagatcc tggagtttgt ggggcgctcc 7260 ctgccagagg agactgtgga cctcatggtt gagcacacgt cgttcaagga gatgaagaag 7320 aaccctatga ccaactacac caccgtccgc cgggagttca tggaccacag catctccccc 7380 ttcatgagga aaggtaggtg ccggccagca cgggggtttg gagcaggtgg gagcagcagc 7440 tggagcctcc ccataggcac tcggggcctc ccctgggatg agactccagc tttgctccct 7500 gccttcctcc cccaggcatg gctggggact ggaagaccac cttcaccgtg gcgcagaatg 7560 agcgcttcga tgcggactat gcggagaaga tggcaggctg cagcctcagc ttccgctctg 7620 agctgtgaga ggggttcctg gagtcactgc agagggagtg tgcgaatcaa gcctgaccaa 7680 gaggctccag aataaagtat gatttgtgtt caatgcagag tctctattcc aagccaagag 7740 aaaccctgag ctgaaagagt gatcgcccac tggggccaaa tacggccacc tccccgctcc 7800 agctcctcaa cttgccctgt ttggagaggg gagagggtct ggagaagtaa aacccaggag 7860 acgagtagag ggggaatgtg tttaatccca gcacgtcctc tgctgtcctg ccctgtgtcg 7920 ttgggggatg gcgagtctgc caggcggcat cactttttct tgggttcctt acaagccacc 7980 acgtatctct gagccacatt gaggggaggg gaatagccat ctgcatagga ggtgtcttca 8040 aacaggaccg agtagtcatc ctggggctgt ggggcaggca gacaggaggg gctgctcaga 8100 gacccccagg ccaggacagg cacccccttc ccccagccta gaccacagga ggctctgggc 8160 cgtggactct cagccactcc taacatcctt cactctgggg tcaagaagtc ttggcccagt 8220 ccctgctgct acagagctct tttctcagtg gctggagacc caaggcaggg aataggcagg 8280 gaggagtagg ggtgctgact cccttcctag tggggtcata gctggagggt ctgctgcctt 8340 tcaaggactc tttgttgaga ggactgaggg caacccagag ggtggcaggc agggat 8396 2 1396 DNA H. sapiens CDS (426)...(1308) 2 gcattcccca cacaacaccc acactcagcc actgcgggcg aggagggcac gaggccaggt 60 tcccaagagc tcaggtttgt cctggaaccc agatggactg tggccgggca agtggatcac 120 aggcctggcc agcctaggag ttgccacatg tgaggggccg aggggctcaa ggaggggaac 180 atcggggaga ggagcctact gggtggaggc tgggggtccc agcaggaaat ggtgagacaa 240 agggcgctgg ctggcaggaa gacagcacag gaaggtccta gaggttcctc agtgcagctg 300 gactctcctg gagaccttca cacaccctga catctgggcc ccgttccacg agggtgcttt 360 cactggtctg caccatggcc caggccctgg gattttgaac agctccgcag gtgaatgaaa 420 ggaac atg gag ctg atc cag gac atc tct cgc ccg cca ctg gag tac gtg 470 Met Glu Leu Ile Gln Asp Ile Ser Arg Pro Pro Leu Glu Tyr Val 1 5 10 15 aag ggg gtc ccg ctc atc aag tac ttt gca gag gca ctg ggg ccc ctg 518 Lys Gly Val Pro Leu Ile Lys Tyr Phe Ala Glu Ala Leu Gly Pro Leu 20 25 30 cag agc ttc cag gcc cgg cct gat gac ctg ctc atc agc acc tac ccc 566 Gln Ser Phe Gln Ala Arg Pro Asp Asp Leu Leu Ile Ser Thr Tyr Pro 35 40 45 aag tcc ggc acc acc tgg gtg agc cag att ctg gac atg atc tac cag 614 Lys Ser Gly Thr Thr Trp Val Ser Gln Ile Leu Asp Met Ile Tyr Gln 50 55 60 ggc ggt gac ctg gaa aag tgt cac cga gct ccc atc ttc atg cgg gtg 662 Gly Gly Asp Leu Glu Lys Cys His Arg Ala Pro Ile Phe Met Arg Val 65 70 75 ccc ttc ctt gag ttc aaa gtc cca ggg att ccc tca ggg atg gag act 710 Pro Phe Leu Glu Phe Lys Val Pro Gly Ile Pro Ser Gly Met Glu Thr 80 85 90 95 ctg aaa aac aca cca gcc cca cga ctc ctg aag aca cac ctg ccc ctg 758 Leu Lys Asn Thr Pro Ala Pro Arg Leu Leu Lys Thr His Leu Pro Leu 100 105 110 gct ctg ctc ccc cag act ctg ttg gat cag aag gtc aag gtg gtc tat 806 Ala Leu Leu Pro Gln Thr Leu Leu Asp Gln Lys Val Lys Val Val Tyr 115 120 125 gtt gcc cgc aac gca aag gat gtg gcg gtt tcc tac tac cac ttc tac 854 Val Ala Arg Asn Ala Lys Asp Val Ala Val Ser Tyr Tyr His Phe Tyr 130 135 140 cac atg gcc aaa gtg tac cct cac cct ggg acc tgg gaa agc ttc ctg 902 His Met Ala Lys Val Tyr Pro His Pro Gly Thr Trp Glu Ser Phe Leu 145 150 155 gag aag ttc atg gct gga gaa gtg tcc tat ggg tcc tgg tac cag cac 950 Glu Lys Phe Met Ala Gly Glu Val Ser Tyr Gly Ser Trp Tyr Gln His 160 165 170 175 gtg caa gag tgg tgg gag ctg agc cgc acc cac cct gtt ctc tac ctc 998 Val Gln Glu Trp Trp Glu Leu Ser Arg Thr His Pro Val Leu Tyr Leu 180 185 190 ttc tat gaa gac atg aag gag aac ccc aaa agg gag att caa aag atc 1046 Phe Tyr Glu Asp Met Lys Glu Asn Pro Lys Arg Glu Ile Gln Lys Ile 195 200 205 ctg gag ttt gtg ggg cgc tcc ctg cca gag gag act gtg gac ctc atg 1094 Leu Glu Phe Val Gly Arg Ser Leu Pro Glu Glu Thr Val Asp Leu Met 210 215 220 gtt gag cac acg tcg ttc aag gag atg aag aag aac cct atg acc aac 1142 Val Glu His Thr Ser Phe Lys Glu Met Lys Lys Asn Pro Met Thr Asn 225 230 235 tac acc acc gtc cgc cgg gag ttc atg gac cac agc atc tcc ccc ttc 1190 Tyr Thr Thr Val Arg Arg Glu Phe Met Asp His Ser Ile Ser Pro Phe 240 245 250 255 atg agg aaa ggc atg gct ggg gac tgg aag acc acc ttc acc gtg gcg 1238 Met Arg Lys Gly Met Ala Gly Asp Trp Lys Thr Thr Phe Thr Val Ala 260 265 270 cag aat gag cgc ttc gat gcg gac tat gcg gag aag atg gca ggc tgc 1286 Gln Asn Glu Arg Phe Asp Ala Asp Tyr Ala Glu Lys Met Ala Gly Cys 275 280 285 agc ctc agc ttc cgc tct gag c tgtgagaggg gttcctggag tcactgcaga 1338 Ser Leu Ser Phe Arg Ser Glu 290 gggagtgtgc gaatcaagcc tgaccaagag gctccagaat aaagtatgat ttgtgttc 1396 3 295 PRT H. sapiens 3 Met Glu Leu Ile Gln Asp Ile Ser Arg Pro Pro Leu Glu Tyr Val Lys 1 5 10 15 Gly Val Pro Leu Ile Lys Tyr Phe Ala Glu Ala Leu Gly Pro Leu Gln 20 25 30 Ser Phe Gln Ala Arg Pro Asp Asp Leu Leu Ile Ser Thr Tyr Pro Lys 35 40 45 Ser Gly Thr Thr Trp Val Ser Gln Ile Leu Asp Met Ile Tyr Gln Gly 50 55 60 Gly Asp Leu Glu Lys Cys His Arg Ala Pro Ile Phe Met Arg Val Pro 65 70 75 80 Phe Leu Glu Phe Lys Val Pro Gly Ile Pro Ser Gly Met Glu Thr Leu 85 90 95 Lys Asn Thr Pro Ala Pro Arg Leu Leu Lys Thr His Leu Pro Leu Ala 100 105 110 Leu Leu Pro Gln Thr Leu Leu Asp Gln Lys Val Lys Val Val Tyr Val 115 120 125 Ala Arg Asn Ala Lys Asp Val Ala Val Ser Tyr Tyr His Phe Tyr His 130 135 140 Met Ala Lys Val Tyr Pro His Pro Gly Thr Trp Glu Ser Phe Leu Glu 145 150 155 160 Lys Phe Met Ala Gly Glu Val Ser Tyr Gly Ser Trp Tyr Gln His Val 165 170 175 Gln Glu Trp Trp Glu Leu Ser Arg Thr His Pro Val Leu Tyr Leu Phe 180 185 190 Tyr Glu Asp Met Lys Glu Asn Pro Lys Arg Glu Ile Gln Lys Ile Leu 195 200 205 Glu Phe Val Gly Arg Ser Leu Pro Glu Glu Thr Val Asp Leu Met Val 210 215 220 Glu His Thr Ser Phe Lys Glu Met Lys Lys Asn Pro Met Thr Asn Tyr 225 230 235 240 Thr Thr Val Arg Arg Glu Phe Met Asp His Ser Ile Ser Pro Phe Met 245 250 255 Arg Lys Gly Met Ala Gly Asp Trp Lys Thr Thr Phe Thr Val Ala Gln 260 265 270 Asn Glu Arg Phe Asp Ala Asp Tyr Ala Glu Lys Met Ala Gly Cys Ser 275 280 285 Leu Ser Phe Arg Ser Glu Leu 290 295 4 18 DNA H. sapiens 4 cccaaataca ggtgttcc 18 5 17 DNA H. sapiens 5 ggagcagagc aaggatc 17 6 21 DNA H. sapiens 6 ttcttctagg atcttctatc g 21 7 18 DNA H. sapiens 7 actcagcaaa aggaggat 18 8 18 DNA H. sapiens 8 ttagagatgg ggtcttcc 18 9 15 DNA H. sapiens 9 gggcgagaga tgtcc 15 10 17 DNA H. sapiens 10 ggagaggagc ctactgg 17 11 16 DNA H. sapiens 11 agtctgaggt gagcat 16 12 17 DNA H. sapiens 12 gcctcagtga cttccct 17 13 20 DNA H. sapiens 13 tttggaagag acttatctgg 20 14 16 DNA H. sapiens 14 gcaggacttt ggcttt 16 15 16 DNA H. sapiens 15 gactcaggca caggag 16 16 16 DNA H. sapiens 16 gaccatccca gtcctt 16 17 15 DNA H. sapiens 17 ccccaacgac acagg 15 18 15 DNA H. sapiens 18 tggagcccgt cttgg 15 19 18 DNA H. sapiens 19 cagcagtttc acttgacc 18 20 14 DNA H. sapiens 20 tgccaccccc tgct 14 21 14 DNA H. sapiens 21 aggctgctcc cctg 14 22 14 DNA H. sapiens 22 gggctcacgc aacc 14 23 19 DNA H. sapiens 23 gcaggtactt ttctttcca 19 24 21 DNA H. sapiens 24 ttcttctagg atcttctatc g 21 25 18 DNA H. sapiens 25 tttttgaggt gtcactgg 18 26 16 DNA H. sapiens 26 cccacacaac acccac 16 27 16 DNA H. sapiens 27 gcttctggaa tgttgg 16 28 19 DNA H. sapiens 28 cggaaaaaaa aaaaggaag 19 29 14 DNA H. sapiens 29 caatgctgcc caga 14 30 17 DNA H. sapiens 30 gctccactga ggaacct 17 31 17 DNA H. sapiens 31 ggagaggagc ctactgg 17 32 18 DNA H. sapiens 32 taccaccatc acaacagc 18 33 19 DNA H. sapiens 33 ctgaaagcaa gaaatccac 19 34 16 DNA H. sapiens 34 aggctgaggt gagcat 16 35 14 DNA H. sapiens 35 gcggtgacct ggaa 14 36 20 DNA H. sapiens 36 tttggaagag acttatctgg 20 37 17 DNA H. sapiens 37 ctgacttgcc cctacct 17 38 16 DNA H. sapiens 38 tagccaccac ccctta 16 39 18 DNA H. sapiens 39 ccaaagtgta ccctcacc 18 40 14 DNA H. sapiens 40 agcctgctgc caca 14 41 16 DNA H. sapiens 41 gaccatccca gtcctt 16 42 14 DNA H. sapiens 42 caaacccccg tgct 14 43 18 DNA H. sapiens 43 ctgtggacct cttggttg 18 44 22 DNA H. sapiens 44 cacaaatcat actttattct gg 22 45 15 DNA H. sapiens 45 cgatgcggac tatgc 15 46 15 DNA H. sapiens 46 ccccaacgac acagg 15 47 22 DNA H. sapiens 47 ggtgctgggg ttgagtcttc tg 22 48 27 DNA H. sapiens 48 caaaggatgt ggcggtttcc tactacc 27 49 23 DNA H. sapiens 49 acaccttcct tcctcccatc aag 23 50 28 DNA H. sapiens 50 cgcaaaggat gtggtggttt cctactac 28 51 24 DNA H. sapiens 51 ggagactgtg gacctcatgg ttga 24 52 32 DNA H. sapiens 52 tagttggtca tagggttctt cttcatctcc tt 32 53 21 DNA H. sapiens 53 ccggcaccta cctttcctca t 21 54 30 DNA H. sapiens 54 tagttggtca taggggtctt cttcatctcc 30 55 21 DNA H. sapiens 55 agctttgctc cctgccttcc t 21 56 24 DNA H. sapiens 56 ctgccatctt ctccgcatag tccg 24 57 22 DNA H. sapiens 57 ggaacccctc tcacagctca ga 22 58 24 DNA H. sapiens 58 tgccatcttc ttcgcatagt ccgc 24 59 22 DNA H. sapiens 59 ggtgctgggg ttgagtcttc tg 22 60 25 DNA H. sapiens 60 atggccaaag tgtaccctca ccctg 25 61 23 DNA H. sapiens 61 acaccttcct tcctcccatc aag 23 62 25 DNA H. sapiens 62 catggccaaa gtgtaaccct caccc 25 63 21 DNA H. sapiens 63 ccagctcctc aacttgccct g 21 64 21 DNA H. sapiens 64 ccagctcctc tacttgccct g 21 65 21 DNA H. sapiens 65 gtgagagggg ttcctggagt c 21 66 21 DNA H. sapiens 66 gtgagagggg ctcctggagt c 21 67 21 DNA H. sapiens 67 catgaagctg gggctggctc c 21 68 21 DNA H. sapiens 68 catgaagctg aggctggctc c 21 69 21 DNA H. sapiens 69 ctcgtgccca ggttgaccct g 21 70 21 DNA H. sapiens 70 ctcgtgccca agttgaccct g 21 71 21 DNA H. sapiens 71 gggattcctc aggggcacag a 21 72 21 DNA H. sapiens 72 gggattcctc cggggcacag a 21 73 21 DNA H. sapiens 73 acagcgccat gttgcttctg g 21 74 21 DNA H. sapiens 74 acagcgccat attgcttctg g 21 75 21 DNA H. sapiens 75 cagccactgc gggcgaggag g 21 76 21 DNA H. sapiens 76 cagccactgc aggcgaggag g 21 77 21 DNA H. sapiens 77 aggagggcac aaggccaggt t 21 78 21 DNA H. sapiens 78 aggagggcac gaggccaggt t 21 79 21 DNA H. sapiens 79 ggggaacatc ggggagagga g 21 80 21 DNA H. sapiens 80 ggggaacatc agggagagga g 21 81 20 DNA H. sapiens 81 ccaaagtgta ccctcaccct 20 82 21 DNA H. sapiens 82 ccaaagtgta accctcaccc t 21 83 20 DNA H. sapiens 83 aaggatgtgg ggtttcctac 20 84 20 DNA H. sapiens 84 aaggatgtgg ggtttcctac 20 85 20 DNA H. sapiens 85 atgaagaaga ccctatgacc 20 86 20 DNA H. sapiens 86 atgaagaaga ccctatgacc 20 87 20 DNA H. sapiens 87 ggactatgcg agaagatggc 20 88 20 DNA H. sapiens 88 ggactatgcg agaagatggc 20 89 21 DNA H. sapiens 89 aagggggtcc cgctcatcaa g 21 90 21 DNA H. sapiens 90 aagggggtcc tgctcatcaa g 21 91 21 DNA H. sapiens 91 ctctgctatc tctgccctct c 21 92 21 DNA H. sapiens 92 ctctgctatc cctgccctct c 21 93 21 DNA H. sapiens 93 ctctcccagg tggcagtccc c 21 94 21 DNA H. sapiens 94 ctctcccagg cggcagtccc c 21 95 20 DNA H. sapiens 95 cctttgccaa ccaagagatg 20 96 19 DNA H. sapiens 96 cctttgccac caagagatg 19 97 21 DNA H. sapiens 97 gtgtcggcac tccctgcccg c 21 98 21 DNA H. sapiens 98 gtgtcggcac cccctgcccg c 21 99 21 DNA H. sapiens 99 cctccctggg cggcccctcc a 21 100 21 DNA H. sapiens 100 cctccctggg tggcccctcc a 21 101 21 DNA H. sapiens 101 ttgttctatg gatccatgct c 21 102 21 DNA H. sapiens 102 ttgttctatg catccatgct c 21 103 21 DNA H. sapiens 103 catgggctgc tggaggcctg t 21 104 21 DNA H. sapiens 104 catgggctgc cggaggcctg t 21 105 21 DNA H. sapiens 105 actgggccag gacccctggc a 21 106 21 DNA H. sapiens 106 actgggccag aacccctggc a 21 107 21 DNA H. sapiens 107 cctgcctatc ccagctttct c 21 108 21 DNA H. sapiens 108 cctgcctatc tcagctttct c 21 109 21 DNA H. sapiens 109 gcctatccca tctttctcct c 21 110 21 DNA H. sapiens 110 gcctatccca gctttctcct c 21

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7807350May 28, 2004Oct 5, 2010The University Of ChicagoMethods for predicting irinotecan toxicity
Classifications
U.S. Classification435/6.16, 536/23.2, 536/24.3
International ClassificationC12Q1/68
Cooperative ClassificationC12Q1/6883, C12Q2600/156, C12Q1/6876
European ClassificationC12Q1/68M6, C12Q1/68M